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Sample records for catheter-associated urinary tract

  1. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

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    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  2. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection: antimicrobial sensitivity profile

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    Silvana Kelie Souza de Almeida Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive quantitative study aimed to analyze the prevalence of microorganisms and the antimicrobial sensitivity profile from urine cultures of patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection. We reviewed 394 medical records of adults hospitalized in the Intensive Care Units of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, from April to December 2011. The prevalence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection was of 34.0% (134 and 2.2% (3 of these patients developed sepsis. The most common microorganisms found in the urine cultures were Candida sp (44.4%, Acinetobacter baumannii (9.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.2%. This last one showed resistance of 86.7% to third-generation cephalosporins and the Acinetobacter baumannii showed resistance of 83.3% to carbapenems. Klebsiella pneumonia had 87.5% of resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and 75.0% to carbapenems. We concluded that bacterial resistance is frequent in catheter-associated urinary tract infection and that we should emphasize the control measures.

  3. Resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections to antibacterials

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    Verhaz Antonija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are the most common nosocomial infections. The worldwide data show the increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics among urinary tract pathogens. Aim. To evaluate the adequacy of initial antimicrobial therapy in relation to the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens responsible for CAUTI in Clinical Center of Banja Luka. Methods. A retrospective study on major causes of CAUTI, antibiotic resistance and treatment principles was conducted at four departments of the Clinical Center of Banja Luka from January 1st, 2000 to April 1st, 2003. Results. The results showed that 265 patients had developed CAUTI. The seven most commonly isolated microorganisms were, in descending order: E. coli (31.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.8%, Proteus mirabilis (12.9%, Gr. Klebsiella-Enterobacter (12.3%, Enterococcus spp. (5.2%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.3%, Serratia spp. (4.0%. The most common pathogens were highly resistant to ampicillin (64−100%, gentamycin (63−100%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68−100%, while some bacterias, like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia spp. showed rates of ciprofloxacin resistance as high as 42.8% and 72.7%, respectively. In 55.5% of the cases, the initial antibiotic therapy was inadequate, and was corrected latter on. There were no standard therapeutic protocols for this type of nosocomial infections. Conclusion. The results of this study emphasized an urgency of the prevention and introduction of clinical protocols for better management of CAUTI. Treatment principles should better correspond to the antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogens.

  4. Reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in a neuro-spine intensive care unit.

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    Schelling, Kimberly; Palamone, Janet; Thomas, Kathryn; Naidech, Andrew; Silkaitis, Christina; Henry, Jennifer; Bolon, Maureen; Zembower, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    A collaborative effort reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the neuro-spine intensive care unit where the majority of infections occurred at our institution. Our stepwise approach included retrospective data review, daily rounding with clinicians, developing and implementing an action plan, conducting practice audits, and sharing of real-time data outcomes. The catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate was reduced from 8.18 to 0.93 per 1,000 catheter-days and standardized infection ratio decreased from 2.16 to 0.37.

  5. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

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    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  6. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

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    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed.

  7. An in vitro urinary tract catheter system to investigate biofilm development in catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

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    Dohnt, Katrin; Sauer, Marie; Müller, Maren; Atallah, Karin; Weidemann, Marina; Gronemeyer, Petra; Rasch, Detlev; Tielen, Petra; Krull, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    Biofilm development in urinary tract catheters is an often underestimated problem. However, this form of infection leads to high mortality rates and causes significant costs in health care. Therefore, it is important to analyze these biofilms and establish avoiding strategies. In this study a continuous flow-through system for the cultivation of biofilms under catheter-associated urinary tract infection conditions was established and validated. The in vitro urinary tract catheter system implies the composition of urine (artificial urine medium), the mean volume of urine of adults (1 mL min(-1)), the frequently used silicone catheter (foley silicon catheter) as well as the infection with uropathogenic microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three clinical isolates from urine of catheterized patients were chosen due to their ability to form biofilms, their mobility and their cell surface hydrophobicity. As reference strain P. aeruginosa PA14 has been used. Characteristic parameters as biofilm thickness, specific biofilm growth rate and substrate consumption were observed. Biofilm thicknesses varied from 105±16 μm up to 246±67 μm for the different isolates. The specific biofilm growth rate could be determined with a non invasive optical biomass sensor. This sensor allows online monitoring of the biofilm growth in the progress of the cultivation.

  8. Impact of polymicrobial biofilms in catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

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    Azevedo, Andreia S; Almeida, Carina; Melo, Luís F; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-12-30

    Recent reports have demonstrated that most biofilms involved in catheter-associated urinary tract infections are polymicrobial communities, with pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and uncommon microorganisms (e.g. Delftia tsuruhatensis, Achromobacter xylosoxidans) frequently co-inhabiting the same urinary catheter. However, little is known about the interactions that occur between different microorganisms and how they impact biofilm formation and infection outcome. This lack of knowledge affects CAUTIs management as uncommon bacteria action can, for instance, influence the rate at which pathogens adhere and grow, as well as affect the overall biofilm resistance to antibiotics. Another relevant aspect is the understanding of factors that drive a single pathogenic bacterium to become prevalent in a polymicrobial community and subsequently cause infection. In this review, a general overview about the IMDs-associated biofilm infections is provided, with an emphasis on the pathophysiology and the microbiome composition of CAUTIs. Based on the available literature, it is clear that more research about the microbiome interaction, mechanisms of biofilm formation and of antimicrobial tolerance of the polymicrobial consortium are required to better understand and treat these infections.

  9. MICROBIAL FLORA AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CATHETER ASSOCIATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    Ravi Prakash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Catheter associated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and is a major health concern due to its complications and frequent recurrence. Among the nosocomial infections UTI contributes a major part. About 80% of nosocomial UTI are associated with using indwelling urinary catheters and most of them are asymptomatic. Only 5% of them develop s symptomatic UTI which leads to development of complications like bacteremia & pyelonephritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In th e present study a random collection of 100 urine samples from different clinical “groups ˮ like surgery, urology, AMCU, Ob stetrics & Gynecology patients with indwelling urinary catheter of different durations of catheter stay. Organisms isolated in culture, biochemical c haracterization, and antibiotic susceptibility was done. RESULTS: Among the samples tested 41/100 (41% showed culture positivity. within them surgery patients were 40.90% (18/41 , Urology accounted for, 71.42 % (20/28, in AMCU patients 20% (2/10, with more than 3 days of duration of catheter stay and in Obs & Gyn department showed 0 culture positivity. The predominant organism isolated is pseudomonas aeruginosa (34.2%, followed by Escherichia coli (22%, enterococci (12.19%, Klebsiella (12.19% and Ca ndida 19.5%. Among GNB 90% showed ESBL production, 10% ß - lactam inhibitors resistance, 90% quinolones resistant, 50% resistant to amikacin, 100% to gentamycin was o bserved. CONCLUSION: Incidence of bacteriuria in patients with indwelling urinary catheters is 41 %. Onset of bacteriuria is as early as on 3 rd day of catheterization, and gradually increases with duration of stay, technique of insertion and daily catheter care done. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are common organisms isolated. Use o f prophylactic antibiotics without doing culture, and antibiotic susceptibility testing leads to development of drug resistant organisms. So, active

  10. Ureteral Stents and Foley Catheters-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: The Role of Coatings and Materials in Infection Prevention

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    Joey Lo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections affect many patients, especially those who are admitted to hospital and receive a bladder catheter for drainage. Catheter associated urinary tract infections are some of the most common hospital infections and cost the health care system billions of dollars. Early removal is one of the mainstays of prevention as 100% of catheters become colonized. Patients with ureteral stents are also affected by infection and antibiotic therapy alone may not be the answer. We will review the current evidence on how to prevent infections of urinary biomaterials by using different coatings, new materials, and drug eluting technologies to decrease infection rates of ureteral stents and catheters.

  11. Occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in critical care units

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    Chanda R Vyawahare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI is the most common nosocomial infection. The etiological agents of which may be varied. Advancing age, debilitation, diabetes mellitus, duration of catheterization are the risk factors. Complications include prostatitis, epididymitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis and septicemia in high-risk patients, adding to hospitalization and morbidity. With this background the present study was undertaken Objectives: (1 To identify microbial pathogens associated with urinary tract infection (UTI in catheterized patients from Intensive Care Units (ICU (2 to determine the susceptibility pattern of these isolates to antimicrobial agents (3 to determine the effect of days of catheterization and UTI. Materials and Methods: Consecutive urine samples of 345 catheterized patients admitted in ICUs were included in the study. They were processed by standard microbiological procedures. Isolated organisms were speciated, and antibiotic susceptibility performed as per standard guidelines. Results: From the 345 urine samples of catheterized patients, 205 showed no growth and were found to be sterile. Bacterial growth was seen in 69 patients and fungal growth in 50 patients. Among the bacterial isolates, Escherichia coli were isolated in 39, followed by Klebsiella spp. 14. The other isolates included Pseudomonas spp., Group D streptococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In the fungal isolates, Candida glabrata was the most common isolate. High resistance was seen among Klebsiella isolates (nalidixic acid-86% and cefotaxime-86%. Conclusion: Development of CAUTI is common in critically ill patients. Emphasis should be placed on good catheter management and reducing the duration of catheterization rather than prophylaxis in order to reduce the incidence of catheter-related UTI. Culture and susceptibility testing play a vital role in the management if UTI occurs.

  12. Antibody-Based Therapy for Enterococcal Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

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    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Potretzke, Aaron; Schreiber, Henry L.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Bauman, Tyler M.; Park, Alyssa M.; Desai, Alana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gram-positive bacteria in the genus Enterococcus are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a disease whose treatment is increasingly challenged by multiantibiotic-resistant strains. We have recently shown that E. faecalis uses the Ebp pilus, a heteropolymeric surface fiber, to bind the host protein fibrinogen as a critical step in CAUTI pathogenesis. Fibrinogen is deposited on catheters due to catheter-induced inflammation and is recognized by the N-terminal domain of EbpA (EbpANTD), the Ebp pilus’s adhesin. In a murine model, vaccination with EbpANTD confers significant protection against CAUTI. Here, we explored the mechanism of protection using passive transfer of immune sera to show that antisera blocking EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions not only is prophylactic but also can act therapeutically to reduce bacterial titers of an existing infection. Analysis of 55 clinical CAUTI, bloodstream, and gastrointestinal isolates, including E. faecalis, E. faecium, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), revealed a diversity of levels of EbpA expression and fibrinogen-binding efficiency in vitro. Strikingly, analysis of 10 strains representative of fibrinogen-binding diversity demonstrated that, irrespective of EbpA levels, EbpANTD antibodies were universally protective. The results indicate that, despite diversity in levels of fibrinogen binding, strategies that target the disruption of EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions have considerable promise for treatment of CAUTI. PMID:27795399

  13. Antibody-Based Therapy for Enterococcal Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

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    Ana L. Flores-Mireles

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive bacteria in the genus Enterococcus are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI, a disease whose treatment is increasingly challenged by multiantibiotic-resistant strains. We have recently shown that E. faecalis uses the Ebp pilus, a heteropolymeric surface fiber, to bind the host protein fibrinogen as a critical step in CAUTI pathogenesis. Fibrinogen is deposited on catheters due to catheter-induced inflammation and is recognized by the N-terminal domain of EbpA (EbpANTD, the Ebp pilus’s adhesin. In a murine model, vaccination with EbpANTD confers significant protection against CAUTI. Here, we explored the mechanism of protection using passive transfer of immune sera to show that antisera blocking EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions not only is prophylactic but also can act therapeutically to reduce bacterial titers of an existing infection. Analysis of 55 clinical CAUTI, bloodstream, and gastrointestinal isolates, including E. faecalis, E. faecium, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, revealed a diversity of levels of EbpA expression and fibrinogen-binding efficiency in vitro. Strikingly, analysis of 10 strains representative of fibrinogen-binding diversity demonstrated that, irrespective of EbpA levels, EbpANTD antibodies were universally protective. The results indicate that, despite diversity in levels of fibrinogen binding, strategies that target the disruption of EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions have considerable promise for treatment of CAUTI.

  14. Development of a Phage Cocktail to Control Proteus mirabilis Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections

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    Melo, Luís D. R.; Veiga, Patrícia; Cerca, Nuno; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Almeida, Carina; Azeredo, Joana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterium that causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) due to its ability to colonize and form crystalline biofilms on the catheters surface. CAUTIs are very difficult to treat, since biofilm structures are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Phages have been used widely to control a diversity of bacterial species, however, a limited number of phages for P. mirabilis have been isolated and studied. Here we report the isolation of two novel virulent phages, the podovirus vB_PmiP_5460 and the myovirus vB_PmiM_5461, which are able to target, respectively, 16 of the 26 and all the Proteus strains tested in this study. Both phages have been characterized thoroughly and sequencing data revealed no traces of genes associated with lysogeny. To further evaluate the phages’ ability to prevent catheter’s colonization by Proteus, the phages adherence to silicone surfaces was assessed. Further tests in phage-coated catheters using a dynamic biofilm model simulating CAUTIs, have shown a significant reduction of P. mirabilis biofilm formation up to 168 h of catheterization. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the two isolated phages for the prevention of surface colonization by this bacterium. PMID:27446059

  15. 导尿管相关尿路感染的监测%Monitoring Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection

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    蔡玉琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To search the condition and reasons of indwelling catheter patients with urinary tract infection in medical ward, and to provide a scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of infection. Methods: The catheter-related urinary tract infection of all patients with indwelling catheters who hospitalized in medical ward from January 2011 to June 2012 were investigated by proactive monitoring. Results : 335 cases of patients with indwelling catheter were monitored, and there were 15 cases with urinary tract infection, so the infection rate was 4.48%. The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection was 2.5/ 1000 catheters per day. Conclusion: Understanding the occurrence of catheter associated urinary tract infection in a medical ward by targeted monitoring, it provides guidance for the effective control of urinary tract infections.%目的:了解内科病房留置尿管患者尿路感染发生状况及原因,为有效预防和控制感染提供科学依据.方法:采取主动监测方法,对2011年1月-2012年6月内科病房所有住院留置尿管患者发生导尿管相关尿路感染情况进行调查.结果:335例留置尿管患者,发生尿路感染15例,感染率为4.48%,导尿管相关尿路感染发生率为2.5/千导管日.结论:通过目标性监测,了解了内科病房导尿管相关尿路感染的发生状况,为有效控制尿路感染提供了指导.

  16. Interventions for the prevention of catheter associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units: An integrative review.

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    Galiczewski, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) put an unnecessary burden on patients and health care systems. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine existing evidence on preventative interventions and protocols currently implemented in intensive care units (ICUs) and the impact they have on CAUTI rates and patient outcomes. This review analysed 14 research articles obtained from electronic databases and included adult patients with urinary catheters in an ICU setting. Evidence demonstrated interventions that included criteria for catheter use, daily review of catheter necessity and discontinuation of catheter prior to day seven were successful in decreasing CAUTI rates. This review provides a scientific basis for the effectiveness of these interventions and protocols. Identification and use of interventions with the greatest positive impact on CAUTI rates are an asset to healthcare professional caring for patients with indwelling catheters and nurse clinicians developing policies.

  17. Effects of a catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention campaign on infection rate, catheter utilization, and health care workers' perspective at a community safety net hospital.

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    Gray, Dorinne; Nussle, Richard; Cruz, Abner; Kane, Gail; Toomey, Michael; Bay, Curtis; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin

    2016-01-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections is in the forefront of health care quality. However, nurse and physician engagement is a common barrier in infection prevention efforts. After implementation of a multidisciplinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention campaign, we studied the impact of our campaign and showed its association with reducing the CAUTI rate and catheter utilization and the positive effect on health care workers' engagement and perspectives. CAUTI prevention campaigns can lead to lower infection rates and change health care workers' perspective.

  18. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: implementation strategies of international guidelines1

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    Andrade, Vera Lúcia Fonseca; Fernandes, Filipa Alexandra Veludo

    2016-01-01

    Objective to describe strategies used by health professionals on the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of urinary infection related to catheterism. Method systematic review on literature based on data from CINAHL(r), Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Cochrane Plus Collection, MedicLatina, MEDLINE(r), Academic Search Complete, ACS - American Chemical Society, Health Reference Center Academic, Nursing Reference Center, ScienceDirect Journals and Wiley Online Library. A sample of 13 articles was selected. Results studies have highlighted the decrease of urinary tract infection related to catheterism through reminder systems to decrease of people submitted to urinary catheterism, audits about nursing professionals practice and bundles expansion. Conclusion the present review systemizes the knowledge of used strategies by health professionals on introduction to international recommendations, describing a rate decrease of such infection in clinical practice. PMID:27027676

  19. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: implementation strategies of international guidelines

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    Vera Lúcia Fonseca Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to describe strategies used by health professionals on the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of urinary infection related to catheterism. Method systematic review on literature based on data from CINAHL(r, Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Cochrane Plus Collection, MedicLatina, MEDLINE(r, Academic Search Complete, ACS - American Chemical Society, Health Reference Center Academic, Nursing Reference Center, ScienceDirect Journals and Wiley Online Library. A sample of 13 articles was selected. Results studies have highlighted the decrease of urinary tract infection related to catheterism through reminder systems to decrease of people submitted to urinary catheterism, audits about nursing professionals practice and bundles expansion. Conclusion the present review systemizes the knowledge of used strategies by health professionals on introduction to international recommendations, describing a rate decrease of such infection in clinical practice.

  20. Specific selection for virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains during catheter-associated biofilm formation

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    Ferrieres, Lionel; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    Biofilm-associated bacterial infections have a major impact on artificial implants such as urinary catheters, often with devastating consequences. The capacity of a microorganism to form a biofilm on a surface depends on the nature of the surface and its conditioning. When a urinary catheter is e...

  1. Bacterial Biofilms and Catheters: A Key to Understanding Bacterial Strategies in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

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    J Curtis Nickel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major technological improvements in catheter drainage systems, the indwelling Foley catheter remains the most common cause of nosocomial infection in medical practice. By approaching this common complicated urinary tract infection from the perspective of the biofilm strategy bacteria appear to use to overcome obstacles to produce bacteriuria, one appreciates a new understanding of these infections. An adherent biofilm of bacteria in their secretory products ascends the luminal and external surface of the catheter and drainage system from a contaminated drainage spigot or urethral meatus into the bladder. If the intraluminal route of bacterial ascent is delayed by strict sterile closed drainage or addition of internal modifications to the system, the extraluminal or urethral route assumes greater importance in the development of bacteriuria, but takes significantly longer. Bacterial growth within these thick coherent biofilms confers a large measure of relative resistance to antibiotics even though the individual bacterium remains sensitive, thus accounting for the failure of antibiotic therapy. With disruption of the protective mucous layer of the bladder by mechanical irritation, the bacteria colonizing the catheter can adhere to the bladder’s mucosal surface and cause infection. An appreciation of the role of bacterial biofilms in these infections should suggest future directions for research that may ultimately reduce the risk of catheter-associated infection.

  2. "Lose the Tube": A Choosing Wisely initiative to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitalist-led inpatient units.

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    Cho, Hyung J; Khalil, Steve; Poeran, Jashvant; Mazumdar, Madhu; Bravo, Nathaniel; Wallach, Fran; Markoff, Brian; Lee, Nathan; Dunn, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    We developed a multidisciplinary initiative, "Lose the Tube," focused on a Choosing Wisely recommendation to decrease catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates and catheter days. Through an electronic health record catheter identification tool, daily interdisciplinary query, and clinician education, our multifaceted intervention reduced mean per-person catheter days from 3.3 to 2.9, decreased CAUTI rates from 2.85 to 0.32 per 1,000 catheter days, and reduced cost by $32,245.

  3. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heudorf, U; Gasteyer, S.; Müller, M.; Samoiski, Y; Serra, N.; Westphal, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the "prevention of infections in nursing homes" (2005) as well as in the updated recommendations for the "prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections" (2015), the Commission for Hospital Hy...

  4. Evaluation of an intervention program to prevent hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections in an ICU in a rural Egypt hospital

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    Amine, Amira Ezzat Khamis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are the most common hospital-acquired infection in ICUs. The aim of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of an intervention program by implementing urinary catheter bundle elements to reduce the CAUTI frequency in an ICU. Methods: The intervention study was conducted over a period of onths. During a pre-intervention phase, the base line catheter associated CAUTI incidence rates were determined and compared with the incidence rates during the post-intervention phase. The compliance of health care staff with urinary catheter bundle elements was also measured. The implemented CAUTI prevention bundle consisted of hand hygiene, wearing personal protective equipment, use of disposable gloves, cleansing of urethral meatus prior to catheter insertion using sterile saline, assessment of catheter need, aseptic urine sampling technique, and correct draining bag positioning.Results: During the study period, 55 out of 77 patients were diagnosed with a CAUTI. The mean CAUTI incidence rate for the pre-intervention period was 90.12/1,000 catheter days and for the post intervention phase 65.69/1,000 catheter days. The CAUTIs rate was inversely proportional to insertion bundle elements and maintenance bundle elements compliance rate. This negative relationship was statistically significant only with maintenance bundle elements (p=0.042 (r=–0.828. The compliance rate of the ICU nurses to the bundle elements was raised to 100% during the last 2 months of the post intervention phase.Conclusion: Increased compliance to recommended catheter associated urinary tract infections preventive practices reduced the incidence of CAUTI in an ICU unit. It is simple and effective and is recommended as a part of patient safety culture.

  5. Temporal trends and risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in adults with catheter-associated urinary tract infections

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    Spadafino, Joseph T; Cohen, Bevin; Liu, JianFang; Larson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli cause up to 10% of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). We report changes in ESBL prevalence among CAUTIs in an adult acute care hospital from 2006-2012 and describe factors associated ESBL-production among E. coli CAUTI. Findings Data on patients ≥18 years discharged from a 647-bed tertiary/quaternary care hospital (2006-2012), a 221-bed community hospital (2007-2012), and a 914-bed tertiary/quater...

  6. Luminescent Lanthanide Cyclen-Based Enzymatic Assay Capable of Diagnosing the Onset of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Both in Solution and within Polymeric Hydrogels.

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    Surender, Esther M; Bradberry, Samuel J; Bright, Sandra A; McCoy, Colin P; Williams, D Clive; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2017-01-11

    Herein we present a supramolecular (delayed luminescent) Eu(III)-based pH-responsive probe/sensor with the ability to detect the urease-mediated hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution. A series of photophysical titrations show this Eu(III) chelate behaves as an "on-off" luminescent switching probe, with its luminescence being quenched upon urea being enzymatically converted into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Calculation of the rate constant (k) and activation energy (Ea) for this hydrolysis reaction are detailed; the results demonstrate a direct observation of enzymatic activity in solution by the sensor. The potential application of this probe in detecting the onset of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) is also demonstrated by incorporating 1.Eu into water-permeable hydrogels that can be utilized as an alternative coating for catheters.

  7. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) recommendations “Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany

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    Heudorf, Ursel; Grünewald, Miriam; Otto, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) updated the recommendations for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 2015. This article will describe the implementation of these recommendations in Frankfurt's hospitals in autumn, 2015.Material and methods : In two non-ICU wards of each of Frankfurt's 17 hospitals, inspections were performed using a checklist based on the new KRINKO recommendations. In one large hospital, a total of 5 wa...

  8. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment following laparoscopic robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections: did the AUA guidelines make a difference?

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    Haifler, Miki; Mor, Yoram; Dotan, Zohar; Ramon, Jacob; Zilberman, Dorit E

    2016-12-16

    We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the American Urological Association (AUA) antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Our prospective registry database was reviewed for all RALP cases. The following variables were evaluated: age, associated comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), total operative time, length of stay (LOS), prostate weight, pathological grade and stage. Until 11/2011, RALP patients were treated with antibiotics administered in the operating room and continued until urethral catheter removal. Since 11/2011, all patients were treated with a single intravenous dose of Cephalosporin and Aminoglycoside given within 30 min of surgical incision. The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) was evaluated in both groups. 229 RALP patients were identified. The first 60 patients (26.2%) were treated according to the old protocol (Group 1) while the remaining 169 (73.8%) were treated according to the new protocol (Group 2). Group match was identified in all categories but LOS. Moreover, LOS was found to be longer in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (5.8 vs. 4.5 days, p < 0.001). CAUTI rate was similar in both groups (8.3 vs. 8.9%, respectively, p = 0.89). Logistic regression analysis did not demonstrate any association between treatment protocol and potential risk for CAUTI. Therefore, a single preoperative dose of antibiotics does not increase the rate of CAUTI following RALP compared with prolonged antibiotic treatment. Moreover, it was found to be associated with shorter LOS. Complying with the AUA guidelines may reduce morbidity and medical costs.

  9. A Multifaceted Approach to Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the Intensive Care Unit With an Emphasis on "Stewardship of Culturing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Katherine M; Kovacs, Christopher S; Fatica, Cynthia; Einloth, Colette; Neuner, Elizabeth A; Guzman, Jorge A; Kaiser, Eric; Menon, Venu; Castillo, Leticia; Popovich, Marc J; Manno, Edward M; Gordon, Steven M; Fraser, Thomas G

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications. OBJECTIVE To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture. METHODS A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared. RESULTS The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:186-188.

  10. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO recommendations “Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heudorf, Ursel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO updated the recommendations for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 2015. This article will describe the implementation of these recommendations in Frankfurt’s hospitals in autumn, 2015.Material and methods: In two non-ICU wards of each of Frankfurt’s , inspections were performed using a checklist based on the new KRINKO recommendations. In one large hospital, a total of were inspected. The inspections covered the structure and process quality (operating instructions, training, indication, the placement and maintenance of catheters and the demonstration of the preparation for insertion of a catheter using an empty bed and an imaginary patient, or insertion in a model.Results: Operating instructions were available in all hospital wards; approximately half of the wards regularly performed training sessions. The indications were largely in line with the recommendations of the KRINKO. Alternatives to urinary tract catheters were available and were used more often than the urinary tract catheters themselves (15.9% vs. 13.5%. In accordance with the recommendations, catheters were placed without antibiotic prophylaxis or the instillation of antiseptic or antimicrobial substances or catheter flushing solutions. The demonstration of catheter placement was conscientiously performed. Need for improvement was seen in the daily documentation and the regular verification of continuing indication for a urinary catheter, as well as the omission of regular catheter change.Conclusion: Overall, the recommendations of the KRINKO on the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were adequately implemented. However, it cannot be ruled out that in situations with time pressure and staff shortage, the handling of urinary tract catheters may be of lower quality than that observed during the inspections, when catheter insertion was done by two

  11. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heudorf, Ursel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005 as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015, the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated.Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter.Results: In 35 (87.5% of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2% and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9% of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses. Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole.Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low

  12. Effectiveness of reminder system in decreasing catheter-associated urinary tract infections: A Meta-analysis%拔管提示系统对降低导尿管相关尿路感染效果的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 夏玲; 陈艳; 皋文君; 徐大才

    2014-01-01

    目的 系统评价拔管提示系统对降低导尿管相关尿路感染效果的影响.方法 计算机全面检索国内外主要的医学数据库中有关拔管提示系统的干预试验.按照纳入及排除标准筛选文献,提取资料并评价纳入研究的方法学质量后,采用RevMan 5.0分析软件对拔管提示系统对降低导尿管相关尿路感染的效果进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入10篇文献,合计5 662例患者.Meta分析结果显示:拔管提示系统组在降低导尿管相关尿路感染的发生率、留置尿管的天数及导尿管的使用率方面明显优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义.结论 拔管提示系统可缩短留置尿管的天数,有效降低导尿管相关尿路感染的发生.%Objective To objectively evaluate the effectiveness of reminder system in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections.Methods Databases were electronically searched to collect the trials.According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,the literatures were screened,the data were extracted and the methodological quality of the included studies was assessed.Then Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.0 software.Results A total of 10 literatures involving 5 662 participants were included.The results of Meta-analysis showed that the reminder system group was superior to the control group in decreasing the incidence rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections,shortening the days of indwelling catheter,and there were statistical differences.Conclusions Reminder system can shorten the days of indwelling catheter,decrease catheter-associated urinary tract infections,

  13. Enterobacter cloacae multidrug-resistant: a case report of nosocomial urinary catheter-associated infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino De Conno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter species, particularly E. cloacae and E. aerogenes, are important nosocomial pathogenes responsible for various infections.We report a 70-y-old patient with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI caused by a nosocomial Enterobacter cloacae with multidrug-resistance.The identification of isolates from clinical culture and the study of pattern antimicrobial susceptibility were performed to the clinical risolution of the patient’s disease.The initial empirical antimicrobial therapy resulted ineffective.

  14. 聚维酮碘消毒减少导尿管相关性尿路感染的临床观察%Efficacy of povidone-iodine intervention to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾娟琴; 韩斌德; 胡欣春; 邬海; 边泽源

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨导尿时尿道注入聚维酮碘消毒,对减少导尿管相关性尿路感染的作用.方法 196例术前需留置导尿的患者随机分为对照组及试验组各98例,对照组行常规尿道外口及其周围器官皮肤消毒,按常规无菌操作技术行导尿,试验组在常规消毒的基础上,加用注射器从尿道外口注入0.5%聚维酮碘行全尿道消毒,余操作同对照组;两组均定期留取尿液标本做细菌培养及尿常规检查.结果 第5、7、10天试验组尿路感染发生率分别为2.27%、7.69%及22.73%,明显低于对照组的10.11%、25.49及66.67%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而留置导尿管第2、13、>16天的尿路感染发生率两组差异无统计学意义.结论 尿道注入聚维酮碘消毒对减少早期导尿管相关性尿路感染是一种简便有效的方法.%OBJECTIVE To explore the efficacy of povidone-iodine as is injected to the urinary tract and its effect on reducing the catheter-associated urinary tract infections, METHODS A total of 196 patients who intended to the indwelling urethral catheter before the surgery were randomly divided into the control group and the study group with 98 cases in each, the urinary catheters were inserted in the control group who received the disinfection of external orifice of urethra and its surrounding skin according to routine aseptic technique protocol, while the test group received the extra-disinfection of the whole urethral using povidone-iodine besides routine aseptic technique protocol before the urinary catheters were inserted, and then the urinary specimens were taken out regularly from two groups respectively for urine routine examination and microbial culture. RESULTS The incidence rates of UTI were 2.27%, 7. 69% and 22. 73%, respectively in the study group on the 5th, 7th and 10th day, which were significantly lower than 10. 11%, 25. 49% and 66. 67% respectively of the control group, the differences were

  15. Distribution and Resistance Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection in ICU%ICU导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊; 郑瑞强; 林华; 卢年芳; 於江泉

    2013-01-01

    Objective :To explore the distribution and resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing catheter associated uri-nary tract infection in ICU so as to guide the clinical rational use of antibiotics .Methods :Urine culture and its drug sus-ceptibility results of patients who were diagnosed catheter associated urinary tract infection were analyzed retrospective-ly from July 2009 to June 2013 in ICU of Subei People’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province .Results:226 strains of pathogenic bacteria was detected from 4558 urine specimens ,of which 138 strains of gram-negative bacteria (61 .06% ) ,57 strains of gram-positive bacteria(25 .22% ) ,31 fungi strains(13 .72% ) .Top five of pathogenic bacteria was followed by acine-tobacter baumannii ,pneumonia klebsiella ,Escherichia coli ,Enterococcus faecalis ,candida albicans .Resistance of acine-tobacter baumannii in most drug was >50% .Under 50% of the resistance was just cefoperazone/sulbactam ,meropen-em ,imipenem/Cilastatin ,SMZ/TMP .Conclusion:Gram-negative bacteria is still the main pathogenic bacteria of catheter associated urinary tract infections in ICU .Acinetobacter baumannii has risen to the first pathogenic bacteria ,and drug resistance is very severe .Rational use of antibiotics and good hand hygiene is very important according to the results of drug susceptibility .%目的:探讨IC U导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原学分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法:回顾性对2009年7月-2013年6月入住我院IC U确诊导尿管相关性尿路感染的患者送检的尿液标本培养及药敏结果进行统计分析。结果:4558份尿标本共检出226株致病菌,其中革兰氏阴性菌138株,占61.06%,革兰氏阳性菌株57株,占25.22%,真菌株31株,占13.72%。排名前五位的病原菌依次是鲍曼不动杆菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、大肠埃希菌、粪肠球菌、白色念珠菌。鲍曼不动杆菌对大部分药物耐药性均>50

  16. Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Through the Use of an Evidence-Based Nursing Algorithm and the Implementation of Shift Nursing Rounds: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kamishia L

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to successfully implement a nurse-led evidence-based practice change designed to reduce CAUTIs in a cardiac intensive care and step-down unit. The QI project was implemented using a convenience sample of patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care and step-down unit.Evaluation data were collected 3 months preimplementation and 9 months postimplementation. We used Wick's Check-Plan-Do-Check-Act model of continuous QI to guide the project. A statistically significant change in the number of CAUTIs (P = .009) and CAUTI occurrences (P = .005) was observed following the intervention. The number of indwelling catheter days and indwelling catheter utilization did not significantly differ following implementation of the intervention. Nurse compliance with the intervention was computed for each month; the average compliance rate was 91%. Findings from this project indicate that a nurse-led evidence-based practice project exerted a positive influence on CAUTI occurrences.

  17. 临床操作路径应用于降低内科导尿管相关性尿路感染的临床观察%Clinical observation of clinical operation path to be applied to reduce medical catheter associated urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁维红

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察临床操作路径应用于降低内科导尿管相关性尿路感染临床效果。方法:在2013年目标性监测有效预防措施基础上制定导尿管相关性尿路感染的临床操作路径干预措施,以2014年应用者310例为观察组,2013未应用者322例为对照组。结果:观察组发生泌尿系感染19例,感染率6.13%,对照组发生泌尿系感染37例,感染率11.49%。结论:临床操作路径应用于内科导尿管相关性尿路感染,有效降低泌尿道感染的发生,值得临床推广。%objective: to observe clinical path used to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection internal medicine clinical effects. Method:in the 2013 target monitoring effective prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections based on clinical path of interventions by 2014 in 310 cases of application for observer group, 2013 322 cases is not applied as a control group. Results:observation of urinary infection in 19 cases, the rate of infection 6.13%, 37 cases occurred in the control group urinary tract infections, infection rate was 11.49%. Conclusions:clinical path applied to medical catheter-associated urinary tract infections, effectively reducing the occurrence of urinary tract infections, isworthy of promotion.

  18. Analysis of risk factors of indwell ing catheter associated urinary tract infection and nursing prevention%留置尿管相关性尿路感染的危险因素分析及护理预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹君; 付林; 王玉; 陈汉霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the risk factors of indwelling cathe-ter associated urinary tract infection,so as to improve the clinical medi-cal security.Methods:A total of 255 patients with indwelled urinary and data integrity were included.According to whether catheter relat-ed urinary infection occurred or not,all patients were divided into infec-tion group (73 cases)and not infection group (182 cases).Single fac-tor analysis was used to investigate the differences of risk factors of catheter related urinary infection between both groups,and further Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze independent risk fac-tors of influencing catheter related urinary infection.Results:Univa-riate analysis of two groups of data showed that the age,indwelling uri-nary tube time ≥ 7 d,application of hormone,operation ≥ 2 or more times,bladder irrigation <7 times every week,urethral opening clean-ing<7 times every week in infection group were higher than those in non infection group,all differences were statistically significant (all P <0.05).Multi factor analysis of two groups data showed that in infec-tion groups,the age,indwelling urinary tube time≥7d,operation≥2 or more times and urethral opening cleaning<7 times every week were high-er than those in non infection group,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Old age,long indwelling time,the operation of more than 2 times and urethral mouth cleaning <7 times per week are the independent risk factors of catheter related urinary tract infection.%[目的]探讨留置尿管相关性尿路感染的危险因素,以提高临床医疗安全性。[方法]纳入资料完整的留置尿管病人255例,以是否发生导管相关性尿路感染为判断标准分为感染组(73例)和非感染组(182例)。采用单因素分析两组导管相关性尿路感染的危险因素的差异,并进一步通过 Logistic 回归分析影响导管相关性尿路感染发生的独立危险因素。[结果]

  19. Targeted monitoring and analysis of catheter associated urinary tract infection in patients with severe brain injury%重症脑损伤患者留置尿管相关尿路感染的目标性监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹闻亚; 刘芳; 王冉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To monitor the catheter associated urinary tract infection in patients with severe brain injury and analyze the incidence and risk factors of urinary tract infection in hospital, so as to take preventive measures and reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection. Methods Based on the monitoring program of indwelling urinary catheter in patients with severe brain injury and combining the method of microbial monitoring and retrospective study of patients in hospital, a total of 204 catheterized patients with severe brain injury were selected and analyzed the catheter associated urinary tract infection. Results There were 12 patients with urinary tract infections, and a higher incidence of urinary tract infection in elderly, serious condition, long-term bed ridden patients and longer catheter indwelling time with severe brain injury. The incidence of urinary tract infection in patients with more invasive operations was 3. 8‰. Fungus was the most common pathogenic bacteria. Conclusions Following indwelling catheter indications strictly, strengthening the aseptic management of catheter, shortening time of detaining urethral catheterization, and proper using of antibiotics are recommended as effective measures to lower the incidence of catheter associated urinary tract infection in patients with severe brain injury.%目的:通过对重症脑损伤患者留置尿管的目标性监测,总结出院内尿路感染的发生率和危险因素,便于积极采取预防措施,降低尿路感染的发生。方法通过制定出重症脑损伤患者留置尿管的监测方案,采取住院期间对患者的微生物监测和回顾性调查相结合的方法,收集了204例重症脑损伤同时伴有留置导尿管患者,并针对患者留置导尿管情况进行了分析。结果发生尿路感染的病例12例,重症脑损伤患者高龄、病情严重、长期卧床、导尿管留置时间长患者的尿路感染发生率高;有创性操作较多

  20. Characteristics of the Pathogens Causing Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection in Critically Ill Patients%危重患者导管相关性尿路感染病原菌特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何超; 刘钰琪; 李纪文; 戴仲秋; 朱丽娜; 谢轶; 陈知行; 康梅

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解危重患者导管相关性尿路感染(catheter-associated urinary tract infection,CAUTI)的病原菌菌种分布及耐药表型,为其临床治疗和院感控制提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年12月在我院重症监护病房发生CAUTI的患者临床资料和实验室检查结果.对CAUTI患者尿标本分离的病原菌及其耐药表型进行统计分析.结果 共纳入CAUTI患者370例,从其尿标本共分离出病原菌517株,其中:真菌222株,占42.9%;革兰阴性菌181株,占35.0%;革兰阳性菌114株,占22.0%.从菌种分布看,真菌主要有白色念珠菌(105株,20.3%)、热带念珠菌(78株,15.1%)和光滑念珠菌(30株,5.8%);革兰阴性菌主要有大肠埃希菌(81株,15.7%)、肺炎克雷伯菌(37株,7.2%)和鲍曼/醋酸钙不动杆菌复合体(23株,4.4%);革兰阳性菌主要有屎肠球菌(79株,15.3%)和粪肠球菌(13株,2.5%).耐药表型分析结果显示:念珠菌对伊曲康唑、伏立康唑和氟康唑的耐药率均在10.0%以上;大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌对大多数常规药物耐药率均大于30%;鲍曼/醋酸钙不动杆菌复合体对大多数常规药物耐药率均大于60%,对亚胺培南耐药率为60.8%;屎肠球菌和粪肠球菌对大多数常规药物耐药率均大于60%,对万古霉素耐药率分别为16.5%和31.0%.结论 引起我院危重患者CAUTI的主要病原菌是念珠菌,并对唑类药物表现出一定耐药性;革兰阴性菌和革兰阳性菌的耐药性值得关注.应合理使用抗生素,并采取有效措施,减少CAUTI的发生.%Objective To investigate the species and resistance phenotypes of the pathogens causing catheterassociated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in critically ill patients in West China Hospital of Sichuan University,and to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of this kind of infection.Methods The clinical data and findings of the laboratory examination of the patients,who were

  1. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  2. Development and the reliability and validity test of observation table with influencing factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in critical patients%重症患者导管相关性尿路感染影响因素观察表的编制及信效度检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青兰; 曾登芬; 刘蕾; 何海燕; 杨文群; 伍亚舟

    2016-01-01

    目的:设计重症患者导管相关性尿路感染影响因素观察表,并检验其信度及效度,为评估重症患者导管相关性尿路感染的影响因素提供有效的工具。方法通过文献回顾和头脑风暴法形成初始调查条目,结合专家访谈及专题小组讨论确定重症患者导管相关性尿路感染影响因素观察表最终条目。2014年6月,采用方便抽样方法,对第三军医大学大坪医院的130例留置尿管的重症患者进行观察,采用项目分析、探索性因子分析及信效度检验对观察表进行评价。结果重症患者导管相关性尿路感染影响因素观察表包括5个维度和26个条目;累积方差贡献率为73.752%, Cronbachα系数为0.869,分半信度Spearman-Brown折半系数为0.828,观察表各因子与总分之间的相关系数为0.652~0.873(P<0.01),观察表各因子间相关系数为0.311~0.823(P<0.01)。结论观察表具有良好的信度和效度,可作为评估重症患者导管相关性尿路感染影响因素的工具。%Objective To develop a observation table with influencing factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in critical patients and verify its reliability and validity. Methods Literature review, brainstorming method, expert interview and group discussion were performed to identify items of the form. By convenience sampling method, totally 130 severe patients with urinary catheter were investigated by this scale. This form was evaluated by item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and reliability and validity test. Results The observation table with influencing factors for Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections in critical patients consisted of five dimensions and 26 items. The cumulative contribution of variance was 73.752%, the Cronbach′s alpha coefficient was 0.869 and the Spearman-Brown split-half coefficient was 0.828. Regarding to the construct validity, the correlation coefficient

  3. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  4. 119例导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原体分布及耐药性分析%Analysis on the distribution and the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens from 119 cases of catheter associ-ated urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效雷; 罗婕; 丁兆霞; 曹地芹; 娄瑞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the pathogens distribution and drug resistance characteristics of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), so as to provide the evidence of controlling urinary tract infection .Methods 119 cases of CAUTI microbial culture and drug sensitive were collected and analyzed from January 2012 to June 2014.Results Isolated 97 pathogens from 119 urine specimens.Top 6 pathogens were:Escherichia coli (26.80%), Enterococcus faecalis (15.46%), Candida albicans (11.34%), Feces Enterococcus (10.31%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.15%), Coagulase negative staphylococcus (5.15%), and the multi-drug-resistance was found.Some bacterial resistance rate was higher than the results of chinet 2013 surveillance.Conclusion The surveillance of bacterial resistance and the supervision of clinical rational drug use should be enhanced , and the further heavy interven-tions should be necessary to prevent the contact transmission of the multidrug -resistant organisms and CAUTI also .%目的:掌握导尿管相关性尿路感染( catheter associated urinary tract infection ,CAUTI)的病原体分布以及耐药性特征,为控制尿路感染提供依据。方法通过统计2012年1月-2014年6月解放军81医院119例CAUTI尿液微生物培养及药敏结果,分析CAUTI病原体分布及耐药性特征。结果119例CAUTI尿液标本中检出病原菌97株,前6位病原体依次为大肠埃希菌(26.80%)、粪肠球菌(15.46%)、白色念珠菌(11.34%)、屎肠球菌(10.31%)、铜绿假单胞菌(5.15%)和凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(5.15%),并呈现出多耐药性,部分耐药率超过2013年Chinet的相关监测结果。结论应加强CAUTI病原体耐药性监测和临床合理用药监管,重视对多重耐药菌的隔离预防和对CAUTI的预防干预。

  5. 基于失效模式与效应分析管理模式构建导尿管相关尿路感染干预策略的研究%The research of building catheter-associated urinary tract infections intervention stratagem based on failure mode and effects analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 夏玲; 谭思源; 陈艳; 胡清; 金勤; 王卉洁; 韦佳佳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To build catheter-associated urinary tract infections intervention stratagem based on failure mode and effects analysis.Methods Based on failure mode and effects analysis,forming teams,drawing the flowchart,listing the failure mode,analyzing the causes and effects of failure mode,and the experts giving RPN score,and the score>125 should be given intervention stratagem.Results The value>125 included:operator preparation,insertion of catheters,fixing the collection bags,changing the urine collection bag,target monitoring and extubation.The eight improvement program was built.Conclusions To build catheter-associated urinary tract infections intervention stratagem based on failure mode and effects analysis is feasible and scientific,there are certain clinical application prospect.%目的 基于失效模式与效应分析(failure mode and effects analysis,FMEA)管理模式构建导尿管相关尿路感染干预策略.方法 基于FMEA管理模式,组建团队、绘制流程图、识别流程中潜在失效模式、分析失效原因及影响因素、进行风险优先指数(RPT)评分,对评分>125分的失效模式构建干预策略.结果 RPN评分>125分的失效模式有8个,即操作者准备、插入导尿管、固定集尿袋、会阴护理、集尿袋放尿、更换集尿袋、目标监测及拔管.对8个失效模式构建干预策略.结论 基于FMEA管理模式构建导尿管相关尿路感染干预策略是可行的、科学的,具有一定的临床应用价值及前景.

  6. Effectiveness of transurethral sustained controlled release infusion of low concentration iodophor in prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections%经尿道持续输注低浓度聚维酮碘预防导尿管相关性尿路感染效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾小红; 张玲芳; 孙建良

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effectiveness of transurethral sustained controlled release infusion of 0. 3% iodophor in the prevention of the catheter-associated urinary tract infections and propose the nursing measures so as to reduce the incidence of the urinary tract infections. METHODS A total of 140 critical patients with indwelling catheter were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group. The observation group was treated with new type of catheter transurethral sustained controlled release infusion of 0. 3% iodophor, while the control group was treated with traditional bag catheter, the positive rates of urine culture on the third, seventh, and the tenth day after the indwelling catheterization were compared between the two groups, and the adverse reactios were observed. RESULTS Of the positive rates of the urine culture on the third, seventh, and the tenth day after the indwelling bladder catheterization, the observation group were 2. 86%, 8. 57% and 11. 43%, respectively, while the control group were 18. 57%, 35. 71 % and 51. 43% , respectively, the positive rate of urine culture of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0. 01), there were no adverse reactions. CONCLUSION To adopt the new disposable transurethral sustained controlled release infusion of low concentration iodophor combined with the corresponding nursing measures can reduce the incidence of the catheter-associated urinary tract infections, it is worthy of the clinical promotion.%目的 探讨经尿道持续控释输注0.3%聚维酮碘预防导尿管相关性尿路感染的有效性,以降低尿路感染的发生率.方法 将140例留置导尿的危重患者随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用新型导尿管经尿道持续控释输注0.3%聚维酮碘;对照组采用普通气囊导尿管,比较两组患者留置导尿后第3、7、10天的菌尿阳性率,观察不良反应.结果 导尿后第3、7、10天的菌尿

  7. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  10. 循证护理预防长期留置导尿老年男性患者尿路感染的价值%Values of Evidence-based Nursing in Preventing Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection of Senile Male Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 赵敏; 成敏洁; 陈丽琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the value of evidence-based nursing in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) of senile man. Methods:Sixty-seven patients were intervened by evidence-based nursing, and compared with 46 cases who received routine care in 2011. Satisfaction degree and CAUTI incidence of both groups were observed. Results:CAUTI incidence of evidence-based nursing group was 8.96%, lower than 23.91%of routine care group, χ2=4.774, P=0.029; satisfaction degree of evidence-based nursing group was 91.8%, higher than 79.7%of routine care group, χ2=4.949, P=0.026. Conclusion:Evidence-based nursing could effectively lower CAUTI incidence of senile male patients with long-term retention catheterization.%目的:探讨循证护理预防长期留置导尿老年男性患者尿路感染的价值。方法:对住院并长期留置尿管的老年男性患者67例进行循证护理干预,并与2011年常规护理下长期留置尿管的老年男性患者46例进行比较,观察2组患者尿路感染的发生率及护理满意度。结果:循证护理组尿路感染(CAUTI)的发生率为8.96%,常规护理组为23.91%,χ2=4.774,P=0.029;满意度循证护理组为91.8%,常规护理组为79.7%,χ2=4.949, P=0.026。结论:循证护理能有效降低老年男性患者长期留置导尿CAUTI的发生率。

  11. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  13. Could legal requirements in nursing practice trigger actions that would change the rates of urinary tract infections? A case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan; Pereira, Eliana Borges Silva; Sousa Neto, Renata Lemos de; Resende, Jaqueline; Fontes, Astrídia Marília de Souza

    2017-03-07

    We evaluated the influence of a Brazilian resolution, published in 2013, that restricts the performing of urinary catheterization to nurses, as opposed to others from different nursing professional categories, on indicators of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in an intensive care unit. The resolution triggered actions such as the implementation of protocols and nursing staff training that led to behavior changes related to the reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates.

  14. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  15. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  16. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  17. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  18. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  19. Clinical study of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in elderly patients during perioperative period of endovascular interventional surgery%老年患者腔内介入治疗围术期留置尿管泌尿道感染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏健; 银彩霞; 丁明超; 王意忠; 王斌; 王鸿

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the risk factors for catheter‐associated urinary tract infections in elderly patients of vascular surgery department during perioperative period of endovascular interventional surgery and put forward the prevention measures so as to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections .METHODS A total of 98 elderly patients who underwent the endovascular interventional surgery in the vascular surgery department from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012 were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into the 24‐hour group with 32 cases ,48‐hour group with 33 cases ,and the 72‐hour group with 33 cases ;the risk factors for the catheter‐associated urinary tract infections were statistically analyzed .RESULTS The urinary tract infections occurred in 1 case in the 24‐hour group ,with the infection rate of 3 .1% ;the urinary tract infections occurred in 3 cases in the 48‐hour group ,with the infection rate of 9 .1% ;the urinary tract infections occurred in 5 cases in the no less than 72‐hour group ,with the infection rate of 15 .2% ,there was significant difference among the three groups (P<0 .05) .The Escherichia coli ,Enterococcus f aecalis ,and fungi were the most common pathogens .CONCLUSION It is an effective way to shorten the urinary catheter indwelling time so as to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections in the elderly patients during the perioperative period .%目的:探讨血管外科老年患者腔内介入治疗围术期留置尿管导致泌尿道感染的危险因素并提出预防措施,以降低泌尿道感染发生率。方法对2010年1月-2013年12月血管外科行腔内介入治疗98例老年患者随机分为24、48、72 h组,分别为32、33、33例,对留置尿管致泌尿道感染的危险因素进行统计分析。结果术后24 h组有1例发生泌尿道感染,感染率为3.1%,术后48h组有3例发生泌尿道感染,感染率为9.1%,术后≥72h组有5例发生,感染率为15.2

  20. 导尿管相关性泌尿系感染的研究%Clinical Analysis of Guide Catheter Associated Urinary System Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩静

    2015-01-01

    Urethral catheterization and catheterization technique of diagnosis and nursing measures are the most common, due to dif iculty in urination and other reasons need retention catheterization, subject to the asepsis operating rules, as far as possible to shorten the catheter retention time, strengthening of routine maintenance of urinary catheter, improve the monitoring measures, the sterile principle runs through the whole process of indwel ing catheter prevention is an important measure guided catheter associated urinary tract infection.%导尿术及留置导尿是最常见的诊疗技术和护理措施,因排尿困难及其他原因需要保留导尿时,在遵循无菌操作规程前提下,尽可能缩短尿管保留时间,加强导尿管的日常维护,完善各项监测措施,将无菌原则贯穿保留尿管的全过程是预防发生导尿管相关性泌尿系感染的重要措施。

  1. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  2. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  3. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your cat’s urinary tract with bacteria, fungi, parasites or possibly even viruses can cause signs of ... of their urine prevents infection. Diseases such as kidney disease and diabetes are more common in cats ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  5. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 international clinical practice guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America%成人导管相关尿路感染的诊断、预防和治疗——2009年美国感染病学会国际临床实践指南

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹鹤娟; 李光辉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 导(尿)管相关(catheter-associated, CA)菌尿症,在全球范围内为最常见卫生保健相关感染,系医院和长期护理院(long-term care facilities,LTCF) 广泛使用导尿管所致,其中多数为不合理使用.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  7. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  8. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    10.1 Kidney function2004116 Measurement of urinary neutral endopeptid-ase and its significance in diagnosing renal tubular injury. ZHANG Zhi (张智), et al. Div Nephrol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Nephrol 2003; 19(6) :392-396.

  9. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  10. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  11. 洗必泰擦浴对预防成人重症监护病房病人导管相关性尿路感染效果的系统评价%Systemic evaluation on efficacy of chlorhexidine sponge bath for preventing catheter associated urinary tract infec-tions for adult patients in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华平; 陈斌; 王海燕

    2016-01-01

    [目的]评价每日洗必泰(氯己定)擦浴预防成人重症监护病房病人导管相关性尿路感染发生的效果。[方法]通过系统检索PUBMED,EMBASE,Cochrane Library 以及中国知网(CNKI)数据库,检索时间从建库到2015年3月,两名评价者独立地评价符合标准的随机临床研究和类实验研究并提取所需数据,使用 Review Manager 5.3对提取到的数据进行分析。[结果]共计7篇文献纳入研究,包含2篇随机临床试验和5篇类实验研究。试验组应用洗必泰每日擦浴,共观察39136例病人,共出现471例次导管相关性尿路感染,对照组共观察43689例病人,共出现804例次导管相关性尿路感染,两组间导管相关性尿路感染发生率差异具有统计学意义(RR为0.68,95%CI为0.52~0.88,P=0.004)。[结论]每日洗必泰擦浴可以明显降低重症监护病房成年病人发生导管相关性尿路感染的风险,但该结论仍需更高质量的临床试验来进一步验证。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of daily chlorhexidine sponge bath for preventing catheter associat-ed urinary tract infections(CAUTI)in adult patients in the intensive care unit(ICU).Methods:Systematically searched PUBMED,EMBASE,the Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)from their inception to March 2015.Two reviewers independently evaluated and extracted data from included standard randomized clinical studies and experimental studies.Review Manager 5 .3 was applied to extract data for analy-sis.Results:Total of 7 papers were included in the study,including 2 randomized clinical trials and 5 experimen-tal studies.The result revealed that 471 infections were detected in a total of 39 136 patients in chlorhexidine sponge bath group.And 804 infections were detected in a total of 43 689 patients in control group.The differ-ence between two groups on CAUTI rate were statistical significant(RR=0.68,95%CI was 0.52 0.88,P=0.004). Conclusions:Daily chlorhexidine sponge

  12. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Evan B.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  13. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  14. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac

  15. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  16. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  17. [Leiomyoma of the urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the urinary tract are benign and uncommon forms of tumor. In the present study, two cases have been described of leiomyomas situated in the bladder. Following this description, the pathological characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these lesions have been examined. The clinical symptomatology depends on the tumor site, and this type of lesion is more frequently found in women.. Treatment mainly consists of endoscopic resection, but may involve cystectomy. The prognosis for patients with this type of tumor is invariably favorable.

  18. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  19. The potential of photo-deposited silver coatings on Foley catheters to prevent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ian Richard; Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica

    2016-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms to conventional antibiotic therapies and the increasing health-care costs have recently encouraged the definition of alternative preventive strategies, which can have a positive effect in the management of infections. Antimicrobial urinary catheters have been developed through the photo-chemical deposition of silver coatings on the external and luminal surfaces. The substrates are exposed to ultraviolet radiation after impregnation into a silver-based solution, thus inducing the in situ synthesis of silver particles. The effect of the surface treatment on the material was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silver ion release measurements. The ability of microorganisms commonly associated with urinary tract infections was investigated in terms of bacterial viability, proliferation and biofilm development, using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis as target organisms. The silver coatings demonstrated good distribution of silver particles to the substrate, and proved an effective antibacterial capability in simulated biological conditions. The low values of silver ion release demonstrated the optimum adhesion of the coating. The results indicated a good potential of silver-based antimicrobial materials for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

  20. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  1. [Imaging in urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P; Lagard, D; Leroy, C; Dracon, M; Biserte, J; Lemaître, L

    2004-02-01

    Uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract is frequent and usually resolves rapidly with treatment and imaging is unnecessary. Progression to complex infection often occurs in patients with predisposing factors. Imaging assists in evaluating the extent of disease, plays a role in directing therapy and guides interventional procedures if necessary. This pictorial essay reviews the role of imaging and intervention in infections of the urinary tract.

  2. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  4. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  5. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  6. Novel antiseptic urinary catheters for prevention of urinary tract infections: correlation of in vivo and in vitro test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Ray; Reitzel, Ruth; Borne, Agatha; Jiang, Ying; Tinkey, Peggy; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Raad, Issam

    2009-12-01

    Urinary catheters are widely used for hospitalized patients and are often associated with high rates of urinary tract infection. We evaluated in vitro the antiadherence activity of a novel antiseptic Gendine-coated urinary catheter against several multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were compared to silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters. Bacterial biofilm formation was assessed by quantitative culture and scanning electron microscopy. These data were further correlated to an in vivo rabbit model. We challenged 31 rabbits daily for 4 days by inoculating the urethral meatus with 1.0 x 10(9) CFU streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli per day. In vitro, Gendine-coated urinary catheters reduced the CFU of all organisms tested for biofilm adherence compared with uncoated and silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.004). Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that a thick biofilm overlaid the control catheter and the silver hydrogel-coated catheters but not the Gendine-coated urinary catheter. Similar results were found with the rabbit model. Bacteriuria was present in 60% of rabbits with uncoated catheters and 71% of those with silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.01) but not in those with Gendine-coated urinary catheters. No rabbits with Gendine-coated urinary catheters had invasive bladder infections. Histopathologic assessment revealed no differences in toxicity or staining. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were more efficacious in preventing catheter-associated colonization and urinary tract infections than were silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  8. Mathematical modelling of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Antonio Soriano; Fernandez, Daniel Ruiz; Gil, David; Garcia Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Perez, Francisco Macia

    2013-03-01

    The lower urinary tract is one of the most complex biological systems of the human body as it involved hydrodynamic properties of urine and muscle. Moreover, its complexity is increased to be managed by voluntary and involuntary neural systems. In this paper, a mathematical model of the lower urinary tract it is proposed as a preliminary study to better understand its functioning. Furthermore, another goal of that mathematical model proposal is to provide a basis for developing artificial control systems. Lower urinary tract is comprised of two interacting systems: the mechanical system and the neural regulator. The latter has the function of controlling the mechanical system to perform the voiding process. The results of the tests reproduce experimental data with high degree of accuracy. Also, these results indicate that simulations not only with healthy patients but also of patients with dysfunctions with neurological etiology present urodynamic curves very similar to those obtained in clinical studies.

  9. Fungal infections of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D; Vazquez, J A

    1999-12-01

    Funguria, fungal urinary tract infections, are most commonly caused by Candida species but may also be caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. Candiduria presents as an increasingly common nosocomial infection, which may involve all anatomic levels of the urinary tract, resulting in a spectrum of disease varying from asymptomatic candiduria to clinical sepsis. Although several successful systemic or local therapeutic options exist for the eradication of candiduria, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of candiduria has lagged. This has resulted in confusion among practitioners as to when antifungal therapy is indicated. Treatment guidelines have recently been formulated and are described herein.

  10. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  11. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  12. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2016-04-21

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population.

  13. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results.

  15. Urinary tract endometriosis: Review of 19 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: One should have a high index of suspicion with irritative voiding symptoms with or without hematuria, with negative urine culture, in all premenopausal women to diagnose urinary tract endometriosis. Partial cystectomy is a better alternative to transurethral resection followed by GnRh analogue in vesical endometriosis. Approach to the ureter must be individualised depending upon the severity of disease and dilatation of the upper tract to maximise the preservation of renal function.

  16. Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: risk factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of risk factors to the occurrence of urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (1997 including full-term infants having a positive urine culture by bag specimen. Urine collection was based on: fever, weight loss > 10% of birth weight, nonspecific symptoms (feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, hypoactivity, debilitate suction, irritability, or renal and urinary tract malformations. In these cases, another urine culture by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected to confirm the diagnosis. To compare and validate the risk factors in each group, the selected cases were divided into two groups: Group I - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and negative urine culture by suprapubic aspiration, and Group II - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and positive urine culture by suprapubic aspiration . RESULTS: Sixty one infants were studied, Group I, n = 42 (68.9% and Group II, n = 19 (31.1%. The selected risk factors (associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, renal and urinary tract malformations, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and intravascular catheter were more frequent in Group II (p<0.05. Through relative risk analysis, risk factors were, in decreasing importance: parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal and urinary tract malformations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, and associated infectious diseases contributed to increase the frequency of neonatal urinary tract infection, and in the presence of more than one risk factor, the occurrence of urinary tract infection rose up to 11 times.

  17. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  18. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  19. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  20. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, Christopher D; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review.

  1. Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

    2014-04-01

    The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E. coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E. coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E. coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E. coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E. coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E. coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment

  2. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  3. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs.

  4. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment.

  5. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Daw Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  6. Urinary tract infection in renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI), especially recurrent UTI, is a common problem, occurring in >75% of kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. UTI degrades the health-related quality of life and can impair graft function, potentially reducing graft and patient survival. As urologists are often involved in treating UTI after KTX, previous reports were searched to elucidate underlying causes, risk factors and treatment options, as well as recommendations for prophylaxis of UTI after KTX. M...

  7. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  8. Treatment Duration of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    van der Starre, Willize E.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Nieuwkoop, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Although febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in adults, data on optimal treatment duration are limited. Randomized controlled trials specifically addressing the elderly and patients with comorbidities have not been performed. This review highlights current available evidence. Premenopausal, non-pregnant women without comorbidities can be treated with a 5–7 day regimen of fluoroquinolones in countries with low levels of fluoroquinolone resistance, or, if proven suscep...

  9. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Phair, J.P.; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H.B.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  10. Postoperative Morganella morganii endophthalmitis associated with subclinical urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaktsidis, Gina; Agarwal, Smita A; Maloof, Anthony J; Chandra, Jay; Mitchell, Paul

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of Morganella morganii acute endophthalmitis following clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery in which a coincident asymptomatic chronic urinary tract infection was detected postoperatively. Morganella morganii is a gram-negative bacillus that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and is part of the normal fecal flora. It is an opportunistic pathogen usually encountered in postoperative and nosocomial settings, causing urinary tract and wound infections. Chronic urinary tract infection may be a risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. A dipstick urinalysis before elective cataract surgery in elderly patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections may be considered.

  11. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  12. Urinary tract infections in adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, A; Ludwig, E

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract (UTI) is a major disease burden for many patients with diabetes. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is several-fold more common among women and acute plyelonephritis is five to ten times more common in both sexes. The complications of pyelonephritis are also more common in patients with diabetes. These complications include acute papillary necrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis, and bacteremia with metastatic localization to other sites. The management of urinary infection in patients with diabetes is essentially the same as patients without diabetes. Most infections should be managed as uncomplicated except when they occur in a milieu with obstruction or other factors that merit a diagnosis of complicated UTI. Strategies to prevent these infections and reduce morbidity should be a priority for research.

  13. Chateter-associated Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Piljic, Dilista; Porobic-Jahic, Humera; Piljic, Dragan; Ahmetagic, Sead; Jahic, Rahima

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hospital-acquired Urinary tract infections make 35% of all the hospital-acquired infections, and about 80% of them are related to the catheterization of the urinary bladder Purpose: To determine clinical characteristics and dominant etiologic factors of Urinary Tract Infections associated with urinary catheter (C-UTIs). Methods: Determined clinical characteristics of C-UTIs were prospectively analyzed on 38 hospitalized patients in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases at the Unive...

  14. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  15. [Kidney and urinary tract diseases in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulser, T; John, H; Zimmermann, R

    1999-10-01

    Management of urologic disorders in pregnant patients often increases the anxiety of all involved. Based on a thorough understanding of the physiologic changes seen in various organ systems the urologist has to assume the responsibility for the well-being of the mother and the fetus. Apart from the urinary tract infection, which occurs as frequent as in non-pregnant patients but has a significantly higher risk of acute bacterial pyelonephritis, it is mainly the pregnancy-associated symptomatic hydronephrosis and the urolithiasis which are complicating approximately 1 of every 1000-1500 pregnancies. Urinary tract infections should be treated in any case by antibiotics according to a antibiogram. High risk patients with history of vesicoureteral reflux or recurrent pyelonephritis should be treated prophylactically. Following parturition these patients should be investigated urologically to exclude structural abnormalities of the genitourinary system. In case of symptomatic hydronephrosis and calculous disease the first approach should be a watchful conservatism with symptomatic relief. If the symptoms persist insertion of a double-J-stent or in case of live-threatening situations (e.g. urosepsis) when urgent decompression and rapid evacuation is mandatory a percutaneous nephrostomy can be brought in place under sonographic monitoring completely thereby avoiding any radiation exposure.

  16. Urinary tract infection following ritual Jewish circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M; Barr, J; Bistritzer, T; Aladjem, M

    1996-11-01

    Circumcision seems to reduce the overall incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI), although a few studies have suggested that ritual circumcision may be a predisposing factor for UTI within the first 2 weeks following the procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible causal relationship between ritual circumcision and UTI. The study comprised 82 infants with UTI, 55 females and 27 males under the age of 1 year. All males were circumcised on the eighth day of life. The median age of infection was 0.75 and 7.0 months for males and females, respectively. Fifty-two percent (14/27) of UTI episodes were diagnosed within the 2 weeks following circumcision. A significantly lower incidence in Escherichia coli-induced UTI was observed in males compared to females, 67% and 93%, respectively. Similarly, the incidence of E. coli-induced UTI was also significantly lower in males presenting within 2 weeks following circumcision (57%) compared to infants presenting prior or more than 2 weeks following the procedure (92%). Positive blood cultures of an identical microorganism were observed in 6/27 males compared to 2/55 females. The incidence of urinary tract malformations and their severity were similar in both sexes. We conclude that the high incidence of UTI following a ritual Jewish circumcision, as well as the relatively high preponderance of bacteria other than E. coli, may suggest a causal relationship between circumcision and UTI.

  17. [Recurrent urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito S, Juan Pablo

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (R-UTI) are common among women even though they generally have a normal urinary tract. Women with R-UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens due to a greater propensity for them to adhere to their epithelial cells. Risk factors include frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide use, first UTI at an early age and maternal history of UTI. Prevention of recurrences can be done with low-dose continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis or with post-coital antimicrobial prophylaxis, a method that may be more efficient and acceptable. Estrogen replacement therapy using a vaginal administration in postmenopausal women is also effective in preventing R-UTI. The vaginal vaccine only diminishes percentage of women with Escherichia coli UTI. The oral vaccine reduces R-UTI with inferior results than antimicrobial prophylaxis; Cranberry intake shows some evidence in favor, although further trials are needed. Finally R-UTI can also be effectively managed with self-start antimicrobial therapy.

  18. Urinary tract infections in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T

    2001-08-01

    The elderly population is now increasing in the world. A higher incidence of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI) is observed in elderly patients, in both long-term care facilities and at home. The management of elderly patients with UTI is increasing in clinical significance. Almost all of UTI in the elderly is complicated UTI. Control of the underlying diseases in the urinary tract is quite important in the management of UTIs in elderly patients. For pyelonephritis, switch therapy using aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporines, or penicillins are selections of choice. The recommended duration of treatment for patients with pyelonephritis is 14 days. Seven to 10 days of treatment using fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is recommended for the treatment of elderly patients with symptomatic cystitis. Although asymptomatic bacteriuria is quite common in the elderly population, antibiotic treatment has no benefit for such patients. Intravaginal estrogen replacement is one of choice for the prevention of recurrent UTIs in postmenopausal women.

  19. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Urinary Tract Infection Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention Español: Infección de las vías urinarias Overview Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in ...

  20. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, you ... make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you ...

  1. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bagi, P; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    Even though the mortality due to urinary tract complications has decreased dramatically during the last decades in individuals with spinal cord lesions (SCL), urinary tract infections (UTI) still cause significant morbidity in this population. Complicated UTI are caused by a much wider variety...

  2. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  3. Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Yacoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection are common complications after kidney transplantation. In this population, if urinary tract infection occurred in the first six months post procedure, it carries a grave impact on both graft and patient survival. Renal transplant recipients with urinary tract infection are often clinically asymptomatic as a consequence of immunosuppression. Urinary tract infection, however, may progress to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and the full blown picture of urosepsis. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched. The purpose of this review is to discuss the screening and treatment of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients and to evaluate the guidelines on the basis of a review of published evidence.

  4. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaidov, N; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and asymptomatic bacteriuria are frequent in elderly patients. Distinguishing UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, might be a challenge for physicians due to the presence of confounding factors, such as an overactive bladder, prostate enlargement, and an indwelling bladder catheter. The absence of standards in the definition and treatment of UTI in the elderly frequently leads to overtreatment. Consequently, antibiotic selection pressure increases and as a result multidrug-resistant organisms might arise. On the other hand, insufficient treatment can result in prolonged and complicated courses of infections or increased morbidity. This review covers the definition, prevalence, diagnosis and management of UTI in older adults.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Jeremy S; Doern, Christopher D; Godbout, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. Data regarding the impact of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation on UTI treatment outcomes is lacking.

  6. [Leukoplakia of the upper urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armora Mani, J; Muñoz Segui, J; Pérez Céspedes, M; Aguiló Lucia, F; Torrecilla Ortiz, C; Serrallach Mila, N

    1992-01-01

    Leukoplakia is a morphological term that attempts to define keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium. It is uncommon in the upper urinary tract (less than 100 cases have been reported) and has been attributed to infection or mechanical injury to the epithelium and/or genetic factors. We present a case of leukoplakia in a male patient with renal tuberculosis that had been in remission for the past 15 years. Eight years earlier he had intermittently passed keratin laminas (pathognomonic of leukoplakia) during the course of various episodes of nephritic colic. After discarding a reactivation of tuberculosis and malignancy of the metaplastic lesion, we continued conservative treatment with radiologic and cytologic control evaluations.

  7. Ethiology of urinary tract infections in male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on data from 4317 positive urine cultures collected at S. Orsola, Fondazione Poliambulanza Hospital of Brescia (Italy from 2007 to 2009.The patient group was heterogeneous and included in- and outpatients of both gender, ranging in age from 1 to 99 years. E. coli was the most frequently pathogen isolated in all the urine cultures independently from age or sex. Our findings differ from those of a similar study made in the U.S.A., where Enterococcus (Group D Streptococcus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in the urine cultures of the male subjects. These results suggest to maintain an identical empirical therapy in male and female because the most frequently isolated bacteria responsible of urinary tract infections are Gram negative.

  8. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy.

  9. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required.

  10. Virtual endoscopy of the urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George C. Kagadis; Dimitrios Siablis; Evangelos N. Liatsikos; Theodore Petsas; George C. Nikiforidis

    2006-01-01

    Technological breakthroughs have advanced the temporal and spatial resolutions of diagnostic imaging, and 3 dimensional (3-D) reconstruction techniques have been introduced into everyday clinical practice. Virtual endoscopy (VE)is a non-invasive technique that amplifies the perception of cross-sectional images in the 3-D space, providing precise spatial relationships of pathological regions and their surrounding structures. A variety of computer algorithms can be used to generate 3-D images, taking advantage of the information inherent in either spiral computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). VE images enable endoluminal navigation through hollow organs, thus simulating conventional endoscopy. Several clinical studies have validated the diagnostic utility of virtual cystoscopy, which has high sensitivity and specificity rates in the detection of bladder tumor. Published experience in the virtual exploration of the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra is encouraging but still scarce. VE is a safe, non-invasive method that could be applied in the long-term follow-up of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, urinary bladder tumors and ureteral and/or urethral strictures. Its principal limitations are the inability to provide biopsy tissue specimens for histopathologic examination and the associated ionizing radiation hazards (unless MRI is used). However, in the case of endoluminal stenosis or obstruction, VE permits virtual endoluminal navigation both cephalad and caudal to the stenotic segment. To conclude, VE provides a less invasive method of evaluating the urinary tract, especially for clinicians who are less familiar with cross-sectional imaging than radiologists.

  11. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  12. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  13. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  14. Pediatric urinary tract infections: current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeily, A E

    2001-06-01

    Few topics in pediatric urology engender such vigorous debate as the who, when, how, and why related to the investigation of pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs). Further controversy stems from management of the underlying pathology. This article first discusses the patient characteristics that are important in the evaluation of pediatric patients with UTIs, and the indications for screening tests (such as voiding cystourethrograms, ultrasound, dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, and intravenous pyelography). Following this, the author reviews what is known about three controversial aspects about the management of these patients. First, although the role of the prepuce in pediatric UTI is well established, the role of routine circumcision is not. Second, the natural history and etiology of antenatally detected vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has provoked us to view the concept of "primary reflux" in a new light. Third, although the way to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux is generally agreed upon, the utility of our surgical management in view of long-term follow-up is less clear.

  15. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of gestation. In rare cases, doctors may consider neonatal surgery (performing surgery on an unborn baby) if ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Urination Pain Kidney Diseases in Childhood Urinary Tract Infections When ...

  16. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pedraza Avilés, A; Ortíz-Zaragoza, M C; Inzunza-Montiel, A E; Ponce-Rosas, E R

    1996-01-01

    A modified scheme is proposed for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic women based on detection of hippurate hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and lipase, and fermentation of arabinose, galactose and xylose. Thirty biotypes were found among 73 strains. The distribution of biotypes was similar in both populations but the biotypes 1H, 5G and 7G were found more frequently in women without symptoms of urinary tract infection.

  17. Salmonella-related urinary tract infection in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Scott Anthony

    2014-09-05

    An elderly female patient with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection from Salmonella newport is presented. Radiological and laboratory studies were performed because of her systemic and exposure risk factors as well as prior urinary tract abnormalities. While this patient was successfully treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, complications and recurrence are common and deserve close follow-up with repeat urine cultures at a minimum. Further laboratory and radiological testing should be guided by patient gender, risk factors and recurrence.

  18. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  19. [Neonatal pneumothorax and urinary tract malformation. 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrolle, J P; Brioude, R; Guerin, J; de Montis, G

    1976-10-01

    Three newborn male infants are reported who presented with a tension pneumothorax in the first few hours of life. Early in one case and after intervals of one month and eight months in the others attention was drawn to the urinary tract. Radiological investigations revealed morphological abnormalities of the kidneys and the urinary tract itself. The pathogenesis is discussed and an intravenous pyelogram is recommended before the development of clinical features. In this way early diagnosis might allow treatment prior to renal involvement.

  20. An update on the management of urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly encountered in general medical practice. The majority of patients have uncomplicated infections affecting the lower urinary tract, which respond readily to a short course of oral antibiotics. Life-threatening complications or long-term morbidity can occur, especially in patients with underlying medical predispositions or urological abnormalities. Further investigations are warranted in patients with severe or recurrent UTI, or when UTI occurs in 'low ...

  1. Local Immune Response to Upper Urinary Tract Infections in Children▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kantele, Anu; Palkola, Nina; Arvilommi, Heikki; Honkinen, Olli; Jahnukainen, Timo; Mertsola, Jussi; Kantele, Jussi M.

    2008-01-01

    Vaccines are needed against urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children, as episodes of pyelonephritis (PN) may cause renal scarring. Local immune mechanisms are regarded to confer protection, yet they have been poorly characterized for children. This study explores the local immune response in children by looking for newly activated pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC), expected to appear transiently in the circulation as a response to UTI. Urinary tract-originating ASC specific ...

  2. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans.

  3. Group d salmonella urinary tract infection in an immunocompetent male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Asad; Poudel, Dilli; Fareedy, Shoaib Bilal; Salman, Ahmed; Qureshi, Anam; Jehangir, Qasim; Alweis, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  4. Group D Salmonella Urinary Tract Infection in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary tra

  6. The Pathogenic Potential of Proteus mirabilis Is Enhanced by Other Uropathogens during Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Johnson, Alexandra O; DeOrnellas, Valerie; Eaton, Kathryn A; Yep, Alejandra; Mody, Lona; Wu, Weisheng; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-02-01

    Urinary catheter use is prevalent in health care settings, and polymicrobial colonization by urease-positive organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii, commonly occurs with long-term catheterization. We previously demonstrated that coinfection with P. mirabilis and P. stuartii increased overall urease activity in vitro and disease severity in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). In this study, we expanded these findings to a murine model of catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI), delineated the contribution of enhanced urease activity to coinfection pathogenesis, and screened for enhanced urease activity with other common CAUTI pathogens. In the UTI model, mice coinfected with the two species exhibited higher urine pH values, urolithiasis, bacteremia, and more pronounced tissue damage and inflammation compared to the findings for mice infected with a single species, despite having a similar bacterial burden within the urinary tract. The presence of P. stuartii, regardless of urease production by this organism, was sufficient to enhance P. mirabilis urease activity and increase disease severity, and enhanced urease activity was the predominant factor driving tissue damage and the dissemination of both organisms to the bloodstream during coinfection. These findings were largely recapitulated in the CAUTI model. Other uropathogens also enhanced P. mirabilis urease activity in vitro, including recent clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa We therefore conclude that the underlying mechanism of enhanced urease activity may represent a widespread target for limiting the detrimental consequences of polymicrobial catheter colonization, particularly by P. mirabilis and other urease-positive bacteria.

  7. Secondary or Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Associated With Urinary Tract Anomaly and Urinary Infection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Krishnappa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is a rare presentation, but may be due to aldosterone deficiency or end organ resistance to its action. There are few cases associating this condition with urinary tract infections or anatomic abnormalities that predispose to infection. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA due to its often atypical presentation. We describe ten month-old infant who presented with this condition and was found to have urinary tract infection complicating unilateral urinary tract anomaly, which may have strong association with renal tubular resistance to aldosterone.

  8. Urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern among diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, R

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a major health problem of today's world. Urinary tract infection is its common complication. A descriptive, cross sectional study was designed to know the prevalence of culture positive Urinary Tract Infection in diabetic patients, to know their common clinical features and to find out the proportion of asymptomatic bacteriuria, to know the causative organisms and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity. Mid stream urine sample was collected using full aseptic precaution. Among 100 patients included, 53 were female and 47 were male. In total, 21% of them had culture positive Urinary Tract Infection. Urinary Tract Infection was more in female (P = 0.047). Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found more common in female as compared to male. Common clinical features in symptomatic were burning micturation (90%), frequency of micturation (80%), suprapubic pain (60%), urgency (70%), loin pain (30%), and fever and vomiting (20%). Urinary Tract Infection was common among those who had prolong duration of diabetes (P = 0.039) and among those receiving insulin as compared to those under oral medications (P = 0.08). Escherichia-coli was most common organism followed by klebsiella, proteus and pseudomonas. Most of the urinary isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and ceftriaxone, where as resistance was high for ampicillin.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macejko, Amanda M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2007-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common complications of pregnancy; upper tract infections in particular may lead to significant morbidity for both the mother and fetus. Bacteriuria is a significant risk factor for developing pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Therefore, proper screening and treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy is necessary to prevent complications. All women should be screened for bacteriuria in the first trimester, and women with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections or anomalies should have repeat bacteriuria screening throughout pregnancy. Treatment of bacteriuria should include 3-day therapy with appropriate antimicrobials, and women should be followed closely after treatment because recurrence may occur in up to one third of patients.

  10. Preventing urinary tract infections in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gabrielle J; Craig, Jonathan C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, causes them considerable discomfort, as well as distress to parents and has a tendency to recur. Approximately 20% of those children who experience one infection will have a repeat episode. Since 1975, 11 trials of long-term antibiotics compared with placebo or no treatment in 1,550 children have been published. Results have been heterogeneous, but the largest trial demonstrated a small reduction (6% absolute risk reduction, risk ratio 0.65) in the risk of repeat symptomatic UTI over 12 months of treatment. This effect was consistent across sub groups of children based upon age, gender, vesicoureteric reflux status and number of prior infections. Trials involving re-implantation surgery (and antibiotics compared with antibiotics alone) for the sub-group of children with vesicoureteric reflux have not shown a reduction in repeat UTI, with the possible exception of a very small benefit for febrile UTI. Systematic reviews have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of repeat infection but 111 circumcisions would need to be performed to prevent one UTI in unpredisposed boys. Given the need for anaesthesia and the risk of surgical complication, net clinical benefit is probably restricted to those who are predisposed (such as those with recurrent infection). Many small trials in complementary therapies have been published and many suggest some benefit, however inclusion of children is limited. Only three trials involving 394 children for cranberry products, two trials with a total of 252 children for probiotics and one trial with 24 children for vitamin A are published. Estimates of efficacy vary widely and imprecision is evident. Multiple interventions to prevent UTI in children exist. Of those, long-term low dose antibiotics has the strongest evidence base, but the benefit is small. Circumcision in boys reduces the risk substantially, but should be restricted to those at risk. There is little evidence of benefit of

  11. Development of the lower urinary tract and its functional disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal development of lower urinary tract function control evolves from involuntary bladder empting (incontinence during infancy to daytime urinary continence, and finally a successful day and night continence that is generally achieved by the 5th to 7th year of age. This gradual process primarily depends on the progressive maturation of the neural control of the lower urinary tract, but it is also influenced by behavioral training that evolves through social support. Functional voiding disorders (bladder dysfunction are common problems during childhood. They are present in 5-15 % of general pediatric population, and in one-fifth of school-age children or in over one-third of patients of the pediatric urologist or nephrologist. More than half of children with bladder dysfunction have vesicoureteral reflux, and more than two-thirds have recurrent urinary tract infections. There is also a frequent association of bladder dysfunction with constipation and encopresis (dysfunctional elimination syndrome. Bladder dysfunction may cause a permanent damage to the upper urinary tract and kidneys. In addition, urinary incontinence, as the most common manifestation of bladder dysfunction can be the cause of major stress in schoolage children and have a negative effect on the child’s feeling of self-esteem. Thus, a timely detection and treatment of this group of disorders in children is highly significant.

  12. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  13. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Dennis J; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Li, Birong; Vanderbrink, Brian A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2012-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  14. Nature?s Weapon against Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEETHA R.V ANITHA ROY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common disease. Continued allopathic treatment with various antibiotics may cause side effects. It is also known that the bacteria causing infection can develop resistance to the existing antibiotics that have been prescribed, if the medication is used for a long time. These issues have led to a continuous exploration of different modes of treatment and alternate therapies. Herbs have a long history and proven to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections. This review article is about some commonly accepted herbs like Vaccinium macrocarpon [Cranberry], Hydrastis Canadensis [Goldenseal], Agathosma betulina [Buchu], Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [Bearberry], Echinaceae purpurea[Cone flower] and Equisetum arvense [Horse tail] that have been clinically proven for urinary tract infection cure as well as bladder infection treatment

  15. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Horvath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  16. PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN PREGNANT W OMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz,; Siddesh; Sirwar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequen tly seen medical complications in pregnancy. UTI in pregnancy is an important concern, as it possesses risk of complications such as acute and chronic pyelonephritis, toxaemia, anaemi a, hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation and increased perinatal mortality. The detection of bacteriuria allows an approach to be made for the prevention of chronic urinary dis ease in ...

  17. Management of daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aniruddh V; Craig, Jonathan C; Smith, Grahame H H; Caldwell, Patrina H Y

    2012-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly urgency, frequency and incontinence are common in school-aged children but are often overlooked. They may cause considerable physical, social and psychological difficulties to children and their families, and usually are manifestations of underlying non-neurogenic voiding disorders. The differential diagnoses include overactive bladder syndrome, dysfunctional voiding and vaginal reflux as well as less common conditions like giggle incontinence, voiding postponement, pollakiuria and diabetes insipidus. In this paper, we discuss an evidence-based approach to the management of conditions causing daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children from a general paediatrician's perspective.

  18. Pathophysiological aspects of ureterorenoscopic management of upper urinary tract calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J S; Pedersen, Katja V; Lildal, Søren K;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Indications for ureterorenoscopy are expanding without hard scientific evidence to support its efficacy. Therefore, it is extremely important to focus on potential harmful effects of the procedure itself. This review explores how physiology of the upper urinary tract reacts...... of the β-receptor agonist isoproterenol in the irrigation fluid has shown a potential for reducing both intrarenal pressure and ureteral tone during ureterorenoscopy. SUMMARY: Upper urinary tract physiology has unique features that may be pushed into pathophysiological processes by the unique elements...

  19. Two-picture urography in urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, S.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Suoranta, H.; Pyhtinen, J.

    1981-06-01

    Researchers analyzed separately from a urographic series 1 radiograph of the kidneys, ureters and bladder after releasing compression. The diagnosis was compared to that of the complete series in 230 consecutive urographic studies performed for recurrent urinary tract infections. The findings were in agreement in 88 per cent of the cases and no therapeutically significant change was overlooked owing to the decrease in the number of exposures. A urographic series with 2 films is described and recommended for the screening of recurrent urinary tract infections in young patients.

  20. Perfusion pressure flow study in the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Lin Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis with an undetermined pathology is a common condition detected in imaging studies. In urological clinical practice, it is a persistent dilemma to predict whether this condition will progress to result in the deterioration of renal function. Perfusion pressure flow study of the upper urinary tract, known as the Whitaker test, provides an alternative diagnostic tool for solving this condition. Perfusion pressure flow study has been criticized for its invasiveness, nonphysiological approach, and inconsistency in predicting outcomes. However, it continues to be used to evaluate difficult or equivocal cases and to provide an objective assessment of the upper urinary tract.

  1. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Jepson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs. This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. METHODS: Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies. Date of search: July 2012. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy. Risk ratios (RR were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta

  2. Effect of pravastatin and fosinopril on recurrent urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, K.B.; Visser, Sipke; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a problem affecting both women and men. Animal experiments and in vitro studies indicate that statins might prevent recurrent UTIs. We assessed the effects of pravastatin on UTI antibiotic prescribing among adults. METHODS: A post hoc analysi

  3. Surveillance for urinary tract cancer in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Myrhøj, Torben

    2013-01-01

    procedures are justifiable. The aim of this review was to elucidate the present knowledge from the literature on the risk of UTC in LS and highlight the pros and cons of screening for asymptomatic neoplasia in the urinary tract. The review is based on a systematic literature search in PubMed database...

  4. Lower urinary tract symptoms after total and subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Birthe Jakobsen

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Danish multicenter trial was to compare the proportion of women with lower urinary tract symptoms after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SAH) for benign uterine disorders. A total of 319 women were randomized to TAH (n = 158) or SAH (n = 161...... quality of life scores than continent women...

  5. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease – Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zohaib*, Zeeshan Taj, Awais-ur-Rehman Sial, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem and Muhammad Saqlein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the lower urinary tract disease (LUTD in four male cats with two different etiologies. All animals were under three years of age and on commercial dry diet. Treatment guidelines prescribed for obstructive and non-obstructive cases were followed. This appears to be the first clinical report on feline LUTD in Pakistan.

  6. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions...

  7. A novel case of Raoultella planticola urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D S; Asare, K; Lyons, M; Hofinger, D M

    2013-02-01

    Raoultella species are Gram-negative, non-motile bacilli primarily considered to be environmental bacteria (Bagley et al.; Curr Microbiol 6:105-109, 1981). R. planticola has rarely been documented as a cause of human infections and has never been reported to cause urinary tract infections. We report the first case of R. planticola cystitis.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ronald P.; Haith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance to antibiotics of "Escherichia coli" in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) in female college students. Participants: Symptomatic patients presenting to a student health service from September 2008 to December 2009. Methods: Clean catch midstream urine samples were tested for urinalysis (UA) and…

  9. Rare case of urinary tract infections and the "forgotten" solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Donkelaar, Celine S.; Wortel, Ruud C.; Lock, M. T W T

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of recurrent urinary tract infections in a kidney transplant patient. Analysis revealed a ureteral stump calculus 31 years after bilateral nephrectomy which was disintegrated by means of flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser. In case of unexplained recurrent urinar

  10. [How Does Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Affekt Female Sexuality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Rantell, A; Wiedemann, A

    2016-08-01

    With increasing age many women suffer from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and female sexual dysfunction. An increasing body of evidence supports an association between the 2 conditions. Especially women with urodynamically proved detrusor hyperactivity suffer from sexual dysfunction and there is some evidence that in patients with stress incontinence sexual health improves after successful surgery.

  11. Principles of diagnostic research applied to lower urinary tract symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonke, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis addresses the object and methods of diagnostic test evaluation, focussing on the diagnosis of men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). The first part of this thesis serves as an introduction to this ill-defined disease, describing its etiology, prevalence, and clinical characteristi

  12. Urinary Tract Infection Caused by a Capnophilic Proteus mirabilis Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.; Ingen, J. van; Keijman, J.; Swanink, C.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    From a urine sample from a patient with a urinary tract infection, a carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis strain was isolated. It is important to perform urine cultures in 5% carbon dioxide and an anaerobic atmosphere if bacteria prominent in Gram stains do not grow on routine media in ambient

  13. Comparative Genomics of Escherichia coli Strains Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The virulence determinants of uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been studied extensively over the years, but relatively little is known about what differentiates isolates causing various types of urinary tract infections. In this study, we compared the genomic profiles of 45 strains from a range...

  14. Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Garneau, P.; Bruant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) may come from meat and animals. The purpose was to investigate if a clonal link existed between E. coli from animals, meat and UTI patients. Twenty-two geographically and temporally matched B2 E. coli...

  15. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharm

  16. Improving antibiotic use for complicated urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Spoorenberg

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for antimicrobial treatment are important in the process of improving antibiotic use, because they describe appropriate antibiotic use. In this thesis, we demonstrated the value of appropriate antibiotic use (i.e. guideline adherence) in patients with a complicated urinary tract infection

  17. Urinary tract infections: children are not little adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K L

    1996-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed condition in pediatric practice caused by a wide variety of organisms and conditions. Presenting with multiple signs and symptoms, UTI is frequently unrecognized and has the potential to cause permanent renal damage if recurrent or untreated. Nurses have a unique opportunity to prevent this condition, assist in the diagnosis, and contribute to management.

  18. Research Concerning the Correlations Between Urinary Tract Infections and Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moréh Zsuzsanna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations of the urinary system are risk factors for the development of urinary tract infections (UTI. Besides the severity of the malformation, urinary infection is always associated with poor prognosis for these patients. Late discovery of the malformation background, after several urinary tract infection episodes, contributes to the development of chronic pyelonephritis that may lead to chronic renal failure.

  19. [Fistulas of the lower urinary tract in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegatti, Luca; Scarpa, Maria-Grazia; Goruppi, Ilaria; Olenik, Damiana; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2015-01-01

    A lower urinary tract fistula consist in an abnormal connection between bladder, urethra and adjacent abdominal organs or skin. There are several types of urinary fistulas in paediatric age and they may be congenital or acquired. Etiology may be due to embriological defects, infectious processes, malignant tumours, pelvic irradiation as well as complications following surgical procedures, especially postsurgical repair of hypospadia or epispadia. Clinical presentation depends on the type of fistula and diagnosis is based on signs, symptoms and radiological or endoscopic examinations. We performed PubMed research using terms such as lower urinary fistulae, urology and paediatrics and we consulted medical texts. We reviewed selected articles and used the relevant ones to perform our study concentrating on classification, diagnosis and treatment of different types of fistulas. Paediatric lower urinary fistulas are an uncommon pathology, but the knowledge of their etiology and classification is important to recognise them and lead the physician to an appropriate treatment, which is surgical in most cases.

  20. Trends in cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Jørgensen, Simon Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of cancers of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with particular focus on elderly patients over age 70 years. Design Cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary...

  1. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khameneh Zakieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%, Klebsiella (5.48%, Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available.

  3. Urinary β-HCG in Benign and Malignant Urinary Tract Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-B. Halim

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectable leve ls of HCG have been reported in conditions other th an normal pregnancy, including threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, carcinomas of the stomach, liver, pancreas and breast as well as multiple myeloma and melanoma. The present study was conducted to estimate urinary β-HCG in bladder cancer and benign urinary tract disorders. 163 individuals were included, 68 with bladder cancer (60 males and 8 females, 64 with benign urinary tract diseases (55 males and 9 females and 31 normal healthy controls (26 males and 5 females. Urinary β-HCG was estimated by the ELISA technique using the reagents supplied by DRG International Inc., Germany. Results of th e study revealed an overexpression of β-HCG in mali gnant and benign urinary tract diseases. 60.3% of the cancer patients and 29.7% of patients with benign diseases showed urinary β-HCG values above the upper limit of the control group (2mIU/ml .

  4. Urodynamic study in children with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impairment in the function of the lower urinary tract can be the cause of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI and vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR in children. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bladder instability in children with UTI.Methods: The research involved 133 children (11 boys, 122 girls, ranging in age from seven months to 14 years. Group A consisted of 78 children with a history of recurrent UTI, while Group B included 55 children with recurrent UTI and VUR. Urodynamic tests (cystometry were performed on all the children.Results: Abnormal functioning of the lower urinary tract was found in 98 children (73.1% from Group A and 41 children (78.8% from Group B. The most common dysfunction was detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD, which was found in 54% of all subjects, 46.2% of patients in Group A and 60% of patients in Group B (p<0.05. Unstable bladder was found in 42 (33% children with no significant difference between the two groups. In 17 children (12.6% DSD was accompanied by bladder instability. In both groups about 20% of the children did not present with symptoms indicative of urination dysfunction, where as 80% reported various symptoms, of which the most common were constipation and urinary urgency. In half of the children from Group A and one-fourth of the children from Group B there were several co-occurring symptoms: frequency, urgency, intermittent voiding, incontinence, dribbling and retention, and constipation.Conclusions: The most common disturbance of lower urinary tract function in these children with recurrent UTI was DSD, which occurred more often in children with VUR.

  5. Bacteruria and Urinary Tract Infections in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Keri; Mayers, Daniel; Fletcher, Sophie G

    2015-11-01

    Both urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) are common problems among elderly adults and represent a significant health care burden. Despite their frequency, differentiating between ASB and true UTI remains controversial among health care providers. Several challenges exist in the evaluation of urinary symptoms in the elderly patient. Symptoms of UTI are variable; problems are encountered in the collection, testing, and interpretation of urine specimens; and results of urinalysis are often misinterpreted and mishandled. Multiple studies have shown no morbidity or mortality benefit to antibiotic therapy in either community or long-term care facility residents with ASB.

  6. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from...... prior to hysterectomy, local estrogen treatment, and body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2). High BMI was primarily associated with mixed UI (MUI) and urgency symptoms. Predictors of bothersome LUTS were UI and incomplete bladder emptying. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the frequency of subjectively...

  7. Urinary Tract Effects of HPSE2 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Helen M.; Roberts, Neil A.; Hilton, Emma N.; McKenzie, Edward A.; Daly, Sarah B.; Hadfield, Kristen D.; Rahal, Jeffery S.; Gardiner, Natalie J.; Tanley, Simon W.; Lewis, Malcolm A.; Sites, Emily; Angle, Brad; Alves, Cláudia; Lourenço, Teresa; Rodrigues, Márcia; Calado, Angelina; Amado, Marta; Guerreiro, Nancy; Serras, Inês; Beetz, Christian; Varga, Rita-Eva; Silay, Mesrur Selcuk; Darlow, John M.; Dobson, Mark G.; Barton, David E.; Hunziker, Manuela; Puri, Prem; Feather, Sally A.; Goodship, Judith A.; Goodship, Timothy H.J.; Lambert, Heather J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Saggar, Anand; Kinali, Maria; Lorenz, Christian; Moeller, Kristina; Schaefer, Franz; Bayazit, Aysun K.; Weber, Stefanie; Newman, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is an autosomal recessive congenital disease featuring grimacing and incomplete bladder emptying. Mutations of HPSE2, encoding heparanase 2, a heparanase 1 inhibitor, occur in UFS, but knowledge about the HPSE2 mutation spectrum is limited. Here, seven UFS kindreds with HPSE2 mutations are presented, including one with deleted asparagine 254, suggesting a role for this amino acid, which is conserved in vertebrate orthologs. HPSE2 mutations were absent in 23 non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder probands and, of 439 families with nonsyndromic vesicoureteric reflux, only one carried a putative pathogenic HPSE2 variant. Homozygous Hpse2 mutant mouse bladders contained urine more often than did wild-type organs, phenocopying human UFS. Pelvic ganglia neural cell bodies contained heparanase 1, heparanase 2, and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains-2 (LRIG2), which is mutated in certain UFS families. In conclusion, heparanase 2 is an autonomic neural protein implicated in bladder emptying, but HPSE2 variants are uncommon in urinary diseases resembling UFS. PMID:25145936

  8. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  9. [Tumor of upper urinary tract in renal polycystic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, Redouane; el Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Querfani, Baderdine; Joual, Abdenbi; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Upper urinary tract tumours are exceptional in the context of renal polycystic disease. The authors report the case of Mrs B. F., 56 years old, who presented with left loin pain associated with haematuria. Clinical examination was normal and ultrasound examination revealed bilateral renal polycystic disease with a mass in the left renal sinus. CT urography showed a tumour arising from the renal pelvis suggestive of an upper urinary tract tumour. The laboratory assessment revealed normal renal function and normal urine cytology. Treatment consisted of radical nephroureterectomy with resection of a bladder cuff. Histological examination revealed a urothelial tumour of the renal pelvis with negative surgical margins. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the diagnostic difficulties and specificities, the treatment and the outcome of this unusual clinical association.

  10. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy - an updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Hanna; Jóźwik, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of infection during pregnancy, affecting up to 10% of pregnant women. They are also recognized as the second most common ailment of pregnancy, after anemia. Three clinical types of pregnancy-related UTI are distinguished: asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), cystitis, and pyelonephritis. A particular form of ASB is the presence of Group B streptococci in the urinary tract of the pregnant woman. All clinical types of UTI may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, unlike in the nonpregnant female patient, all UTIs during pregnancy, including the asymptomatic infection, require treatment. In some patients, antibiotic prophylaxis should also be introduced. In the present work, we collectively summarize current practical recommendations from a number of international bodies and organizations.

  11. International urinary tract imaging basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: An international working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed...... of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies (around 40), individual persons with specific expertise...... of comparable minimal data. RESULTS: The variables included in the International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic SCI Data Set are the results obtained using the following investigations: intravenous pyelography or computer tomography urogram or ultrasound, X-ray, renography, clearance, cystogram, voiding cystogram...

  12. Neuromodulation for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction – An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide an update on the use of neuromodulation using sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of disorders of the lower urinary tract. Neuromodulation using the InterStim® system (Medtronic Inc. is now accepted as an established therapeutic option for patients with detrusor overactivity, and for women with retention or severe voiding difficulties. However, the use of nerve stimulation in modulating lower urinary tract function has to be regarded as a technique that is in its infancy. Much has yet to be learned about the mechanism by which neuromodulation exerts its effects and there is a need to better define the clinical indications for the treatment. There is also work to be done in terms of optimising stimulation delivery, both in anatomical and electronic terms.

  13. Pheochromocytoma presenting as recurrent urinary tract infections : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEntee Gerard P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pheochromocytomas are rare, potentially fatal, neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal paraganglia. Their clinical presentation varies greatly from the classic triad of episodic headache, diaphoresis and tachycardia to include a spectrum of non-specific symptomatology. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to us from primary care services with a three-month history of recurrent urinary tract infections on a background of hypertension, latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood and autoimmune hypothyroidism. At 38 years she required insulin therapy. Despite medication compliance and dietary control, she reported a recent history of increased insulin requirements and uncontrolled hypertension with concomitant recurrent urinary tract infections. A renal ultrasound examination, to rule out underlying renal pathology, revealed an incidental 8cm right adrenal mass of both solid and cystic components. A subsequent computed tomography of her abdomen and pelvis confirmed a solid heterogeneous mass consistent with a pheochromocytoma. There were no other features suggestive of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Urinary collection over 24 hours revealed grossly elevated levels of catecholamines and metabolites. Following an open right adrenalectomy, our patient's insulin requirements were significantly reduced and her symptoms resolved. Two weeks post-operatively, an iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy was negative for residual tumor and metastatic disease. Urinary catecholamine and metabolite concentrations were within the normal range at a follow-up six months later. Conclusion Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-producing tumor requiring a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. Our case report serves to highlight the importance of considering pheochromocytoma as a differential diagnosis in the atypical setting of recurrent urinary tract infections and concomitant autoimmune

  14. Ejaculatory dysfunction in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; Nutt,Max; McVary, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    The link between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and sexual dysfunction is well established. Sexual dysfunction can encompass both ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Ejaculatory dysfunction can consist of premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, anejaculation, decreased force of ejaculation and pain upon ejaculation. The impact of different medical and surgical therapies on ejaculatory fun...

  15. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephrop...

  16. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Susan G.; Angela L. Witzel; Joseph W. Bartges; Tamberlyn S. Moyers; Claudia A. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was underta...

  17. Role of pelvic floor in lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermansky, Christopher J; Moalli, Pamela A

    2016-10-01

    The pelvic floor plays an integral part in lower urinary tract storage and evacuation. Normal urine storage necessitates that continence be maintained with normal urethral closure and urethral support. The endopelvic fascia of the anterior vaginal wall, its connections to the arcus tendineous fascia pelvis (ATFP), and the medial portion of the levator ani muscles must remain intact to provide normal urethral support. Thus, normal pelvic floor function is required for urine storage. Normal urine evacuation involves a series of coordinated events, the first of which involves complete relaxation of the external urethral sphincter and levator ani muscles. Acquired dysfunction of these muscles will initially result in sensory urgency and detrusor overactivity; however, with time the acquired voiding dysfunction can result in intermittent urine flow and incomplete bladder emptying, progressing to urinary retention in severe cases. This review will start with a discussion of normal pelvic floor anatomy and function. Next various injuries to the pelvic floor will be reviewed. The dysfunctional pelvic floor will be covered subsequently, with a focus on levator ani spasticity and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Finally, future research directions of the interaction between the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract function will be discussed.

  18. Reduction of Urinary Tract Infections Caused By Urethral Catheter through the Implementation of Hydrophobic Coating and Geometrical Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Aya

    2013-11-01

    Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the U.S. healthcare system. The obstruction of urine caused by confined air bubbles result in the development of urinary back-flow and stagnation, wherein microbial pathogens could multiply rapidly and colonization within catheters become commonplace. Infections can be prevented by aseptic insertion and the maintenance of a closed drainage system, keeping high infection control standards, and preventing back-flow from the catheter bag. The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a simple, low cost, modification that may be implemented into current catheter designs to reduce the incidence of CAUTI. Using the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure and the Young-Laplace equation for capillary pressure difference, this research focuses on improving the liquid flow in the presence of confined bubbles to prevent stagnation and reflux of bacteria-ridden urine into the body. Preliminary experiments are performed on a variety of tubes with hydrophobic-coating the interior, as well as geometrically modifying the tubes. Proof-of-Concept Prototype tubes are used to represent the drainage system of the catheter structure.

  19. Labial fusion causing urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection in a postmenopausal female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirim, Ayhan; Hasirci, Eray

    2011-01-01

    A 73-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted with recurrent urinary tract infection and a history of incontinence. General physical examination was normal. Complete labial fusion was noticed on genital examination. Surgical intervention was performed. This therapy alleviated incontinence and recurrent urinary tract infection.

  20. Role of urinary cathelicidin LL-37 and human β-defensin 1 in uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs...

  1. The DMSA scan in paediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditchfield, M.R.; Nadel, H.R. [British Columbia`s Children`s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the use of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in urinary tract infection at British Columbia`s Children`s Hospital to determine the frequency of cortical defects and the association between vesico-ureteric reflux and the presence of cortical defects in children with urinary tract infection. A total of 129 consecutive children with a urinary tract infection referred for a DMSA scan in a 2-year period (January 1992-January 1994) were retrospectively studied. The results were analysed in terms of kidneys, and the incidence of cortical defects was determined. Eighty-eight patients (68%) had a radiographic micturating cysto-urethrogram within 6 months of the DMSA scan, and in this group the relationship of defects with vesico-ureteric reflux was determined. Overall, 81/258 (31%) of kidneys had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. Of those who had a micturating cysto-urethrogram, 53/176 (30%) kidneys had vesico-ureteric reflux, and of those that had reflux, 21/53 (40%) had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. In the group of children without reflux, 38/123 (31%) had a cortical defect. Renal cortical scan defects are common findings in paediatric urinary infection, and frequently occur in the absence of vesico-ureteric reflux. These defects represent either established scars or acute pyelonephritis that can proceed to scarring. The micturating cysto-urethro-gram alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identify those kidneys at risk of renal scarring. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Lower Levels of Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Might Predict Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in urinary nerve growth factor (uNGF) levels after acute urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the role of uNGF in predicting UTI recurrence in women. Methods: Women with uncomplicated, symptomatic UTIs were enrolled. Cephalexin 500 mg (every 6 hours) was administered for 7–14 days to treat acute UTIs. Subsequently, the patients were randomized to receive either sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 800 mg/160 mg daily at bedtime, or celecoxib 200 mg daily fo...

  3. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  4. The role of imaging in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Truls E Bjerklund

    2004-11-01

    The aim of imaging in urinary tract infections (UTI) is to detect conditions that must be corrected to avoid imminent deterioration of kidney function, or to prevent recurrent infections and long-term kidney damage. The most threatening conditions are obstruction of an infected upper tract and abscesses of the genitourinary system. An image-guided percutaneous drainage can be lifesaving. The role of imaging in small children with UTI is controversial in terms of the importance of anatomical and functional disorders in relation to the preventive measures to be taken. In newborns identified with hydronephrosis during pregnancy or by neonatal screening, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scarring are congenital and not caused by infection. Most of these patients are males and the VUR is of a higher grade than VUR detected in girls after the first UTI. Imaging in children with UTI should only be ordered after a thorough evaluation of the risk of renal damage and the benefits of preventive measures. In adult females, no imaging is necessary in cystitis, while ultrasonography and plain films are recommended in acute pyelonephritis. Since uncomplicated UTI in men is rare, diagnostic imaging should be started early to rule out complicating factors in the urinary tract. In prostatitis, vesiculitis, epididymitis and orchitis the role of imaging is to rule out abscess formation and testicular malignancies.

  5. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Jr. Ubirajara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the prevalence of vesicourethral dysfunction in children over 3 years old, comparing it with the occurrence rate for other potential factors that cause urinary infection in this age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 girls and 9 boys were assessed, with mean age of 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 13.9 years. These children were prospectively assessed regarding the presence of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. These data were compared with the retrospective assessment of other potential risk factors for urinary infection. Ultrasonography was performed in 28 children and voiding cystourethrogram was performed in 26 patients. RESULTS: Vesicourethral dysfunction was diagnosed in 39 (87% of the 45 children with urinary infection. Among these 39 patients, all had voiding urgency, 30 (77% had urinary incontinence, 12 (31% pollakiuria and 3 (8% presented infrequent voiding. Vaginal discharge was evidenced in 8 (22% girls and phimosis in 2 (22% boys. Obstipation was diagnosed in 10 (22% cases. Significant post-voiding residue was detected in 4 (13% of the 28 cases assessed. Vesicoureteral reflux was evidenced in 5 (19% of the 26 patients who underwent voiding cystourethrogram. In only 2 (4% cases there was not an apparent cause for the infection. CONCLUSION: Vesicourethral dysfunction is a major cause of urinary infection in children with ages above 3 years old. In cases where voiding dysfunction in not present, other predisposing factors must be assessed. However, only 4% of the patients did not present an apparent urologic cause for the infection.

  6. Contribution of siderophore systems to growth and urinary tract colonization of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watts, Rebecca E; Totsika, Makrina; Challinor, Victoria L;

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that define asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) Escherichia coli colonization of the human urinary tract remain to be properly elucidated. Here, we utilize ABU E. coli strain 83972 as a model to dissect the contribution of siderophores to iron acquisition, growth, fitness, and...... receptor mutant was outcompeted by 83972 in human urine and the mouse urinary tract, indicating a role for catecholate receptors in urinary tract colonization....

  7. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Urinary Tract Successfully Managed with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha Ahsaini; Omar Riyach; Mohammed Fadl Tazi; Mohammed Jamal El Fassi; My Hassan Farih; Hind Elfatmi; Afaf Amarti

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary tract is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary tract (SCC-UT) is the association between bladder and urinary upper tract-small cell carcinoma (UUT-SCC). It characterized by an aggressive clinical course. The prognosis is poor due to local or distant metastases, and usually the muscle of the bladder is invaded. Case Presentation. We...

  8. Concurrent upper and lower urinary tract robotic surgery: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Pisipati, Sailaja; Bach, Christian; Daneshwar, Datesh; Rowe, Edward W.; Koupparis, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) continues to develop as a platform in urological surgery. Synchronous upper and lower urinary tract tumours requiring extirpative surgery are not uncommon. We report the first case robotic series of combined complex upper and lower urinary tract surgery. Six high-risk anaesthetic patients with a median age of 71 years and apparent synchronous upper and lower urinary tract pathologies underwent concurrent robotic surgery. Five underwent ro...

  9. The role of oxidative stress in pediatric urinary tract infections: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Delshad; Azita Fesharakinia; Samaneh Eghbal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) that can affect any part of the urinary tract and may subsequently lead to kidney infection is linked with variety of causative factors such as oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literatures to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on UTI. Method: PubMed and Google scholar were searched systematically using the key terms, “oxidative stress” and “urinary tract infection” in the title, keywords, and abstract on F...

  10. Nosocomial urinary tract infections and resistance profile to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Naz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors, laboratuary results, distrubition of pathogens and sensitivity to antibiotics in patients with hospital acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI. 161 HAUTI patients were diagnosed. The most common predisposing factors were identified as long term hospitalization, urinary catheterization, hospitalization at intensive care unit and neurologic diseases. The most commom pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 33 (29.5 %, Pseudomonas spp. 32 (28.6 % and Klebsiella spp. 12 (10.7 %. The lowest rates of resistance in E.coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. were observed to amikacin (respectively 3 %, 9 %, 8 %, to imipenem (9 %, 41 %, 8 %, to piperacilin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ (24 %, 47 %, 17 % and to ciprofloxasin (52 %, 69 %, 25 %. Mortality was detected in 31(19% of 161 patients diagnosed with HAUTI. As a result, high rate resistance was found in bacterial microorganism, especially in Pseudomonas spp.

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V

    2000-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.

  12. Evaluation of the association between Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures and catheter-associated infections: results of two national collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Reichert, Heidi; Greene, M Todd; Safdar, Nasia; Krein, Sarah L; Olmsted, Russell N; Watson, Sam R; Edson, Barbara; Albert Lesher, Mariana; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has funded national collaboratives using the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program to reduce rates of two catheter-associated infections—central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), using evidence-based intervention bundles to improve technical aspects of care and socioadaptive approaches to foster a culture of safety. Objective Examine the association between hospital units' results for the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) and catheter-associated infection rates. Methods We analysed data from two prospective cohort studies from acute-care intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs participating in the AHRQ CLABSI and CAUTI collaboratives. National Healthcare Safety Network catheter-associated infections per 1000 catheter-days were collected at baseline and quarterly postimplementation. The HSOPS was collected at baseline and again 1 year later. Infection rates were modelled using multilevel negative binomial models as a function of HSOPS components over time, adjusted for hospital-level characteristics. Results 1821 units from 1079 hospitals (CLABSI) and 1576 units from 949 hospitals (CAUTI) were included. Among responding units, infection rates declined over the project periods (by 47% for CLABSI, by 23% for CAUTI, unadjusted). No significant associations were found between CLABSI or CAUTI rates and HSOPS measures at baseline or over time. Conclusions We found no association between results of the HSOPS and catheter-associated infection rates when measured at baseline and postintervention in two successful large national collaboratives focused on prevention of CLABSI and CAUTI. These results suggest that it may be possible to improve CLABSI and CAUTI rates without making significant changes in safety culture, particularly as measured by instruments like HSOPS. PMID:27222593

  13. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.

  14. Kidney imaging in management of delayed febrile urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Abolhassan Sayedzadeh; Majid Malaki; Maryam Shoaran; Massood Nemati

    2011-01-01

    We report a cross-sectional study performed to evaluate the imaging findings of 40 children, aged one month to five years (16.65 ± 14.97 months), who presented with protracted fever of more than 48 hours due to urinary tract infection (UTI). About 85% of the patients had positive Tc99-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan and 58% had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Kidney sonography aided in the diagnosis and treatment in 10% of the patients. Age, sex, presence or laterality of VUR did not contrib...

  15. Recurrence Prevention in Patients with Urinary Tract Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Göran Tiselius

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of urinary tract concrements is a common disease and steps should be taken in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to give the patients appropriate advice and medical treatment. This present article summarizes the principles for recurrence preventive measures in patients with uric acid, infection, cystine and calcium stone disease. Categories of stone formers are identified with the aim of providing a basis for an individualised treatment with a reasonable patient's compliance. The recommendations are in line with those given by the EAU guideline group for urolithiasis.

  16. [Update on current care guidelines: urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorela, Maarit; Kouri, Timo; Laato, Matti; Lipponen, Pertti; Sammalkorpi, Kari; Uhari, Matti; Uusitalo, Leena; Vuento, Risto

    2011-01-01

    This guideline is focused on the diagnostics and treatment of acute, recurrent and relapsing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Sexually transmitted diseases are not addressed, but must be considered in differential diagnostics. The resistance prevalence of the causative microbes and the ecological adverse effects of antimicrobial agents were considered important factors in selecting optimal therapeutic choices for the guideline. Diagnosis and management of cystitis in otherwise healthy women aged 18-65 years can be based on structured telephone interviews. Primary antimicrobiotic drugs are nitrofurantoin, pivmesillinam and trimetoprim for three days.

  17. [Urinary tract infections. Therapeutic failures and course monitoring (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, M A

    1979-10-19

    The proportion of reinfections and relapses in urinary tract infections amounts to about 35-70%. Hydrokinetic conditions (e.g. size of bladder, frequency of micturition, rate of multiplication of the pathogens, adhesiveness of bacteria) not seldom lead to a discrepancy between the in vivo response of the pathogen to the chemotherapeutic agent and the corresponding MIC determined in vitro. Ten causes for the therapeutic failure are discussed in greater detail. Monitoring the course in good time with due regard to the risks is essential. A scheme for microbiological monitoring investigations before beginning therapy, during treatment and after discontinuing the medicament, as well as for long term therapy is suggested.

  18. Intractable urinary tract infection in a renal transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Renuka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are the most common bacterial infections after renal transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or relapsing infections are not uncommon in the early post-transplant period and superadded fungal UTI can occur in these patients, posing a difficult therapeutic problem. Literature on recurrent UTI after transplant as well as the ideal approach to such patients is scanty. We present the case of a renal al-lograft recipient who presented with relapsing bacterial UTI complicated by systemic fungemia; also, a brief review of fungal UTI is attempted.

  19. Current Treatment Strategies for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Zor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections among all age groups. Three UTI episodes with positive culture results in a one year period are called recurrent UTIs. Recurrent UTIs are common health problems threatening physical and mental health of the individuals in all age groups. Unconscious antibiotic usages lead multi-antibiotic resistant agents. In a multidisciplinary manner the patient must be evaluated if he/she has a genetic, physiological or anatomical disorder. Several current approaches such herbal products and vaccines are increasingly used to avoid antibiotic overuse [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 161-168

  20. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  1. Enterobius vermicularis in the male urinary tract: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariou Athanasios

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode of humans. Adults usually have low worm burdens and are asymptomatic. Ectopic infections in the pelvic area or urinary tract rarely occur in women. We report a case of the patient with mild voiding difficulties such as urgency, frequency, nocturia, dysuria, mild low back pain or perineal discomfort. The patient's prostatic secretions showed a large number of inflammatory cells and several eggs. The size and the shape of the eggs identified them as a group of E. vermicularis. On examination we found a soft palpable material which was 5 mm diameter in size and spherical shape. Palpation gave the impression of a tissue than a stone. An incision was performed and a 4 mm long living worm was found. The microscopic examination identified the worm as E- vermicularis. It is an extremely rare manifestation of enterobius vermicularis infection since an intestinal-breeding worm is rarely found in the male genital tract.

  2. [Levamisol in the treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, A M; Remedi, R F; Granero, M; Brarda, O

    1979-01-01

    Levamisole, a widely used antihelminthic drug, possesses immunotropic properties. It has been proved that children with recurrent infections of the respiratory tract who were given the drug, were capable of preventing the repetition of the infections. Twenty-seven (27) children with recurrent urinary tract infections without structural malformations were studied and in all of them, a diminished cellular immunity was detected (blastic transformation of lymphocytes, rosettes of T lymphocytes and the skin tests). The drug was administered in doses of 2.5 mg/k/day, twice a week, for eight months. During the period of study, in 21 children repetition of the infections were not detected and in 13, a significant improvement of the cellular immunity was achieved. In some children it was possible to prove a rise of the IgA secretary in the urine.

  3. The Assessment of Urinary Metabolites in Children with Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Nain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the association between urinary tract infection (UTI and urinary metabolites. Material and Method: Eighty children aged below 14 years old who were following for recurrent UTI were enrolled into the study. Urinary calcium (Uca, oxalate (Uox, citrate (Ucit and cysteine (Ucis levels were studied in 24 hours urine samples. Hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia were identified according to the reference values. The positivity of sodium nitroprussid test was accepted as cystinuria. The results were compared between patients and control groups involving thirty children. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of renal scarring (RS on radionuclide scan. The similar comparisons were made between the subgroups. Results: There was no significant difference between the ratios of hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria in patient and control groups (p> 0.05. Uox/Ucr levels were significantly increased in patients compared to controls (p= 0.001 whereas Uca/Ucr and Ucit/Ucr levels were similar among study groups (p= 0. 082 and p= 0.466. There was no significant difference between RS (- and RS ( groups for hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria (p> 0.05. Discussion: The increase in urinary excretion of oxalate might be a risk factor for UTI. There was no evidence regarding that urinary metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria have affected the development of RS in the setting of UTI.

  4. Multi-detector CT in the paediatric urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damasio, M.B., E-mail: mariabdamasio@ospedale-gaslini.ge.it [Paediatric Radiology, Giannina Gaslini Institute, Genoa (Italy); Darge, K. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (United States); Riccabona, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Paediatric Radiology, University Hospital Graz (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The use of paediatric multi-slice CT (MSCT) is rapidly increasing worldwide. As technology advances its application in paediatric care is constantly expanding with an increasing need for radiation dose control and appropriate utilization. Recommendations on how and when to use CT for assessment of the paediatric urinary tract appear to be an important issue. Therefore the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) uroradiology task force and European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) paediatric working groups created a proposal for performing renal CT in children that has recently been published. The objective of this paper is to discuss paediatric urinary tract CT (uro-CT) in more detail and depth. The specific aim is not only to offer general recommendations on clinical indications and optimization processes of paediatric CT examination, but also to address various childhood characteristics and phenomena that facilitate understanding the different approach and use of uro-CT in children compared to adults. According to ALARA principles, paediatric uro-CT should only be considered for selected indications provided high-level comprehensive US is not conclusive and alternative non-ionizing techniques such as MR are not available or appropriate. Optimization of paediatric uro-CT protocols (considering lower age-adapted kV and mAs) is mandatory, and the number of phases and acquisition series should be kept as few as possible.

  5. Measuring Escherichia coli Gene Expression during Human Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) evolved by acquisition of pathogenicity islands, phage, plasmids, and DNA segments by horizontal gene transfer. Strains are heterogeneous but virulent uropathogenic isolates more often have specific fimbriae, toxins, and iron receptors than commensal strains. One may ask whether it is the virulence factors alone that are required to establish infection. While these virulence factors clearly contribute strongly to pathogenesis, bacteria must survive by metabolizing nutrients available to them. By constructing mutants in all major metabolic pathways and co-challenging mice transurethrally with each mutant and the wild type strain, we identified which major metabolic pathways are required to infect the urinary tract. We must also ask what else is E. coli doing in vivo? To answer this question, we examined the transcriptome of E. coli CFT073 in the murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as for E. coli strains collected and analyzed directly from the urine of patients attending either a urology clinic or a university health clinic for symptoms of UTI. Using microarrays and RNA-seq, we measured in vivo gene expression for these uropathogenic E. coli strains, identifying genes upregulated during murine and human UTI. Our findings allow us to propose a new definition of bacterial virulence. PMID:26784237

  6. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  7. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minardi D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Minardi, Gianluca d'Anzeo, Daniele Cantoro, Alessandro Conti, Giovanni MuzzonigroDepartment of Clinical and Specialist Sciences, Urology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Medical School and United Hospitals, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI are common among the female population. It has been calculated that about one-third of adult women have experienced an episode of symptomatic cystitis at least once. It is also common for these episodes to recur. If predisposing factors are not identified and removed, UTI can lead to more serious consequences, in particular kidney damage and renal failure. The aim of this review was to analyze the factors more commonly correlated with UTI in women, and to see what possible solutions are currently used in general practice and specialized areas, as well as those still under investigation. A good understanding of the possible pathogenic factors contributing to the development of UTI and its recurrence will help the general practitioner to interview the patient, search for causes that would otherwise remain undiscovered, and to identify the correct therapeutic strategy.Keywords: urinary tract infection, women, etiology, diagnosis, treatment

  8. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this study were primarily to investigate the prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in a clinical sample of stroke patients and secondly to identify factors associated with LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, hos......AIMS: The aims of this study were primarily to investigate the prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in a clinical sample of stroke patients and secondly to identify factors associated with LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross......-sectional, hospital based survey whereby stroke patients were invited by letter to complete The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire at least 1 month following their stroke. Subjects were asked to report the frequency and severity of their symptoms (symptom score) and the impact of each symptom...... on their daily life (bother score) over the previous fortnight. Of 519 stroke patients invited, 482 subjects were eligible. RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. The period prevalence of at least one symptom was 94%; the most frequent symptom was nocturia (76%) followed by urgency (70%) and daytime frequency (59...

  9. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70-2.34, p urinary tract stones (both p-values urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76-2.26, p urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones.

  10. PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN PREGNANT W OMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequen tly seen medical complications in pregnancy. UTI in pregnancy is an important concern, as it possesses risk of complications such as acute and chronic pyelonephritis, toxaemia, anaemi a, hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation and increased perinatal mortality. The detection of bacteriuria allows an approach to be made for the prevention of chronic urinary dis ease in the community and to avoid complications in pregnancy at an early stage. OBJECTIVES: (1 To study the prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infection among pregnant women; (2 To evaluate the sensitivity of the screening test with culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 500 samples were investigated from pregnant women aged be tween 18 to 35 years, with varying gravida and from all three trimesters were included in a period of one year i.e., from January to December 2011. The samples were collected asepticall y from women attending the antenatal clinic at the Khaja Banda Nawaz Hospital, Gulbarga. Urine was collected in the sterile urine container. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinat ion was done. Screening tests like Griess Nitrite test and TTC tests were done. Cultu re was done by standard loop technique. RESULTS : The prevalence rate of UTI in pregnancy was 10.40% i.e., with significant bacteriuria (1,00,000 or more bacterial count/ ml of urine by Kass concept. The incidence of bacteriuria increased along with age and rising parity. Inciden ce was similar during all three trimesters. Gram’s staining, TTC and Griess nitrite gave 88.46% , 73.07% and 57.69% respectively correlate with culture positive bacteriurics. CONCLUSIONS : UTI, the most commonly seen complications in pregnancy was 10.4%. Early treatment of bacteriu ria not only averts the occurrence of other complications, but also diminishes the risk of premat ure and perinatal mortality

  11. URINARY-TRACT INJURIES IN MULTIPLY-INJURED PATIENTS - A RATIONAL GUIDELINE FOR THE INITIAL ASSESSMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERKMAN, HA; JANSEN, C; KLEIN, JP; TENDUIS, HJ

    1991-01-01

    In a retrospective study involving 866 multiply-injured patients we demonstrated urinary tract injuries in 72 patients (8.3 per cent), 17 (2 per cent) of which were serious. Haematuria was a frequent finding in multiply-injured patients. In patients with serious lesions of the urinary tract, more th

  12. Upper urinary tract stone disease: the changing management in a district general hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Goble, N M; Hammonds, J C; Wells, I P

    1987-01-01

    The advent of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) and ureteroscopy, in combination with stone disruption techniques, has dramatically altered the management of upper urinary tract stone disease. These advances are not necessarily confined to the teaching centres. The problems encountered introducing these techniques in a District General Hospital and their impact on the surgical management of upper urinary tract stones is presented.

  13. Urinary tract infections in special populations: diabetes, renal transplant, HIV infection, and spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-03-01

    Some populations have unique considerations relevant to complicated urinary tract infection. For patients with diabetes, renal transplant, HIV infection, and spinal cord injuries, approaches to management, including diagnosis and treatment, are generally similar to other patients with complicated urinary tract infection. In addition, there is no evidence that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria leads to improved outcomes.

  14. Androgen deficiency and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Darenkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the existing literature on late onset hypogonadism deficiency and its relationship with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Aspects of modern therapy and its effectiveness were considered. The possibility testosterone drugs use for men with late onset hypogonadism and lower urinary tract symptoms was analyzed. Evaluated the safety and efficacy of hormone replacement therapy.

  15. 77 FR 11133 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the clinical development of drugs for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Specifically, this guidance addresses FDA's current......

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in women : focus on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence for clinical guidelines on diagnosis and management of both asymptomatic bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of an infection) and urinary tract infections in women with diabetes and pregnant women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment and the development of urinary tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Koen; Visser, Sipke; Bos, Jens; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) can reduce the urine output, especially when treatment is started. Since bacterial clearance from the urinary tract is dependent on the urine output, it was hypothesized that ACEi may also increase the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs

  18. The Prevention and Management of Urinary Tract Infection among People with Spinal Cord Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIDRR Consensus Statement, 1992

    1992-01-01

    A 1992 Urinary Tract Infection Consensus Validation Conference brought together researchers, clinicians, and consumers to arrive at consensus on the best practices for preventing and treating urinary tract infections (UBI) in people with spinal cord injuries; the risk factors and diagnostic studies that should be done; indications for antibiotic…

  19. Characteristics of Escherichia coli causing persistence or relapse of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Karen; Stegger, Marc; Reisner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) pose a major problem but little is known about characteristics of Escherichia coli associated with RUTI. This study includes E. coli from 155 women with community-acquired lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) randomized to one of three dosing regiments...

  20. Plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in children with urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Andersen, Jesper Brandt; Hansen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection.......In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection....

  1. Prevalence and psychosocial impact of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, H.A.R.; Messelink, B.J.; Heijnen, L.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) frequently report lower urinary tract symptoms at the outpatient rehabilitation clinic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in the Dutch male DMD population and their effect on quality of life. A po

  2. Prevalence and psychosocial impact of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Evaline; Messelink, Bert J.; Heijnen, Lily; de Groot, Imelda J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) frequently report lower urinary tract symptoms at the outpatient rehabilitation clinic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in the Dutch male DMD population and their effect on quality of life. A po

  3. OPEN, RANDOMIZED COMPARISON OF PEFLOXACIN AND CEFOTAXIME IN THE TREATMENT OF COMPLICATED URINARY-TRACT INFECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, C; HOEPELMAN, [No Value; DEHOND, J; SCHREINEMACHERS, L; MENSINK, H; VERHOEF, J

    1992-01-01

    In an open, randomized study, the effect of pefloxacin (400 mg b.i.d.) was compared with that of cefotaxime (1 g t.i.d.) in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. In total 87 patients entered the study under the clinical diagnosis of complicated urinary tract infection, of whom 49 we

  4. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:26828523

  5. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Lüthje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  6. Nontyphoidal salmonella urinary tract infection in a case of hyperparathyroidism and nephrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-P; Shi, Z-Y; Chen, C-H; Chen, W-M; Lin, Y-H; Tsai, C-A; Lin, S-P; Huang, S-R; Liu, P-Y

    2014-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections often present with self-limited gastroenteritis. Extraintestinal focal infections are uncommon but have high mortality and morbidity. Urinary tract infection caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella is usually associated with structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis are the major risk factors. Although primary hyperparathyroidism has been reported to increase the risk of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, little is known about the association between hyperparathyroidism and Salmonella urinary tract infection. We report the case of a 37-year old man who had a history of primary hyperparathyroidism and bilateral nephrocalcinosis and who developed urinary tract infection. Salmonella Group D was isolated from his urine specimen. Salmonella should be considered as a possible causality organism in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and nephrocalcinosis who develop urinary tract infection. These patients need to be aware of the potential risks associated with salmonellosis.

  7. Effect of craniosacral therapy on lower urinary tract signs and symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Gil; Shefi, Shai; Nizani, Dalia; Achiron, Anat

    2009-05-01

    To examine whether craniosacral therapy improves lower urinary tract symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A prospective cohort study. Out-patient clinic of multiple sclerosis center in a referral medical center. Hands on craniosacral therapy (CST). Change in lower urinary tract symptoms, post voiding residual volume and quality of life. Patients from our multiple sclerosis clinic were assessed before and after craniosacral therapy. Evaluation included neurological examination, disability status determination, ultrasonographic post voiding residual volume estimation and questionnaires regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Twenty eight patients met eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Comparison of post voiding residual volume, lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life before and after craniosacral therapy revealed a significant improvement (0.001>p>0.0001). CST was found to be an effective means for treating lower urinary tract symptoms and improving quality of life in MS patients.

  8. [Ciprofloxacin and therapy of urinary tract infections, including those due to Staphylococcus saprophyticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, D V; Budanov, S V

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is one of the main pathogens of cystitis in young women. The human biotopes are contaminated by the staphylococcus on direct contacts with domestic animals or after using not properly cooked food of animal origin. Young women are more susceptible to colonization of the urinary tract by S. saprophyticus vs. the other contingents. Sexual intercourse is conducive to the colonization and infection. Shifts in the urinary tract microflora due to the use of spermicide, as well as candidiasis promote colonization of the urinary tract by S. saprophyticus. At present fluoroquinolones are considered as a significant independent group of chemotherapeutics within the class of quinolones, inhibitors of DNA gyrase, characterized by high clinical efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Especially significant clinical experience with ciprofloxacin in the therapy of urinary tract infections is available.

  9. The risk factors of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants with normal urinary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Seung Joo

    2009-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) frequently recurs and increases the risk of renal scarring even in infants with normal urinary tracts. Our study was aimed to find preventive measures for recurrent UTI in these infants. One-hundred ninety infants, who were diagnosed with their first febrile UTI and were proven to have normal urinary systems, were enrolled. We investigated the incidence of recurrent UTI during the following year and the following risk factors: gender, young age, phimosis, vaginal reflux, and acute pyelonephritis (APN) diagnosed by 99m-technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA)(+) scintigraphy. The incidence of recurrent UTI was 21.1%. The difference in recurrence rate according to gender was not significant. The recurrence rate in infants less than 6 months of age was 25.8%, which was significantly higher than the 7.7% in older infants (P = 0.045). In male infants with persistent non-retractile prepuces, recurrent UTI developed in 34.0%, which was significantly higher than the 17.6% in male infants with retractile prepuces (P = 0.022). The presence of APN in male infants increased the likelihood of recurrent UTI when analyzed by multivariate logistic regression [odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-13.0, P = 0.003]. The presence of vaginal reflux and APN in female infants gave no significant difference to the incidence of recurrent UTI. In infants with normal urinary systems, age less than 6 months, non-retractile prepuces and APN in male infants, were the most important risk factors for recurrent UTIs. It is suggested that non-retractile prepuces should be adequately treated to become retractile in young male infants with APN.

  10. Importance of Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections: New Therapeutic Approaches

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    Sara M. Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms play an important role in urinary tract infections (UTIs, being responsible for persistence infections causing relapses and acute prostatitis. Bacterial forming biofilm are difficult to eradicate due to the antimicrobial resistant phenotype that this structure confers being combined therapy recommended for the treatment of biofilm-associated infections. However, the presence of persistent cells showing reduced metabolism that leads to higher levels of antimicrobial resistance makes the search for new therapeutic tools necessary. Here, a review of these new therapeutic approaches is provided including catheters coated with hydrogels or antibiotics, nanoparticles, iontophoresis, biofilm enzyme inhibitors, liposomes, bacterial interference, bacteriophages, quorum sensing inhibitors, low-energy surface acoustic waves, and antiadhesion agents. In conclusion, new antimicrobial drugs that inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation are needed.

  11. Antibiotic resistant urinary tract infections in an urology ward

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    A. Rădulescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: UTI (urinary tract infections represent a central pathology for a urological service. Antibiotic resistance is growing at a steady and alarming rate worldwide and especially in Romania. Method and materials: We have analyzed all the patients that were admitted to our clinic for continuous hospitalization between January 2015 and October 2015. All patients undergone urine culture and all cultures positive had an antibiogram worked up. We have selected all patients that had antibiotic resistance to at least an antibiotic. Results: From 1745 patients admitted for continuous hospitalization, we had 180 positive urine cultures at admission from which 125 had at least an antibiotic resistance. Conclusions: Antibiotic resistance is a serious phenomenon, with potential lethal complications, which we encounter daily in urological practice.

  12. Imaging of urinary tract lithiasis: who, when and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Although infection remains a major aetiological factor in stone formation, especially in boys, there is increasing recognition of the numbers of children affected by a metabolic predisposition to stone formation and this proportion appears to be increasing, and hence every child who presents with urolithiasis should undergo a metabolic work-up. In a study performed in the UK, 44% of children had a metabolic abnormality, 30% were classified as infective, and 26% idiopathic. A study from Texas found a similar pattern. Coexisting urinary tract infection can of course mask underlying metabolic causes. The rate of stone recurrence is lower in children compared to adults and the majority of stone disease is now managed, as in adults, by lithotripsy or endourological techniques; open surgery has decreased dramatically. (orig.)

  13. Update on childhood urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lorraine E; Mattoo, Tej K

    2009-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a leading cause of serious bacterial infection in young children. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), a common pediatric urologic disorder, is believed to predispose to UTI, and both are associated with renal scarring. The complex interaction of bacterial virulence factors and host defense mechanisms influence renal damage. However, some renal parenchymal abnormalities associated with VUR are noninfectious in origin. Long-term, renal parenchymal injury may be associated with hypertension, pregnancy complications, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Optimal management of VUR and UTI is controversial because of the paucity of appropriate randomized controlled trials; there is a need for well-designed studies. The recently launched Randomized Intervention for children with VesicoUreteral Reflux (RIVUR) study hopefully will provide insight into the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis of UTI in children with VUR.

  14. [The current diagnosis of tumors of the upper urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltirov, I; Terziev, T; Genadiev, Ts

    1997-01-01

    The treatment results and survivorship of patients with upper urinary tract tumors (UUTT) are largely dependent on the early diagnosis of the lesions. Twenty-eight patients presenting UUTT are studied and treated in the Clinic of Urology over the period 1987 through 1995. The diagnostic protocol includes both standard radiographic and cytological techniques, and endoscopic methods allowing for visualization and histopathological characterization of the neoplasm. The diagnostic relevance of the various methods and their efficacy are assayed, with emphasis on the necessity of their use in the differential diagnosis. The diagnostic approach described contributes to mace precise early diagnosis with preoperative determination of the degree of tumor differentiation which has an essential practical bearing on the choice of operative procedure and prognosis of the disease.

  15. Community acquired urinary tract infection: etiology and bacterial susceptibility

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    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed. UTI account for a large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption and have large socio-economic impacts. Since the majority of the treatments begins or is done completely empirically, the knowledge of the organisms, their epidemiological characteristics and their antibacterial susceptibility that may vary with time is mandatory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility of the community acquired UTI diagnosed in our institution and to provide a national data. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the results of urine cultures of 402 patients that had community acquired urinary tract infection in the year of 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this study was 45.34 ± 23.56 (SD years. There were 242 (60.2% females and 160 (39.8% males. The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli (58%. Klebsiella sp. (8.4% and Enterococcus sp.(7.9% were reported as the next most common organisms. Of all bacteria isolated from community acquired UTI, only 37% were sensitive to ampicillin, 51% to cefalothin and 52% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The highest levels of susceptibility were to imipenem (96%, ceftriaxone (90%, amikacin (90%, gentamicin (88%, levofloxacin (86%, ciprofloxacin (73%, nitrofurantoin (77% and norfloxacin (75%. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative agents are the most common cause of UTI. Fluoroquinolones remains the choice among the orally administered antibiotics, followed by nitrofurantoin, second and third generation cephalosporins. For severe disease that require parenteral antibiotics the choice should be aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or imipenem, which were the most effective.

  16. Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James J; Hehn, Laura E; Klein, David A

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous infections is typically responsible for recurrences. In premenopausal women, sexual intercourse three or more times per week, spermicide use, new or multiple sex partners, and having a UTI before 15 years of age are established risk factors. In postmenopausal women, risk is primarily increased by sequelae of lower estrogen levels. Episodes of recurrent UTI are typically characterized by dysuria and urinary frequency or hesitancy. Findings from the history or physical examination that suggest complicated infection or another disease process warrant additional evaluation. At least one symptomatic episode should be verified by urine culture to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment. Imaging is rarely warranted. Short courses of antibiotics are as effective as longer courses. Patient-initiated treatment lowers the cost of diagnosis, number of physician visits, and number of symptomatic days compared with physician-initiated treatment. It also reduces antibiotic exposure compared with antibiotic prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis effectively limits UTI recurrence but increases the risk of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects. Cranberry products may reduce recurrent UTIs in premenopausal women, but are less effective than antibiotic prophylaxis, and data are conflicting. Optimal dosing is unknown. Postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis may benefit from topical estrogen therapy.

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Nurse-Focused Computerized Clinical Decision Support on Urinary Catheter Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robin Lynn Neal

    2012-01-01

    A growing national emphasis has been placed on health information technology (HIT) with robust computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) integration into health care delivery. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is the most frequent health care-associated infection in the United States and is associated with high cost, high volumes and…

  18. Survey on hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in neurological intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Xing, Tao; Li, Junhui; He, Yingzi; Bai, Mei; Wang, Niansong

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the causes, incidence, and risk factors of urinary tract infection patients in neurological intensive care unit (ICU). Patients (n = 916) admitted to the neurological ICU from January 2005 to December 2010 were retrospectively surveyed for urinary tract infections. There were 246 patients in neurological ICU who were diagnosed with hospital-acquired urinary tract infection during that period of time (26.9%). Forty-three cases were upper urinary tract infection, and 203 cases were lower urinary tract infection. The top three strains were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Older age (UTI rate, 22.6%), female patients (21.7%), hospital stay for more than 7 days (16.7%), diabetes (11.7%), and catheterization (21.1%) were the risk factors for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. There is a high incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the neurological intensive care unit. Active prevention program and surveillance need to be carried out in neurological ICU, especially in those with risk factors.

  19. Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes of pregnant women with urinary tract infections and related drug treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-01-01

    Maternal urinary tract infections in pregnancy showed an association with a higher rate of preterm birth in previous studies. The aim of this study was to check this relationship, and in addition to evaluate the efficacy of recent medical treatments. The population-based large control (without any defects) data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities was evaluated. Of 38,151 newborn infants, 2188 (5.7%) had mothers with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, and 90% of these maternal diseases were prospectively and medically recorded. The prevalence of pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios showed an association with urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections in pregnancy had a somewhat shorter gestational age (0.1 week) and a higher proportion of preterm births (10.4% vs 9.1%). These differences were correlated with the severity of urinary tract infections. However, the preterm-inducing effect of maternal urinary tract infections is preventable by some antimicrobial drugs such as ampicillin, cefalexin and cotrimoxazole. In conclusion, maternal urinary tract infections during pregnancy increase pre-eclampsia and polyhydramnios, and in addition the rate of preterm birth; however, the latter is preventable by appropriate drug treatments.

  20. A case of urinary tract infection caused by Raoultella planticola after a urodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu, Murat; Ruhi, Caglar; Gokce, Ali M; Kara, Melih; Aksaray, Sebahat

    Here we report the case of a patient who developed urinary tract infection after a urodynamic study. The causative agent was Raoultella planticola, a rare opportunistic pathogen that usually invades immunocompromised patients. While a urinary tract infection with R. planticola has been previously described, this is the first report in which an R. planticola infection developed after a urodynamic study. We postulate that the mechanism of infection was direct invasion of the urinary tract from contaminated urodynamic study equipment. Here, we discuss the role played by isotonic solutions in facilitating bacterial reproduction.

  1. Biofilm formation by asymptomatic and virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferrieres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic urinary tract infection, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we...... have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious...

  2. Multiple virulence factors regulated by quorum sensing may help in establishment and colonisation of urinary tract by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during experimental urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Damage caused by an organism during infection is attributed to production of virulence factors. Different virulence factors produced by the organism contribute to its pathogenicity, individually. During infectious conditions, role of virulence factors produced by the pathogen is different, depending upon the site of involvement. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen known to cause infections of the respiratory tract, burn wound, urinary tract and eye. Importance of virulence factors produced by P. Aeruginosa during infections such as keratitis, burn wound and respiratory tract is known. The present study was designed to understand the importance of different virulence factors of P. aeruginosa in urinary tract infection in vivo. Materials and methods: An ascending urinary tract infection model was established in mice using standard parent strain PAO1 and its isogenic mutant, JP2. Mice were sacrificed at different time intervals and renal tissue homogenates were used for estimation of renal bacterial load and virulence factors. Results: Both parent and mutant strains were able to reach the renal tissue. PAO 1 PAO1was isolated from renal tissue till day 5 post-infection. However, the mutant strain was unable to colonise the renal tissue. Failure of mutant strain to colonise was attributed to its inability to produce protease, elastase and rhamnolipid. Conclusion: This study suggests that protease, elastase and rhamnolipid contribute to pathogenesis and survival of P. aeruginosa during urinary tract infection.

  3. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: Evaluation of diagnostic framework

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    Tukur Ado Jido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed with the objective to examine the diagnostic framework for urinary tract infection (UTI in pregnancy and physician response to the clinical diagnosis and to correlate responses to the results of urine culture and sensitivity. Over a 6-month period, 81 consecutive patients attending the labor ward admission of a district general hospital with the diagnosis of UTI during pregnancy were analyzed. Relevant information on symptom complex, result of dipstick urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 78 patients analyzed, 79% had increased urinary frequency, 73.1% had suprapubic pains and 53.1% had dysuria. All the patients had urinalysis with dipsticks, 41 (52.6% were positive for nitrites and 64 (82.1% were positive for leukocyte esterase. All 78 patients had urine culture and sensitivity, 21 (26.8% of who were positive, and coliforms were the most commonly isolated pathogens. The sensitivity for nitrite was 80.9%, specificity 57.9% and positive predictive value 41.4%. The corresponding figures for leukocyte esterase were sensi-tivity 100%, specificity 24.6% and positive predictive value 32.8%. Sixty-six (84.6% patients had treatment started on the basis of the clinical diagnosis, mostly with co-amoxyclavullinic acid or amoxicillin alone. A high resistance rate to these empirically chosen antibiotics was seen in the sensitivity pattern of isolated pathogens. Current clinical diagnostic algorithms for the diagnosis of UTI when applied in the context of pregnancy have low specificity and positive predictive values; yet, empirical antibiotics are frequently employed on this basis. These are often not in keeping with the sensitivity pattern of isolated organisms. There is need for a continuing research for more specific bedside tests.

  4. Community-Acquired urinary tract infection by pseudomonas oryzihabitans

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    Sunita M Bhatawadekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Chrysomonas luteola has been placed in CDC group Ve2 and Ve1 respectively. These bacteria appear to be emerging pathogens. P. oryzihabitans was isolated from cases of bacteremia, CNS infections, wound infections, peritonitis, sinusitis, catheter associated infections in AIDS patient, and pneumonia. Most of the reports of P. oryzihabitans infection were of nosocomial origin in individuals with some predisposing factors. We report here a case of community acquired UTI by P. oryzihabitans in an immune-competent patient with stricture of urethra.

  5. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

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    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  6. Managing therapeutic competition in patients with heart failure, lower urinary tract symptoms and incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Johnell, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    Up to 50% of heart failure patients suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence has been associated with worse functional status in patients with heart failure, occurring three times more frequently in patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV symptoms compared with those with milder disease. The association between heart failure and urinary symptoms may be directly attributable to worsening heart failure pathophysiology; however, medications used to treat heart failure may also indirectly provoke or exacerbate urinary symptoms. This type of drug-disease interaction, in which the treatment for heart failure precipitates incontinence, and removal of medications to relieve incontinence worsens heart failure, can be termed therapeutic competition. The mechanisms by which heart failure medication such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers aggravate lower urinary tract symptoms are discussed. Initiation of a prescribing cascade, whereby antimuscarinic agents or β3-agonists are added to treat symptoms of urinary urgency and incontinence, is best avoided. Recommendations and practical tips are provided that outline more judicious management of heart failure patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Compelling strategies to improve urinary outcomes include titrating diuretics, switching ACE inhibitors, treating lower urinary tract infections, appropriate fluid management, daily weighing, and uptake of pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  7. Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection.

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    Gabriela Mora-Bau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections with frequent recurrence being a major medical challenge. Development of effective therapies has been impeded by the lack of knowledge of events leading to adaptive immunity. Here, we establish conclusive evidence that an adaptive immune response is generated during UTI, yet this response does not establish sterilizing immunity. To investigate the underlying deficiency, we delineated the naïve bladder immune cell compartment, identifying resident macrophages as the most populous immune cell. To evaluate their impact on the establishment of adaptive immune responses following infection, we measured bacterial clearance in mice depleted of either circulating monocytes, which give rise to macrophages, or bladder resident macrophages. Surprisingly, mice depleted of resident macrophages, prior to primary infection, exhibited a nearly 2-log reduction in bacterial burden following secondary challenge compared to untreated animals. This increased bacterial clearance, in the context of a challenge infection, was dependent on lymphocytes. Macrophages were the predominant antigen presenting cell to acquire bacteria post-infection and in their absence, bacterial uptake by dendritic cells was increased almost 2-fold. These data suggest that bacterial uptake by tissue macrophages impedes development of adaptive immune responses during UTI, revealing a novel target for enhancing host responses to bacterial infection of the bladder.

  8. Ejaculatory dysfunction in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; Nutt, Max; McVary, Kevin T

    2016-08-01

    The link between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and sexual dysfunction is well established. Sexual dysfunction can encompass both ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Ejaculatory dysfunction can consist of premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, anejaculation, decreased force of ejaculation and pain upon ejaculation. The impact of different medical and surgical therapies on ejaculatory function will be reviewed. We reviewed the various categories of LUTS treatment including the canonical epidemiology and pathophysiology as well as the surgical and medical treatments for LUTS/BPH. We note that most surgeries and several medical treatments have a certain but ill-defined negative impact on ejaculatory function. Several MISTs and selected medical therapies appear to have little impact on EjD. Both EjD and BPH are very common disorders in men under the care of an urologist. It is well documented that there is a clinical association between these two entities. Unfortunately many of the medical treatments and almost all surgical treatment impact the ejaculatory function of the patient. The surgical treatment of BPH often leads to retrograde ejaculation while medical treatment leads to anejaculation.

  9. Pathogenesis and Laboratory Diagnosis of Childhood Urinary Tract Infection

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    Jharna Mandal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections of childhood. The clinical presentations are mostly non-specific or mild. As any episode of UTI can potentially damage the kidneys, timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent renal damage. Incidence of UTI varies depending on the age, gender, and race of the child. UTIs in children are commonly caused by bacteria, though viruses, fungi, and parasites are also occasionally involved. The pathogenesis of UTI is complex where several host and pathogen factors influence the course of the disease and its outcome. Urine culture is still considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis of UTI. The means of obtaining urine samples from children for culture involves urethral catheterisation and suprapubic aspiration. The conventional methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing are labour intensive and time exhaustive. With the advent of technology, many automated platforms are available which are rapid, involve less volume of the culture or the sample, and have high accuracy.

  10. Kidney imaging in management of delayed febrile urinary tract infection

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    Sayed Abolhassan Sayedzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a cross-sectional study performed to evaluate the imaging findings of 40 children, aged one month to five years (16.65 ± 14.97 months, who presented with protracted fever of more than 48 hours due to urinary tract infection (UTI. About 85% of the patients had positive Tc99-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and 58% had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Kidney sonography aided in the diagnosis and treatment in 10% of the patients. Age, sex, presence or laterality of VUR did not contribute to defective DMSA scan (pyelonephritis (P > 0.05. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of febrile UTI is associated with a high incidence of positive findings of DMSA scan irrespective of age, sex or presence/absence of VUR. In mild VUR, the DMSA scan may be normal while in patients with moderate and severe VUR the DMSA scan is almost always abnormal. Thus, our study shows that a normal DMSA scan can help in ruling out moderate to severe forms of VUR and that cystography remains an excellent and standard tool for the diagnosis of VUR.

  11. Kidney imaging in management of delayed febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedzadeh, Sayed Abolhassan; Malaki, Majid; Shoaran, Maryam; Nemati, Massood

    2011-11-01

    We report a cross-sectional study performed to evaluate the imaging findings of 40 children, aged one month to five years (16.65 ± 14.97 months), who presented with protracted fever of more than 48 hours due to urinary tract infection (UTI). About 85% of the patients had positive Tc99-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan and 58% had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Kidney sonography aided in the diagnosis and treatment in 10% of the patients. Age, sex, presence or laterality of VUR did not contribute to defective DMSA scan (pyelonephritis) (P > 0.05). Delayed diagnosis and treatment of febrile UTI is associated with a high incidence of positive findings of DMSA scan irrespective of age, sex or presence/absence of VUR. In mild VUR, the DMSA scan may be normal while in patients with moderate and severe VUR the DMSA scan is almost always abnormal. Thus, our study shows that a normal DMSA scan can help in ruling out moderate to severe forms of VUR and that cystography remains an excellent and standard tool for the diagnosis of VUR.

  12. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  13. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Seo

    2012-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects reflux-associated congenital dysplastic kidneys. The viewpoint that chronic kidney disease results from renal maldevelopment-associated VUR has led to questioning the utility of any regimen directed at identifying or treating VUR. Despite the recognition that underlying renal anomalies may be the cause of renal scarring that was previously attributed to infection, the prevention of renal scarring remains the goal of all therapies for childhood UTI. Therefore, children at high risk of renal scar formation after UTI should be treated and investigated until a large clinical study and basic research give us more information.

  14. T-Box Genes in the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kispert, A

    2017-01-01

    T-box (Tbx) genes encode an ancient group of transcription factors that play important roles in patterning, specification, proliferation, and differentiation programs in vertebrate organogenesis. This is testified by severe organ malformation syndromes in mice homozygous for engineered null alleles of specific T-box genes and by the large number of human inherited organ-specific diseases that have been linked to mutations in these genes. One of the organ systems that has not been associated with loss of specific T-box gene function in human disease for long is the excretory system. However, this has changed with the finding that mutations in TBX18, a member of a vertebrate-specific subgroup within the Tbx1-subfamily of T-box transcription factor genes, cause congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, predominantly hydroureter and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Gene expression analyses, loss-of-function studies, and lineage tracing in the mouse suggest a primary role for this transcription factor in specifying the ureteric mesenchyme in the common anlage of the kidney, the ureter, and the bladder. We review the function of Tbx18 in ureterogenesis and discuss the body of evidence that Tbx18 and other members of the T-box gene family, namely, Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx20, play additional roles in development and homeostasis of other components of the excretory system in vertebrates.

  15. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  16. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Geerlings, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%–40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial. PMID:27092529

  17. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  18. Pediatric febrile urinary tract infections: the current state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt Ian K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies undertaken in recent years have improved our understanding regarding the consequences and management of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs, which are amongst the most common serious bacterial infections in childhood, with renal scarring a frequent outcome. In the past pyelonephritic scarring of the kidney, often associated with vesico-ureteral reflux (reflux nephropathy was considered a frequent cause of chronic renal insufficiency in children. Increasing recognition as a consequence of improved antenatal ultrasound, that the majority of these children had congenital renal hypo-dysplasia, has resulted in a number of studies examining treatment strategies and outcomes following UTI. In recent years there is a developing consensus regarding the need for a less aggressive therapeutic approach with oral as opposed to intravenous antibiotics, and less invasive investigations, cystourethrography in particular, following an uncomplicated first febrile UTI. There does remain a concern that with this newer approach we may be missing a small subgroup of children more prone to develop severe kidney damage as a consequence of pyelonephritis, and in whom some form of intervention may prove beneficial. These concerns have meant that development of a universally accepted diagnostic protocol remains elusive.

  19. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  20. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle Beerepoot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs. Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%–40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial.

  1. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606

  2. Urinary Tract Infection: Analysis of Prescribing Pattern of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHADEVAMMA L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are one of most common drugs prescribed in hospital today. It has been estimated that up to onethird of all patients receive at least one antibiotics during hospitalization`. The cost involved is therefore correspondingly high and up to 40% of a hospital’s drug expenditure may be devoted to the purchase of antibiotics1. The objective of this study was to analyze the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in Urinary Tract Infection (UTI. A prospective cross sectional and observational study was conducted on patients diagnosed with UTI. The study was carried out in the OBG and Urology departments of both in-patients and out-patients, for a period of 5 months (Aug 2011 to Dec 2011. Patients diagnosed with UTI and who were above age group of 15-years were included in the study. A suitable data collection form was prepared to collect the required data. Among 162 patents, 54 were in-patients and 108 were out-patients. Most of the in-patients were prescribed with Ciprofloxacin 13(22.8%, and Ceftriaxone 19(33.3%. In out-patients, Ciprofloxacin 25(23.8%, Norfloxacin 15(14.3% and Ceftriaxone 14(13.3% were prescribed frequently. The study found that gram negative organisms like E. coli and Klebsills was the most predominant organisms associated with infection. It was also found that Cephalosporin's were most commonly used and Quinolones were the second most commonly used drugs for the treatment of UTI.

  3. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Seo Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects refluxassociated congenital dysplastic kidneys. The viewpoint that chronic kidney disease results from renal maldevelopment-associated VUR has led to questioning the utility of any regimen directed at identifying or treating VUR. Despite the recognition that underlying renal anomalies may be the cause of renal scarring that was previously attributed to infection, the prevention of renal scarring remains the goal of all therapies for childhood UTI. Therefore, children at high risk of renal scar formation after UTI should be treated and investigated until a large clinical study and basic research give us more information.

  4. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarepour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group. In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth. In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1% showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  5. Can circumcision prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in hospitalized infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, D L; Carter, B S; Bhatia, J

    2000-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an uncommon but concerning condition for hospitalized premature infants. A retrospective chart review of all male infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from June 1996 through March 1999 was conducted at the Medical College of Georgia--a large academic medical center with a tertiary Level III NICU--to investigate the frequency and potential prevention of recurrent UTI in hospitalized infants. The effect of circumcision on recurrence of UTI was also investigated. There were 38 infants with 53 UTIs among 744 male infants admitted during the study period (5.1%). Infants were divided into two groups: A1 UTI and A2 UTI. In groups A1 and A2, 57% of the first UTIs were due to Candida or E. coli, the remaining were due to other gram-negative organisms and Staphylococcus species. Mean gestational age (GA) in groups A1 and A2 were similar (29 +/- 2 weeks, and 29 +/- 4 weeks); however, mean GA of infants with Candida UTI was 27 +/- 2 weeks, and for bacterial UTI, 30 +/- 3 weeks (pUTI once a circumcision was performed. Premature uncircumcised males had an increased risk for UTI (Odds Ratio=11.1, 95% CI, 3.3-28.9, pCircumcision appears beneficial in reducing the risk for recurrent UTI in these infants.

  6. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondos, Adnan S; Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alyousefi, Naelah A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  7. Serum antibodies study in recurrent urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Vidya

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum antibodies were studied in 187 cases of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 126 patients with 128 infections who had significant bacteriuria. 90 (70.3% of these infections were associated with significant anti-body response (> 1:320 at the beginning of the study. It was further observed that uropathogens of all kinds were capable of producing antibody titre response. In the follow up study of 105 infections, it was noted that in 40.9% of infections inspite o f nega-tive urine culture, elevated antibody response persisted even after 3 months. In Group II, 61 patients with history of recurrent UTI with or without evidence of pyelonephritis were studied for re-sponses again` various serotypes of E. coli which were found to be common uropathogens. In this group too, majority o f the patients manifested elevated antibody response even when they had sterile urine at the time o f the study.

  8. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli. He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient’s urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors’ knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis.

  9. Surveillance of acute community acquired urinary tract bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibanarayan Rath; Rabindra N. Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To record the antibiotic resistance of community acquired uropathogens over a period of 24 months (May 2011-April 2012). Methods: Urine samples from patients of outpatient department (OPD) were used for isolating urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing bacteria that were cultured on suitable selective media and identified by biochemical tests. Their antibiograms were ascertained by Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method, using 17 antibiotics of 5 different classes. Results: From 2137 urine samples 1332 strains of pathogenic bacteria belonging to 11 species were isolated. Two Gram-positives, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and nine Gram-negatives, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Both S. aureus and E. faecalis were vancomycin resistant, and resistant-strains of all pathogens increased in each 6-month period of study. Particularly, all Gram-negatives were resistant to nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole, the most preferred antibiotics of empiric therapy for UTI, but were moderately resistant to gentamicin, ampicillin, amoxyclav, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Most Gram-negatives produced extended spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusions: It was concluded that periodic surveillance of pathogens is an essential corollary in effective health management in any country, as empiric therapy is a common/essential practice in effective clinical management.

  10. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan S Gondos

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT, which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%. The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  11. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Susan G; Witzel, Angela L; Bartges, Joseph W; Moyers, Tamberlyn S; Kirk, Claudia A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria.

  12. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Wynn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria.

  13. Translational Research for Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive view of translational research aimed at elucidating the pathophysiology of pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). A web search was conducted according to combinations of keywords, and the significance of each article was defined by the author. The dramatic evolution of the mass analysis method of genomes, transcripts, and proteins has enabled a comprehensive analysis of molecular events underlying diseases, and these methodologies have also been applied to pediatric LUTD. In genetic analyses of syndromes underlying daytime incontinence, urofacial (Ochoa) syndrome may be creating a prototype of a new research approach. Nocturnal enuresis has long been studied genetically, and several candidate loci have been reported. However, the pursuit for enuresis genes has been abandoned partly because genetic association and enuresis phenotype (bladder or renal type) could not be linked. Enuresis associated with diabetes insipidus has provided new insights into the etiology of the diseases. A chronobiological approach may shed new light on this area. Posterior urethral valves and neurogenic bladders have attracted the interest of pediatric urologists to the smooth muscle biology of the bladder. Bladder exstrophy and cloacal anomalies are rare but major anomalies caused by defective urorectal development and have recently been studied from a genetic standpoint. Translational studies for pediatric LUTD may be extended to adult bladder disease, or to application of precision medicine for diseased children. PMID:27915476

  14. Antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders and consistency among GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, D.S.Y.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Dijk, L. van; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe specific diagnoses for which systemic antibiotics are prescribed, to assess adherence of antibiotic choice to national guidelines and to assess consistency among general practitioners (GPs) in prescribed volumes of antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders.

  15. Prevalence and antibiogram of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections at Dessie Health Research Laboratory, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Kibret

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In the study area resistance rates to erythromycin, amoxycillin and tetracycline were high. Since most isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and gentamicin, they are considered as appropriate antimicrobials for empirical treatment urinary tract infections.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Urinary Tract infections in Imam-Ali Hospital,

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    Mohsen Rajabnia-Chenari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment for urinary tract infection should be based on common uropathogenes and their resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic resistance patterns in urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 11 common antibiotics were evaluated with antibiogram on urine samples of 2876 cases with urinary tract infection during 2010-2011. Results: The most common uropathogen was E. coli (62.41% and highest resistance of pathogen was against cefixime (84.5% in this study.Conclusion: As the least resistance of uropathogens was against ciprofloxacin, we propose this antibiotic as the first line treatment for urinary tract infection.

  17. Automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA...

  18. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections in Children With Spina Bifida on Intermittent Catheterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, Bas; Uiterwaal, Cuno; Kimpen, Jan; van Gool, Jan; de Jong, Tom; Winkler-Seinstra, Pauline; Houterman, Saskia; Verpoorten, Carla; van Steenwijk, Catharine de Jong-de Vos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Antibiotic prophylaxis (low dose chemoprophylaxis) has been prescribed since the introduction of clean intermittent catheterization in children with spina bifida. We hypothesized that stopping low dose chemoprophylaxis does not increase the number of urinary tract infections in these patien

  19. Urinary tract infections in general practice patients: diagnostic tests versus bacteriological culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, S.; Merode, T. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections encountered in general practice. For the optimal treatment the general practitioner (GP) should rely on the results of diagnostic tests and recent antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens. Patients and methods: In total

  20. Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Ki; Jang, Ja Yun; An, Jieun; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kang, Tong Mook; Shin, Hyun Joon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis

    2017-01-01

    As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies. PMID:28098199

  1. Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Ki; Jang, Ja Yun; An, Jieun; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kang, Tong Mook; Shin, Hyun Joon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis

    2017-01-01

    As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies.

  2. Complete renal fusion in a child with recurrent urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gun, Saul [Department of Surgery, Faculdade de Medicina de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Ciantelli, Guilherme Lippi; Takahashi, Marilia Akemi Uzuelle; Brabo, Alexandre Mineto; Morais, Livea Athayde de; Figueiredo, Caio Barros, E-mail: gui_lippi@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e da Saude da Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (FCMS/PUC-SP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Cake kidney, a rare anomaly of the urinary tract, may be diagnosed at any age range. During the investigation of recurrent urinary tract infection in a 12-year-old child, contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated the presence of a right-sided ectopic kidney, with renal fusion, drained by two ureters. Prophylactic treatment with nitrofurantoin was instituted, and the patient currently remains asymptomatic. (author)

  3. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Bien; Olga Sokolova; Przemyslaw Bozko

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggere...

  4. Urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: review of prevalence, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan O

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orna Nitzan,1–3 Mazen Elias,2,4 Bibiana Chazan,1,2 Walid Saliba2,4 1Infectious Disease Unit, Ha’emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel; 2Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel; 3Infectious Disease Unit, Padeh-Poriya Medical Center, 4Department of Internal Medicine C, Ha’emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel Abstract: Urinary tract infections are more common, more severe, and carry worse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are also more often caused by resistant pathogens. Various impairments in the immune system, poor metabolic control, and incomplete bladder emptying due to autonomic neuropathy may all contribute to the enhanced risk of urinary tract infections in these patients. The new anti-diabetic sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have not been found to significantly increase the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infections. Symptoms of urinary tract infection are similar to patients without diabetes, though some patients with diabetic neuropathy may have altered clinical signs. Treatment depends on several factors, including: presence of symptoms, severity of systemic symptoms, if infection is localized in the bladder or also involves the kidney, presence of urologic abnormalities, accompanying metabolic alterations, and renal function. There is no indication to treat diabetic patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Further studies are needed to improve the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and urinary tract infections. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, management, prevalence, urinary tract infection

  5. Urostomy and health-related quality of life in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Alexander; Boye, Birgitte; Jonsson, Olof;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective.Urinary diversion may be an option in patients with disabling lower urinary tract dysfunction (DLUTD), refractory to conservative and minor invasive treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether urostomy improves quality of life and cost of surgery, in terms of compl...

  6. Hidden prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in healthy nulligravid young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, Hendrikje M. K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) may have a major impact on quality of life. However, not all individuals with urological complaints seek medical advice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of LUTS in young otherwise healthy nulligravid women and

  7. Recurrent urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer in the Nijmegen bladder cancer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Hanum, N.; Grotenhuis, A.J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Aben, K.K.H.; Mysorekar, I.U.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on whether urinary tract infection (UTI) is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Here, the association is investigated using data from one of the largest bladder cancer case-control studies worldwide. METHODS: Information on (i) history and age at onset of r

  8. Hysterectomy and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms : A Nonrandomized Comparison of Vaginal and Abdominal Hysterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, M. M. E.; van der Vaart, C. H.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.

    2010-01-01

    Common adverse effects of hysterectomy include lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially urinary incontinence. A difference in the prevalence of LUTS between patients who have undergone vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy may be an additional factor in the choice between these 2 surgical approa

  9. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  10. Development of a Vaccine against Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Harry L. T.; Alteri, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infection in humans after those involving the respiratory tract. This results not only in huge annual economic costs, but in decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. Most infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Antibiotic treatment is generally effective for eradication of the infecting strain; however, documentation of increasing antibiotic resistance, allergic reaction to certain pharmaceuticals, alteration of normal gut flora, and failure to prevent recurrent infections represent significant barriers to treatment. As a result, approaches to prevent UTI such as vaccination represent a gap that must be addressed. Our laboratory has made progress toward development of a preventive vaccine against UPEC. The long-term research goal is to prevent UTIs in women with recurrent UTIs. Our objective has been to identify the optimal combination of protective antigens for inclusion in an effective UTI vaccine, optimal adjuvant, optimal dose, and optimal route of delivery. We hypothesized that a multi-subunit vaccine elicits antibody that protects against experimental challenge with UPEC strains. We have systematically identified four antigens that can individually protect experimentally infected mice from colonization of the bladder and/or kidneys by UPEC when administered intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. To advance the vaccine for utility in humans, we will group the individual antigens, all associated with iron acquisition (IreA, Hma, IutA, FyuA), into an effective combination to establish a multi-subunit vaccine. We demonstrated for all four vaccine antigens that antigen-specific serum IgG represents a strong correlate of protection in vaccinated mice. High antibody titers correlate with low colony forming units (CFUs) of UPEC following transurethral challenge of vaccinated mice. However, the contribution of cell-mediated immunity cannot be ruled out and

  11. Development of a Vaccine against Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Harry L T; Alteri, Christopher J

    2015-12-31

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infection in humans after those involving the respiratory tract. This results not only in huge annual economic costs, but in decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. Most infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Antibiotic treatment is generally effective for eradication of the infecting strain; however, documentation of increasing antibiotic resistance, allergic reaction to certain pharmaceuticals, alteration of normal gut flora, and failure to prevent recurrent infections represent significant barriers to treatment. As a result, approaches to prevent UTI such as vaccination represent a gap that must be addressed. Our laboratory has made progress toward development of a preventive vaccine against UPEC. The long-term research goal is to prevent UTIs in women with recurrent UTIs. Our objective has been to identify the optimal combination of protective antigens for inclusion in an effective UTI vaccine, optimal adjuvant, optimal dose, and optimal route of delivery. We hypothesized that a multi-subunit vaccine elicits antibody that protects against experimental challenge with UPEC strains. We have systematically identified four antigens that can individually protect experimentally infected mice from colonization of the bladder and/or kidneys by UPEC when administered intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. To advance the vaccine for utility in humans, we will group the individual antigens, all associated with iron acquisition (IreA, Hma, IutA, FyuA), into an effective combination to establish a multi-subunit vaccine. We demonstrated for all four vaccine antigens that antigen-specific serum IgG represents a strong correlate of protection in vaccinated mice. High antibody titers correlate with low colony forming units (CFUs) of UPEC following transurethral challenge of vaccinated mice. However, the contribution of cell-mediated immunity cannot be ruled out and

  12. Development of a Vaccine against Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry L. T. Mobley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second most common infection in humans after those involving the respiratory tract. This results not only in huge annual economic costs, but in decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. Most infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. Antibiotic treatment is generally effective for eradication of the infecting strain; however, documentation of increasing antibiotic resistance, allergic reaction to certain pharmaceuticals, alteration of normal gut flora, and failure to prevent recurrent infections represent significant barriers to treatment. As a result, approaches to prevent UTI such as vaccination represent a gap that must be addressed. Our laboratory has made progress toward development of a preventive vaccine against UPEC. The long-term research goal is to prevent UTIs in women with recurrent UTIs. Our objective has been to identify the optimal combination of protective antigens for inclusion in an effective UTI vaccine, optimal adjuvant, optimal dose, and optimal route of delivery. We hypothesized that a multi-subunit vaccine elicits antibody that protects against experimental challenge with UPEC strains. We have systematically identified four antigens that can individually protect experimentally infected mice from colonization of the bladder and/or kidneys by UPEC when administered intranasally with cholera toxin (CT as an adjuvant. To advance the vaccine for utility in humans, we will group the individual antigens, all associated with iron acquisition (IreA, Hma, IutA, FyuA, into an effective combination to establish a multi-subunit vaccine. We demonstrated for all four vaccine antigens that antigen-specific serum IgG represents a strong correlate of protection in vaccinated mice. High antibody titers correlate with low colony forming units (CFUs of UPEC following transurethral challenge of vaccinated mice. However, the contribution of cell-mediated immunity cannot

  13. Candida Bezoars with Urinary Tract Obstruction in Two Women without Immunocompromising Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Paola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the cases of fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida sp., but occurrence of obstructive uropathy caused by mycetomas or fungus balls (urobezoars is extremely rare. The latter are conglomerates of fungal hyphae. Diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, chronic disease, and malignancies are known predisposing factors. Preoperative imaging is not pathognomonic; blood clots, radiolucent urinary calculi, air bubbles, and inflammatory debris can mimic urobezoars. We report on two otherwise healthy women presenting with urinary tract obstruction caused by candidal mycetomas of the renal pelvis that mimicked matrix lithiasis.

  14. Profile of urinary tract infections in paediatric patients

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    Palak Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, south India, with the aim of finding the profile of the paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI, bacterial pathogens involved, and also to observe vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and renal scarring in these patients. Methods: A total of 524 paediatric patients ≤13 yr, suspected to have UTI, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected, processed for uropathogen isolation and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Thirty two culture proven children with UTI underwent micturating cysto-urethrography (MCU and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scanning was done for 69 children. Results: o0 f the 524 children, 186 (35.4% had culture proven UTI with 105 (56.4% being infants, 50 (27.4% between 1-5 yr, 30 (16.12% between 5-13 yr and 129 (69.35% males. Posterior urethral valve (PUV was noted in three, hydronephrosis in one, VUR in 18 and renal scarring in 33. VUR as well as renal scarring were more in males >1 yr of age. A significant association (P=0.0054 was noted with a combined sensitivity and specificity of these investigations being 83 and 90 per cent, respectively of the MCU and DMSA scans for detecting VUR. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen isolated, sensitive to nitrofurantoin, followed by cefoperazone-sulbactam, aminoglycosides and meropenem. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicate that UTI varies with age and gender and extensive evaluation is required in boys under one year of age with UTI. This study also highlights the better efficacy of aminoglycosides, cefoperazone-sulbactam and nitrofurantoin in vitro compared with meropenem in Gram-negative uropathogens.

  15. Multimicronutrient supplementation and asymptomatic urinary tract infections in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boekitwetan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As human life expectancy continues to increase, developing countries are reporting higher percentages of elderly in their respective populations. The defense mechanisms of the elderly are reduced due to several factors, such as increased susceptibility to infection, specifically urinary tract infection (UTI. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to assess whether multimicronutrient supplementation is effective in reducing UTIs in older people in the community. A total of 261 elderly who lived in Mampang Prapatan district, South Jakarta, were randomised to daily multimicronutrient supplementation or control groups. The primary outcomes were the incidence of asymptomatic UTI, the organisms responsible for UTIs and the results of sensitivity tests on UTI microorganisms. UTI was defined as culture-positive urine yielding a single species of organisms in numbers greater than 104 cfu/mL urine specimen. At base-line 19.5% of the elderly had UTI, namely 23.7% patients in the MMN group and 16.7% in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.158. Escherichia coli was the most common microorganism, isolated in 20.7% of the MMN group and 17.5% of the control group. After six months of supplementation, UTI in the MMN group decreased by 40.6% compared with only 14.4% in the control group. The numbers of E. coli also declined by 64.3% in the MMN group compared to 37.8% in the control group. This study has confirmed the beneficial effect of multimicronutrient supplementation on UTI in the elderly.

  16. Bacteriophages as Potential Treatment for Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Chanishvili, Nino; Kutateladze, Mzia; Chkhotua, Archil; Ujmajuridze, Aleksandre; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kessler, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most prevalent microbial diseases and their financial burden on society is substantial. The continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide is alarming so that well-tolerated, highly effective therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Objective: To investigate the effect of bacteriophages on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs. Material and methods: Forty-one E. coli and 9 K. pneumoniae strains, isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs, were tested in vitro for their susceptibility toward bacteriophages. The bacteriophages originated from either commercially available bacteriophage cocktails registered in Georgia or from the bacteriophage collection of the George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology. In vitro screening of bacterial strains was performed by use of the spot-test method. The experiments were implemented three times by different groups of scientists. Results: The lytic activity of the commercial bacteriophage cocktails on the 41 E. coli strains varied between 66% (Pyo bacteriophage) and 93% (Enko bacteriophage). After bacteriophage adaptation of the Pyo bacteriophage cocktail, its lytic activity was increased from 66 to 93% and only one E. coli strain remained resistant. One bacteriophage of the Eliava collection could lyse all 9 K. pneumoniae strains. Conclusions: Based on the high lytic activity and the potential of resistance optimization by direct adaption of bacteriophages as reported in this study, and in view of the continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, bacteriophage therapy is a promising treatment option for UTIs highly warranting randomized controlled trials. PMID:27148173

  17. Bacteriological study of urinary tract infection in antenatal care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ritu, Singh Brij N, Begum Rehana, Yadav Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objective: To isolate and diagnose the Uropathogens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in anti-natal care patient suffering from Urinary tract Infections. Material and Methods: 150 samples were collected by consent pregnant women between the age group of 18 to 40 years. A midstream clean catch is adequate, provided by all pregnant women’s through given careful instructions. For enumeration of bacteria we perform standard loop techniques method. The number of colonies counted or estimated, and this number used to calculate the number of viable bacteria per ml of urine. The bacterial strains were identified by colonies character stick, gram staining, morphological and biochemical character. The bacterial strains identification was done up to genus and species level. The antibiotics sensitivity test of bacterial strains was done as per CLSI guidelines by Kirby-Baure Disc Diffusion Methods. Results: The significant bactiurea was found in 50 patients among 150 patients used. The most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli 23(40% Klebsiellaaerogens 11 (22% Staphylococcus aureus 10 (20% Pseudomonas aerugenosa 4(8%.The incidence of bacteriuria among in their first pregnancy was 22.2%.The higher incidence of UTI in 2nd and 3rd trimester was found to have 31.4% & 40%. These studies were showing high level of resistance to first line antibiotics such as Cotrimaxozole. Conclusion: To minimizing the complication of the pregnant women should be educated about the physiology of pregnancy clinical presentation includes asymptomatic bacteria, acute cystitis & pyelonephritis. Pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria by urine culture and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After the post treatment pregnant women should be examine again to confirm post treatment urine sterility.

  18. Recurrent urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Afonso, N; Macário, F; Alves, R; Mota, A

    2013-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes the most frequent infection among kidney transplantation (KT) patients. The epidemiology and specific risk factors for recurrent UTI after KT have not been well studied. The aim of this work was to assess the incidence, pathogenic spectrum, and risk factors for recurrent post-KT UTI. This observational, cross-sectional study included all patients admitted to our transplantation department with a diagnosis of post-KT UTI from January 2010 to December 2011. Recurring post-KT UTI was defined as ≥ 2 UTIs in 6 months or ≥ 3 UTIs in 12 months. Factors associated with recurrent post-KT UTI were assessed using logistic regression analysis. The 154 patients were diagnosed with 315 episodes of post-KT UTI (28.6%), with recurrent post-KT UTI among 72% of cases. Most recurrent UTIs (73.6%) occurred during the first year after KT. Klebsiella species was the most common isolated pathogen (53.2%), being a serious problem for multidrug-resistance (odds ratio [OR], 13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.9-28.6; P recurrent post-KT UTI. KT recipient demographics and characteristics, factors related to KT and urologic complications, did not differ significantly between patients with versus without recurrent post-KT UTI. In conclusion, in a unit where recurrent post-KT UTI incidence was 72% and Klebsiella species was the prevailing uropathogen, nosocomial infection and multidrug-resistant bacteria appeared to be independent predictive factors for recurrent post-KT UTI.

  19. Faecal Escherichia coli from patients with E. coli urinary tract infection and healthy controls who have never had a urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are primarily caused by Escherichia coli with the patient's own faecal flora acting as a reservoir for the infecting E. coli. Here we sought to characterize the E. coli faecal flora of UTI patients and healthy controls who had never had a UTI. Up to 20 E. coli...

  20. Lower Levels of Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Might Predict Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in urinary nerve growth factor (uNGF) levels after acute urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the role of uNGF in predicting UTI recurrence in women. Methods: Women with uncomplicated, symptomatic UTIs were enrolled. Cephalexin 500 mg (every 6 hours) was administered for 7–14 days to treat acute UTIs. Subsequently, the patients were randomized to receive either sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 800 mg/160 mg daily at bedtime, or celecoxib 200 mg daily for 3 months and were monitored for up to 12 months. NGF levels in the urine were determined at baseline, 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the initiation of prophylactic therapy, and were compared between women with first-time UTIs and recurrent UTIs, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and celecoxib-treated women, and no UTI recurrence and UTI recurrence that occurred during the follow-up period. Twenty women free of UTIs served as controls. Results: A total of 139 women with UTI and 20 controls were enrolled in the study, which included 50 women with a first-time UTI and 89 women with recurrent UTIs. Thirty-seven women completed the study. Women with recurrent UTIs (n=23) had a trend of lower uNGF levels than women with first-time UTIs (n=14). During follow-up, 9 women had UTI recurrence. The serial uNGF levels in women with UTI recurrence were significantly lower than those in women who did not have UTI recurrence during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The lower levels of uNGF in women with recurrent UTI and the incidence of UTI recurrence during follow-up suggest that lower uNGF might reflect the defective innate immunity in women with recurrent UTI. PMID:27032555

  1. Convective Water Vapor Energy for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; McVary, Kevin T

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) refers to proliferation of smooth muscle and epithelial cells within the transition zone of the prostate. Half of men over 40 develop histologic BPH. About half of men with BPH develop an enlarged prostate gland, called benign prostatic enlargement; among these, about half develop some degree of bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder outlet obstruction and changes in smooth muscle tone and resistance may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including storage disturbances (such as daytime urinary urgency, frequency, and nocturia) and voiding disturbances (such as urinary hesitancy, weak urinary stream, straining to void, and prolonged voiding).

  2. Non-contrast thin-section helical CT of urinary tract calculi in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bates, Gregory D. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Goodsitt, Mitchell M. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Background: Non-contrast thin-section helical CT has gained acceptance for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in adults, but experience with the technique in children is limited. Purpose: To evaluate the utility of non-contrast thin section helical CT for the diagnosis of urinary tract calculi in children. Materials and methods: Radiology databases at three pediatric institutions were searched to identify all pediatric patients evaluated by ''renal stone'' protocol CT scans (no oral or intravenous contrast, scans covering the entire urinary tract obtained in helical mode with narrow collimation (< 5 mm)). CT scans were reviewed for the primary finding of urinary tract calculi, for secondary signs of acute urinary tract obstruction and for evidence of alternative diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical presentation and to confirm the eventual diagnosis. Results: One hundred thirty-seven scans of 113 children (mean age: 11.2 years) were studied. Thirty-eight of 94 examinations (40%) performed on 82 children for acute pain and/or hematuria showed ureteral calculi. Alternative diagnoses were suggested by CT on 16 scans (17%). Twenty-eight scans were performed on 10 asymptomatic children with known calculus disease confirming renal stone burden on 21 scans (75%) and persistent ureteral calculi on 6 scans (21%). Upper tract calculi were demonstrated on 10 of 15 scans (67%) performed to evaluate for calculi in patients with known non-calculus genitourinary tract abnormalities. Conclusions: Non-contrast thin section helical CT is a useful method to diagnose urinary tract calculi in children. Radiation dose in this retrospective study may exceed the lowest possible radiation dose for diagnostic accuracy. Further research is needed to optimize CT imaging parameters, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and minimizing radiation dose. (orig.)

  3. Staining of urinary leucocytes as an aid to the diagnosis of inflammation in the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D M

    1969-07-01

    Five hundred specimens of urine have been examined for pyuria and bacteriuria, the leucocytes being stained by the Sternheimer-Malbin method. Most urines contained either less than 1 or more than 10 leucocytes per cmm; a few specimens contained 1 to 10 cells per cmm, whatever their viable bacterial count. The presence of leucocytes in urine was usually related to the bacterial count, pyuria being commonest in urines showing ;significant bacteriuria'. However, urinary tract instrumentation caused pyuria in the absence of infection. Leucocytes with nuclei staining blue by the Sternheimer-Malbin technique were considered to be indicative of active inflammation, but the incidence of such cells appeared to be a reflection of the total leucocyte count of the specimen rather than of its viable bacterial count. In the majority of cases the diagnosis of infection can be made on the basis of the bacterial count and the degree of pyuria. The staining technique appears to have a limited use, restricted to the interpretation of cases in which the results of culture and conventional leucocyte counts are ambiguous.

  4. Detection of intracellular bacterial communities in human urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Rosen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. While UTIs are typically considered extracellular infections, it has been recently demonstrated that UPEC bind to, invade, and replicate within the murine bladder urothelium to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs. These IBCs dissociate and bacteria flux out of bladder facet cells, some with filamentous morphology, and ultimately establish quiescent intracellular reservoirs that can seed recurrent infection. This IBC pathogenic cycle has not yet been investigated in humans. In this study we sought to determine whether evidence of an IBC pathway could be found in urine specimens from women with acute UTI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected midstream, clean-catch urine specimens from 80 young healthy women with acute uncomplicated cystitis and 20 asymptomatic women with a history of UTI. Investigators were blinded to culture results and clinical history. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy for evidence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria. Evidence of IBCs was found in 14 of 80 (18% urines from women with UTI. Filamentous bacteria were found in 33 of 80 (41% urines from women with UTI. None of the 20 urines from the asymptomatic comparative group showed evidence of IBCs or filaments. Filamentous bacteria were present in all 14 of the urines with IBCs compared to 19 (29% of 66 samples with no evidence of IBCs (p < 0.001. Of 65 urines from patients with E. coli infections, 14 (22% had evidence of IBCs and 29 (45% had filamentous bacteria, while none of the gram-positive infections had IBCs or filamentous bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria in the urines of women with acute cystitis suggests that the IBC pathogenic pathway characterized in the murine model may occur in humans. The

  5. Incidence of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection after Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Pourmand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathologies classified as urinary tract infections (UTI can have a deleterious effect on patients who have undergone a renal transplantation.  Often recurrent UTIs will occur, leading to high morbidity, failure of the grafting process overall and even death.  The study presented here seeks to expand the knowledge of recurrent UTIs in the context of renal transplantation, what risks recurrent UTIs pose to transplant patients and evaluate possible treatments.Methods: Renal transplantations were performed on 94 patients.   For six months post-surgery the patients were evaluated for the presence of recurrent UTIs.  The criteria for determining a patient as having a UTI was given as finding   more than 103    and 105  pure colonies within one ml of urine for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, respectively.   The criteria of recurrent UTI was defined as two or more conclusive UTIs within the first six months after the surgery or three more within a year after renal transplantation.Results: Of the 94 hospitalized patients, 29 UTIs were diagnosed (30.8%. The majority of diagnosed UTIs were in female patients (11.15, 73.3% vs.4.15, 26.7%; p-value = 0.003.   Those patients with diabetes mellitus correlated with a better chance of having a UTI (p-value = 0.019; CI = 1.2-12.2. The incidence rate of UTI was 51.7%, female predominant 73.3%. No  other  pathologies  were  shown  to  affect  the  chance  of  developing recurrent UTIs.   Typically Escherichia coli was the bacterium isolated fromurine  cultures  (48.3%  from  those  who  developed  recurrent  UTI.    The isolates tended to possess resistance to TMP / SMX and piperacillin but weresusceptible to imipenem.Conclusion:   Recurrent UTIs in renal transplant patients can be mitigated with proper identification of risk factors.

  6. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC).

  7. [Summary of the practice guideline 'Urinary-tract infections' (second revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pinxteren, B; van Vliet, S M; Wiersma, T J; Goudswaard, A N

    2006-04-01

    The 1999 practice guideline 'Urinary-tract infections' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners has been revised. Not only febrile urinary-tract infections are now regarded as 'complicated', but also all urinary-tract infections in men, pregnant women, children, and patients with kidney or urinary-tract disease, impaired immune response or an indwelling catheter. Under certain conditions, in women recognising the symptoms of an earlier uncomplicated urinary-tract infection, treatment may be instituted without performing supplementary urinalysis. The nitrite dipstick test and dipslide culturing are recommended for the diagnosis of urinary-tract infections; the value of the leukocyte esterase dipstick test is limited. A group-B streptococcal urinary-tract infection during pregnancy is an indication for intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis during the delivery. The recommended duration of treatment with nitrofurantoin is extended from three to five days. Both increased bacterial resistance to trimethoprim and the intention to reduce the use of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary-tract infections were reasons for including phosphomycin in the guideline. In addition to antibiotic prophylaxis, cranberry products may be of value in the prevention of recurrent urinary-tract infections.

  8. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tract infection confirmed by positive urine culture reports. Results: A total 3160 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. Out of which 956 (30.25% samples were found to have significant bacteriuria and remaining 2204 samples were found to have either non significant bacteriuria or very low bacterial count or sterile urine. In the present study, out of 223 isolated pathogens the most common isolate was Escherichia coli (25.89%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (2.94%, Proteus vulgaris (1.04% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.38 %. Age group most affected by Escherichia coli is 61-75 years (38.8%. Conclusions: Women are more susceptible to urinary tract infections, especially against Escherichia coli, resulting positive in 52.4% of cases; while Proteus vulgaris have a female percentage of 57.7%. This percentage increased slightly among women infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 58% and low in 61.5% infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. Clinical study on interventions to indwelling catheter-associacted urinary tract infections%留置导尿相关尿路感染干预措施的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕东杰; 王永梅; 李燕; 关冰; 罗珊

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨干预措施对留置导尿管相关尿路感染的影响,为临床有效减低和控制留置导尿管相关尿路感染提供依据。方法随机抽取2013年7月1日-2014年6月30日120例住院需要进行留置导尿管的患者,排除置管前已经发生尿路感染患者,将其随机分为 A 、B 组各60例 ,A 组按照临床常规留置导尿管方法、术中护理等操作,B 组采取干预措施,根据患者的自身条件选择适合的导尿管,排除尿管因素引发的感染,操作时严格执行规范要求,留置导尿管后采取正确操作与护理,减少人为因素导致的感染。结果 A 组患者留置导尿管发生尿路感染率为50.0%、B 组为20.0%;留置导尿管3、7、10、15 d 患者发生尿路感染率 B 组分别 0、3.3%、6.7%、10.0%,A 组分别为 3.3%、10.0%、16.7%、20.0%。结论采取有效的干预措施,严格执行标准操作、掌握留置导尿管的适应证、尽量缩短留置导尿时间,可有效控制导尿管相关尿路感染的发生。%OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of the interventions on indwelling catheter-associated urinary tract infections so as to provide guidance for effective clinical control of the indwelling catheter-associated urinary tract infections .METHODS A total of 120 patients who were hospitalized from Jul 1 ,2013 to Jun 30 ,2014 and needed to undergo urinary catheterization were randomly included in the study ,while the patients who had the urinary tract infections before the catheterization were excluded ;the participants were randomly divided into the group A and group B ,with 60 cases in each .The group A was treated with conventional clinical catheter indwelling method and the intraoperative care ;the interventions were taken in the group B ,appropriate catheters were chosen based on the self condition of the patients ,the cases of infections induced by the factor of catheters were excluded

  10. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Bezerra da Silva, Rossânia; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Melo, Priscylla Hellouyse Angelo; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira; Micussi, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To assess lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause and the quality of life of females with incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] The sample consisted of 302 females, aged between 40 and 56 years, divided into three groups: PRE (n= 81), PERI (n= 108) and POST (n= 113). This was a cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Data were collected by assessment chart and conducting the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. [Results] Most of the women had less than 10 years of schooling and were married. In PERI and POST menopause, the most frequent lower urinary tract symptoms were urinary urgency and stress incontinence. The PRE group did not exhibit nocturia, urge incontinence or urinary urgency, and had the lowest symptoms frequency. In the three stages, stress incontinence was the most prevalent symptom. Of the three menopause stages, PERI had a greater impact on urinary incontinence according to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. [Conclusion] The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms can vary across the different stages of menopause and the urinary incontinence was the most frequent complaint. Moreover, it was observed that quality of life was more affected in the perimenopause stage.

  11. Female stress and urge incontinence in family practice: insight into the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktrup, L

    2002-11-01

    As many as 25% of all women are affected by urinary incontinence, but only a few are treated. This frequent, often medically unrecognised, condition occurs in women of all ages. The continence mechanism is based on bladder detrusor control, intact anatomical structures in and around the urethra, correct positioning of the bladder neck and a comprehensive innervation of the lower urinary tract. Age and childbearing are established risk factors for the development of urinary incontinence, but other factors are currently suggested. The evaluation of urinary incontinence should include history, gynaecological examination, urine test, frequency-volume diary and a pad-weighing test. Female urinary incontinence can be treated in general practice by simple means, e.g. pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, electrostimulation, drug therapy, or a combination of these approaches. This review updates the knowledge of the continence mechanism and summarises the epidemiology, risk factors, assessment and treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

  12. Azithromycin-Ciprofloxacin-Impregnated Urinary Catheters Avert Bacterial Colonization, Biofilm Formation, and Inflammation in a Murine Model of Foreign-Body-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Hina; Vadekeetil, Anitha; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multifaceted pathogen causing a variety of biofilm-mediated infections, including catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The high prevalence of CAUTIs in hospitals, their clinical manifestations, such as urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, meningitis, urosepsis, and death, and the associated economic challenges underscore the need for management of these infections. Biomaterial modification of urinary catheters with two drugs seems an interesting approach to combat CAUTIs by inhibiting biofilm. Previously, we demonstrated the in vitro efficacy of urinary catheters impregnated with azithromycin (AZM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) against P. aeruginosa Here, we report how these coated catheters impact the course of CAUTI induced by P. aeruginosa in a murine model. CAUTI was established in female LACA mice with uncoated or AZM-CIP-coated silicone implants in the bladder, followed by transurethral inoculation of 10(8) CFU/ml of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. AZM-CIP-coated implants (i) prevented biofilm formation on the implant's surface (P ≤ 0.01), (ii) restricted bacterial colonization in the bladder and kidney (P < 0.0001), (iii) averted bacteriuria (P < 0.0001), and (iv) exhibited no major histopathological changes for 28 days in comparison to uncoated implants, which showed persistent CAUTI. Antibiotic implants also overcame implant-mediated inflammation, as characterized by trivial levels of inflammatory markers such as malondialdehyde (P < 0.001), myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05), reactive oxygen species (P ≤ 0.001), and reactive nitrogen intermediates (P < 0.01) in comparison to those in uncoated implants. Further, AZM-CIP-coated implants showed immunomodulation by manipulating the release of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10 to the benefit of the host. Overall, the study demonstrates long-term in vivo effectiveness of AZM-CIP-impregnated catheters, which may

  13. Anatomo-pathological and epidemiological analysis of urinary tract lesions in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Fonseca Sapin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In dogs, diseases of the urinary tract are common and can be caused by disorders of varied etiology. The objective of this study was to classify qualitatively and quantitatively urinary tract lesions of 363 dogs, which were classified according to its anatomical distribution and etiology. The data was obtained from the revision of 36 years of protocols from the Regional Laboratory of Diagnosis (LRD/UFPel and it represents 4.0% of diagnoses from a total of 8980 for that period and species. Renal injury accounted for 93.1% of cases, with 309 being primary kidney lesions; from which the main lesions were the tubulointerstitial nephritis (142 cases often associated with Leptospirosis (47. Injuries of lower urinary tract accounted for 6.9% of the cases where acute cystitis stands out (19. In this study, renal failure, acute or chronic, represented an important cause of death in dogs.

  14. Long-Term Lithium Use and Risk of Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Jensen, Boye L;

    2015-01-01

    -term use of lithium and risk of upper urinary tract cancer, including renal cell cancer and cancers of the renal pelvis or ureter. We identified all histologically verified upper urinary tract cancer cases in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 from the Danish Cancer Registry. A total of 6477 cases were matched...... stratified by stage and subtype of upper urinary tract cancer revealed slight but nonsignificant increases in the ORs for localized disease (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and for renal pelvis/ureter cancers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.5-5.4). In conclusion, in our nationwide case-control study, use of lithium......Lithium induces proliferation in the epithelium of renal collecting ducts. A recent small-scale cohort study reported a strong association between use of lithium and increased risk of renal neoplasia. We therefore conducted a large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic study of the association between long...

  15. Recurrent urinary tract infections in an adult with a duplicated renal collecting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Junaid; Mohareb, Amir M; Bilori, Bilori

    2016-12-01

    Because of advancements in fetal imaging, anatomic variants of the genitourinary tract are most often discovered in the antenatal period. As such, general internists are less likely to encounter adult patients with previously undiagnosed anatomic abnormalities of the renal collecting system, such as duplicated kidneys. These abnormalities put patients at risk for urinary obstruction and recurrent infections of the urinary tract. We report the case of a 40-year-old diabetic patient with a previously undiagnosed duplex kidney who had recurrent episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis triggered by urinary tract infections. She was ultimately found to have abscess formation in the duplicated renal moiety. We reviewed the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of duplex kidneys. We also reviewed the indications for renal imaging in adult patients with similar clinical presentations.

  16. Long-Term Lithium Use and Risk of Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Jensen, Boye L; Madsen, Kirsten; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lithium induces proliferation in the epithelium of renal collecting ducts. A recent small-scale cohort study reported a strong association between use of lithium and increased risk of renal neoplasia. We therefore conducted a large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic study of the association between long-term use of lithium and risk of upper urinary tract cancer, including renal cell cancer and cancers of the renal pelvis or ureter. We identified all histologically verified upper urinary tract cancer cases in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 from the Danish Cancer Registry. A total of 6477 cases were matched by age and sex to 259,080 cancer-free controls. Data on lithium use from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the Danish Prescription Registry. We estimated the association between long-term use of lithium (≥5 years) and risk of upper urinary tract cancer using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Long-term use of lithium was observed among 0.22% of cases and 0.17% of controls. This yielded an overall nonsignificant adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.8-2.2) for upper urinary tract cancer associated with long-term use of lithium. Analyses stratified by stage and subtype of upper urinary tract cancer revealed slight but nonsignificant increases in the ORs for localized disease (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and for renal pelvis/ureter cancers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.5-5.4). In conclusion, in our nationwide case-control study, use of lithium was not associated with an increased risk of upper urinary tract cancer.

  17. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and dysfunction of the female lower urinary tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Cécile A; Tunitsky-Bitton, Elena; Muffly, Tyler; Barber, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    The 2 major functions of the lower urinary tract are the storage and emptying of urine. These processes are controlled by complex neurophysiologic mechanisms and are subject to injury and disease. When there is disruption of the neurologic control centers, dysfunction of the lower urinary tract may occur. This is sometimes referred to as the "neurogenic bladder." The manifestation of dysfunction depends on the level of injury and severity of disruption. Patients with lesions above the spinal cord often have detrusor overactivity with no disruption in detrusor-sphincter coordination. Patients with well-defined suprasacral spinal cord injuries usually present with intact reflex detrusor activity but have detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, whereas injuries to or below the sacral spinal cord usually lead to persistent detrusor areflexia. A complete gynecologic, urologic, and neurologic examination should be performed when evaluating patients with neurologic lower urinary tract dysfunction. In addition, urodynamic studies and neurophysiologic testing can be used in certain circumstances to help establish diagnosis or to achieve better understanding of a patient's vesicourethral functioning. In the management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, the primary goal is improvement of a patient's quality of life. Second to this is the prevention of chronic damage to the bladder and kidneys, which can lead to worsening impairment and symptoms. Treatment is often multifactorial, including behavioral modifications, bladder training programs, and pharmacotherapy. Surgical procedures are often a last resort option for management. An understanding of the basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of the lower urinary tract can guide providers in their evaluation and treatment of patients who present with lower urinary tract disorders. As neurologic diseases progress, voiding function often changes or worsens, necessitating a good understanding of the underlying physiology in question.

  18. Case Study: Transitional Care For a Patient with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bradway, Christine; Bixby, M. Brian; Hirschman, Karen B.; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D

    2013-01-01

    Chronic urologic conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia, recurrent urinary tract infections, and urinary incontinence, are common in older adults. This article highlights the urologic and transitional care needs of an elderly, cognitively impaired male during and after an acute hospitalization. Collaboration between the patient, his family, the advanced practice nurse, primary care providers, and outpatient urology office are described. The importance of mutual goal setting and a ...

  19. "Emergence of Multidrug Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections"

    OpenAIRE

    R Moniri; Khorshidi, A; H Akbari

    2003-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli has complicated treatment decision and may lead to treatment failures. From April to November 2001 we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), gentamicin, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin in 220 Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections in kashan, Iran. To assess the current breadth of multidrug resistance among urinary isolates of E. c...

  20. Experience with Fosfomycin for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Neuner, Elizabeth A.; Sekeres, Jennifer; Hall, Gerri S.; van Duin, David

    2012-01-01

    Fosfomycin has shown promising in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary pathogens; however, clinical data are lacking. We conducted a retrospective chart review to describe the microbiological and clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) with MDR pathogens treated with fosfomycin tromethamine. Charts for 41 hospitalized patients with a urine culture for an MDR pathogen who received fosfomycin tromethamine from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed. Forty-one patients had 4...

  1. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacteremia originating from Urinary Tract Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infec...

  3. Pathogen distribution and drug resistance of nephrology patients with urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pathogen distribution characteristics of nephrology patients with urinary tract infections are studied, and drug resistance of nephrology and urinary tract infection disease are analyzed, so as to provide sufficient evidence for treatment of patients. Methods: Conduct randomized control study of 3500 cases of nephrology patients with urinary tract infections treated in different hospitals from December 2013 to December 2015, isolate pathogens in patients’ urine samples, perform identification and drug sensitive test and then conduct detailed analysis of drug resistance of pathogens. Results: Through isolation of pathogens, it can be found that all pathogens include Escherichia coli, Gram-positive cocci, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, and urinary Enterococcus. Among them, proportion of E. coli is the largest. Patients have relatively high drug resistance to ceftriaxone, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: For nephrology patients with urinary tract infection, the main pathogen is E. coli, which has had some drug resistance. Drug resistance detection of pathogen should be strengthened in clinics, so as to provide strong guidance for clinical treatment and promote effective treatment of patients.

  4. Spectrum of bacterial colonization associated with urothelial cells from patients with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasriya, Rajvinder; Sathiananthamoorthy, Sanchutha; Ismail, Salim; Kelsey, Michael; Wilson, Mike; Rohn, Jennifer L; Malone-Lee, James

    2013-07-01

    Chronic lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), such as urgency and incontinence, are common, especially among the elderly, but their etiology is often obscure. Recent studies of acute urinary tract infections implicated invasion by Escherichia coli into the cytoplasm of urothelial cells, with persistence of long-term bacterial reservoirs, but the role of infection in chronic LUTS is unknown. We conducted a large prospective study with eligible patients with LUTS and controls over a 3-year period, comparing routine urine cultures of planktonic bacteria with cultures of shed urothelial cells concentrated in centrifuged urinary sediments. This comparison revealed large numbers of bacteria undetected by routine cultures. Next, we typed the bacterial species cultured from patient and control sediments under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and we found that the two groups had complex but significantly distinct profiles of bacteria associated with their shed bladder epithelial cells. Strikingly, E. coli, the organism most responsible for acute urinary tract infections, was not the only or even the main offending pathogen in this more-chronic condition. Antibiotic protection assays with shed patient cells and in vitro infection studies using patient-derived strains in cell culture suggested that LUTS-associated bacteria are within or extremely closely associated with shed epithelial cells, which explains how routine cultures might fail to detect them. These data have strong implications for the need to rethink our common diagnoses and treatments of chronic urinary tract symptoms.

  5. [Complete lower urinary tract duplication with true diphallia associated to anorrectal and neural malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao, M J; Zambudio, G; Nortes, L; Jiménez, J I Ruiz

    2008-10-01

    We report a case of complete urinary tract duplication with true diphallia associated to intestinal and neural anomalies. Complete penile duplication with hypospadias and bifidum scrotum were showed. Moreover, he had got anorrectal disease (anterior anus) and neural tube defects (myelomeningocele). Radiological and functional studies were performed and complete duplication lower urinary tract with coordinate miction were found. Combined surgical approach were used: perineal to remove lateralized and hypospadic penile and abdominal for cystoplasty. We report a case due to the extremely low prevalence. Only 15 cases have been described in the literature.

  6. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  7. Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, C. Svanborg; Freter, R.; Hagberg, L.; Hull, R.; Hull, S.; Leffler, H.; Schoolnik, G.

    1982-08-01

    It has been shown that the establishment of urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli is dependent on attachment of the bacteria to epithelial cells1-4. The attachment involves specific epithelial cell receptors, which have been characterized as glycolipids5-10. Reversible binding to cell-surface mannosides may also be important4,11-13. This suggests an approach to the treatment of infections-that of blocking bacterial attachment with cell membrane receptor analogues. Using E. coli mutants lacking one or other of the two binding specificities (glycolipid and mannose), we show here that glycolipid analogues can block in vitro adhesion and in vivo urinary tract infection.

  8. Estrogen therapy in older patients with recurrent urinary tract infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, S; Pastijn, A; Gevers, R; Murillo, D

    2004-01-01

    Although urogenital complaints, such as recurrent lower urinary tract infections (UTI), and dysuria, are commonly encountered in elderly women, few women have participated in randomized studies of estrogen therapy for this condition. This is a paradox in view of the often cited beneficial effect of estrogen in reducing the incidence of UTI. Present evidence documents that in postmenopausal women, hormone replacement therapy using topical estrogen normalizes the vaginal flora and greatly reduces the risk of vaginal atrophy. Similarly, vaginal estrogen administration seems to be effective for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI).

  9. TERMINALIA CHEBULA: A TREATMENT AGAINST PATHOGENIC PROTEUS VULGARIS STRAINS ASSOCIATED WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq. A. L; Reyaz. A. L

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia chebula was used to find out the new sort of treatment for the urinary tract infections caused by Proteus vulgaris. The causative agent was identified as Proteus vulgaris by staining and biochemical methods. It is responsible to cause urinary tract infection and most of strains show the resistance against the broad spectrum antibiotics: Ceftazidime (30μg), Ofloxacin (50μg), Norfloxacin (30μg), Tetracycline (30μg), Ampicillin (30μg), Chloramphenicol (25μg) and Gentamycin (20μg). The...

  10. Correlation of urinary lactic dehydrogenase with polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, G M; Canawati, H N; Keyser, A J; Ibrahim, M Z; Montgomerie, J Z

    1983-01-01

    A number of indirect methods have been developed to determine the site of urinary tract infection, including the measurement of LDH in urine [1]. Although LDH has been thought to be from the kidneys, it has also been noted that leukocytes could contribute LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5 [2]. Seventeen patients with injured spinal cords and significant bacteriuria were included in this study. Urine specimens obtained by urethral catheter were cultured, and PMNLs identified with Sternheimer-Malbin stain were counted in a hemacytometer. A positive test for antibody-coated bacteria and the lack of patient response to five to 10 days of antibiotic therapy were used as an indication of upper urinary tract infection. Levels of LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5 (cathodal) correlated with the number of PMNLs in the urine (r = 0.63, P less than 0.01). There was no correlation of PMNLs with LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2 (r = 0.18). In addition, there was no correlation of LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5 with the level of urinary tract infection. These results suggest that the PMNLs in the urine are the source of the LDH isoenzymes 4 and 5.

  11. Non-invasive diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelke, M.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis summarizes nine published articles and deals with the diagnostic value of morphological changes in the lower urinary tract in adult men with LUTS associated with BOO. Until recently, no morphological change of the lower urinary tract could safely diagnose BOO. Therefore, the value of ultr

  12. Outcomes of Aminopenicillin Therapy for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcal Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kelli A.; Perri, Mary Beth; Dumkow, Lisa E.; Samuel, Linoj P.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Davis, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant urinary tract infections are often challenging to treat. This retrospective cohort study compared outcomes between patients treated for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection with an aminopenicillin and those treated with a non-β-lactam antibiotic. Inpatients treated with an enterococcus-active agent for their first symptomatic vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infection between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013 were considered for inclusion. Patients with colonization, on hospice, or receiving comfort care only were excluded. The primary endpoint of clinical cure was defined as resolution of clinical symptoms, or symptom improvement to the extent that no additional antibacterial drug therapy was necessary, and lack of microbiologic persistence. Secondary endpoints of 30-day readmission or retreatment and 30-day all-cause mortality were also compared. A total of 316 urinary isolates were screened, and 61 patients with symptomatic urinary tract infection were included. Twenty (35%) of the 57 isolates tested were ampicillin susceptible. Thirty-one patients received an aminopenicillin, and 30 received a non-β-lactam. Rates of clinical cure for aminopenicillin versus non-β-lactam treatment were 26/31 (83.9%) and 22/30 (73.3%) (P = 0.315), respectively. Rates of 30-day readmission (6/31, or 19.4%, versus 9/30, or 30%, respectively; P = 0.334), 30-day retreatment (4/31, or 12.9%, versus 4/30, 13.3%, respectively; P = 0.960), and 30-day all-cause mortality (2/31, or 6.5%, versus 1/30, or 3.3%, respectively; P = 0.573) were also not significantly different between groups. Aminopenicillins may be a viable option for treating vancomycin-resistant urinary tract infection regardless of the organism's ampicillin susceptibility. Prospective validation with larger cohorts of patients should be considered. PMID:26369973

  13. Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs

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    Massimo Tonolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector CT and MRI allow comprehensive investigation of C-UTIs and systemic infection from an unknown source. Based upon personal experience at a tertiary care hospital focused on the treatment of infectious illnesses, this pictorial essay reviews with examples the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging findings of C-UTIs affecting the lower urinary tract and male genital organs. The disorders presented include acute infectious cystitis, bladder mural abscesses, infections of the prostate and seminal vesicles, acute urethritis and related perineal abscesses, funiculitis, epididymo-orchitis and scrotal abscesses. Emphasis is placed on the possible differential diagnoses of lower C-UTIs. The aim is to provide radiologists greater familiarity with these potentially severe disorders which frequently require intensive in-hospital antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage or surgery. Teaching Points • Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural or functional risk factors. • CT and MRI comprehensively investigate complicated urinary infections and sepsis from unknown sources. • Infections of the urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra and scrotum are presented. • Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses of complicated lower urogenital infections. • Unsuspected urinary infections may be detected on CT

  14. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction: how, when, and with which patients do we use urodynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Teresa L; Ginsberg, David A

    2014-08-01

    Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) affects many patients and requires close monitoring. Initial studies establishing patients at risk for upper tract disease revealed that high detrusor leak point pressures were predictive of upper tract disease. Urodynamics in patients with NLUTD have specific challenges. Initial studies in patients after an acute injury should be delayed until after the spinal shock phase. In children with spinal dysraphism, studies should be done early to established potential risk. The goals are maintaining low bladder pressures, decreasing risk of infection, and maintaining continence.

  15. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mayumi SUZUKI; Yoshihiko ITO; Tomomi FUJINO; Masayuki ABE; Satomi ONOUE; Keizo UMEGAKI; Hiroshi NOGUCHI; Shizuo YAMADA

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a thera-peutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5α-reductase. Today, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically rel-evant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as α1-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine recep-tors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of α1-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the under-standing of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  16. MICROORGANISMS ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY DETERMINATION IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays Urinary tract infections (UTI are considered to be the most common bacterial infections. Escherichia coli is the most frequently uropathogen. Other microorganisms of the genera Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Morganella, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Candida are also isolated with variable frequency. In recent years there has been a decreasing tendency of the causative agents of UTI sensitivity to various antibiotics, which causes growth of an inefficiency treatment risk. In connection with the above the investigations were carried out with the purpose to identify the actual causative agents of bacteriuria and their sensitivity to antibiotics and antifungal drugs. Materials and methods. Bacteriological examination of urine was performed at 42 patients of SI "Sytenko Institute of Spine and Joint Pathology, AMS of Ukraine" clinic. The bacteriological method for determining the number of bacteria in the test material, cultural and bacterioscopic methods for identifying microorganisms and disk-diffusion method for sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics determining were used. The clinical material for the study was an average portion of the morning urine or urine collected by catheter. The biological material collection and bacteriological examination was carried by quantitative method, the isolated microorganisms identification and their sensitivity to antibiotics determining was performed by standard methods in accordance with current guidelines. We used the following antibiotics group to determine the microorganisms sensitivity: penicillin, cephalosporin, karbapenems, tetracyclines, aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolones, oxazolidinones, macrolides, lincosamides, glycopeptides, antifungal antibiotics. Results and discussion. During the biological material study 55 isolates of bacterial and fungal pathogens were obtained. The microorganisms’ concentration in urine was in

  17. Multi-slice computed tomography urography after diuretic injection in children with urinary tract dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosucu, P.; Ahmetoglu, A.; Imamoglu, M.; Cay, A.; Ozdemir, O.; Dinc, H.; Kosucu, M.; Sari, A.; Saruhan, H.; Gumele, H.R. [Farabi Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the potential use of multi-slice computed tomography urography (MSCTU) after diuretic injection in children with urinary tract dilatation. MSCTU was performed in 19 patients (11 boys, 8 girls, mean age 5.4 years) with suspicion of urinary tract obstruction and dilatation. Furosemide, 1 mg/kg, was injected 3 min before contrast material administration and followed by a bolus of 30 ml of physiologic saline solution immediately after application of contrast material. Excretory-phase images were obtained through the abdomen and pelvis beginning 10 min after initiation of the injection of contrast material. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) images were post-processed to obtain urographic views. MSCTU revealed pathology in 16 of 19 patients, while 3 patients had normal findings. Ureteropelvic obstruction was found in 4 patients, obstructive megaureter in 8. Both ureteropelvic obstruction and obstructive megaureter were disclosed in 1 patient, partial ureteral duplication in 1 patient, and both complete ureteral duplication and ureterocele in 2 patients. In all patients, MIP and VR images could satisfactorily show the pathologies of the urinary tract. The estimated effective average doses of MSCTU were higher than IVU. Preliminary results of furosemide-enhanced MSCTU demonstrated consistently dilated urinary tracts, obstruction levels, and underlying pathologies better than US and IVU.

  18. Effectiveness of different diagnostic tools for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma

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    Yi-Sheng Tai

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Combining random urine cytology for 3 nonconsecutive days, upper urinary tract images, and URS biopsies provided an accurate diagnosis of UTUC. This study found that preoperative pyuria in urinalysis, non-enhancement in IVP or RP, and high-grade tumor in URS biopsy could predict high-grade tumor in RNU specimens.

  19. Detrusor instability in children with recurrent urinary tract infection and/or enuresis. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Nielsen, K K; Kristensen, E S

    1986-01-01

    Of 41 children, aged 5-15 years, referred consecutively because of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or enuresis, 18 (44%) showed detrusor instability (DI) in at least 2 of 6 CO2 cystometries. One child was excluded from the study because of lack of follow-up. Four children with less...

  20. Blueprinting the regulatory response of Escherichia coli to the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Patrick C; Hultgren, Scott J

    2005-06-01

    Recent work has shown how comparative genomic and microarray analyses can provide insights into the transcriptional state of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) during infection. This study will serve as an important platform from which to identify virulence determinants and the principle mechanisms of adaptation to the urinary tract.

  1. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Urinary Tract Successfully Managed with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

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    Mustapha Ahsaini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary tract is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary tract (SCC-UT is the association between bladder and urinary upper tract-small cell carcinoma (UUT-SCC. It characterized by an aggressive clinical course. The prognosis is poor due to local or distant metastases, and usually the muscle of the bladder is invaded. Case Presentation. We report a rare case of a 54-year-old Arab male native of moroccan; he is a smoker and was referred to our institution for intermittent hematuria. Following a diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ureter and the bladder, thoracoabdominal-pelvic CT was done, and the staging of the tumor was done in the bladder (T2N0M0 and (T1N0M0 in the ureter. Neoadjuvant alternating doublet chemotherapy with ifosfamide/doxorubicin and etoposide/cisplatin was realized, and nephroureterectomy associated to a cystoprostatectomy was carried out. After 24 months of followup, no local or distant metastasis was detected. Conclusion. The purpose of this review is to present a rare case of pure small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary tract and review the literature about the place of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in this rare tumors.

  2. Screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Andersen, M-B; Bernstein, I

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate if Urine Cytology (UC) is an appropriate screening procedure for detecting urinary tract neoplasia at an early stage in persons at risk in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer families. METHOD: In the National Danish HNPCC-register persons at risk ...

  3. Strategies for prevention of urinary tract infections in neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Lance L; Klausner, Adam P

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the problem of urinary tract infections (UTIs) after spinal cord injury and disorders is defined, the relationship of bladder management to UTIs is discussed, and mechanical and medical strategies for UTI prevention in spinal cord injury and disorders are described.

  4. The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are caused by different types of microbial agents such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Candida albicans. The presence of strong physical barriers may prevent the breach of pathogens into the urinary tract. However, sometimes the pathogenic microorganisms may pass through the barriers and stimulate the innate and adaptive responses. Among a variety of innate immune responses, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are one of the most unique and interesting molecules regarding UTIs. Thus, the authors have focused their attention on the role of TLRs in urinary tract defense against pathogenic microbial agents such as UPEC and C.albicans through this literature review. Material and methods Several papers regarding UTIs and TLRs including original and review articles were searched by PubMed and Google Scholar. They were studied and the most important aspects in association with the role of TLRs in UTIs were extracted. Additionally, this paper was prepared using the experience of the authors. Results The TLRs 2, 4 and 5 are the most functional molecules that contribute to urinary tract defense system and UTIs. It is incredible that TLRs are able to detect and recognize different parts of microbial components relating to the same pathogen. Besides, the flexibility of the TLR molecules may lead to identification of different types of microorganisms with different signaling pathways. Conclusions Our knowledge associated with TLRs and their activities against microbial causative agents of UTIs may help us to prevent, control and treat UTIs at a higher quality level. PMID:28127459

  5. GPs' treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections : a clinical judgement analysis in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummers-Pradier, E; Denig, P; Oke, T; Lagerlov, P; Wahlstrom, R; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM

    1999-01-01

    Background. Non-adherence to recommendations for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) is common, but the reasons are not sufficiently understood. Objectives. We aimed to assess and compare the influence of specific patient characteristics on GPs' treatment decisions for UTI in f

  6. A Rare Cause of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections, Female Urethral Diverticulum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Numan Yikilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A female urethral diverticulum is an uncommon pathologic entity. The most presentation of urethral diverticule has been described as lower urinary tract symptoms and dyspareunia. The case of female is presented, who consult with a vaginal mass and dyspareunia and current literature was reviewed.

  7. Urinary tract infection due to salmonella in an otherwise healthy child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Yosefi, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella species are a rare cause of urinary tract infection in children. They are associated with a high incidence of structural abnormalities or immunosuppressive status. We report the case of a healthy 7-year-old boy with pyelonephritis due to Salmonella group. He did not have a history of recent gastroenteritis.

  8. General practitioners do not systematically adhere to regional recommendations on treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Thea; Bjerrum, Lars; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uUTI) is a common reason for seeing a GP. In Denmark, it is debated if sulfamethizole or pivmecillinam should be recommended for empirical treatment of uUTIs. We evaluated sulfamethizole and pivmecillinam use in the five Danish regions from 2007...

  9. Urinary tract infection in male general practice patients: uropathogens and antibiotic susceptibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verbon, A.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Bartelds, A.; Donker, G.; Nys, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in male general practitioner (GP) patients presenting with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Material and Methods: A population-based study was conducted among males, 18 years and older, general practice patients,

  10. Different recommendations for empiric first-choice antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuiston Haslund, Josephine; Rosborg Dinesen, Marianne; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uUTI) is a common reason for antibiotic treatment in primary health care. Due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens it is crucial to use the most appropriate antibiotics for first-choice empiric treatment of u...

  11. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described i...

  12. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O78:H10, the cause of an outbreak of urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bente; Scheutz, Flemming; Andersen, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, multiresistant Escherichia coli O78:H10 strains caused an outbreak of urinary tract infections in Copenhagen, Denmark. The phylogenetic origin, clonal background, and virulence characteristics of the outbreak isolates, and their relationship to nonoutbreak O78:H10 strains according...

  13. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    of antimicrobial resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in companion animals in Europe. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 22 256 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI was determined. Samples were collected between 2008 and 2013 from 16 laboratories of 14 European countries...

  14. An Unusual Case of Urinary Tract Infection in a Pregnant Woman With Photobacterium damsela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus R. Alvarez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a urinary tract infection with an unusual pathogen, Photobacterium damsela, in a pregnant female. This pathogen has been described as having a virulent life threatening nature, so a detailed history and prompt treatment is needed.

  15. Diagnostic imaging in children with urinary tract infection: the role of intravenous urography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Wagner, A A; Lavard, L D

    1995-01-01

    Ninety children referred to hospital with urinary tract infection (UTI) were investigated by iv urography (IVU), ultrasonography (US) and 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA). Fifty-eight children also underwent micturating cystourethrography (MCUG). In 36 (40%) of the children, at least one...

  16. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Boettger, Bjoern; Berg, Bjoern

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This analysis was conducted to investigate urinary tract infection (UTI) incidence among Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Germany in a real-world setting and to identify risk factors associated with UTI incidence/recurrence. METHODS: Our cohort study was conducted based...

  17. Treatment failures after antibiotic therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. A prescription database study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Dessau, Ram B; Hallas, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of sulfamethizole and pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) has been questioned because of an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains. The aim of this study was to describe the risk of treatment failures over the last 10 years. DESIGN...

  18. Pediatric urinary tract infection: imaging techniques with special reference to voiding cystoerethrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Blickman

    1991-01-01

    textabstractUrinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infection in childhood. Large hospital-based pediatric series report an incidence of 3-5%. Dickinson prospectively determined that 1.7/1000 boys and 3.1/1 000 girls annually present with a UTI. This corresponds to about 780 girls an

  19. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

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    Justyna Bien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs.

  20. The additional value of blood cultures in patients with complicated urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, V.; Prins, J.M.; Opmeer, B.C.; Reijke, T.M. de; Hulscher, M.E.; Geerlings, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated 800 hospitalized patients with a complicated urinary tract infection, from whom both a blood and a urine culture were obtained on the first day of antibiotic treatment. Urine cultures were positive in 70% of patients, and blood cultures were positive in 29%. In 7% of patients, uropathog

  1. Fighting urinary tract infections with antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Lluis

    2016-06-25

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) place a considerable burden on the patient and are associated with substantial economic cost. Treatment of UTIs is mainly achieved using antibiotics, however, the rise in antibiotic resistance is concerning and the use of non-antimicrobial prophylaxis offers alternative treatment methods.

  2. The diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of acute and recurrent pediatric urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute UTI and recurrent UTI in children remain controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent UTI in the pediatric population.

  3. Do type 1 fimbriae promote inflammation in the human urinary tract?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsten, G.; Wullt, B.; Schembri, Mark;

    2007-01-01

    . This was unexpected, as type 1 fimbriae enhanced the inflammatory response to the same strain in the murine urinary tract and as P fimbrial expression by E. coli 83972 enhances adherence and inflammation in challenged patients. We conclude that type 1 fimbriae do not contribute to the mucosal inflammatory response...

  4. Bactericidal antibody response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by adults with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, D L; Ourth, D D

    1979-01-01

    In this investigation we found that adults with upper urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced serum antibodies with bactericidal activity against the bacterium. Seventeen of 20 infected adults showed bactericidal activity with a titer range of 1:10 to 1:10,000. PMID:117024

  5. MAIN PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND UROSEPSIS AFTER ALLOGENIC KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krstić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents recent data on urinary tract infections and urosepsis after allogeneic kidney transplantation. Urosepsis is an extremely serious complication in these patients. Differentiated approach to early etiological, pa- thogenetic diagnosis still remains a priority problem of modern transplantation, as mortality in urosepsis remains high and is at least 60%. 

  6. Prevention of clinical urinary tract infections in vulnerable very old persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caljouw, Monique Adriana Anna

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently reported infections among older persons. UTI not only causes several days of illness but may have more severe consequences, such as a decline in functioning, as well as delirium, dehydration, urosepsis, hospitalization, or even death. Annu

  7. Urinary tract stone in patients with spinal cord injury: a retrospective radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eun Joo; Lee, Jong Koo; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To compare the incidence between author's first and current report on urinary tract stone in patient with spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effectiveness of recent developed in medical technology and care on in treating the patients. We reviewed urinary tract stone in 257 patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia after spinal cord injury. These patients were diagnosed retrospectively by KUB and intravenous urography at the Korea Veterans Hospital during 10 years from January, 1984 to December, 1993. We evaluated and compared the overall incidence, incidence of specific location of urinary tract, recurrent rate, incidence according to the level of spinal cord injury, and the duration of development in urinary tract stone. Total patients were 257 with 186 (72.4%) paraplegia and 71 (27.6%) quadriplegia. Overall incidence of the stone was 16.0% in this study and 38.1% in the first study. Incidence of the stone in individual organ; 5.5% in kidney, 1.2% in ureter, and 13.6% in urinary bladder. The recurrent rate was 29.3% in this study and 40.6% in the first study. Incidence of the stone according to the level of spinal cord injury was as follows; 15.6% in cervix, 17.1% in upper thorax, 17.9% in lower thorax and 13.9% in lumbar. The stone developed during the first 4 years and between 12 to 16 years following spinal cord injury was 28.3% each. Overall incidence and recurrent rate of urinary tract stone was obviously decreased since the first study. Highest incidence of the stone occurred in urinary bladder and in patient with lower thoracic spinal cord injury, which is similar to first report. Peak incidence of the stone was in the first 4 years, and another peak was in 12-16 years after spinal cord injury. The decreased overall incidence of urinary tract stone maybe attributable to the development in medical technology and care, and active rehabilitation.

  8. Analysing risk factors for urinary tract infection based on automated monitoring of hospital-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, J D; Leth, R A; Møller, J K

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections account for as much as one-third of all nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to examine previously reported characteristics of patients with hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) using an automated infection monitoring system (Hospital-Acquired Infection Registry: HAIR). A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association of risk factors with HA-UTI. Patients with HA-UTI more frequently had indwelling urinary catheters or a disease in the genitourinary or nervous system than the controls. Automated hospital-acquired infection monitoring enables documentation of key risk factors to better evaluate infection control interventions in general or for selected groups of patients.

  9. [A Case of Hyperammonemia Caused by Urinary Tract Infection Due to Urease-Producing Bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Masahiro; Tsuchihashi, Kazunari; Shimizu, Yosuke; Kanamaru, Sojun; Matoba, Shun; Ito, Noriyuki

    2016-08-01

    We present here a rare case of hyperammonemia without liver dysfunction or portal-systemic shunting. The patient was an 80-year-old woman with a history of neurogenic bladder. She was admitted to a nearby hospital for vomiting, diarrhea and consciousness disturbance. Two days after admission, she was transferred to our hospital because of persistant consciousness disturbance. Laboratory data revealed hyperammonemia, but there was no indication of liver dysfunction. Moreover abdominal computed tomography did not reveal any clear finding of liver disease or portal-systemic shunting, but we noted multiple large bladder diverticula. Antibiotic therapy, tracheal intubation, ventilator management and bladder catheterization were performed. The patient's level of consciousness improved rapidly. Urinary culture revealed Bacteroides ureolyticus (urease-producing bacteria). The patient was diagnosed with hyperammonemia and a urinary tract infection due to urease-producing bacteria. Thus, physicians should be aware that obstructive urinary tract infections due to urease-producing bacteria can also be the cause of hyperammonemia.

  10. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  11. [Bacterial adherence in pathogenesis of urinary tract infectious].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piédrola Angulo, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of a colonization and later urinary infection is due to a first contact among a series of structures of the bacterium, denominated adhesins (fimbrica or no-fimbrica) and some receivers or ligands of the surface of the urinary epitelium. The bacterial fimbriae of Escherichia coli, of those that have been studied up to seven different types, are protean structures coded by the chromosomal DNA, being the most important those of type 1, in connection with the colonization of the low roads, and the type P, with the cystitis and pyelonephritis. They are studied with detail their different protean components and the very complex genetic regulation of their production, made of great interest in the pathogeny of these infections and in the possibility of their prevention. The receivers of each fimbriae type are also chemically different, and their knowledge would explain important clinical data.

  12. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Associated Risk Factors in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Alijahan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection, as a risk factor for adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes, is one of the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of urinary tract infection and its associated risk factors in pregnant women. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional analytical study a total 2496 pregnant women who were underwent prenatal care through July 2011 in three rural and six urban health centers of Ardabil city, were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was performed using a self designed questionnaire from women's prenatal care records, 240 pregnant women with positive urine culture were considered as a case group and the remaining as a control group. Data were analyzed through Kruskal – Wallis, Chi-square and Stepwise Logistic Regression statistical tests using SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence of urinary tract infection was 9.7%. Low socioeconomic status ( p=0.021, OR= 2/338, CI= 1/138-4/766,distance between pregnancies less than 3 years( p=0.026, OR= 2/137, CI= 1/093-4/141,and hyperemesis gravidarum( p=0.039, OR=2/06, CI= 1/038-4/098were determined as risk factors that significantly contribute to urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Conclusion: We conclude that appropriate distance between pregnancies, intensive care of pregnant women with low socioeconomic status and hyperemesis gravidarum may significantly prevent urinary tract infection and its related adverse health effects among pregnant women. K

  13. Multislice computed tomography urography in the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT has triggered considerable changes in uroradiological imaging. The aim of this study was to establish the place of MSCT urography (MSCTU in comparison with intravenous urography (IVU and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MSCT in the evaluation of urothelial abnormalities. Methods. This prospective study included 120 patients with a high clinical suspicion of urinary tract diseases divided into two groups. The group I consisted of 60 patients with macroscopic hematuria, bladder carcinoma and malignant pelvic tumors after radiotherapy or operation. They underwent both IVU and MSCTU. The group II included 60 patients (≥ 40 years old with retroperitoneal and malignant pelvic tumors, complicated pyelonephritis, microscopic hematuria, acute urinary tract obstruction (without visible calculi on unenhanced scans, and they were submitted to computed tomography with additional scan phase enabling MSCTU. Results. Compared with IVU, MSCTU is more sensitive for the detection of urinary tract diseases (parenchymal changes, renal tumors, urolithiasis, fibrosis and extraurinary processes. MSCTU is more specific than IVU for renal parenchymal abnormalities, tumors of the excretory system, urolithiasis, bladder tumors, fibrosis and extraurinary diseases. MSCTU is equally sensitive, but more specific for hydronephrosis compared to MSCT. The diagnosis made by the use of MSCTU in patients with macroscopic and microscopic hematuria and with obstruction not caused by stones, perfectly comply with operative findings and histological diagnosis. Conclusion. The obtained results support MSCTU to be the modality of choice in the diagnostic algorithm of patients with macroscopic hematuria and in the evaluation of microscopic hematuria and unexplained obstruction of the urinary tract. The only remaining role for IVU in our institution is imaging of the upper urinary tract in patients with hematuria under

  14. Recurrent urinary tract infections in young children: role of DMSA scintigraphy in detecting vesicoureteric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Nadeem, Naila [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan); Zaman, Maseeh Uz [Aga Khan University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2014-07-04

    Performing micturiting cystourethrography (MCUG) in young children with recurrent urinary tract infections is controversial with discrepancy among the major guidelines. Previous studies have shown that a normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy may avoid the need of performing MCUG for detecting vesicoureteric reflux in children with first febrile urinary tract infection. However, the role of DMSA for ruling out vesicoureteric reflux in children with recurrent urinary tract infections has not been studied. Approval from institutional ethical review committee was sought and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 50 children under the age of 10 years with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent MCUG scan within 3 months of DMSA scan from January 2011 to September 2012 at our institution. Diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and grading of vesicoureteric reflux was according to previously established standards. Abnormalities on DMSA scan - scarring, hydronephrosis and reduced differential renal function - were compared with presence of vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG. High-grade vesicoureteric reflux was noted on MCUG in 22 (44%) cases. The findings on DMSA included hydronephrosis and scarring in 25 (50%) and 25 (50%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities on DMSA scan for detecting the presence of high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG examination had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 35.71%, 53.85% and 90.91%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.48 and 0.13 respectively. DMSA scan had high overall sensitivity and negative predictive value with a low negative likelihood ratio for ruling out high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG, which may obviate the need of invasive MCUG along with its associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  15. Copper Is a Host Effector Mobilized to Urine during Urinary Tract Infection To Impair Bacterial Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyre, Amanda N; Kavanagh, Kylie; Kock, Nancy D; Donati, George L; Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan

    2017-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC upregulates the expression of Cu efflux genes during clinical UTI in patients as an adaptive response to host-derived Cu. Whether Cu is mobilized to urine as a host response to UTI and its role in protection against UTI remain unresolved. To address these questions, we tested the hypothesis that Cu is a host effector mobilized to urine during UTI to limit bacterial growth. Our results reveal that Cu is mobilized to urine during UTI caused by the major uropathogens Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in addition to UPEC, in humans. Ceruloplasmin, a Cu-containing ferroxidase, is found at higher levels in UTI urine than in healthy control urine and serves as the molecular source of urinary Cu during UTI. Our results demonstrate that ceruloplasmin decreases the bioavailability of iron in urine by a transferrin-dependent mechanism. Experimental UTI with UPEC in nonhuman primates recapitulates the increased urinary Cu content observed during clinical UTI. Furthermore, Cu-deficient mice are highly colonized by UPEC, indicating that Cu is involved in the limiting of bacterial growth within the urinary tract. Collectively, our results indicate that Cu is a host effector that is involved in protection against pathogen colonization of the urinary tract. Because urinary Cu levels are amenable to modulation, augmentation of the Cu-based host defense against UTI represents a novel approach to limiting bacterial colonization during UTI.

  16. Urinary tract infections in healthy women: a revolution in management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Mar Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary infection in otherwise healthy women has largely been a straightforward matter of diagnosis by identifying bacteria in the urine, and then cure by appropriate antibiotics. Recent research has shown this to be over-simplified. Evaluation of methods of self-management of symptoms has been neglected. Discussion Firstly trial data show that women with what used to called 'urethral syndrome' (urinary symptoms but sterile urine obtain relief from antibiotics. Other trial data have shown a surprisingly large placebo effect from the resolution of symptoms among women who feel their care has been 'positive'. In addition, data published this month in BMC Medicine show that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID drugs provide symptom relief to women with conventional infections (positive urine bacteriology as much as antibiotics. Conclusions These recent findings provide an opportunity to consider how clinicians might change practice, and sets a new research agenda. We need to know (1 whether the effect of NSAIDs is replicable; (2 why some women in previous trials have had more symptoms if not treated with antibiotics sooner; (3 whether NSAIDs and antibiotics have an additive effect on relieving symptoms; (4 how we can harness the placebo effect better to assist out patients with this distressing and common complaint. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/8/30

  17. Stented ureterovesical anastomosis in renal transplantation: does it influence the rate of urinary tract infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathe Z

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine use of double-J stents on the incidence of urinary tract infection after renal transplantation. Methods We conducted a retrospective-comparative single-centre study in 310 consecutive adult deceased donor kidney recipients transplanted from 2002 to 2006. Patients were divided in two groups, with or without urinary stent implantation. To evaluate the predictive factors for UTI, donor and recipients pre- and post-transplantation data were analysed. Early urological complications and renal function within 12 months of transplantation were included as well. Results A total of 157 patients were enrolled to a stent (ST and 153 patients to a no-stent (NST group. The rate of urinary tract infection at three months was similar between the two groups (43.3% ST vs. 40.1% NST, p = 0.65. Of the identified pathogens Enterococcus and Escherichia coli were the most common species. In multivariate analysis neither age nor immunosuppressive agents, BMI or diabetes seemed to have influence on the rate of UTI. When compared to males, females had a significantly higher risk for UTI (54.0% vs. 33.5%. Conclusion Prophylactic stenting of the ureterovesical anastomosis does not increase the risk of urinary tract infection in the early postoperative period.

  18. Whole genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus reveals the pathogenesis of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Makoto; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kumano, Miyuki; Morikawa, Kazuya; Higashide, Masato; Maruyama, Atsushi; Inose, Yumiko; Matoba, Kimio; Toh, Hidehiro; Kuhara, Satoru; Hattori, Masahira; Ohta, Toshiko

    2005-09-13

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a uropathogenic Staphylococcus frequently isolated from young female outpatients presenting with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. We sequenced the whole genome of S. saprophyticus type strain ATCC 15305, which harbors a circular chromosome of 2,516,575 bp with 2,446 ORFs and two plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses with the strains of two other species, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as experimental data, revealed the following characteristics of the S. saprophyticus genome. S. saprophyticus does not possess any virulence factors found in S. aureus, such as coagulase, enterotoxins, exoenzymes, and extracellular matrix-binding proteins, although it does have a remarkable paralog expansion of transport systems related to highly variable ion contents in the urinary environment. A further unique feature is that only a single ORF is predictable as a cell wall-anchored protein, and it shows positive hemagglutination and adherence to human bladder cell associated with initial colonization in the urinary tract. It also shows significantly high urease activity in S. saprophyticus. The uropathogenicity of S. saprophyticus can be attributed to its genome that is needed for its survival in the human urinary tract by means of novel cell wall-anchored adhesin and redundant uro-adaptive transport systems, together with urease.

  19. Myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for muscle regeneration in urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; ZHENG Jun-hua; ZHANG Yuan-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article was to review the current status of adult mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for muscle regeneration in urinary tract and propose the future prospect in this field.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed (2000-2013).The search terms were "mesenchymal stem cells","bladder","stress urinary incontinence" and "tissue engineering".Study selection Articles regarding the adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering of bladder and stress urinary incontinence were selected and reviewed.Results Adult mesenchymal stem cells had been identified and well characterized in human bone marrow,adipose tissue,skeletal muscle and urine,and demonstrated the capability of differentiating into smooth muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells under myogenic differentiation conditions in vitro.Multiple preclinical and clinical studies indicated that adult mesenchymal stem cells could restore and maintain the structure and function of urinary muscle tissues after transplanted,and potentially improve the quality of life in patients.Conclusions Smooth or skeletal myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells with regenerative medicine technology may provide a novel approach for muscle regeneration and tissue repair in urinary tract.The long-term effect and safety of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation should be further evaluated before this approach becomes widely used in patients.

  20. Global gene expression profiling of the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 in the human urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    long-term bladder colonization. The strain has been used for prophylactic purposes in patients prone to more severe and recurrent UTIs. For this study, we used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract. Significant differences in expression levels were......Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important health problem worldwide, with many million cases each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTIs in humans. The asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli strain 83972 is an excellent colonizer of the human urinary tract, where it causes...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay; Ressonancia magnetica na endometriose do trato urinario baixo: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Claudio Marcio Amaral de Oliveira; Coutinho, Elisa Pompeu Dias; Ribeiro, Erica Barreiros; Domingues, Marisa Nassar Aidar; Junqueira, Flavia Pegado; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos [Clinicas de Diagnostico Por Imagem (CDPI) e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: cmaol@br.inter.net, e-mail: cmaolima@gmail.com

    2009-05-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  2. Expression and antimicrobial function of beta-defensin 1 in the lower urinary tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Beta defensins (BDs are cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity that defend epithelial surfaces including the skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. However, BD expression and function in the urinary tract are incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe Beta Defensin-1 (BD-1 expression in the lower urinary tract, regulation by cystitis, and antimicrobial activity toward uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC in vivo. Human DEFB1 and orthologous mouse Defb1 mRNA are detectable in bladder and ureter homogenates, and human BD-1 protein localizes to the urothelium. To determine the relevance of BD-1 to lower urinary tract defense in vivo, we evaluated clearance of UPEC by Defb1 knockout (Defb1(-/- mice. At 6, 18, and 48 hours following transurethral UPEC inoculation, no significant differences were observed in bacterial burden in bladders or kidneys of Defb1(-/- and wild type C57BL/6 mice. In wild type mice, bladder Defb1 mRNA levels decreased as early as two hours post-infection and reached a nadir by six hours. RT-PCR profiling of BDs identified expression of Defb3 and Defb14 mRNA in murine bladder and ureter, which encode for mBD-3 and mBD-14 protein, respectively. MBD-14 protein expression was observed in bladder urothelium following UPEC infection, and both mBD-3 and mBD-14 displayed dose-dependent bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro. Thus, whereas mBD-1 deficiency does not alter bladder UPEC burden in vivo, we have identified mBD-3 and mBD-14 as potential mediators of mucosal immunity in the lower urinary tract.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection and fimH Gene in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AbstractBackground and objective: E. coli is considered causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) and the majority part of nosocomial infections. This bacterium for having pathogenicity effects is necessary to have virulence factors. One of this factors is fimH (Type I fimbriae). The aim of this research “Study of prevalence of fimH gene in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with and without kidney stone.Materials and methods: A total of 70 urinary samples of stricken with UTI of referred...

  4. Excessive urinary tract dilatation and proteinuria in pregnancy: a common and overlooked association?

    OpenAIRE

    Piccoli, Giorgina B.; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Vigotti, Federica N.; Daidola, Germana; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Ferraresi, Martina; De Pascale, Agostino; Porpiglia, Francesco; Veltri, Andrea; Todros, Tullia

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteinuria and dilatation of the urinary tract are both relatively common in pregnancy, the latter with a spectrum of symptoms, from none to severe pain and infection. Proteinuria is a rare occurrence in acute obstructive nephropathy; it has been reported in pregnancy, where it may pose a challenging differential diagnosis with pre-eclampsia. The aim of the present study is to report on the incidence of proteinuria (≥0.3; ≥0.5 g/day) in association with symptomatic-severe urinary ...

  5. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacteremia originating from Urinary Tract Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-Yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI.

  6. Clinical evaluation of herbal coded formulation Cran-off to Urixin in the treatment of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ghazala; Usmanghani, Khan; Nazar, Halima; Akhtar, Naveed

    2015-03-01

    Urinary Tract Infections are the largest group of infections after the respiratory tract infections. In 85% of the cases the causative organism is E. Coli. A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of coded herbal formulation "Cranoff" (Test drug) for the treatment of Urinary tract infection comparing with Urixin (Control). One hundred and thirty patients suffering from Urinary tract infection from both groups (Males: 45, mean age: 34±14 and females: 85, mean age: 33±13 year, range: 15-55) were enrolled in the trial and divided in to two groups according to treatment regimens. Cranoff (Test drug) 500mg two capsules and Urixin (Pipemidic Acid Trihydrate JP15) (Control) 400mg capsules twice daily were prescribed for 2-3 weeks. Urinary tract infection was improved in 23 (35.38%) patients out of 65 patients by the use of Cranoff (Test drug), and in 15 (23.07%) patients out of 65 by the use of Urixin (Control drug). Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in Urinary tract infection associated clinical features as compared to Urixin. It is concluded that Cranoff possesses a therapeutic value for the improvement of urinary tract infection and its associated symptoms as compared to Urixin.

  7. Unenhanced helical CT in the evaluation of the urinary tract in children and young adults following urinary tract reconstruction: comparison with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.T.; Elder, J.S.; Sivit, C.J.; Applegate, K.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Purpose. To compare the accuracy of unenhanced, helical CT with sonography for the detection of complications of urinary tract reconstruction. Materials and methods. Forty-six kidneys in 24 patients were examined with CT and sonography. All scans were assessed for ease of renal visualization, presence of renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi, renal scars, hydronephrosis, and abdominal wall hernia. The results of both imaging modalities were independently reported. Results. CT provided excellent visualization of all 46 kidneys, while sonography provided poor visualization of 8 kidneys (17 %) (P < 0.001). CT detected calculi in 10 kidneys, 1 ureter, and 7 bladders. Sonography detected calculi in only 2 kidneys, and 2 bladders. Overall, CT detected significantly more calculi than US (18 vs 4, P = 0.01). CT detected scarring in 15 kidneys, while sonography detected scarring in 10. Hydronephrosis was detected in 6 kidneys by CT and in 8 kidneys by sonography. Three abdominal wall hernias were seen at CT that were not seen at sonography. Conclusion. CT is superior to sonography for the detection of urinary tract calculi and renal scarring. CT will demonstrate abdominal wall hernias that are unsuspected. (orig.)

  8. Genomic diversity and fitness of E. coli strains recovered from the intestinal and urinary tracts of women with recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Swaine L; Wu, Meng; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Hooton, Thomas M; Hibbing, Michael E; Hultgren, Scott J; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-05-08

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, and recurrence is a major clinical problem. Most UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC are generally thought to migrate from the gut to the bladder to cause UTI. UPEC form specialized intracellular bacterial communities in the bladder urothelium as part of a pathogenic mechanism to establish a foothold during acute stages of infection. Evolutionarily, such a specific adaptation to the bladder environment would be predicted to result in decreased fitness in other habitats, such as the gut. To examine this prediction, we characterized 45 E. coli strains isolated from the feces and urine of four otherwise healthy women with recurrent UTI. Multilocus sequence typing and whole genome sequencing revealed that two patients maintained a clonal population in both these body habitats throughout their recurrent UTIs, whereas the other two exhibited a wholesale shift in the dominant UPEC strain colonizing both sites. In vivo competition studies in mouse models, using isolates taken from one of the patients with a wholesale population shift, revealed that the strain that dominated her last UTI episode had increased fitness in both the gut and the bladder relative to the strain that dominated in preceding episodes. Increased fitness correlated with differences in the strains' gene repertoires and carbohydrate and amino acid utilization profiles. Thus, UPEC appear capable of persisting in both the gut and urinary tract without a fitness trade-off, emphasizing the need to widen our consideration of potential reservoirs for strains causing recurrent UTI.

  9. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  10. Molecular dysregulation of renal development:Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Daniel Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in approximately 1 in 500 foetal ultrasound examinations. The CAKUT phenotype can involve varying degrees of renal dysplasia, renal hypoplasia, urinary tract obstruction, ureteropelvic anomalies such as megaureter, ureteral atresia, ectopic ureteral orifice, and duplex collecting system The nephrogenic (mesenchymal) and the ductogenic (ureteric) events are regulated by transcription factors, proto-oncogenes and growth factors in a complex fashion. Dysregulation of specific molecular pathways has been implicated as a primary mechanism for CAKUT. This review will attempt to clarify the molecular basis of CAKUT by focusing on these key developmental pathways. First, however, an examination of normal metanephric kidney development is necessary. Furthermore, clinical aspects of CAKUT, including prenatal diagnosis and current treatments, will be introduced. Through the critical evaluation of a range of diverse scientific literature, it is hoped that an overview of the current status of this important area of developmental anatomy is achieved.

  11. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Pitris, Constantinos

    2010-02-01

    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram require a minimum of 48 hours using standard laboratory practice. This long waiting period contributes to an increase in recurrent infections, rising health care costs, and a growing number of bacterial strains developing resistance to antibiotics. In this work, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) was used as a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their antibiogram. Five species of bacteria were classified with > 90% accuracy using their SERS spectra and a classification algorithm involving novel feature extraction and discriminant analysis. Antibiotic resistance or sensitivity was determined after just a two-hour exposure of bacteria to ciprofloxacin (sensitive) and amoxicillin (resistant) and analysis of their SERS spectra. These results can become the basis for the development of a novel method that would provide same day diagnosis and selection of the most appropriate antibiotic for most effective treatment of a urinary tract infection.

  12. Escherichia coli clonal group A causing bacteraemia of urinary tract origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, L; Olsen, S S; Jakobsen, L

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli clonal group A (CgA) causes disease in humans. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of CgA among E. coli from non-urine, extraintestinal infections in a northern European country. E. coli blood (n = 196) and paired urine (n = 195......) isolates from the same patients with bacteraemia of urinary tract origin were analysed. The isolates were collected from January 2003 through May 2005 at four hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, antimicrobial resistance and patient characteristics were...... a distinctive VAG profile. The blood and urine isolates from each pair were found to be related in 26 of 27 CgA blood/urine pairs, confirming a urinary tract origin of infection. Furthermore, a relationship between the PFGE patterns of CgA blood/urine isolates and CgA isolates from UTI patients in general...

  13. Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections: are there distinct uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) pathotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Carl F; Zhang, Lixin; Foxman, Betsy

    2005-11-15

    A variety of virulence genes are associated with Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections. Particular sets of virulence factors shared by bacterial strains directing them through a particular pathogenesis process are called a "pathotype." Comparison of co-occurrence of potential urinary tract infection (UTI) virulence genes among different E. coli isolates from fecal and UTI collections provides evidence for multiple pathotypes of uropathogenic E. coli, but current understanding of critical genetic differences defining the pathotypes is limited. Discovery of additional E. coli genes involved in uropathogenesis and determination of their distribution and co-occurrences will further define UPEC pathotypes and allow for a more detailed analysis of how these pathotypes might differ in how they cause disease.

  14. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Astal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  15. [Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis with urinary tract involvement, secondary to gynecologic infection caused by intrauterine device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García, M D; Rodríguez Alonso, A; Núñez López, A; Ojea Calvo, A; Alonso Rodrigo, A; Rodríguez Iglesias, B; Barros Rodríguez, M; Benavente Delgado, J; González-Carreró Fojón, J; Nogueira March, J L

    2000-02-01

    Abdomino-pelvic actinomycosis is a condition caused by Actinomyces israelii, a Gram-positive opportunistic bacteria that triggers and develops the infection only in previously injured tissues, and then slowly progresses and spreads until it extrinsically affects the urinary tract. Use of an intrauterine device is a known risk factor to suffer from this disease. Relative risk in IUD users is two- to four-fold higher compared to IUD non-users. Risk increased with prolonged IUD use. Treatment is by removal of the causative agent, surgical resection of necrotic tissues and administration of intravenous Penicillin G, 4 million units every 4 hours for 30 days, followed by Amoxicillin 500 mg every 8 hours for 12 months. This paper contributes two cases of abdomino-pelvic actinomycosis with urinary tract involvement in IUD users. Standard treatment was employed with good evolution.

  16. Molecular dysregulation of renal development: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Wilson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT occur in approximately 1 in 500 foetal ultrasound examinations. The CAKUT phenotype can involve varying degrees of renal dysplasia, renal hypoplasia, urinary tract obstruction, ureteropelvic anomalies such as megaureter, ureteral atresia, ectopic ureteral orifice, and duplex collecting system The nephrogenic (mesenchymal and the ductogenic (ureteric events are regulated by transcription factors, proto-oncogenes and growth factors in a complex fashion. Dysregulation of specific molecular pathways has been implicated as a primary mechanism for CAKUT. This review will attempt to clarify the molecular basis of CAKUT by focusing on these key developmental pathways. First, however, an examination of normal metanephric kidney development is necessary. Furthermore, clinical aspects of CAKUT, including prenatal diagnosis and current treatments, will be introduced. Through the critical evaluation of a range of diverse scientific literature, it is hoped that an overview of the current status of this important area of developmental anatomy is achieved.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Adults Residing in Long-Term Care Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Genao, Liza; Buhr, Gwendolen T.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly suspected in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities, and it has been common practice to prescribe antibiotics to these patients, even when they are asymptomatic. This approach, however, often does more harm than good, leading to increased rates of adverse drug effects and more recurrent infections with drug-resistant bacteria. It also does not improve genitourinary symptoms (eg, polyuria or malodorous urine) or lead to improved mortality rate...

  18. Ketamine-associated lower urinary tract destruction: a new radiological challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, K., E-mail: k.mason@doctors.org.u [Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cottrell, A.M. [North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol (United Kingdom); Corrigan, A.G. [Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Gillatt, D.A.; Mitchelmore, A.E. [North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: Ketamine is a short-acting dissociative anaesthetic whose hallucinogenic side effects have led to an increase in its illicit use amongst club and party goers. There is a general misconception amongst users that it is a safe drug with few long term side effects, however ketamine abuse is associated with severe urinary tract dysfunction. Presenting symptoms include urinary frequency, nocturia, dysuria, haematuria and incontinence. Materials and methods: We describe the radiological findings found in a series of 23 patients, all with a history of ketamine abuse, who presented with severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Imaging techniques used included ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography (IVU), and computed tomography (CT). These examinations were reviewed to identify common imaging findings. All patients with positive imaging findings had also undergone cystoscopy and bladder wall biopsies, which confirmed the diagnosis. The patients in this series have consented to the use of their data in the ongoing research into ketamine-induced bladder pathology. Results: Ultrasound demonstrated small bladder volume and wall thickening. CT revealed marked, generalized bladder wall thickening, mucosal enhancement, and perivesical inflammation. Ureteric wall thickening and enhancement were also observed. In advanced cases ureteric narrowing and strictures were identified using both CT and IVU. Correlation of clinical history, radiological and pathological findings was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusion: This case series illustrates the harmful effects of ketamine on the urinary tract and the associated radiological findings. Delayed diagnosis can result in irreversible renal tract damage requiring surgical intervention. It is important that radiologists are aware of this emerging clinical entity as early diagnosis and treatment are essential for successful management.

  19. Congenital upper urinary tract abnormalities: new images of the same diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda; Santos, Carla Jotta dos [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (MedRadiUS), AL (Brazil); Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Padilha, Igor Gomes, E-mail: maiachristiana@globo.com [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Congenital upper urinary tract abnormalities imply a variable clinical spectrum of morphofunctional changes ranging from asymptomatic conditions to renal failure and incompatibility with life. Computed tomography, which has overcome excretory urography imaging, has been playing a key role in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies, serving as a better guidance in the therapeutic and surgical decision-making process, besides acting as an essential tool in the identification of associated complications and aiding in the performance of minimally invasive surgery techniques. (author)

  20. [Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and urinary tract infections: study model and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bourg, G; Botto, Henri; Sotto, Albert

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. Among cranberry compounds, a group of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with A-type linkages were isolated which exhibit bacterial anti-adhesion activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These PAC inhibit P-fimbriae synthesis and induce a bacterial deformation. This activity was demonstrated on both antibiotic susceptible a...

  1. Methabolic Evaluation and Medical Aspects of Recurrent Urinary Tract Calcium Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Naime Canoruç; Fatih Atuğ

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent Stone formation in the urinary tract is a common and important problem. The most important component in the medical treatment of stones is establishing the correct metabolic diagnosis. Unfortunately a significant proportion of patients with recurrent stones do not undergo proper metabolic evaluation. Dietary modification still remains one of the most important strategies for therapy. Recent studies suggest that severe calcium restriction is not useful in patients with recurrent calc...

  2. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2011-02-01

    Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient\\'s quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula.

  3. EMERGENCE OF MULTI DRUG RESISTANT STRAINS OF E. COLI ISOLATED FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN NAMAKKAL

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the multi drug resistant strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection in different age groups in Namakkal. Totally 153 isolates of E.coli were obtained from 700 urine samples. Present study indicates that there is a high prevalence of multidrug resistant E. coli in female 24.34% followed by male 18.14%. After confirmation, isolates were performed to resistance patterns of different antibiotics were determined by standard disk diffusion method. T...

  4. Findings in cystourethrography that suggest lower urinary tract dysfunction in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux, at cystography assessment, frequently present alterations in the lower urinary tract anatomy such as dilated posterior urethra, irregularity of the bladder wall and diverticula. However, the significance of these findings is unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence of these findings, their time of disappearance and their correlation with the severity of the reflux. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 193 children with vesicoureteral reflux, considered simple, in the age group above 5 years at the moment of diagnosis, were analyzed. The recommendation for follow-up of these patients was one voiding cystoureterography (VCUG each year. Only patients with a minimum of 2 VCUGs performed in a period of at least 6 months were considered. The VCUGs were classified as positive and negative in relation to findings that were characteristic of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD. RESULTS: From the 193 children analyzed, 50 (26% presented positive VCUG and 143 negative VCUG. From the patients without symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction (n = 135, 12 (9% presented positive VCUG and 123 (91% a negative VCUG. From the patients with negative VCUG, 68 (48% presented unilateral reflux and 75 (52% presented bilateral reflux. From those with positive VCUG, 26 (52% had unilateral reflux and 24 bilateral reflux (48%. This difference was not statistically significant. A higher incidence of grade II reflux was more evident in patients with negative VCUG and degree III in patients with positive VCUG (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that 64% of the patients with LUTD and reflux presented findings in the VCUG that suggest dysfunction.

  5. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity. PMID:26999391

  6. Diagnosis of aetiology and complications of relapsing urinary tract infections via imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieden, K.; Mende, U.

    1985-01-01

    The indication and efficiency of various radiological examination methods in relapsing infections of the urinary tract, as well as the complications of such infections, are described, and characteristic and pathognomical findings are demonstrated. The diagnostic accuracy of the individual imaging methods depends on the site, size, and density of the pathological process. Accurate diagnosis also requires the incorporation of clinical findings including those established by means of clinical pathology setups.

  7. Successful treatment of lower urinary tract infections with oral fosfomycin: a report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms continue to increase, and therapeutic options remain scarce. Given this challenge, it has become necessary to use older antimicrobials for treatment of these pathogens. We report three patients with lower urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae who were successfully treated with a seven-day course of oral fosfomycin monotherapy.

  8. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of resistant Escherichia coli urinary tract infections in the emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey AM; Weant KA; Baker SN

    2013-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a frequent uropathogen in urinary tract infections (UTI). Widespread resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) and increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones amongst these isolates has been recognized. There are limited data demonstrating risk factors for resistance to both SMX-TMP and fluoroquinolones.Objectives: This study was conducted to assess for the prevalence of community resistance amongst E. coli isolates to SMX-TMP and levofloxac...

  9. Heparin-binding protein: a diagnostic biomarker of urinary tract infection in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Kjölvmark, Charlott; Påhlman, Lisa; Åkesson, Per; Linder, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with significant morbidity and high frequency of antibiotic prescription. Diagnosing UTI is often difficult, particularly in the critically ill patient and in patients with unspecific and mild symptoms. The standard rapid tests have limited value, and there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is released from neutrophils and has previously been studied as a diagnostic and predictive biomarker i...

  10. Antegrade pressure measurement of urinary tract in children with persistent hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Traballi de Carvalho Pegolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dilation of urinary tract occurs without the presence of obstruction. Diagnostic methods that depend on renal function may elicit mistaken diagnosis. Whitaker (1973 proposed the evaluation of urinary tract pressure submitted to constant flow. Other investigators proposed perfusion of renal pelvis under controlled pressure, making the method more physiological and reproducible. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the results of the anterograde pressure measurement (APM of the urinary tract of children with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery suspected to present persistent obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Along 12 years, 26 renal units with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery (12 PUJ and 14 VUJ were submitted to evaluation of the renal tract pressure in order to decide the form of treatment. Previous radionuclide scans with DTPA, intravenous pyelographies and ultrasounds were considered undetermined in relation to obstruction in 10 occasions and obstructive in 16. APM was performed under radioscopy through renal pelvis puncture or previous stoma. Saline with methylene blue + iodine contrast was infused under constant pressure of 40 cm H2O to fill the urinary system. The ureteral opening pressure was measured following the opening of the system and stabilization of the water column. RESULTS: Among the 10 cases with undetermined previous diagnosis, APM was considered non-obstructive in two and those were treated clinically and eight were considered obstructive and were submitted to surgery. Among the 16 cases previously classified as obstructive, nine confirmed obstruction and were submitted to surgery. Seven cases were considered non-obstructive, and were treated clinically, with stable DMSA and hydronephrosis. CONCLUSIONS: APM avoided unnecessary surgery in one third of the cases and was important to treatment decision in 100%. We believe that this simple test is an excellent diagnostic tool when

  11. Garenoxacin in uncomplicated urinary tract infection – a case study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukar M, Shah JP, HajareA, Krishnaprasad K, Bhargava

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a global problem which has increased the morbidity and mortality in both men and women. Strategies which are proposed in the management of UTIs include the use of empirical antibiotics with a broader spectrum of coverage. Urine specimen culture is of significant importance to evaluate the organism responsible in the pathogenesis. Garenoxacin, a newer fluoroquinolone with unique structural advantage appears to a suitable drug in the treatment of UTIs.

  12. USE OF URODYNAMIC TEST IN MEN WITH LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS: EVALUATION OF 150 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M KABIRI

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of urodynamic test in men with lower urinartract symptoms in the absence of any abnormality on rutine urologic evaluation (i.e, physical exam, urine analysis, radiologic and endoscopic investigations. Detection of these disorders can therefore load to proper treatment of patients who received in appropriate therapy. We studied the relative frequency of neurogenic disorders on urodynamic testing of young men with lower urinary tract symptoms and normal routine urologic evaluation. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study by consecutive sampling of 150 male patients 20 to 40 years old with lower urinary tract symptoms and normal finding on routine urologic evaluations. Urodynamic studies (uroflowmetry, cystometry and pressure- flow study were performed after; interview; Physical exames, neurourologic evaluation and a review of previous laboratory and radiologic studies. Statistical analysis with Chi-square and Fisher's exact test was performed using SPSS software. Results: Neurogenic disorders were in 42 (28% patients. Abnormal urodynamic finding were observed in 82 (54.7% patients (P = 0.001. Abnormal urodynamic finding were most commonly related to the urethra (40 patients, 48.8% P < 0.110.The frequency of abnormal urodnamic findings increased with increasing age (P = 0.001. Abnormal urodynamic findings were more common in married as compared to single patients (63.8% versus 44.3%; P < 0.001. The abnormal urodyniamic findings were more than in patients with history of urinary tract infection or a history of abdominal operation. Discussion: Neurogenic disorders were detected in ore than a quarter of young males with lower urinary tract symptoms and a normal routine urologic evaluation. Therefore, urodynamic tests can help in well management of patients with theirs low cost.

  13. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy : studies in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women is increased and predisposes them to acute pyelonephritis together with poor pregnancy outcomes. Increased frequency of micturition, nocturia and lower abdominal discomfort are common non-specific complaints during pregnancy, which render clinical diagnosis of UTI inaccurate. To prevent undesirable effects on the growing fetus, antimicrobial agents used in management of UTI during pregnancy should be carefully selected...

  14. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND AETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors wer...

  15. Influence of circumcision technique on frequency of urinary tract infections in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Liora; Straussbergr, Rachel; Jackson, Shlomo; Amir, Jacob; Tiqwa, Petah

    2002-09-01

    An increase in urinary tract infection (UTI) during the first weeks after traditional Jewish circumcision has been reported. Circumcision can be performed by a nonmedical person (mohel) or by a physician, with the main difference being in hemostasis techniques. We assessed the effect of circumcision procedure on development of UTI in neonates. Circumcision performed by a mohel was associated with higher incidence of UTI compared with that by physicians. Hemostasis technique and shaft wrapping are postulated risk factors.

  16. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Athanasiou, Stavros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adults in Africa. The PubMed database was systematically searched to identify relevant studies published after 2000. Google, World Health Organization, and African Field Epidemiology networks were also searched. Twenty-eight studies, accounting for 381,899 urine isolates from 14 African countries, met the inclusion criteria. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pro...

  17. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract hydatid disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by flatworm larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in many parts of the world. In humans, CE cysts primarily affect the liver and pulmonary system, but can also affect the renal system. However, the clinical manifestations of renal CE can be subtle, so healthcare professionals often overlook renal CE in differential diagnosis. In this study, we examined the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract CE and analyzed the diagnosis and treatment procedures for this disease. METHODS: The records of 19 consecutive renal CE patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 1983 to April 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases, CE of the urinary tract was confirmed by pathological examination and visual inspection during surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were males and 4 were females. The most common symptoms were non-specific lower back pain and percussion tenderness on the kidney region. All patients were followed up for 9-180 months after surgery. None of the patients experienced a recurrence of renal CE, but 4 patients experienced non-renal recurrence of hydatid disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hydatid cysts from E. granulosus are structurally similar in the liver and urinary tract. Thus, the treatment regimen for liver CE developed by the World Health Organization/Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO/IWGE could also be used for urinary tract CE. In our patients, the use of ultrasound, computed tomography, serology, and clinical characteristics provided a diagnostic accuracy of 66.7% to 92.3%.

  18. Aspects on Image Quality in Radiologic Evaluation of the Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this document is on image quality as one of the factors fundamental for the diagnostic process. With the rising number of procedures and the trend towards more complicated examinations, urinary tract investigations was chosen in this work as a good clinical model for evaluation of the factors influencing image quality and of the ways of evaluating image quality. In paper I, a method is described for optimisation during the introduction of a new imaging system, with a focus on the...

  19. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O78:H10, the Cause of an Outbreak of Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Bente; Scheutz, Flemming; Andersen, Rebecca L.; Menard, Megan; Boisen, Nadia; Johnston, Brian; Hansen, Dennis S.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Nataro, James P.; Johnson, James R

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, multiresistant Escherichia coli O78:H10 strains caused an outbreak of urinary tract infections in Copenhagen, Denmark. The phylogenetic origin, clonal background, and virulence characteristics of the outbreak isolates, and their relationship to nonoutbreak O78:H10 strains according to these traits and resistance profiles, are unknown. Accordingly, we extensively characterized 51 archived E. coli O78:H10 isolates (48 human isolates from seven countries, including 19 Copenhagen outbrea...

  20. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.

  1. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A.;

    2016-01-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient’s own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully......, the majority showed no detectable differences with respect to mutations or mobilome when compared to their faecal counterpart. The results show that UPECs are successful in colonizing both the bladder and gut without adaptation....

  2. NITROFURANTOIN: THE TIME-TESTED CHOICE IN UNCOMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli (UPEC is the leading pathogen that causes community acquired as well as nosocomial uncomplicated urinary tract infection throughout the world. The study was conducted for one year with 2557 clinically suspected cases, both In-patients and Out-patients, to find out the most common pathogenic bacteria to cause uncomplicated urinary tract infection in a tertiary care hospital, also to determine the sensitivity pattern of the leading uropathogens against commonly prescribed antimicrobials in uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Significant bacteriuria was found in 811 cases (31.71% in this study. Amongst them, Escherichia coli was isolated in 335 (41.3% cases and female patients outnumbered the male patients (195, i.e. 58%. Enterococcus spp. (110, i.e. 13.56% heads the list of Gram positive uropathogens (155 cases, i.e. 19.11%. Candida spp. was isolated in 6.16% of total culture positive cases. Most of the isolated Escherichia coli were sensitive to nitrofurantoin (290, i.e. 87%. Majority of the nitrofurantoin sensitive Escherichia coli was found to be resistant to other broad spectrum antimicrobials. Carbapenemase producers was found to be 220 (75.86% and 255 (87.93% were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL producers. Most (87.93% of the Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to Fluoroquinolones. Among nitrofurantoin resistant Escherichia coli, sensitivity to carbapenems was only 33.33%. Thus Nitrofurantoin in Urinary Tract Infection may be used as an empirical drug even in the era of super bugs

  3. Observation on lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in Chinese middle-aged men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingLeng; Xu-YuanHuang; Xian-ShengZhang; Yi-RanHuang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To observe the incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms(LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in Chinese middle-aged men in Shanghai. Methods: In annual medical physical examination,681 Chinese men over 50 years old were evaluated. Each men completed an International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), Quality of Life Assessment (QoL) and International Index for Erectile Funtion (I]EF-5).

  4. [Relapsing urinary tract infections as a single symptom of a foreign body within the GIT in a diverticulosis patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovajová, T; Bak, V; Oravský, M; Schnorrer, M; Vichová, B

    2011-10-01

    Recidiving urinary tract infections and pneumaturia are the cardinal symptoms of colovesical fistula. The authors present a case of rare complication of diverticulosis and gastrointestinal foreign body, that only had urological symptomatology.

  5. Emergence of Raoultella ornithinolytica on O'ahu: a case of community-acquired R. ornithinolytica urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Elizabeth S; Kaneshiro, Ricky; Min, Kathleen; Tokeshi, Jinichi

    2015-05-01

    Human infection with Raoultella ornithinolytica is rare, with only ten cases having been reported previously. This case report describes a local patient diagnosed with community-acquired R. ornithinolytica urinary tract infection in 2014.

  6. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Czaja

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women.

  7. Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: A randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Beerepoot (Mariëlle); G. ter Riet; S. Nys (Sita); W. van der Wal (Willem); C.A. de Borgie (Corianne); T.M. de Reijke (Theo); J.M. Prins (Jan); J. Koeijers (Jeanne); A. Verbon (Annelies); E.E. Stobberingh (Ellen); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Growing antibiotic resistance warrants studying nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Use of lactobacilli appears to be promising. Methods: Between January 2005 and August 2007, we randomized 252 postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs taki

  8. Retrovesical hydatidosis associated with urinary tract pathology - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás-Hajdu, Enikő; Maier, Adrian; Coroş, Florin; Mártha, Orsolya

    2015-03-01

    Cystic hydatidosis (CH) is a worldwide distributed parasitic zoonosis. It is considered one of the 17 neglected parasitic tropical diseases, among cysticercosis and soil transmitted helminthiases. CH is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, a tapeworm that usually infects dogs and other carnivorous animals as definitive hosts and herbivorous animals and rarely humans as intermediate hosts. Main primary localizations are the liver and the lung. In less than 3% they can primarily be present in the spleen. Treatment is mainly surgical, in some cases resulting in reoccurrence. In this paper we present the case of a male 55 years old patient who underwent a surgical intervention on his spleen for a solitary hydatid cyst as primary localization. Fifteen years after the operation the patient presented macroscopic haematuria; routine laboratory findings presented soft eosinophilia, 5%, without any other modification. There was found no palpable tumour in the pelvis by rectal examination. Abdominal ultrasound investigation revealed a 2×1 cm formation in the urinary bladder at the base of the left bladder-wall and a retrovesical, inhomogeneous 10×10 cm tumour with multiple septa and transonic zones. Computed tomography (CT) scan strongly suggested the presence of a bladder tumour and a hydatid cyst. The symptoms caused by the bladder tumour revealed the co-existing non-symptomatic retrovesical secondary CH, which is a rare complication of splenic Echinococcus granulosus infection. Close follow-up and a proper pre- and postoperative anti-parasitic medication of the patient could have prevented reoccurrence of CH.

  9. Can the delivery method influence lower urinary tract symptoms triggered by the first pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Botelho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The increase of the intensity of urinary symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum has been well documented by several authors, but their causes remain uncertain, partly because of its probable multifactor origin. There are also controversies whether the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms during pregnancy is the same as postpartum and whether the method of delivery could influence the risk of onset of urinary symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the urinary symptoms triggered during pregnancy and its evolution in the late puerperium, correlating them with the delivery method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted, which included 75 primigravidae women, classified according to method of delivery as: (VD vaginal delivery with right mediolateral episiotomy (n = 28; (CS elective caesarean section (n = 26; and (EC emergency caesarean section (n = 21. Urinary symptoms were assessed in the last trimester of pregnancy and at 45 days (± 10 of puerperium with validated versions for Portuguese language of the following questionnaires: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB. RESULTS: It was observed that frequency, urgency, nocturia and urge incontinence, triggered during pregnancy, decreased significantly in the postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method (p = 0.0001. However, symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress persisted after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Urgency, frequency and nocturia triggered during pregnancy tend to disappear in the late postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method, but the symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress tend to persist in late postpartum period after vaginal delivery.

  10. Clinical importance of pyelocalyceal dilation diagnosed by postnatal ultrasonographic screening of the urinary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drnasin, Kristina; Saraga-Babić, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasonographic (US) screening of the urinary tract (UT) in infants was used to determine if there is a connection between the frequency of pyelocaliceal dilation (PCD) in asymptomatic infants with normal antenatal US screening and occurrence of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and urinary tract infections (UTI). Material/Methods US screening of the UT was performed on 1000 healthy infants, 7 days to 6 months old. Two subgroups of kidneys were described: subgroup 1 contained kidneys with anterior posterior pelvic diameter (APPD) of 5–9.9 mm, and subgroup 2 with APPD over 10 mm. US examinations and methods for detection of UTI and CAKUT were used. Results PCD was found in 74 infants (7.4%): 1.9% of infants had CAKUT, and 8.4% had UTI. In subgroup 1, CAKUT was found in 4 (6.3%) and UTI in 9 (14.3%) infants. In subgroup 2, CAKUT was found in 6 (54.5%), and UTI in 4 (36.4%) infants. Conclusions Mild PCD significantly increases the risk for CAKUT but not for UTI. Moderate to severe PCD significantly increases risk for both CAKUT and UTI. The postnatal US screening of UT is recommended for improved detection of PCD and associated CAKUT. Indirectly, postnatal US screening of UT can help in detecting people at risk for UTI in the first year of life, and therefore help prevent possible kidney damage. PMID:23419315

  11. NOSOCOMIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTION DUE TO TRICHOSPO RON ASAHII: A RARE CASE REPORT

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    Kumudini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trichosporon asahii is a basidiomycetous yeast which causes white piedra and onychomycosis in immunocompetent hosts. In immunocom promised hosts this species may cause a number of localized and disseminated infect ions. Urinary tract infection by Trichosporon asahii is a rare occurrence .Few cases have been reported from India. We present a microbiologically confirmed urinary tract infecti on with T. asahii in a 52 year old diabetic, female patient who had undergone hysterectomy for dy sfunctional uterine bleeding. Her urine sample was subjected to culture and sensitivity for postoperative rigor. Gram stain examination of the centrifuged urine revealed septate hyphae with arthroconidia and pus cells. Yeast like fungus was isolated in pure culture in three consecu tive samples which was confirmed as Trichosporon asahii by standard tests. The response to antifungal therapy was dramatic. Trichosporon species though occasionally a part of nor mal flora, may be involved in causing nosocomial opportunistic infection more so in immunoc ompromised hosts. Very few cases of microbiologically confirmed urinary tract infection have been reported so far. Its diagnosis is likely to be missed or misinterpreted because of lac k of awareness. Therefore T. asahii deserves recognition as a pathogen

  12. Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococci Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections

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    Ahad Bazmani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common nosocomial infection among hospitalized patients. Meanwhile, most frequent infections involving enterococci affect the urinary tract. The aims of this study were to investigate the susceptibility pattern of isolated enterococci from UTI and the prevalence of virulence genes. Methods: The study used enterococci isolated from urinary tract infections obtained from 3 university teaching hospitals in Northwest Iran. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains was determined using the disc diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of genus- species specific targets, and potential virulence genes. Results: Of 188 enterococcal isolates, 138 (73.4% and 50 (26.6% were Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed high resistance to amikacin (86.2%, rifampicin (86.2% and erythromycin (73.9%, irrespective of species. In total, 68.1% were positive for gelE, and 57.4%, 53.2%, 56.4%, and 52.1% of isolates were positive for cpd, asa1, ace, and esp, respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed that most of UTI isolates were multidrug resistance against the antibiotics tested and antibiotic resistance was more common among E. faecium isolates than E. faecalis. A significant correlation was found between UTI and the presence of gelE among E. faecalis strains (p < 0.001.

  13. Characteristics of urinary tract infections in elderly outpatients from Zagreb region

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    V. Leskovar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are considered to be the most frequent human infections. Elderly people are especially prone to those infections. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of UTI in elderly patients with patients younger than 65, and to find any possible differences in incidence and etiology between those two groups. Between 1 January and 31 October 2005 at the Zagreb Institute of Public Health 22046 urine samples from City of Zagreb and Zagreb region outpatients were cultivated. A total of 6,310 samples was collected from elderly patients (≥65 years. In elderly populations with UTI, male to female ratio was 1:1.7, while in patients younger than 65 years the ratio was 1:5. The difference in the incidence of UTI according to age and gender was observed. In elderly population the urinary tract pathogens showed significantly higher resistance rates to fluoroquinolones (p<0.01, whereas in male patients higher resistance rates were found to beta-lactams, aminoglicosides and cotrimoxazole as compared to women irrespective of age (p<0.01. In elderly persons changes in health also affect the features of UTI. There is a constant need to monitor the epidemiology and resistance of urinary tract pathogens to assure an appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  14. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic based dosing of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections

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    Ana Sabo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is often used in treatment of complicated urinary tract infections in areas with high rates of resistance to first line agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ciprofloxacin in standard dosing regimens in treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Plasma concentration curves were simulated and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and post-antibiotic effect were determined. Ciprofloxacin MIC ranged from 0.0156 for Gram-negative and to 0.125-0.5 µg/mL for Gram-positive bacteria. Both dosing regimens were suitable for eradication of Gram-negative bacteria, with slight supremacy of 750 mg/12 hours over 500 mg/12 hours dosing regimen. Even though all strains were fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, pharmaco-kinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters did not meet target thresholds for pathogens with MIC over 0.1-0.2 µg/mL regardless of the administered dose. Ciprofloxacin remains an excellent choice for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, but in infection caused by Gram-positive strains, deeper analysis is necessary in order to achieve optimal results.

  15. Prevalence of Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections in Patients before and after of Kidney Transplantation

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    Esmaeili, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Urinary tract infections and bacteremia are the major problems in renal transplant patients, which are mostly due to immunesuppressive regimens, surgery, and exposure to the germs in hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial agents in the blood and urine samples of kidney transplant candidates. Material and Methods: In this one-year-long study, thirty-three renal transplant candidates were assessed for urine and blood cultures. One urine and blood samples from each patient before transplantation and three samples after transplantation were collected. The Samples, using standard microbiological methods, were investigated and infectious organisms identified. Results: In 133 urine samples, Escherichia coli (20.5%, Enterobacter spp. (5.3%, Klebsiella spp. (3 % and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.5% were isolated. In the blood samples, Enterobacter spp. (9.1%, Escherichia coli (6.8%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (3.8% and Klebsiella spp. (0.8% were isolated. Conclusion: The results indicate that urinary tract infection was high in patients with transplanted kidney, and E. coli is the most common cause of this infection. Keywords: Kidney Transplantation; Bacterial infections; Urinary Tract and Blood Infections; Escherichia Coli

  16. Comparison of renal ultrasonography and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in febrile urinary tract infection.

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    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Noroozian, Elham; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Barikani, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patient with urinary tract infection (UTI) are essential for the prevention or restriction of permanent damage to the kidneys in children. The aim of this study was to compare renal ultrasonography (US) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in the diagnosis of patients with febrile urinary tract infection. This study involved the medical records of children with febrile urinary tract infection who were admitted to the children's hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and abnormal DMSA renal scans. The criteria for abnormality of renal US were an increase or a decrease in diffuse or focal parenchymal echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, kidney position irregularities, parenchymal reduction and increased kidney size. Of the 100 study patients, 23% had an abnormal US and 46% had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Of the latter patients, 15 had concurrent abnormal US (P value ≤ 0.03, concordance rate: 18%). Renal US had a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 65% and negative predictive value of 60%. Of the 77 patients with normal US, 31 (40.2%) had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Despite the benefits and accessibility of renal US, its value in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis is limited.

  17. Uncomplicated duplex kidney and DMSA scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infection

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    Stokland, Eira [The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Goeteborg (Sweden); The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Jodal, Ulf; Swerkersson, Svante; Hansson, Sverker [The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Department of Paediatrics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sixt, Rune [The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Department of Paediatric Clinical Physiology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Renal duplication is the most common malformation of the urinary tract and is frequently seen among children with urinary tract infection (UTI). To evaluate problems in the interpretation of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and to establish the range of relative function in uncomplicated unilateral duplication. Retrospective analysis of 303 children less than 2 years of age with first time non-obstructive urinary tract infection investigated by both urography and DMSA scintigraphy. At DMSA scintigraphy, renal lesions and/or relative function below 45% was considered abnormal. Urography was used as reference for the diagnosis of duplication. Duplex kidneys were found in 22 of 303 patients (7%). Of the 16 children with unilateral duplication, 10 had bilaterally undamaged kidneys with a range of relative function varying between 51% and 57% in the duplex kidney. In two of the children with unilateral duplication the imaging results were discordant. There was risk of underdiagnosis as well as overdiagnosis of renal damage at scintigraphy. Although it is important to be aware of this risk, the rate of misinterpretation was low. A range of 51% to 57% can be used as the limit for normality of the relative function of a unilateral duplex kidney. (orig.)

  18. PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL USE FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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    Haldia Priyanka, Sharma Taruna, Nautiyal Ruchira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI may be classified as lower (cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria or upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis. The recommended antibiotics for use in pregnancy for management of ASB include amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin; and for the treatment of lower UTI during pregnancy include penicillins, oral cephalosporins. Data from the antibiotic usage study in UTI during pregnancy will help in establishing a proper antibiotic utilisation guideline and promotes rational prescribing of medicines. Aim: To study the antimicrobial prescription practices for urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences (HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months. This was an observational cross sectional study done in 45 pregnant women with or without symptoms of UTI. Results: 29.4% of the pregnant women with symptomatic UTI were culture positive while all were culture positive who had asymptomatic UTI. Cephalosporins were most frequently prescribed followed by nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Urine culture should be performed as a screening and diagnostic tool for UTI during pregnancy. Various classes of antimicrobials were being prescribed for UTI during pregnancy.

  19. What is the efficacy of circumcision in boys with complex urinary tract abnormalities?

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    Bader, Mohammed; McCarthy, Liam

    2013-12-01

    The risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) in normal boys is 1%. This risk is significantly increased in boys with congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract, which includes such abnormalities as vesico-ureteric reflux, obstructive megaureter (VUJO) and posterior urethral valves. UTI in these boys can lead to urosepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication, and in the longer term renal scarring complicating pyelonephritis can lead to chronic renal impairment or even end-stage renal disease. Circumcision has been shown in normal boys to reduce the risk of UTI by 90%, and potentially could be a simple intervention to reduce the risk of urosepsis and renal scarring. In order to make this decision a clinician really needs to have the answers to two questions: 1) What is the risk of UTI in this particular boy? 2) What is the evidence of efficacy of circumcision in this particular condition? This article reviews what evidence exists to make a calculation of the risk/benefit ratio for circumcision in boys with abnormalities of the urinary tract.

  20. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli induces serum amyloid a in mice following urinary tract and systemic inoculation.

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    Andreja Erman

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid A (SAA is an acute phase protein involved in the homeostasis of inflammatory responses and appears to be a vital host defense component with protective anti-infective properties. SAA expression remains poorly defined in many tissues, including the urinary tract which often faces bacterial challenge. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are usually caused by strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC and frequently occur among otherwise healthy individuals, many of whom experience bouts of recurrent and relapsing infections despite the use of antibiotics. To date, whether SAA is present in the infected urothelium and whether or not the induction of SAA can protect the host against UPEC is unclear. Here we show, using mouse models coupled with immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative RT-PCR, that delivery of UPEC either directly into the urinary tract via catheterization or systemically via intraperitoneal injection triggers the expression of SAA. As measured by ELISA, serum levels of SAA1/2 were also transiently elevated in response to UTI, but circulating SAA3 levels were only up-regulated substantially following intraperitoneal inoculation of UPEC. In in vitro assays, physiological relevant levels of SAA1/2 did not affect the growth or viability of UPEC, but were able to block biofilm formation by the uropathogens. We suggest that SAA functions as a critical host defense against UTIs, preventing the formation of biofilms both upon and within the urothelium and possibly providing clinicians with a sensitive serological marker for UTI.

  1. Predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection

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    Fatemeh Beiraghdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection. In this prospective cohort study, 176 children with documented urinary tract infection were categorized into four groups: ≤1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-7 years and 7-14 years old. Ultrasonography and Technetium-99 m-DMSA scan were used to detect the possible abnormalities. Infants under 12 months old presented as the most common group for renal scarring (27 cases, 52.9%, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was diagnosed in 29 cases (56.8%. Fifteen (41.67% children between the ages of one and two years had renal scar, and VUR was detected in half of the patients. In the third group, 36.3%, and in fourth group, 41.6% of the patients had renal scar. Also, 38.6% in group three and 50% in the final group had VUR. A co-incidental finding that was observed in this study was the high incidence of pseudohypoaldesteronism (PHA in our patients: in 39.2% of the children in group one, 22.2% in group two and 4% in group three. In group four however, none of the patients had PHA. Risk of scar formation with urinary tract infection (UTI was higher in the younger age group and in those with recurrent UTIs.

  2. Urinary tract infection diagnosis and response to antibiotics using Raman spectroscopy

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    Kastanos, Evdokia; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Constantinos

    2009-02-01

    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.

  3. Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism due to Urinary Tract Infection in Infancy: A Report of 4 Cases

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    Kaplowitz Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is an uncommon but life-threatening occurrence. In the first weeks of life, this scenario is often associated with aldosterone deficiency due to salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia. However, alternative diagnoses involving inadequate mineralocorticoid secretion or action must be considered, particularly for infants one month of age or older. We report four infants who presented with profound hyponatremia accompanied by urinary tract infection, ultimately leading to the diagnosis of transient pseudohypoaldosteronism. Our cases provide support for the idea that the renal tubular resistance to aldosterone is due to urinary tract infection itself rather than to underlying urinary tract anomalies typically found in these infants. Awareness of this condition is important so that serum aldosterone, urine sodium, and urine cultures may be obtained immediately in any infant presenting with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in whom a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not found. Adequate replacement with intravenous saline and antibiotic therapy is sufficient to correct sodium levels over 24–48 hours.

  4. Ultrasound monitoring of structural urinary tract disease in Schistosoma haematobium infection

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    King Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major advance in our understanding of the natural history of Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity has come through the introduction of the portable ultrasound machines for non-invasive examination of the kidneys and bladder. With the use of generators or battery packs to supply power in non-clinical field settings, and with the use of instant photography or miniaturized thermal printers to record permanent images, it is possible to examine scores of individuals in endemic communities every day. Broad-based ultrasound screening has allowed better definition of age-specific disease risks in urinary schistosomiasis. Results indicate that urinary tract abnormalities are common (18% overall prevalence in S. haematobium transmission areas, with a 2-4% risk of either severe bladder abnormality or advanced ureteral obstruction. In longitudinal surveys, ultrasound studies have shown that praziquantel and metrifonate therapy are rapidly effective in reversing urinary tract abnormalities among children. The benefits of treating adults are less well known, but research in progress should help to define this issue. Similarly, the prognosis of specific ultrasound findings needs to be clarified, and the ease of sonographic examination will make such long-term follow-up studies feasible. In summary, the painless, quick, and reproducible ultrasound examination has become an essential tool in the study of urinary schistosomiasis.

  5. Clinical Investigation on the Correlation between Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Cystitis Glandularis

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    陈志强; 叶章群; 曾伟

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to study the association between lower urinary tract infection and cystitis glandularis (CG), 120 cases of CG were diagnosed by cystoscopic biopsy in the suspicious foci of the bladder. Among them, 72 cases were subjected to bacterial counting culture of urine and microscopic examination of urinary sediment, and 60 cases to fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) assay to detect HPV, CMV and HSV DNA in urine samples. In the 72 cases of CG, the positive rate of bacterial counting culture of urine was 15.3 % (11/72), and gray zone rate was 18.1 % (13/72). 31.9 % (23/72) patients were positive in bacterioscopy of urinary sediment.There was statistically significant difference as compared with the control group (P<0.01). Only 4 of 60 urine samples were positive by FQ-PCR in detection of the three viruses mentioned above with the positive rate being 6.67 %. Compared with the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0.05). It was concluded that the genesis of CG was closely correlated with the chronic lower urinary tract infection, especially caused by Esch coli.

  6. Clinical significance of video-urodynamic in female recurrent urinary tract infections

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    Hijazi, Sameh; Leitsmann, Conrad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to assess the value of video-urodynamic study (VUD) in the identification of lower urinary tract voiding dysfunction in female recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Patients and methods A total of 54 women with recurrent UTIs who underwent VUDs between 2013 and 2015 were analyzed. They were carefully evaluated by complete history, voiding diary, physical investigation, urosonography, and VUDs. Results Neurogenic and non-neurogenic voiding dysfunctions were found in 4% and 63% of women respectively. Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, detrusor underactivity, and a combination of both were found in 17% (nine of 54), 22% (12 of 54), and 11% (six of 54) of women, respectively. Overactive bladder syndrome was determined in 28% (15 of 54) of women. Reduction in the maximal urinary flow rate to less than 15 mL/s and post-void residual volume were revealed in 63% (34 of 54) and 54% (29 of 54) of women, respectively. Stress urinary incontinence was noticed in 39% (21 of 54) of women with a median pad usage of three pads (range: 1–15) daily. Urgency and nocturia were complaints in 54% (29 of 54) and 43% (23 of 54) of women, respectively. The median voiding frequency and nocturia episodes were 7±4 (1–13) and 1±3 (0–12), respectively. Conclusion Dysfunctional voiding can encourage the formation of recurrent UTIs in the female. The VUDs are the investigation of choice to diagnose voiding dysfunction. PMID:26855600

  7. Rising Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy: Necessity for Exploring Newer Treatment Options

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    Meher Rizvi; Fatima Khan; Indu Shukla; Abida Malik; Shaheen,

    2011-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The emergence of drug resistance and particularly the Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance in Staphylococci, limits the choice of antimicrobials. Materials and Methods: Patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of urinary tract infection attending the antenatal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology were scr...

  8. Urinary Tract Infection as a Preventable Cause of Pregnancy Complications: Opportunities, Challenges, and a Global Call to Action

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    Gilbert, Nicole M.; O'Brien, Valerie P.; Hultgren, Scott; Macones, George; Lewis, Warren G.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    The urinary tract is a common site of infection in humans. During pregnancy, urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, even when the infection is asymptomatic. By mapping available rates of UTI in pregnancy across different populations, we emphasize this as a problem of global significance. Many countries with high rates of preterm birth and neonatal mortality also have rates of UTI in pregnancy that exceed rates seen in...

  9. Accuracy of ultrasonography and plain-film abdominal radiography in the diagnosis of urologic abnormalities in men with urinary tract infection: critically appraised topic

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    Daunt, S.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Family Medicine, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-02-01

    An adult male patient presented with dysuria and urinary frequency. A subsequent urine culture confirmed the presence of a urinary tract infection. How accurate is the combination of ultrasonography and plain-film abdominal radiography in the diagnosis of urologic abnormalities in men with confirmed urinary tract infection? (author)

  10. Prevalence of crystalluria and its association with Escherichia coli urinary tract infections

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    Nagarajan Prabhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies highlighted that there was increase in the incidence of urinary tract problems related to frequent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs and crystalluria. This induces us to understand the prevalence of crystals in urine samples and its association with bacterial urinary tract infections. For determining the different types of urinary crystals, the role of microscopic examination for identification are routine and identical. Methods: The main objective of this study is to find out the predominant types of crystals in urine, age and sex incidence value, urine pH correlated with crystals and bacteriological examination of urine samples associated with UTIs. Results: Among 88 urine samples included, 49 (55.6% were males and 39 (44.3% were females of different age groups. By urine sediment analysis, among the normal crystals, calcium oxalate and amorphous urates were found predominant followed by cholesterol found among abnormal crystals. The results highlighted the presence of different types of crystals in the urine samples and strongly supported the pH ranges. The variations in the pH range from 3 to 7. The correlation of the results of crystal formation with bacterial culture showed predominance of Escherichia coli (19.3% and further it gets proved with the theory and reference interpretation. Conclusion: By this study, the authors have a mystery whether the crystal formation leads to the bacterial infection or the infection leads to crystal formation. In the case of positive urine crystal analysis, the clinicians may consider the microbiological investigations to find out the real picture. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1085-1090

  11. CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 1 - 12 YEARS

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    Manohar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract is a common site of infection in the pediatric population. Unlike generally benign course of urinary tract infection (UTI in the adult population, UTI in the pediatric population is well recognized as a cause of acute morbidity and chronic medical conditions like hypertension and renal insufficiency in adulthood. As a result, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of clinical profile of UTI in children. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. to study the clinical presentation of UTI in children. 2. To identify the common microorganisms causing UTI in children. 3. To evaluate the risk factors for UTI in children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital based prospective study conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 in Department of Pediatrics at S.V.R.R Gov ernment General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital affiliated to S.V . Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. METHODS AND MATERIAL: INCLUSION CRITERIA: All children in the age group of 1 to12 years admitted in hospital with a probable urinary tract inf ection and later confirmed by a positive urine culture. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Those children who received partial treatment with antibiotics prior to admission and those with any neurological abnormality of urinary bladder. Informed written consent was taken from parents of children and data was collected in pre - designed pro - forma. RESULTS: Significant pyuria was present in all patients. Most common organisms isolated on urine culture were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both were sensitive to thi rd generation Cephalosporins, Piperacillin - Tazobacta m and Amikacin. VUR was a significant risk factor for UTI (P1year, UTI is much more common in girls than boys. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common organisms causing UTI in children. Ultrasound examination of abdomen is a sensitive test to detect. Vesicoureteral reflux is a common predisposing factor for UTI in both boys and girls.

  12. Congenital obstructive posterior urethral membranes and recurrent urinary tract infection: a rare case of congenital hypertrophy of the verumontanum

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    Diana Bancin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital obstructive posterior urethral membranes (COPUM is a complex disease closely related to several pathological changes in kidney development and function, as a result of urinary reflux since in utero. This congenital anomaly of urinary tract potentially causes hydroureteronephrosis that is often associated with recurrent urinary tract infections and, ultimately, one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease in children.1,2 Congenital hypertrophy of the verumontanum as part of COPUM is very rare. Only a few reports have been written on congenital hypertrophy of the vermontanum causing congenital obstructive uropathy.3-6

  13. Urinary Tract Infection and fimH Gene in Escherichia coli

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    Ali Shojaeiani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and objective: E. coli is considered causes of urinary tract infection (UTI and the majority part of nosocomial infections. This bacterium for having pathogenicity effects is necessary to have virulence factors. One of this factors is fimH (Type I fimbriae. The aim of this research “Study of prevalence of fimH gene in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with and without kidney stone.Materials and methods: A total of 70 urinary samples of stricken with UTI of referred to Ttaleghani Hospital, 42 urinary samples were contaminated with E. coli. Then, is accomplished antibiogram with 9 conventional antibiotics for all of the bacteria. The presence of fimH gene was investigated by PCR. Results: A total of 70 urinary samples were collected, 42 samples (60% were contaminated with Escherichia coli. Of 42 samples, 12 samples (28.6% have had kidney stone & 30 samples (71.4% have not had kidney stone (P<0.05. 24 samples (57.1% have had fimH gene & 18 samples (42.9% have not had fimH gene (P<0.05. Of 12 samples individuals of stricken with kidney stone, 8 samples (66.7% have had fimH gene & 4 samples (33. 3% have not had fimH gene (P<0.05. By doing antibiogram, recommended antibiotics for Urinary Tract Infection were included Imipeneme & Gentamicin. Conclusion: Eschrichia coli with prevalence of 60% were the most common bacteria isolated from the urine of patients with UTI. Individuals with UTI are susceptible for kidney stone formation. fimH gene in patients with UTI is an important pathogenic factor. This gene is involved in advancing kidney stones formation. The identification of microorganisms present in the kidney stone can be treated with appropriate antibiotics to reduce the risk of stone.

  14. Predictors of ertapenem therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalized adults: the importance of renal insufficiency and urinary pH.

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    Cunha, B A; Giuga, J; Gerson, S

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized adults acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and catheter associated bacteriuria (CAB) may be treated with oral antibiotics. With AUC or CAB due to extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) + Gram negative bacilli (GNB) physicians often use intravenous therapy, e.g., ertapenem. We reviewed our recent experience in hospitalized adults with AUC and CAB treated with ertapenem. Therapeutic efficacy of ertapenem was assessed by decreased pyuria/bacteriuria, and elimination of the uropathogen. The effectiveness of ertapenem in the presence of renal insufficiency (CrCl 3 days) in patients with decreased renal function and alkaline urinary pH. We reviewed 45 hospitalized adults with AUC or CAB to determine if renal insufficiency and or alkaline urinary pH affected ertapenem efficacy. In the 33 adult hospitalized patients with AUC and 12 with CAB, we found that ertapenem was consistently effective in eliminating the GNB bacteriuria. In hospitalized adults, the presence of renal insufficiency and acid urine, bacteriuria was eliminated in  3 days which has not been previously reported.

  15. A multicenter case-control study of diagnostic tests for urinary tract infection in the presence of urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, S; Pekdemir, M; Aksu, N M; Koyuncu, N; Cinar, O; Akpinar, E

    2012-02-01

    Urinary stone disease (USD) alone can cause much morbidity, but when present in conjunction with urinary tract infection, complications and morbidity increase even more. This study investigated the clinical and laboratory findings in patients who had USD with and without infection and evaluated the most suitable diagnostic value for urinary tract infection parameters before urine culture results were available. In a prospective fashion, patients who presented to the emergency department with a complaint of colicky flank pain (with or without hematuria) and who were diagnosed as having urolithiasis with ultrasound were evaluated for 1 year. The gold standard for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was urine culture. The most suitable diagnostic value for urinary tract infection parameters was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Logistic regression was used to identify independent variables that predicted a positive urine culture. Of the 192 eligible patients, 177 agreed to participate in the study. Of the clinical and laboratory characteristics analyzed, urine WBC, blood WBC, and fever were significantly different between culture positive and negative patients (p 11,300 (OR 2.1), pyuria (OR 2.8), and temperature >37.9°C (OR 3.1) showed a significantly increased risk of having a positive urine culture (correct class 87.9%). While a single physical examination or laboratory finding cannot predict urinary tract infection in USD patients with complete reliability, the presence of pyruria, fever, and leukocytosis significantly increases the odds of a positive urine culture.

  16. 浅谈尿路感染从湿热论治%Treating urinary tract infection from Shi're

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智全; 张靖芳; 卢跃卿

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common urinary system diseases, belongs to the Lin syndrome. The important pathogenesis of urinary tract infection is Shi're. From TCM theory, discussion on the important role of Shi're in the urinary tract infection was significant.%尿路感染是常见的泌尿系统疾病,属中医"淋证"范畴.湿热是尿路感染迁延难愈和持续发展的重要病因病机,从中医理论出发探讨湿热在尿路感染中的重要作用,对临床更具指导意义.

  17. Latest treatment for lower urinary tract dysfunction: therapeutic agents and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that antimuscarinics might suppress bladder afferent activity by blocking muscarinic receptors in the urothelium, myofibroblasts and detrusor, thereby improving overactive bladder symptoms. β(3)-Adrenoceptors are predominantly expressed in the human bladder and mediate relaxation of detrusor muscle. β(3)-Adrenoceptor agonists increase bladder capacity and prolong micturition interval. It is assumed that β(3)-adrenoceptor agonists could exert an inhibitory effect on bladder afferent through β(3)-adrenoceptors in the urothelium and detrusor, which eventually improve the symptom of urgency. Mirabegron is a potent and selective β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist. A Japanese phase 3 study showed that mirabegron has excellent efficacy and safety for treating overactive bladder. α(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists (α(1)-blockers) have become a mainstay of male lower urinary tract symptoms treatment. The α(1)(A) subtype is known to mediate functional obstruction as a result of benign prostatic enlargement. Recent studies have suggested that α(1)(A)-adrenoceptors are additionally involved in the generation of storage symptoms. The α(1)(D) subtype is thought to play a role in the facilitation of voiding reflex; that is; storage symptoms. α(1)-Blockers often fail to alleviate overactive bladder symptoms. In this context, combination therapy with α(1)-blockers and antimuscarinics has been recommended. Treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitor for 1 year improves urinary symptoms and flow rate by reducing prostatic volume in men with benign prostatic enlargement. A pooled analysis showed that the long-term (2 or 4 years) treatment with 5α-reductase inhibitor reduced the rate of progression to acute urinary retention and surgery. Combination therapy with 5α-reductase inhibitor and α(1)-blocker was shown to provide a rapid improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms, and reduce the relative risk of acute urinary retention and benign prostatic hyperplasia

  18. Capgras-like syndrome in a patient with an acute urinary tract infection

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    Salviati M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Salviati, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Francesco Macrì, Marta Fojanesi, Amedeo Minichino, Mariana Gallo, Francesco De Michele, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Massimo BiondiDepartment of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Delusional misidentification syndromes are a group of delusional phenomena in which patients misidentify familiar persons, objects, or themselves, believing that they have been replaced or transformed. In 25%–40% of cases, misidentification syndromes have been reported in association with organic illness. We report an acute episode of Capgras-like delusion lasting 8 days, focused on the idea that people were robots with human bodies, in association with an acute urinary infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case report associating urinary tract infection with Capgras-like syndrome. Awareness of the prevalence of delusional misidentification syndromes associated with acute medical illness should promote diligence on the part of clinicians in recognizing this disorder.Keywords: delusional misidentification, Capgras syndrome, urinary tract infection, psychosis

  19. Applicability of endoscopic examination as a diagnostic approach in urinary tract ailments in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holak, P; Nowicki, M; Adamiak, Z; Kasprowicz, A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of endoscopic examination as a diagnostic method in urethra and bladder ailments in dogs. The experiment involved 60 dogs of different breeds and gender, weighing from 5 to 65 kg, aged between 7 months and 12 years. The dogs were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of clinically healthy animals on which all the lower urinary tract endoscopic examinations described in the literature as well as biopsies of mucosa were performed. Group II consisted of clinical patients, on which endoscopic diagnostic examination was conducted and, on some of them, biopsies for histopathologic examination were made. The results of the experiment suggest that the lower urinary track endoscopy is a suitable diagnostic technique for recognition and differentiation of mucosa inflammation, establishment of causes of haematuria, diagnostics of neoplasms and detection of the existence of an ectopic ureter. Biopsy and histopathologic examination improved the diagnostic value of endoscopy. The techniques tested in our study, inclusive of more invasive method like PPC and cystoscopy on males preceded by the perineal urethrotomy, enable doctors to perform the lower urinary tract endoscopic examination on dogs, especially up to 5 kg. regardless of their gender.

  20. Functional imaging of structures involved in neural control of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Recent functional brain imaging studies, building on earlier observations, suggest a working model of brain control of the lower urinary tract. It comprises a few cerebral neural circuits that, during the storage phase, act on the midbrain periaqueductal gray to inhibit the long-loop, spinobulbospinal voiding reflex, thus promoting continence. Circuit 1, centered on the medial prefrontal cortex, appears to be concerned with conscious control of both continence and voiding. Circuit 2, centered on the dorsal anterior cingulate (midcingulate) and supplementary motor area, is concerned with emotional aspects of bladder control: desire to void or urgency with concomitant urethral sphincter activation to delay leakage. A subcortical circuit 3 has been less well studied. Circuit 1 is bilateral with a right-sided preference. Scattered studies of the connectivity of the control network suggest that white-matter damage may contribute to urinary incontinence. A few studies confirm that isolated cerebral lesions, if in the medial prefrontal cortex or its connecting pathways, may lead to incontinence. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in other neurologic diseases (normal-pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease, and multiple systems atrophy) appears consistent with the working model, and even spinal or peripheral lesions have central effects. However, this model omits the contributions of brain regions already observed in some imaging studies and therefore is certainly oversimplified.

  1. The "RESEAU MATER": An efficient infection control for endometritis, but not for urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Berland, Michel

    2016-09-01

    "RESEAU MATER" is useful to monitor nosocomial infections in maternity and contributes to the decreasing trend of it, since its implementation. Specifically, this network demonstrates its efficiency in the control of endometritis following vaginal deliveries, but not in the control of urinary tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine whether the difference between the control of endometritis and of urinary tract infection could be explained by an unsuitable regression model or by an unsuitable care policy concerning urinary cares. This study includes (1) the analysis of historic data of the network and (2) the description of French guidelines for maternity cares and available evaluations, concerning endometritis and urinary tract infection prevention. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the total study period of 1999-2013, for these infections and their risk factors. The endometritis frequency is decreasing, in association with no significant evolution of associated risk factors, but urinary tract infection frequency is constant, in association with a increasing trend of its risk factors such as intermittent catheterization and epidural analgesia. In French guidelines, all preventive measures against endometritis are clearly broadcasted by all field operators, and repeated audits have reinforced the control of their application. But preventive measures against urinary tract infection seem to be broadcasted exclusively in the circle of infection prevention agencies and not in the obstetrics societies or in the Health Ministry communication. Urinary tract infection prevention requires a clearer public and professional policy in favor of a more efficient urinary cares, with a specific target to maternity.

  2. Hypercalcemia in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Jonathan B.; Miller, David C.; Esfandiari, Nazanene H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We here report a patient with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma with hypercalcemia likely due to elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Methods. We present a clinical case and a summary of literature search. Results. A 57-year-old man, recently diagnosed with a left renal mass, for which a core biopsy showed renal cell carcinoma, was admitted for hypercalcemia of 11.0 mg/mL He also had five small right lung nodules with a negative bone scan. Both intact parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide were appropriately low, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was elevated at 118 pg/dL. The patient's calcium was normalized after hydration, and he underwent radical nephrectomy. On the postoperative day 6, a repeat 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was 24 pg/mL with a calcium of 8.1 mg/dL. Pathology showed a 6 cm high-grade urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation. We identified a total of 27 previously reported cases with hypercalcemia and upper tract urothelial carcinoma in English. No cases have a documented elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level. Conclusion. This clinical course suggests that hypercalcemia in this case is from the patient's tumor, which was likely producing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Considering the therapeutic implications, hypercalcemia in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma should be evaluated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. PMID:23476827

  3. Hypercalcemia in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We here report a patient with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma with hypercalcemia likely due to elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Methods. We present a clinical case and a summary of literature search. Results. A 57-year-old man, recently diagnosed with a left renal mass, for which a core biopsy showed renal cell carcinoma, was admitted for hypercalcemia of 11.0 mg/mL He also had five small right lung nodules with a negative bone scan. Both intact parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide were appropriately low, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was elevated at 118 pg/dL. The patient’s calcium was normalized after hydration, and he underwent radical nephrectomy. On the postoperative day 6, a repeat 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was 24 pg/mL with a calcium of 8.1 mg/dL. Pathology showed a 6 cm high-grade urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation. We identified a total of 27 previously reported cases with hypercalcemia and upper tract urothelial carcinoma in English. No cases have a documented elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level. Conclusion. This clinical course suggests that hypercalcemia in this case is from the patient’s tumor, which was likely producing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Considering the therapeutic implications, hypercalcemia in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma should be evaluated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

  4. Imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology: minutes of the ESPR workgroup session on urinary tract infection, fetal hydronephrosis, urinary tract ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography, Barcelona, Spain, June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael [University Hospital LKH Graz, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Graz (Austria); Avni, Fred E. [University Clinics of Brussels, Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Blickman, Johan G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Darge, Kassa [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Body Imaging, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lobo, M.L. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon (Portugal); Willi, Ulrich [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present here a few basic proposals for algorithms and procedures for imaging the paediatric genitourinary tract based on initial discussion at a paediatric uroradiology symposium and proposals of the ESUR Paediatric Uroradiologic Guidelines Subcommittee. These recommendations were developed in the light of new knowledge that might influence existing guidelines. Regional, individual and local flexibility and variability should be preserved in order to make these recommendations applicable throughout Europe. They should help standardize dedicated imaging not only in terms of a quality measure to ensure state-of-the-art patient care, but also in forming a common basis for multi-institutional research. There is an urgent need for these guidelines in order to advance our understanding of the subject and to gain evidence and improve imaging efficacy. Our session worked towards establishing an agreement on imaging indications in common paediatric urological conditions, respecting the ALARA principle, and patient safety and care, and taking into account state of the art knowledge and efficacy aspects. We started the task with a reassessment of (1) imaging in urinary tract infection in infants and children, (2) postnatal imaging in mild-to-moderate neonatal hydronephrosis, (3) how to perform voiding cystourethrography, and (4) procedural recommendations for paediatric urosonography. This list is incomplete, and future recommendations will be developed, discussed and presented at forthcoming meetings. (orig.)

  5. Brucella melitensis: a rarely suspected cause of infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract

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    K. Stamatiou

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the clinical presentation and outcome of Brucellar infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract through a review of the medical records of 10 cases of male patients with brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract. The mean age of the patients with brucellosis was 49.2, (median 52, range 15-77 years. Eleven out of 17 patients were rural residents, 15 reported that they might have consumed unpasteurized dairy products and four reported occupational exposure. Symptoms onset was acute in almost all cases. Scrotal pain, epidedimal swelling and fever were the most common symptoms. The Wright test was positive in 13 patients, while Brucella sp. was isolated from blood cultures in six cases. Only two patients were found with abnormal liver ultrasonography. All patients underwent treatment with doxycycline and aminoglycoside for seven days and doxycycline alone for two months. Most of them responded to antibiotic therapy with rapid regression of symptoms. One patient failed to respond to therapy and presented necrotizing orchitis, as well as abscesses, which required orchectomy. Brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract have no specific clinical presentation; the usual laboratory examination is not sufficient to diagnose this kind of infection, therefore it could easily be misdiagnosed. An analytical medical history (including overall dietary habits and recent consumption of non-pasteurized dairy products could indicate Brucelosis as would the persistence of symptoms despite a one-week antibiotic treatment. In general, patients afflicted by brucellar epididymoorchitis respond to Brucellosis antibiotic therapy, except for some rare cases that present necrotizing orchitis and require surgical treatment.

  6. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant patients in Sina University Hospital

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    Pourmand MR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in patients with end-stage  renal disease. Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common complications after renal transplantation and it has serious consequences. The aim of this study was assessing UTIs in renal transplanted patients and evaluation of risk factors associated with post-transplant UTI. Methods: In this prospective study, 173 patients (48 hospitalized patients and 125 outpatients were enrolled in this study. These renal transplant recipients evaluated for bacterial urinary tract infection in urology research center at Sina Hospital. After collecting urine samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, urinalysis and colony count were performed. Identification of bacteria was performed by routine microbiological tests in the Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran, Iran, in 2011.Results: UTI was observed in 47 patients and the most prevalent microorganism was Escherichia coli (E.coli 18(38.2%. Nearly 71% of UTI cases were diagnosed during the first three months post transplantation. Risk factors for post transplant UTI were female gender, age, length of hospitalization and diabetes mellitus. Female patients were more susceptible than males (OR=0.50 and P=0.047 to infection. There were no significant difference between diabetes mellitus and UTI. Most of the isolated bacteria were susceptible to imipenem and resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole.Conclusion: Our study confirmed that bacterial infections remain as the most common infectious complication in the early post-transplant period, and antibiogram rather than empirical treatment is needed to find the best effective antibiotics. Moreover, risk factors such as female gender, increased age and length of hospitalization are predisposing factors to increased urinary tract infection in renal transplantation.

  7. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

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    Uju M.E. Dibua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s of urinary tract infections (UTIs in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch' method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2% from females and 12 (19.4% from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08% were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%. All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

  8. Contribution of ultrasound scans in the first episode of urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellouli, Manel; Ben Mansour, Asma; Abidi, Kamel; Ferjani, Meriem; Naija, Ouns; Hammi, Yousra; Zarrouk, Chokri; Gargah, Tahar

    2016-06-01

    Background - Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric urologic disorder. After the first urinary tract infection (UTI), imaging studies are recommended, starting with a renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). We propose to determine whether abnormalities found on US can help indicate the necessity of VCUG in children after the first urinary tract infection. Methods - A retrospective study included all children admitted with their first episode of urinary tract infection from January 2007 to December 2012. Results - A total of 311 children were included. The median age was 2.5 years, 72.3% were female. VUR Prevalence was 14%.  Forty-four patients were found to have VUR on VCUG, giving a prevalence of 14%. Of these 44 patients, 11 had grade I reflux, 6 had grade II reflux, 3 had grade III reflux, 15had grade IV reflux, and 9 had grade V reflux. Ultrasound findings were positive for VUR in 43 patients, 19 of them had RVU. Twenty five patients had a normal ultrasound but showed VUR on VCUG (11 had grade I reflux, six grade II reflux, three grade III reflux and five grade IV reflux).  The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in suggesting VUR were 43% and 91%, respectively. The positive predictive value of ultrasound in suggesting VUR was 44%; the negative predictive value was 91%. Conclusion - Renal ultrasound findings are specific for VUR in children with a first UTI, but no sensitive. Clinicians should consider renal ultrasound results to take decision on whether or not to proceed with a VCUG in the investigation of a first episode UTI in young children.

  9. Persistent renal cortical scintigram defects in children 2 years after urinary tract infection

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    Ditchfield, Michael R.; Cook, David J.; Campo, John F. de [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Grimwood, Keith [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Powell, Harley R.; Gulati, Sanjeev [Department of Nephrology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Sloane, Robert [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-06-01

    Background: Renal cortical scintigraphic studies challenge the role of vesicoureteric reflux in renal scar development, emphasizing instead the part played by acute pyelonephritis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of renal cortical defects in a child cohort 2 years after the child's first diagnosed urinary tract infection and to analyze the relationship of these defects with acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux and recurrent infections. Materials and methods: In a prospective cohort study, 193 children younger than 5 years with their first proven urinary tract infection underwent renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal cortical scintigraphy within 15 days of diagnosis. Two years later, 150 of the 193 children, or 77.7%, had a further renal cortical scintigram, including 75, or 86.2%, of the 87 children who had acute scintigraphic defects. The relationship of cortical defects to age, gender, pre-treatment symptom duration, hospitalization, presence and grade of vesicoureteric reflux, and recurrent urinary tract infections was evaluated. Results: Overall, 20 of the 150 (13.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3, 19.8) children had persistent defects 2 years after infection. This included 20 of 75 (26.7%; 95% CI 17.1, 38.1) with initially abnormal scintigrams. No new defects were detected. Although acute defects were more common in the young, those with persistent defects were older (median ages 16.4 vs. 6.8 months, P=0.004) than those with transient abnormalities. After adjustment for age, persistent defects were no longer associated with gender and were not predicted by acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux or recurrent infections. (orig.)

  10. Further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years: a systematic review

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    Cooper Julie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Further investigation of confirmed UTI in children aims to prevent renal scarring and future complications. Methods We conducted a systematic review to determine the most effective approach to the further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years of age. Results 73 studies were included. Many studies had methodological limitations or were poorly reported. Effectiveness of further investigations: One study found that routine imaging did not lead to a reduction in recurrent UTIs or renal scarring. Diagnostic accuracy: The studies do not support the use of less invasive tests such as ultrasound as an alternative to renal scintigraphy, either to rule out infection of the upper urinary tract (LR- = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.47, 0.68 and thus to exclude patients from further investigation or to detect renal scarring (LR+ = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.5, 4.8. None of the tests investigated can accurately predict the development of renal scarring. The available evidence supports the consideration of contrast-enhanced ultrasound techniques for detecting vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, as an alternative to micturating cystourethrography (MCUG (LR+ = 14.1, 95% CI: 9.5, 20.8; LR- = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.13, 0.29; these techniques have the advantage of not requiring exposure to ionising radiation. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the clinical effectiveness of routine investigation of children with confirmed UTI. Primary research on the effectiveness, in terms of improved patient outcome, of testing at all stages in the investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection is urgently required.

  11. Urinary Tract Infection and Drug Susceptibility Pattern in Patients of a Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

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    Rafiul Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common and frequently encountered serious morbidity that afflicts the tool not only to all segments of human population but also results in increasing antibiotic resistance due to persistence and mismanagement of the ailment. The present study aimed to ascertain the current situation of antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection. Objectives: To find out pyuria by direct microscopy, isolation and identification of the organisms by culture and to know the susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 midstream urine samples were subjected to aerobic bacteriologic culture in the department of Microbiology, Cox’s Bazar Medical College and 250-bedded Sadar Hospital, Cox’s Bazar during the period of March to October 2012. Specimens were collected from hospitalized and outdoor patients of different age and sex groups. All specimens were examined by routine microscopy to find out significant pyuria (>5 pus cells/HPF. Strict aseptic precautions were taken all through the culture system. Results: Out of 180 specimens, 101 (56.11% culture yielded significant growth of single organism and 79 (43.89% yielded no growth. The isolated organisms were E. coli 74.26%, Klebsiella species 12.87%, Enterococci 4.95%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 3.96%, Pseudomonas species 1.98% and Proteus species 1.98%. The highest sensitivity was shown by imipenem (100% followed by ceftriaxone (65%, azithromycin (65%, ciprofloxacin (60% and less sensitive to amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, cephradine and nalidixic acid ranging 15–30%. Conclusion: The findings of the present study recommends that UTI should be treated by selective antibiotics obtained from culture and sensitivity test to minimize increasing trend of drug resistance.

  12. Prevalence study of enterococus and staphylococci resistance to vancomycin isolated from urinary tract infections

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    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of gram-positive cocci especially Staphylococci species in causing urinary tract infection are well known. Among the Staphylococci species Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is the most important. The rate of MRSA is increasing worldwide. This is alarming because the danger of these organism in public health. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of gram-positive cocci, as well as MRSA to vancomycin and other antibiotics.Methods: This was a descriptive study, and were carried out on 300 patients with urinary tract infections (UTI caused by gram-positive cocci, referred to Imam Khomeini hospital during eight months. Prior to the antibiotic sensitivity testing all the isolates were identified according to the standard conventional biochemical procedure, and then the antibiotic susceptibility test were carried out according to Bauer-Kirby method. Results: Among the gram positive cocci causing UTI, the most abundant were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (37.7%, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (22.3% and Staphylococcus aureus (18% respectivley. The sex distribution of patients were 163 female (54.3% and 137 male (45.7% respectively, and the prevalence rate of urinary tract infections in female was (8.6% higher than male. The rate of sensitivity of isolated Staphylococci were as followed, sensitive to vancomycine (100%, Ciprofloxacin (89.2%, rifampin (87.6%, and amikacin (71.8% respectivley, but were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin (100%. The antibiotic sensitivity rate of isolated  Streptococci was to vancomycine (85.1%, ciprofloxacin (50.7% and penicillin (79.1% respectively.Conclusion: Vancomycin is still a suitable antibiotic for the treatment of Staphyloco-ccus infections. Although 6% rate of enterococci resistance to vancomycin is alarming, and use of this antibiotic in the treatment of other gram-positive bacteria should be done with precaution.

  13. Is Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Effective for Men With Poststroke Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in men with poststroke lower urinary tract symptoms. Thirty-one poststroke men, median age 68 years, were included in this single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Thirty participants, 15 in each group......, completed the study. The intervention consisted of 3 months (12 weekly sessions) of pelvic floor muscle training in groups and home exercises. The effect was evaluated by the DAN-PSS-1 (Danish Prostate Symptom Score) questionnaire, a voiding diary, and digital anal palpation of the pelvic floor muscle...... statistically significantly in pelvic floor muscle function (p

  14. Genetic Risk for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Humans: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zaffanello; Malerba, G.; Cataldi, L; Antoniazzi, F.; M. Franchini; Monti, E.; Fanos, V.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in children and adults and affect up to 10% of children; its recurrence rate is estimated at 30–40%. UTI may occur in up to 50% of all women in their lifetimes and frequently require medication. Recent advances have suggested that a deregulation of candidate genes in humans may predispose patients to recurrent UTI. The identification of a genetic component of UTI recurrences will make it possible to diagnose at-risk adults and ...

  15. Microbial Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis: Etiology, Pathogenicity, and Combating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Grosu, Mirela; Stavropoulos, Elisabeth; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-11-30

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. UTIs associated with microbial biofilms developed on catheters account for a high percentage of all nosocomial infections and are the most common source of Gram-negative bacteremia in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the role of microbial biofilms in the etiology of female UTI and different male prostatitis syndromes, their consequences, as well as the challenges for therapy.

  16. Microbial Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis: Etiology, Pathogenicity, and Combating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Delcaru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. UTIs associated with microbial biofilms developed on catheters account for a high percentage of all nosocomial infections and are the most common source of Gram-negative bacteremia in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the role of microbial biofilms in the etiology of female UTI and different male prostatitis syndromes, their consequences, as well as the challenges for therapy

  17. [Herbal medicines against urinary tract infections--traditional empiricism or pharmacological evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastigkeit, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Empirically, a variety of plants are used for uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The variety of phytopharmaceuticals with valid results is much smaller. There is a variety of observational studies about Cranberry, bearsgrape leaves, birch leaves and European goldenrod. This also justifies a recommendation in the pharmacy in a complementary medical treatment. Desireably, larger placebo-controlled studies, which proove the empirical healing, would provide more evidence. Children, pregnant women, men and patients with fever, severe cramps and blood in the urine should not medicate themselve. The patient should be referred to a doctor.

  18. Microbial Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis: Etiology, Pathogenicity, and Combating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Grosu, Mirela; Stavropoulos, Elisabeth; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. UTIs associated with microbial biofilms developed on catheters account for a high percentage of all nosocomial infections and are the most common source of Gram-negative bacteremia in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the role of microbial biofilms in the etiology of female UTI and different male prostatitis syndromes, their consequences, as well as the challenges for therapy. PMID:27916925

  19. Functional disorders of the lower urinary tract in children; Funktionelle Stoerungen des unteren Harntrakts im Kindesalter

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    Fotter, R.; Riccabona, M. [Radiologische Univ.-Klinik Graz (Austria). Klinische Abteilung fuer Kinderradiologie

    2005-12-01

    Functional disorders of the lower urinary tract as well as vesicoureteral reflux involved in the disease complex of urinary tract infection/permanent renal parenchymal damage can be considered predisposing or risk factors. Two main forms can be distinguished, i.e., unstable bladder and dysfunctional voiding, while transitional forms between the two exist. Functional disorders of the lower urinary tract obstruct spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. They are found in about 50% of cases in all children with urinary tract infection and are associated with an increased risk of developing renal parenchymal scars. They are observed during the newborn period up to school age. In the first few months of life, particularly boys with bilateral high-grade reflux and congenital renal parenchymal damage are affected. At later ages girls are also affected, but in this age group bladder instability predominates. Incontinence as the leading clinical symptom appears in approximately 70% of all cases and is closely correlated with chronic constipation. Imaging procedures in addition to urodynamic methods are of decisive importance for diagnosis and treatment, but noninvasive approaches such as sonography should be given preference. (orig.) [German] Funktionelle Stoerungen des unteren Harntrakts koennen ebenso wie der vesikoureterale Reflux im Krankheitskomplex Harnweginfekt/permanente Nierenparenchymschaedigung als praedisponierende bzw. als Risikofaktoren angesehen werden. Zwei Hauptformen koennen unterschieden werden, die instabile Harnblase und die Sphinkter-Detrusor-Dyskoordination, wobei zwischen diesen beiden Typen Uebergaenge bestehen. Funktionelle Stoerungen des unteren Harntrakts behindern die spontane Rueckbildung des vesikoureteralen Refluxes, sie finden sich in etwa 50% der Faelle bei allen Kindern mit Harnweginfekten und sind mit einem erhoehten Risiko fuer die Entstehung von Nierenparenchymnarben vergesellschaftet. Sie werden von der Neugeborenenperiode bis

  20. Neonatal adrenal hematoma with urinary tract infection: Risk factor or a chance association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi M Habeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal adrenal hematoma is a rare finding that can be discovered incidentally or presents with various symptoms. However, urinary tract infection (UTI has not been reported in association with this condition. We report on a 4-week old child with massive unilateral adrenal hematoma discovered incidentally during a routine abdominal ultrasound scan for UTI. The mass resolved spontaneously after several months with no complications. The diagnosis and ma-nagement of infantile suprarenal mass and the possible link between this child′s UTI and the adrenal hematoma are discussed.