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Sample records for catharsis

  1. Catharsis and Media Violence: A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Gentile

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept that doing something to “vent” aggression as a method of reducing aggressive feelings and behaviors, such as watching media violence or playing violent video games, continues to enjoy widespread public support despite a lack of empirical support. This article describes the historical origins of the concept and examines how well these conceptions fit with the modern usage of the aggression catharsis hypothesis. It is argued that there are four primary flaws with the catharsis hypothesis. First, the metaphor underlying Freud, Breuer, and Lorenz’s conception of aggression is flawed. Aggression is not a drive. Second, although Aristotle did use the term catharsis with relation to violent media (plays and poetry, he did not mean that viewing media violence can purge the viewer of aggressive feelings or behaviors. Furthermore, he describes several detailed requirements of plot and character that must be followed if his type of catharsis is to be achieved, and modern media violence does not meet these requirements. Third, the empirical support is not only lacking, a large empirical base contradicts the catharsis hypothesis. This is seen both in studies attempting to demonstrate catharsis directly and in the broader media violence literature. Fourth, human neuroscience contradicts the catharsis hypothesis. Learning is not hindered by viewing something one more time—it is improved. Taken together, it appears that there is no possible way that the aggression catharsis hypothesis can be accurate. It nevertheless continues to “feel” correct at a phenomenological level, and the reasons for this are discussed.

  2. Contesting Pornography: Terministic Catharsis and Definitional Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Catherine Helen

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the debates over the MacKinnon-Dworkin Anti-Pornography Ordinance to explore one instance of definitional argument: the attempt to effect a redefinition. Argues that advocates for a definitional shift created the possibility for a "terministic catharsis" by simultaneously locating pornography in multiple locations on the pentad,…

  3. Effects of viewed violence and aggression: stimulation and catharsis.

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    Manning, S A; Taylor, D A

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the catharsis hypothesis involving viewed violence have led to conflicting results. It was suggested that the inconsistencies were due in part to the use of two different types of response measures, aggressive responses and hostile responses. This study involved a direct comparison of the two types of responses under conditions of instigation versus no instigation and aggressive versus neutral film. It was hypothesized that viewing an aggressive film would lead to a decrease in hostile responses (catharsis) and an increase in aggressive responses (stimulation) when compared with a neutral film condition. It was also hypothesized that both stimulation and catharsis effects would be enhanced under instigation conditions. A main effect of instigation was found with subjects in the instigation condition having higher scores than those in the noninstigated condition. A main effect of film was found with subjects having lower scores in the aggressive film condition than in the neutral film condition. A significant Film times Response Outlet interaction was found which offered support for the predicted catharsis effect on the hostility measure. There was no support for the predicted stimulation effect on the aggression measure. The results of the study offer support for the main thesis that in examining the effects of viewed violence, separation of hostile responses and aggressive responses is necessary for full understanding.

  4. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

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    Nemec Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

  5. THE CONCEPT OF CATHARSIS IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S WORKS: FROM THE NEWSPAPER POLEMICS OF 1873

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    Olga Vladimirovna Zakharova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of catharsis was first brought up by Aristotle in his Poetics. Aristotle used to interpret catharsis in an extended sense. For him it could be tragic or musical, but it always meant purification or purgation as a dialogue between a poet and a spectator seen as one of the aims of art. In Dostoevsky’s thesaurus there is no such a category as catharsis, but there is this word’s equivalent in the Russian language: ochishchenie (which can be translated as purification. Purification through suffering is one of the key ideas of Dostoevsky’s works. He expressed this idea in his prose beginning with Notes from the House of the Dead, but it was first stated directly in the third chapter (entitled Environment of A Writer’s Diary of 1873. Dostoyevsky contrasted the socialist doctrine of environment with the Christian idea of personal responsibility for our own and other people’s actions. Liberal journalists didn’t accept Dostoevsky’s idea of “purification through suffering” and met it with derision (e.g., L. K. Panyutin, A. G. Kovner, V. P. Burenin, A. S. Suvorin. Instead of understanding and a justifiable dispute, Dostoyevsky faced malediction and rudeness. Conservative critics, on the other hand, overlooked this episode of A Writer’s Diary. This idea started to be appreciated only in the 20th century, long after the writer’s death, and was developed in the works of S. Zweig, N. Berdyaev and others. Notwithstanding the fact that contemporary critics question the presence of catharsis in Dostoevsky’s prose, one should admit that it is one of the categories of his poetics. The purification through suffering is the essence of the aesthetic empathy between the author and his reader. It implies the meaning of his creative works.

  6. Couples Counseling Directive Technique: A (Mis)communication Model to Promote Insight, Catharsis, Disclosure, and Problem Resolution

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    Mahaffey, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    A psychoeducational model for improving couple communication is proposed. An important goal in couples counseling is to assist couples in resolving communication conflicts. The proposed communication model helps to establish a therapeutic environment that encourages insight, therapeutic alliance formation, catharsis, self-disclosure, symptom…

  7. A catharsis in the mirror: Lobo Antunes’s Os cus de Judas

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    Neiva Kampff Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1979 novel Os cus de Judas by António Lobo Antunes, is part of a trilogy with Memória de elefante ([1979] 2009 and Conhecimento do inferno ([1980] 2006, which he calls ‘the learning cycle’. It demystifies, in fiction, the official reports on the colonial war in an autobiographical elaboration. Dealing with the African colonial war, contemporary Portuguese society, alienation about the African events and the omissive silence among the upper classes, the narrative of a comeback is revealed by auto-reflexive reminiscence. The process, conducted by the Antonian narrator, constitutes a catharsis in front of the mirror, whose protagonist is a psychiatrist who speaks about, in and for himself from his childhood to the present. An overwhelming and vigorous writing introduces a new perspective into Portuguese literature in the historical period of post-25th April, dealt with in current article.

  8. Final Results of Cilostazol-Aspirin Therapy against Recurrent Stroke with Intracranial Artery Stenosis (CATHARSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Toi, Sono; Ezura, Masayuki; Okada, Yasushi; Takagi, Makoto; Nagai, Yoji; Matsubara, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo; Suzuki, Norihiro; Tanahashi, Norio; Taki, Waro; Nagata, Izumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effect of cilostazol plus aspirin versus aspirin alone on the progression of intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS), and to compare ischemic and hemorrhagic events in patients with symptomatic IAS, an investigator-driven, nationwide multicenter cooperative randomized controlled trial (CATHARSIS; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier 00333164) was conducted. 165 noncardioembolic ischemic stroke patients with >50% stenosis in the responsible intracranial artery after 2 weeks to 6 months from the onset were randomly allocated to receive either cilostazol 200 mg/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day (n = 83, CA group) or aspirin 100 mg/day alone (n = 82, A group). The primary endpoint was the progression of IAS on magnetic resonance angiography at 2 years after randomization. Secondary endpoints were any vascular events, any cause of death, serious adverse events, new silent brain infarcts, and worsening of the modified Rankin Scale score. Progression of IAS was observed in 9.6% of the CA group patients and in 5.6% of the A group patients, with no significant intergroup difference (p = 0.53). The incidence of the secondary endpoints tended to be lower in the CA group compared with the A group, although the differences were not significant. By using exploratory logistic regression analysis adjusted for patient background characteristics, it was shown that the risk for certain combinations of secondary endpoints was lower in the CA group than in the A group [all vascular events and silent brain infarcts: odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, p = 0.04; stroke and silent brain infarcts: OR = 0.34, p = 0.04; all vascular events, worsening of modified Rankin Scale scores and silent brain infracts: OR = 0.41, p = 0.03]. Major hemorrhage was observed in 4 patients of the CA group and in 3 of the A group. Progression of IAS during the 2-year observation period appears to be less frequent than previously reported in stroke patients on antiplatelet agents after the acute phase, which could be due

  9. Gramsci and the Notion of Historical Catharsis. Validity for Latin America

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    Lucio Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes an appreciation of the importance of the notion of catharsis of Antonio Gramsci for the political struggle of the subalterns. It is a reflection on the characteristics and conditions that generate an ethical political elevation of the local economic and corporate struggle of the popular sectors as well as the union of political currents of the left around a common project built in the social struggle, project of a universal nature linked to the proposal of a hegemonic alternative, of the constitution of an integral autonomy of these in the perspective of a national and international dispute over ideological political leadership and hegemony. This notion is particularly necessary in Latin America and in Mexico due to the conditions of organic and current political crises and the need for a popular unity before the enthronement of neoliberalism as a form of transnationalized domination that seeks to maintain the subordination of countries to the great powers and large capitals even at the expense of the decomposition of the State and the resort to violence.

  10. Substitution of renal function through skin catharsis: evidence from the classical period to the Middle Ages.

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    Diamandopoulos, A A; Goudas, P C

    2001-04-01

    The skin's cleansing capacity has been known for centuries and has been used therapeutically and extensively for a great number of diseases. We studied the historical evolution of the methods used for catharsis through the skin, particularly for those in renal failure, by reviewing most of the existing ancient Greek and Byzantine codices dealing with the skin's cleansing capacity. From the fragments cited in this article, it is evident that the ancient medical writers were well aware of the mechanism of perspiration, and through this process the excretion of several body toxins, they knew about renal failure as well as the influence of environmental temperature on blood purification via the skin. To validate their views, we reviewed the seasonal variation of the average values for blood urea, creatinine, and electrolytes for 161 regular dialysis treatment (RDT) patients in four dialysis units in southern Greece. The estimations were carried out during the winter/summer 1997, 1998, and 1999 terms and included three winter months and three summer months. We traced an unexpectedly large number of references in the ancient and medieval Greek medical literature concerning detoxification through the skin, mainly regarding patients in renal failure. This seasonal variation hypothesis is supported by the results of our retrospective study: there was a difference of 16 mg/dL in the average blood urea (mean winter urea 182 mg/dL, mean summer urea 166 mg/dL). We suggest that the ancients had a vivid idea about the substitution of renal function by the skin's cleansing ability in renal failure. The previously mentioned phenomenon may be due to the elimination of blood urea through excessive perspiration. Our clinical results seem to verify their notions, and hence, the skin (like the peritoneum) may be considered a natural membrane for dialysis. We were unable to trace a similar report in the literature on the seasonal fluctuation of blood urea in dialysis patients.

  11. The effectiveness of face to face education using catharsis education action (CEA) method in improving the adherence of private general practitioners to national guideline on management of tuberculosis in Bandung, Indonesia.

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    Arisanti, Nita

    2012-03-27

    In many countries, private general practitioners are the first contact in health services for people with symptoms of tuberculosis. Targeting the private sector has been recommended in previous studies to improve tuberculosis control. A brief face-to-face intervention using Catharsis Education Action (CEA) method, repeated at periodic intervals, seems to change physicians' attitudes, beliefs and practice.The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of CEA method in improving the private general practitioners' (PPs) adherence to the national guideline on the management of tuberculosis patients in Bandung District, Indonesia. A randomized controlled trial was done. For the intervention group, a session of the CEA method was delivered to PPs while brief reminder with provision of pamphlet was used for the comparative group. A total of 82 PPs were included in the analysis. The intervention group showed some positive trends in adherence especially in the use of sputum as first laboratory examination (RR = 1.24) and follow up (RR = 1.37), though not reaching statistical significance. After intervention PPs in CEA group maintained the adherence, but PPs in pamphlets group showed deterioration (score before to after: -12.5). Face to face education using CEA method seems to be as effective as brief reminder with provision of pamphlet in improving the adherence. CEA offers additional information that can be useful in designing intervention programs to improve the adherence to guideline.

  12. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

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    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.

  13. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

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    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  14. The Populist Catharsis: On the Revival of the Political

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    Azmanova, Albena

    2018-01-01

    The upsurge of populist movements and the entry of populist parties into parliaments and\\ud governments over the last decade has been condemned as being the cause of the sorry\\ud state of democratic politics in western societies. As populism erodes the liberal political\\ud culture of consensus-building through deliberation that achieves inclusive diversity, the\\ud verdict goes, it undercuts the very foundation of liberal democracies. Taking my distance\\ud from this diagnosis of our current pr...

  15. Digitalization and catharsis. Internet: Way of entry or way of exit to the world?

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    Tatiana MILLAN PAREDES

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relations in network and the search of information online become a habitual practice of the youngest generations. As opposed to the isolation and the necessity of knowledge every time greater than imposes century XXI raises the network like answer. Is Internet means of inclusion in the world by its accessibility and its lack of limitations or replaces the reality by a dangerous hyperreality?

  16. Patrolling your blind spots: introspection and public catharsis in a medical school faculty development course to reduce unconscious bias in medicine.

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    Hannah, Seth Donal; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Cultural competence education has been criticized for excessively focusing on the culture of patients while ignoring how the culture of medical institutions and individual providers contribute to health disparities. Many educators are now focusing on the role of bias in medical encounters and searching for strategies to reduce its negative impact on patients. These bias-reduction efforts have often been met with resistance from those who are offended by the notion that "they" are part of the problem. This article examines a faculty development course offered to medical school faculty that seeks to reduce bias in a way that avoids this problem. Informed by recent social-psychological research on bias, the course focuses on forms of bias that operate below the level of conscious awareness. With a pedagogical strategy promoting self-awareness and introspection, instructors encourage participants to discover their own unconscious biases in the hopes that they will become less biased in the future. By focusing on hidden forms of bias that everyone shares, they hope to create a "safe-space" where individuals can discuss shameful past experiences without fear of blame or criticism. Drawing on participant-observation in all course sessions and eight in-depth interviews, this article examines the experiences and reactions of instructors and participants to this type of approach. We "lift the hood" and closely examine the philosophy and strategy of course founders, the motivations of the participants, and the experience of and reaction to the specific pedagogical techniques employed. We find that their safe-space strategy was moderately successful, largely due to the voluntary structure of the course, which ensured ample interest among participants, and their carefully designed interactive exercises featuring intimate small group discussions. However, this success comes at the expense of considering the multidimensional sources of bias. The specific focus on introspection implies that prior ignorance, not active malice, is responsible for biased actions. In this way, the individual perpetrators of bias escape blame for their actions while the underlying causes of their behavior go unexplored or unaccounted for.

  17. Effects of Varying Session Length and Frequency in Brief Emotive Psychotherapy

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    Bierenbaum, Howard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study examined the role of emotional catharsis in brief emotive psychotherapy and its differential effects within three time frames. The findings are seen as supporting the contention that within a specific time frame emotional catharsis can lead to certain positive outcomes in brief emotive psychotherapy. (Author)

  18. Terapi Seni Melalui Melukis pada Pasien Skizofrenia dan Ketergantungan Narkoba

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    Sarie Rahma Anoviyanti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, human used various forms and/or elements of art as an effort to ‘treat’ their body and souls. The ancient Greece used the existence of theatrical art as something that has catharsis effect in “cleansing” and/or “healing” their souls. Through this understanding, the author explores the effect of art activities on the process of mental recovery (art therapy. It is observed that through the process, catharsis effect serves as an important part of art therapy; exploring process and activities that unites disciplines of Art and Psychology as means for treatment.

  19. Bonding and Emotional Reeducation of Couples in the PAIRS Training: Part II.

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    Durana, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Uses quantitative and qualitative research methods to evaluate the impact of the bonding and catharsis segment of a measure of intimate relationship skills. Results suggest that the segment can lead to significant improvements in marital adjustment, cohesion, self-esteem, and anxiety levels. Explores differences in changes for males and females.…

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-10

    LE MONDE in French 3 Apr 91 p 2 liberation along the lines preached by "liberation theol- ogy" in Latin America," not by some kind of magical catharsis... metaphysical props to keep the unity of Pakistan unim- specified areas for its realisation. Can anyone imagine paired. Since nationalism, pure and simple, has

  1. Crying in middle childhood: a report on gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to confirm gender differences in crying in middle childhood and (2) to identify factors that may explain why girls cry more than boys in a Dutch sample (North Holland and Utrecht). We examined 186 children’s (age: 9-13 years) self-reports on crying, catharsis, seeking

  2. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

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    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  3. Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: Scale Construction and Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Pamela A.; Anastasio, Phyllis A.

    2006-01-01

    The 50-item Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (V-RABS) includes three subscales measuring possible causes of violent behavior (environmental influences, biological influences, and mental illness) and four subscales assessing possible controls of violent behavior (death penalty, punishment, prevention, and catharsis). Each subscale…

  4. Memory as Travel in Asian American Children's Literature: Bridging Home and School.

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    Ching, Stuart H. D.; Pataray-Ching, Jann

    2002-01-01

    Examines Asian American children's literature. Suggests that four representations of memory in Asian American children's literature (memory as recovery, as cultural change, as catharsis, and as border crossing) compose an empowering discourse for Asian and Asian American students negotiating competing cultural and economic motives in American…

  5. Bonding in the Broken Places.

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    Cline, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the author's own breakdown propelled her to research resiliency. Outlines five characteristics of young survivors. Argues that young adult fiction offers catharsis for healing, rebuilding, and changing. Discusses three young adult novels in particular, discussing how the five characteristics of resilience are expressed in them. (SR)

  6. Learning to Win When Fighting Outnumbered: Operational Risk in the U.S. Army, 1973-1982, and the influence of the 1973 Arab-Israeli War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    initial Arab assault, buying time for mobilized reserves to deploy and counterattack. Israel’s war aims were the retention of the occupied lands and...always of compulsion , sometimes of insubordination; always of anxiety, sometimes of elation or catharsis; always of uncertainty and doubt

  7. Relationship between Sedentary and Active Leisure Participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used the Catharsis Theory and the Stimulation Theory to examine the relationship between sedentary leisure participation (watching television (TV), videos or DVDs and computer or video game playing) and active leisure participation (strength sport, recreational sport and team sport) within a sample of 1134 ...

  8. Age Regression in the Treatment of Anger in a Prison Setting.

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    Eisel, Harry E.

    1988-01-01

    Incorporated hypnotherapy with age regression into cognitive therapeutic approach with prisoners having history of anger. Technique involved age regression to establish first significant event causing current anger, catharsis of feelings for original event, and reorientation of event while under hypnosis. Results indicated decrease in acting-out…

  9. Collaboration and Cultural Identity in the Classroom

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    Hart, Andrea Faye

    2014-01-01

    Andrea Faye Hart is a community journalist and teaching artist who experiments with citizen media to especially empower youth. She runs a civic media and a catharsis through media-making programs for Free Spirit Media, as well as a verse and investigative journalism program for Young Chicago Authors. In this article, as a teaching artist working…

  10. Dream and emotion regulation: insight from the ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Duclos, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    During dreaming, as well as during wakefulness, elaborative encoding, indexing and ancient art of memory (AAOM) techniques, such as the method of loci, may coincide with emotion regulation. These techniques shed light on the link between dreaming and emotional catharsis, post-traumatic stress disorder, supermemorization during sleep as opposed to wakefulness, and the developmental role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in children.

  11. La funzione etica e catartica della rappresentazione della sofferenza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this contribution is to discuss the ethical function of suffering in Manzoni's Storia della Colonna infame as a means for catharsis and as a persuasive rhetorical argument addressed to the reader. By representing both physical and moral suffering Manzoni states that evil corrupts not only the perpetrators but also ...

  12. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 3. Mad Scenes: A Warning against Overwhelming Passions

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    Marisi Rossella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on mad scenes in poetry and musical theatre, stressing that, according to Aristotle’s theory on catharsis and the Affektenlehre, they had a pedagogical role on the audience. Some mad scenes by J.S. Bach, Handel and Mozart are briefly analyzed, highlighting their most relevant textual and musical characteristics.

  13. Neurolinguistic programming as an adjunct to other psychotherapeutic/hypnotherapeutic interventions.

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    Field, E S

    1990-01-01

    The therapeutic dissociative techniques of "anchoring" and "three-part dissociation," neurolinguistic programming (NLP) treatment paradigms incorporating the idea of division into ego states, are effective in crisis intervention and as a stimulus for catharsis. Using the anchoring technique in the first session, a patient with severe anxiety, manifested by episodes of hyperactivity, was able to superimpose inner resources upon the situations which led to the episodes. Utilizing three-part dissociation, the patient experienced the hyperactive episodes "for the very last time" and terminated them permanently. Hypnotic exploration and ideomotor signaling were used with a patient presenting with uncomfortable feelings associated with intense anger. After the origin of the anger was determined, a three-part dissociation produced an abreaction and catharsis. Interaction at a cognitive level integrated the feelings and knowledge into personal consciousness.

  14. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called game addiction). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization,...

  15. Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles

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    Ismet Tekerek

    2013-06-01

    Action and character are two major concepts which called human into being in the past and also for the moment and will render human exist in the future. If action is being executed through the preference of free will of a conscious and prudent person then character of that person can be spoken. Action, character and preference of free will have an important position at the ethical and aesthetical views of Aristotle. He presents his views on the function of action, character and tragedia at his work Poetics in which he composed theatre aesthetics of the era by analysing tragedias originated from rituals and mythology and which are played for thousands of people. According to his views, sciences can be classified as practical and theoretical. Since practical sciences deal with human-character which is the source of action, theatre can be evaluated as practical art by following his views on tragedia and examples. Because tragedia is the imitation of an action which is experienced by a character who is better than the average, and this action orients the person to the good through catharsis which it creates. Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound” and Sophocles’ “Antigone”, which are among the most important and mature tragedias, are two examples projecting Aristotle’s ideas on action, character, free will, individual preference and average ethics. Only a tragic hero who executes his action by using his individual preference with his free will and carries out this action coherently can create catharsis on the audience. The audience watchs the conflict between equal powers developed by the tragedia, gets into catharsis; and the calmness after catharsis serves the view of good-wise citizen which is the target of Atistotle’s total views. Thinking once more on this dialectical relation between action, character, free will and individual preference which are also the basis of Aristotle’s philosophy is important in terms of interrogating the human and his values, of

  16. Facebook storytelling: Implications for expression of coping behaviors

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    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are commonly used for self-disclosure. It provides the user the opportunity for catharsis. The present case is going to highlight the implications of Facebook storytelling. Clinical interview and NIMHANS psychiatric morbidity screening tool were used to assess the pattern of Facebook usage and psychiatric caseness. Facebook storytelling helps in coping with psychiatric distress. It implies the need to screen and encourage the users to use offline method receiving psychological support as well as develop the offline healthy coping behaviors.

  17. Benefits of a poetry writing intervention for family caregivers of elders with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Lori I; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Morris, Diana L

    2011-01-01

    This pilot clinical trial tested effectiveness of a poetry writing intervention for family caregivers of elders with dementia. This paper presents findings from a larger study using mixed methods to examine outcome variables of self-transcendence, resilience, depressive symptoms, and subjective caregiver burden. Findings reported here focus on qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with participants following their poetry writing experience. A grounded theory approach was used. Themes that arose from the data support a mid-range theory of self-affirmation in caregivers with subthemes of achievement, catharsis, greater acceptance, empathy, self-awareness, reflection, creative and fun, positive challenge, and helping others.

  18. La interpretación intelectualista de la tragedia: Una discusión critica

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    Carmen Trueba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature of tragedy is a matter of controversy. The intelectualist vision of tragedy has gained ground in the last years. In this paper I intend to discuss on the heterodox and extreme version of the cognitivism, defended recently by Pierluigi Donini in La tragedia, senza la catarsi, which firmly rules out the emotional or cathartic function of tragic drama and asserts that “the function of tragedy is not catharsis, but its crowning or last stage: understanding”. The revision of the arguments stated by Donini will allow to enlighten some obscure points in the aristotelian theory of tragedy, particularly the place of music and entertainment in tragic drama.

  19. Evaluation of the Aviation Warrant Officer Advanced Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Counseling 4.0 1 Role-Playing: A Counseling Approach 2.0 1 Self-Feelings of the Counselor 2.0 1 Concept of Military Leadership 3.0 Professionalism and Ethics ...8217 use of "Parent, Adult, and Child;" and will write the definitions of psychoanalysis , psychotherapy, time structuring, transactions, ego states, strokes...counseling. a. Freudian psychoanalysis relates subconscious repression to 28 28 28 most mental dysfunctions. b. Role-play leads to a catharsis when done in

  20. Leonora Carrington y sus memorias: Una experiencia de violencia y locura

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Guiral, Juncal

    2012-01-01

    Down below is a diary, a journey through the mind of Leonora Carrington, who becomes a therapeutic catharsis. Her nervous breakdown, as a result of the hostile world around her, will be condensed and narrated in a short time, five days, by the English artist. The narrated episodes offer a fuzzy border between reality and fiction that, very often, hinders the work of analysis. The thread of time, safe in the early days of her narrative, despite her lack of sanity, breaks downs as the descripti...

  1. THE TRAGIC ELEMENTS IN BRAD SILBERLING'S (2004) LEMONY SNICKET'S A SERIES OF UNFORTUNATE EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marcellina Ariska P.N.; G.M. Adhyanggono

    2015-01-01

    Movie is a kind of literary works in addition to novels, poems or songs. There are some genres of movie; one of them is comedy. Black comedy is its sub-genre. Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events is a black comedy movie which includes hamartia, anagnorisis, peripeteia, and catharsis. They are the key elements of Aristotle's theory of tragedy. In this paper, the writer shows the existence of those key elements in the movie. Also, the writer explains the extent of tragic elements in ...

  2. Aku dalam Kehinaanku!: Menafsir Kehinaan Menurut Julia Kristeva

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    Paulus Eko Kristianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abjection normally is understood as the gross taste. However, whether such humiliation is also understood when placed in the frame of philosophy? Julia Kristeva states abjection with regard to aesthetics in art and literature through poetry catharsis. That is through abjection, people are invited to immerse themselves further in selfhood. The key phrase is trying held by the author in this article outlines. The author tries to offer an alternative that has been wrapped Kristeva debasement in the language of the interface between semiotics and symbolism.

  3. Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles

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    Ismet Tekerek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality Research AwardEditorial InformationEditorial SummaryEditorial BoardSearch Home Journal Archive Vol.1,no.1,2012,Abstract10Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles   Ismet TEKEREKPh.D., Aegean University, Izmir.   ABSTRACT Action and character are two major concepts which called human into being in the past and also for the moment and will render human exist in the future. If action is being executed through the preference of free will of a conscious and prudent person then character of that person can be spoken. Action, character and preference of free will have an important position at the ethical and aesthetical views of Aristotle. He presents his views on the function of action, character and tragedia at his work Poetics in which he composed theatre aesthetics of the era by analysing tragedias originated from rituals and mythology and which are played for thousands of people. According to his views, sciences can be classified as practical and theoretical. Since practical sciences deal with human-character which is the source of action, theatre can be evaluated as practical art by following his views on tragedia and examples. Because tragedia is the imitation of an action which is experienced by a character who is better than the average, and this action orients the person to the good through catharsis which it creates. Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound” and Sophocles’ “Antigone”, which are among the most important and mature tragedias, are two examples projecting Aristotle’s ideas on action, character, free will, individual preference and average ethics. Only a tragic hero who executes his action by using his individual preference with his free will and carries out this action coherently can create catharsis on the audience. The audience watchs the conflict between equal powers developed by the tragedia, gets into catharsis; and the calmness after catharsis serves the view of good-wise citizen which is the

  4. ANALYTIC GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY—For Wives and Husbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, I. W.

    1952-01-01

    The practice of group psychotherapy has its roots in Freudian dynamics and concepts, and varies from play group psychotherapy to analytic group psychotherapy, using the dynamics of transference, catharsis, interpretation, insight, ego building, reality, and sublimation. This presentation is based on the experience of the author with about 40 women patients formed in groups at a sanatorium. The majority were neurotic, psychoneurotic or manic-depressive. Several were psychotic. Some of the patients were treated in groups that included their husbands, after discharge from the sanatorium. Analytic group psychotherapy is a concept of an attenuated mobile and uncensored societal setting, where persons who have failed in the larger and harsher social reality may again attempt resocialization in a permissive, friendly, and protected environment. It is not to be considered the poor man's makeshift for individual psychoanalysis. Group dynamics facilitate the regression and catharsis necessary to produce insight and ego strength, leading to more rapid recovery. Husband and wife participation in the same group led to a more tolerant acceptance by the husband of the concept of mental ailment, and empathy for the spouse. The role of the psychiatrist in group psychotherapy is very similar to that in individual psychoanalysis. He represents the reality to the patient and the group. He is objective but permissive, and not passive. Therapeutic goals are the same as in individual therapy, and may focus on the resolution of pre-oedipal conflicts or on situational maladjustments. PMID:12978896

  5. Nurses' use of mobile instant messaging applications: A uses and gratifications perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, John Robert; Lin, Trisha T C

    2017-10-01

    To explore how and why mobile instant messaging applications are used by Filipino nurses as part of their work. Guided by the uses and gratifications theory, in-depth interviews with 20 staff nurses working in 9 hospitals (ie, 4 private and 5 public hospitals) in the Philippines were conducted in July 2015. Interview data were analysed through a phenomenological perspective to thematic analysis. Results show that mobile instant messaging applications such as Facebook Messenger and Viber were mostly used by staff nurses and these were accessed using their own smartphones. Thematic analysis indicates that they were used to meet staff nurses' need for information exchange, socialization, and catharsis. Moreover, user interactions vary depending on members within a chat group. For instance, communication via mobile instant messaging applications are much formal when superiors are included in a chat group. In general, the results show that mobile instant messaging applications are routinely used by Filipino staff nurses not only for clinical purposes (ie, information exchange) but also for non-clinical purposes (ie, socialization and catharsis). This paper ends with several practical and theoretical implications including future research directions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Analytic group psychotherapy; for wives and husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUSKIN, I W

    1952-08-01

    The practice of group psychotherapy has its roots in Freudian dynamics and concepts, and varies from play group psychotherapy to analytic group psychotherapy, using the dynamics of transference, catharsis, interpretation, insight, ego building, reality, and sublimation.This presentation is based on the experience of the author with about 40 women patients formed in groups at a sanatorium. The majority were neurotic, psychoneurotic or manic-depressive. Several were psychotic. Some of the patients were treated in groups that included their husbands, after discharge from the sanatorium. Analytic group psychotherapy is a concept of an attenuated mobile and uncensored societal setting, where persons who have failed in the larger and harsher social reality may again attempt resocialization in a permissive, friendly, and protected environment. It is not to be considered the poor man's makeshift for individual psychoanalysis. Group dynamics facilitate the regression and catharsis necessary to produce insight and ego strength, leading to more rapid recovery. Husband and wife participation in the same group led to a more tolerant acceptance by the husband of the concept of mental ailment, and empathy for the spouse. The role of the psychiatrist in group psychotherapy is very similar to that in individual psychoanalysis. He represents the reality to the patient and the group. He is objective but permissive, and not passive. Therapeutic goals are the same as in individual therapy, and may focus on the resolution of pre-oedipal conflicts or on situational maladjustments.

  7. Tales of resistance and other emancipatory functions of storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassley, Jane S; Nelms, Tommie P

    2009-11-01

    Tales of resistance and other emancipatory functions of storytelling. This paper is the report of a study to explore how the process of storytelling might facilitate women's emancipatory knowing, using examples from women's breastfeeding stories. Storytelling, as an interactive process, can give women a way to explain pivotal life events, justify choices, examine reality and find meaning in experiences. Emancipatory functions of storytelling have been identified as contextual grounding, bonding with others, validating and affirming experiences, venting and catharsis, resisting oppression and educating others. Secondary data analysis was conducted in 2008 on breastfeeding stories originally gathered from 13 women from 2002 to 2004 for a feminist hermeneutic study of maternal breastfeeding confidence. The stories were re-examined through the lens of the emancipatory functions of storytelling. Illustrations of contextual grounding, validating and affirming experiences, venting and catharsis and acts of resistance were found in the breastfeeding stories and presented as exemplars of emancipatory knowing. Women revealed the difficulties they encountered breastfeeding, transforming these experiences as they discovered their meaning. They described collisions that occurred when personal, familial, healthcare professionals' or cultural expectations differed from their experience. The stories suggested possible liberation from old ideologies about breastfeeding as women redefined the difficulties they encountered. Storytelling has potential as a simple, yet profound, and powerful emancipatory intervention which nurses can use to help women in their care make sense of and transform experiences of health and illness. Storytelling may have global implications for nursing practice and research.

  8. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

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    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  9. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  10. Monster as a Superhero: an Essay on Vampire Vogue in Contemporary Film Culture

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    Lejla Panjeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.

  11. Monster as a Superhero: an Essay on Vampire Vogue in Contemporary Film Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Panjeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.

  12. The rites in the mysteries of Dionysus: the birth of the drama

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    Britt-Mari Näsström

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek drama can be apprehended as an extended ritual, originating in the ceremonies of the Dionysus cult. In particular, tragedy derived its origin from the sacrifice of goats and the hymns which were sung on that occasion. Tragedia means "song of the male goat" and these hymns later developed into choruses and eventually into tragedy, in the sense of a solemn and purifying drama. The presence of the god Dionysus is evident in the history and development of the Greek drama at the beginning of the fifth century B.C. and its sudden decline 150 years later. Its rise seems to correspond with the Greek polis, where questions of justice and divine law in conflict with the individual were obviously a matter of discussion and where the drama had individual and collective catharsis (purifying in mind.

  13. Good grief: bereavement literature for young adults and A Monster Calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Giskin

    2012-12-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of critically acclaimed novels for young adults dealing with bereavement. This is part of a 'bereavement turn'--a contemporary cultural movement to examine publicly our attitudes to death and grieving. This paper examines the narrative strategies in Patrick Ness's award-winning novel A Monster Calls to look at the ways in which the psychic burden of the impending loss of a parent through cancer is managed. The book draws on conventions of children's literature to create a sense of familiarity that helps to balance the emotional stress of the story. The Kübler-Ross stages of grief serve as a heuristic that helps the story deliver catharsis in spite of its inevitably traumatic subject matter. A Monster Calls is an important addition to the canon of fictional pathography.

  14. Qualitative analysis of experiences of members of a psychoeducational assertiveness group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrakouli, Effi; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-04-01

    This study describes qualitatively a psychoeducational assertiveness intervention for 20 women's perceptions of positive and negative experiences, undertaken to identify whether therapeutic mechanisms operating in group therapy as described by Yalom might be inferred. There were 14 90-min. weekly sessions organized around educational material. Two groups were conducted with 10 university women each (M= 20.9 yr., SD= 1.9). Qualitative analysis of the 20 interviews identified five of Yalom's therapeutic mechanisms, namely, self-understanding, universality, acceptance, catharsis, and self-disclosure. The positive experiences were group cohesiveness, self-understanding, self-disclosure, positive views about the self and learning, and cognitive benefits. Self-disclosing at the early stages of group development was the most frequently reported negative experience or difficulty in the group. Although participants stated they improved interpersonal communication skills, analysis suggested the cultural context was an important mediator of assertive behavior.

  15. Person identity problem: imitation or authenticity (in the context of philosophical anthropology

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    L. S. Tarasyuk

    2016-08-01

    Moral values possess such properties as objectivity, transcendence, allness, unity, uniqueness, hierarchy, intentionality. All these qualities promote person’s authenticity restoration, coming from the depths of one’s inner world. The unity, or integrity means that all elements are in constitutional interrelation, and person’s integral world can be only real. There is no place in integrity for imitation, falseness, masks, any simulacra. Thus, developing and forming the world of values, person gains authenticity that corresponds to a certain standard, eidetic similarity (Plato. In its development personality experiences catharsis, that is sublimation from all alluvial and false, illusory. Through authenticity we come to the world of values, and what’s the most important – to person’s integrity which contains all unity of variety.

  16. COMIC AGENTS: FROM A POETIC TO AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF COMEDY (ARISTOTLE AND ALFRED GELL

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    ANNA KAWALEC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities, however, this approach took over. The “ performative turn” represents its more recent version. It allows one to interpret Poetics and other classical works not in the context of an object (comedy, but in the context of the acting subject. I claim that social anthropology further explores the concept of comedy and itself presumes it in its conceptual foundations and research approach. I elaborate the argument on the basis of the concept of the “spirit of comedy” coined by Alfred Gell .

  17. Offensive language in the general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Daniel J; Stern, Theodore A

    2010-01-01

    Offensive language (spoken by medical staff and by patients and their families) is often heard in the general hospital, but its manifestations and clinical implications have not been previously examined. The authors sought to facilitate an understanding of the effects and treatment of offensive utterances and their downstream consequences. The authors present a sampling of clinical vignettes that illustrate a variety of examples of hospital-based events in which offensive language was used and discuss differential diagnoses and management strategies. Swearing can also be used as a psychological tool in the service of helping. Swearing may provide a channel of catharsis for aggressive drives and affects that have been building in either the doctor or the patient. Placing offensive behaviors, for example, use of profane language, in a biopsychosocial context can facilitate an understanding of the causes, effects, and treatment of these events.

  18. 'I Got it off my Chest': An Examination of how Research Participation Improved the Mental Health of Women Engaging in Transactional Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Marisa; Wiehe, Sarah E; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Roth, Alexis M

    2018-02-01

    Ecologic momentary assessment (EMA) is a form of close-ended diary writing. While it has been shown that participating in a study that incorporates EMA improves mental health of participants, no study to date has examined the pathways through which benefits may occur. For 4-weeks, twice-daily EMAs and weekly interviews captured mood, daily activities and HIV risk behavior of 25 women who engage in transactional sex. Qualitative analysis of exit interviews was performed to examine how participation impacted women's mental health. The majority of participants felt that EMAs heightened awareness of emotions and behavior. Most reported experiencing catharsis from the interviews; specifically, from having a non-judgmental, trusting listener. Participants felt responsible for completing tasks, a sense of accomplishment for completing the study, and altruism. This study demonstrates there are direct benefits associated with participation in an EMA and interview study.

  19. THE TRAGIC ELEMENTS IN BRAD SILBERLING'S (2004 LEMONY SNICKET'S A SERIES OF UNFORTUNATE EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellina Ariska P.N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Movie is a kind of literary works in addition to novels, poems or songs. There are some genres of movie; one of them is comedy. Black comedy is its sub-genre. Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events is a black comedy movie which includes hamartia, anagnorisis, peripeteia, and catharsis. They are the key elements of Aristotle's theory of tragedy. In this paper, the writer shows the existence of those key elements in the movie. Also, the writer explains the extent of tragic elements in affecting the story of this movie. This paper shows that from the perspective of Aristotle's theory of tragedy, Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events can be viewed as tragedy.

  20. The therapeutic power of narration

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    Sara GONZÁLEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Illness is a traumatic experience full of uncertainty which checks our confrontation strategies against adversity. When disease is severe and is loaded with suffering premonitions, it can be felt as an emotional cataclysm where narration might be disclosed as an invaluable help. The narrative process requires solitude, introspection and reflection prior to the writing action, thus allowing to analyze from the distance the new condition the patient is exposed to. The curative effect of narration is produced by the catharsis provided by the reflection, by the fears and negative thoughts transferred onto paper, as well as the alleviation, relief and the comfort provided by the narrative extraversion. Given the curative power of narration, it seems necessary that medicine graduate students know the advantages that writing might provide/add to their education besides the convenience of prescribing writing to their patients because they will feel, at least, relief from the emotional distress that the diagnosis and prognostic uncertainties frequently produce.

  1. Keith F. Durkin et al., Pathological internet communities: A new direction for sexual deviance research in a post modern era

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    KEITH F. DURKIN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of the Internet and related technologies on the nature of deviant behavior, deviant communities, and the future of deviance research. The idea that pathological communities, once largely suppressed by time, space, and societal restraints, can now create and use virtual communities is focal. Those new communities may expand their numbers and/or pathology, while reinforcing their rationales for rule violations. Investigation of these new virtual communities is especially complex for both conceptual and methodological reasons: identity is hard to ascertain in cyber-settings; nationality, ethnicity and other background traits and standard (e.g., random sampling methods are not feasible. Nonetheless, the impact of communications technology on the creation and expansion of pathologically deviant communities requires exploration to determine whether, for example, immersion and social support lead to satiation-catharsis, more aggressive real-time behavior, and/or increases in the depth and number of pathological sexual preferences.

  2. How music-inspired weeping can help terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Kay

    2011-09-01

    Music's power to improve the 'human condition' has been acknowledged since ancient times. Something as counter-intuitive as weeping in response to music can ameliorate suffering for a time even for terminally ill patients. Several benefits-including catharsis, communication, and experiencing vitality-can be associated with grieving in response to "sad" music. In addressing the potential rewards of such an activity for terminally ill patients, this author combines concepts from philosopher Jerrold R. Levinson's article, entitled "Music and Negative Emotion," an illustration from a major motion picture, and supporting research from medical reports and aesthetic writings. Carefully offering this experience is recommended for patients who retain the capacity to express preference.

  3. Angelic and Crepuscular in Alexandru Sever’s Drama

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    Elena IANCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The illustration of a world, apparently drifting, the (demystification of the transcendent and of the act of creation, as idea and textual strategy, seem to Alexandru Sever (1921-2010 a means for another beginning. The impossibility of action in Înger bătrîn/ The Old Angel (1977 and the pact-making in Îngerul slut/ The Miscreated Angel (1982, imply metamorphosis in essence, supported by the dialogue with the great texts of the world, by intertextuality (the biblical text, Shakespeare's texts -Hamlet -Yorick, texts written by Göethe, Beckett, Marlowe, Dostoevsky, J. P. Sartre, Mikhail Bulgakov and others. The projection of Auschwitz, as a Siberia of the spirit, and that of Faustianism, result in a detailed analysis of the human, both as individuality and as community, in an attempt to illustrate the (inintelligible inaction, death involving catharsis in the mundane and the theatre alike.

  4. Die term dramaties: terug na Aristoteles

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    D. A. Pauw

    1994-05-01

    Expressions such as dramatic portrayal, dramatic action or dramatic scene frequently occur in works discussing drama. What is, however, meant by the word dramatic? Do we fully appreciate its meaning as it was meant to be understood by Aristotle in his Ars Poetica? Commencing from Aristotle's definition of tragedy and his ensuing discussion of its elements, the wide spectrum of meaning of the word dramatic is illustrated. The aspects touched upon are the following: the functionality of information, conflict, complication, suspense, turning point, tragic flaw, catharsis and pathos. The identification with protagonist and antagonist is discussed, as well as the relevance of character portrayal for the action. Graphic, exciting and moving descriptions form part of dramatic portrayal, and so do the monologue, the speech and dialogue, finally, the word dramatic may he defined in terms of emotions evoked, while dramatic action mostly comprises a timeless universal truth.

  5. PENERAPAN PERMAINAN BAHASA (KATARSIS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN MEMBACA SISWA KELAS IVA SD NEGERI 01 METRO PUSAT

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    Arifin Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:. Learning to read Bahasa Indonesia at grade IV A SD Negeri 01 Metro Pusat in the implementation still dominate by teachers with Lecture Methods (teacher centered so the learning process is not optimal, so the students are less interested and not giving attention. This study aims to improve reading skills through the application of language games (catharsis at grade IV A SD Negeri 01 Metro Pusat. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive through the test and reading skill assessment sheet. Data analysis techniques used are qualitative and quantitative analysis. The result of data analysis explain that the students reading skill on cycle I (74,42%, cycle II (83,72%, increased by 9,3% and on cycle III become (90,70% so that it increased by 6,98 %. Keywords: skill, reading, language game (catharsis.   Abstrak: Pembelajaran membaca bahasa Indonesia di kelas IVA SD Negeri 01 Metro Pusat dalam pelaksanaannya guru masih mendominasi dengan metode ceramah (teacher centered sehingga proses pembelajarannya belum optimal, akibatnya siswa kurang tertarik dan kurang memperhatikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan membaca melalui penerapan permainan bahasa (katarsis di kelas IVA SD Negeri 01 Metro Pusat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu deskriptif kualitatif melalui lembar tes, dan lembar penilaian keterampilan membaca. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis kualitatif dan analisis kuantitatif. Hasil analisis data diperoleh keterampilan membaca siswa pada siklus I (74,42%, siklus II (83,72%, mengalami peningkatan sebesar 9,3% dan siklus III menjadi (90,70% sehingga mengalami peningkatan sebesar 6,98%. Kata kunci: keterampilan, membaca, permainan bahasa (katarsis.

  6. Práxis e "catarsis" como referências avaliativas das ações educacionais das ONG'S, dos sindicatos e dos partidos políticos Praxis and "catarsis" as evaluative references of the education activities of NGO'S, trade unions and political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Francisco Martins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das referências avaliativas das ações educacionais desenvolvidas pelas ONG's, sindicatos e partidos políticos, que são entendidas como práxis capazes de gerar "catarsis" de diferentes tipos. Sustentado teoricamente em, basicamente, três autores: Marx, Gramsci e Vázquez, o texto inicia apresentando alguns apontamentos sobre o conceito de práxis e sobre o de "catarsis", para posteriormente identificar a educação como um processo práxico e catártico. Essa compreensão da educação, que resgata os conceitos de "práxis comunitária" e "práxis social", resulta em dupla asserção conclusiva, a saber: primeiro, que todo processo educativo resulta em alguma transformação e, segundo, que nem toda transformação resultante da educação é capaz de alterar as estruturas e superestruturas que caracterizam a totalidade da vida social.This article refers to the evaluation of educational activities developed by NGO's, trade unions and political parties, which are understood as praxis capable of generating "catharsis" of different types. Referenced in basically three authors: Marx, Gramsci and Vázquez, the text begins by presenting some remarks on the concept of praxis and "catharsis", identifying afterwards education as a process at the same praxic and cathartic. This understanding of education, which recalls the concepts of "community praxis" and "social praxis", resulting in a double conclusive assertion, namely: first that the entire educational process results in some change, and second, that not all resulting transformation of education is able to change the structures and superstructures that characterize all social life.

  7. Indications and techniques for bowel preparation in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, M R; Lee, J R; Ambrose, N S

    1983-01-01

    A satisfactory bowel preparation is essential for adequate double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy. Efficient preparation is also important for reducing the risk of anastomotic dehiscence and sepsis in elective colorectal surgery. Traditional preparation by starvation, purgation and enemas is time consuming, unpleasant for patients, and in our experience results in a satisfactory preparation in only 23% of patients. Elemental diets are inefficient when used for only five days. Whole bowel irrigation with a nasogastric tube enables patients to be in hospital for only one day before operation and provides a satisfactory result in 61% of patients. Whole bowel irrigation is not recommended for stenosing tumours. Irrigation with saline causes sodium and water retention and the use of a balanced electrolyte solution (eg, Ringer's lactate) reduces the risk of these side effects. Oral mannitol has become popular but in our experience results in a satisfactory preparation in only 41% of patients. Mannitol is fermented by E coli to potentially explosive gas mixtures unless oral antimicrobials (neomycin and metronidazole) are used immediately before operation. Polyethylene glycol also causes osmotic catharsis without the risk of explosion. We currently favour nasogastric irrigation with polyethylene glycol and a balanced electrolyte solution, but there is still a place for traditional preparation over five days for patients with stenosing tumours of the left colon.

  8. Creation and validation of the personal blogging style scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Moore, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    A review of blog literature suggests that blogs may have many social and emotional benefits. In particular, there is the suggestion that blogging may have benefits in the forms of coping, insight and growth, catharsis, as a free space to communicate, through feedback, through recognition, and in social support. However, while there have been numerous studies on the potential motivations for and effects of blogging, little quantitative research has been conducted on defining the manner in which one experiences blogging. Thus rather than focusing on motivation for blogging, the present study examined the way in which bloggers perceived and experienced their activity, that is, their blogging style. A 16-item Personal Blogging Style Scale (PBSS) was created after a factor analysis of 25 sample items. Participants were 182 experienced bloggers. The PBSS classifies user experiences by four independent and unique subscales: Therapeutic Blogging, Self-Censoring Blogging, Connected Blogging, and Substitution Blogging. Reliability and validity evidence were presented for the subscales of the measure.

  9. Narrating Developmental Disability: Researchers, Advocates, and the Creation of an Interview Space in the Context of University-Community Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Mulcahy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the narration of developmental disability through interviews between participants, researchers, and members of community organizations serving the disabled population, in the context of university-community collaborations. These kinds of collaborations are extremely important for researching vulnerable or hard-to-reach populations, which often face lower levels of physical, mental, and social well-being as a consequence of shame, stigma, or discrimination. Community collaboration can thus be invaluable for reaching members of marginalized populations, who may be difficult to locate or otherwise avoid contact with outsiders, because it provides members of a research team with local knowledge of a population, a means of accessing possible participants, and legitimation for the project. I suggest, however, that although the researcher's externality may initially invite skepticism toward the investigation from participants, it can also benefit them by providing a forum for catharsis. Based on a pilot study I conducted with a community advocacy organization for the disabled, I note that some participants expressed an appreciation for being able to discuss certain emotions and experiences during interviews with an outsider who was not involved as a caseworker. I conclude that the presence of a trusted community advocate and a researcher at an interview affects a participant's narrative by providing a safe space for participants to voice their stories to outsiders.

  10. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

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    Alicja Przybyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  11. A Qualitative Study on the Emotional Healing Efficacy of Movies for Undergraduates Suffering Breakups

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    Chen Su-may Sheih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakups with significant others are among the main reasons for emotional disturbance problems in Taiwanese undergraduates. Most undergraduates lack emotional regulation; therefore, their negative emotions can easily accumulate, influencing their mental health. Exacerbating these effects, the accumulation of negative emotions can lead to social problems. Therefore, helping undergraduates appropriately cope with negative emotions generated by breakups is a topic worth exploring. Movie therapy involves watching appropriate movies for soothing negative emotions. To investigate the emotional healing efficacy of movies, this study employed content analysis to select movies about breakups and recruited 14 undergraduates suffering from breakups. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted after the subjects viewed one of the movies, and the emotional healing efficacy of movies was analyzed based on whether the subjects experienced the processes of identification, catharsis, and insight. The findings indicated that 14 movies had emotional healing efficacy. The subjects experienced emotional healing from movies that contained three critical elements: similarity of backgrounds between the viewer and the movie characters, the extroversive expression of the movie characters’ emotions, and the characters’ demonstration of concrete solutions to the problems. [Article content in Chinese

  12. The human skin: a meeting ground for the ideas about macrocosm and microcosm in ancient and Medieval and Greek literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, A A; Goudas, P; Diamandopoulos, A H

    2001-12-01

    We have been interested in the cleansing capacity of skin during the recent years. In a paper of ours (1) we presented a few references to Hippocrates' and Galen's ideas on the subject, while the main body of the article was based on the 17th-20th centuries' relative practices. In a second paper (2), we were mainly testing the ancient and Medieval Greek ideas on skin catharsis against some clinical work of ours. In this paper we now present the ideas of the pagan and Byzantine Greek authors (5th cent. BC - 10th cent. AD) on the relationship of the human body to the natural and man-made world. Special emphasis is given to the relationship between purification through the skin and world purification. Based on the similarity of the Empedokles' concept of the four elements and Hippocrates' thesis concerning the four humours, the Earth itself was personified and became a living organism that felt cold, perspired and became dry. Man started to seek a natural explanation for his diseases and alterations of his body functions. Hence, perspiration, fever, urination, headache, stroke, were explained in cosmological terms. Extracts from many medical and non-medical writers, like Empedocles, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, the Fathers of the Church, Meletius latrosophista, Theophilus Protospatharius, Michael Psellus and other sources are presented, in order to show the close relationship between an abundance of diseases and an array of natural phenomena.

  13. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: The gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eHilgard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called game addiction. This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty. Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes towards the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players’ evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.

  14. Abreaction for conversion disorder: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman A; Wuerz, Axel; Agrawal, Niruj

    2010-08-01

    The value of drug interviews in the treatment of conversion disorder is at present unknown. To review all the available papers published in English that report on the use of drug interviews for treating conversion/dissociative disorder. Databases (including EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were searched from 1920 to 2009. Selected publications had to report on the use of drug interviews in people diagnosed with a conversion/dissociative disorder. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Predictors of a positive response were ascertained using meta-analytic techniques. Fifty-five papers meeting inclusion criteria were identified. No studies compared the intervention with a suitable control group. However, two studies reported high response rates when drug interview was used in individuals with treatment-resistant conversion disorder. In the meta-analysis, the use of suggestion and occurrence of emotional catharsis during the interview were positively associated with recovery. Combining two medications and comorbid psychiatric disorder were negatively associated with recovery. The evidence for effectiveness of drug interviews is of poor quality but it may be of benefit in the treatment of acute and treatment-resistant conversion disorder. A proactive approach during the interview, making suggestions the individual will respond, could influence outcome. Comorbid psychiatric disorder should be treated conventionally. Experimental studies to determine efficacy are required.

  15. The social construction of violence among Northern Plains tribal members with antisocial personality disorder and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Spicer, Paul; Belcourt, Annie; Sarche, Michelle; Novins, Douglas K; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2014-02-01

    Whereas recent reports from national studies have presented extremely high rates for many personality disorders in American Indian communities, persistent concerns about the meaning of these symptoms have left many troubled by these reports. American Indians as a group are known to suffer disproportionately from a number of violent experiences, but the dynamics of this violence have received little attention. This paper examines perspectives on violence in the lives of 15 northern plains tribal members who met criteria for antisocial personality disorder and comorbid alcohol use disorder. It explores how study participants constructed and understood their own violent encounters, as well as the motivations they described (characterized here as reputation, leveling, retaliation, catharsis, and self-defense). Violence was gendered in this study, with men generally presenting as perpetrators and women as victims. Men often described themselves as ready participants in a violent world, while women were quite clear that aggression for them was often simply required as they tried to defend themselves from male violence. While this analysis does not replace clinical analyses of violence in antisocial personality disorder, it does reveal an underlying cultural logic that may play a role in shaping the recourse to violence for that minority of individuals for whom it appears to be the obvious choice.

  16. Negative Emotion in Music: What is the Attraction? A Qualitative Study

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    Sandra Garrido

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Why do people listen to music that evokes negative emotions? This paper presents five comparative interviews conducted to examine this question. Individual differences psychology and mood management theory provided a theoretical framework for the investigation which was conducted under a realist paradigm. Data sources were face-to-face interviews of about one hour involving a live music listening experience. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted and both within-case and cross-case analyses were performed. Results confirmed the complexity of variables at play in individual cases while supporting the hypothesis that absorption and dissociation make it possible for the arousal experienced when listening to sad music to be enjoyed without displeasure. At the same time, participants appeared to be seeking a variety of psychological benefits such as reflecting on life-events, enjoying emotional communion, or engaging in a process of catharsis. A novel finding was that maladaptive mood regulation habits may cause some to listen to sad music even when such benefits are not being obtained, supporting some recent empirical evidence on why people are attracted to negative emotion in music.

  17. Sigmund Freud’s Experience with the Classics

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    Fabio Stok

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical culture played an important role in the work of Sigmund Freud and influenced the formation of psychoanalysis. This influence concerned several aspects of Freud’s experience: the personal one, from his adolescent identification with ancient heroes to his emotional bond with Rome and Athens; the intellectual, including his use of authors such as Aristotle and Artemidorus the elaboration of psychoanalytical theory; rhetorical and expositive in his use of classical authors such as Sophocles and Vergil, and in his strategy of identifying thinkers such as Plato and Empedocles as forerunners of his theories. The present article reconstructs the evolution of this strategy, which began in 1900, in conjunction with the definition of the basic concepts of psychoanalysis. Some specific episodes of Freud’s approach to the classics are also examined: his reception of Aristotle’s concept of catharsis, and of the interpretation of this concept given by Bernays; Freud’s interest in Vergil, highlighted by his use of verses from the Aeneid in his works; his conflictual relationship with Rome; the use of Empedocles as a predecessor of the changes that Freud made, in his last years, to the theory of pulsions.

  18. Por uma metafísica do sublime

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    Martha de Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sublime has been analyzed since ancient times with a striking compared with tragedy, whether as a literary genre, whether through Poetics, Aristotle's catharsis we translate the feeling the sublime. In modernity, new names were coming to work with this theory: Hume himself, in his essay The Tragedy, was impressed by the ability of this art form has to produce such strong effects on the viewer. But who else has strengthened analysis of the sublime in modernity, providing the basis for their own Kant was Edmund Burke, with his piece A philosophical investigation on the ideas of the sublime and the beautiful. The third criticism of Kant devoted a special moment to the analysis of the sublime, which had served as basis also for Schopenhauer, however, from her built his own aesthetic that would be of paramount importance Nieztsche for the young, mainly due to the consideration of music as sublime art. Nietzsche, then built his tragic wisdom, with based on the experience of the sublime tragedy.The question this paper wants to treat it exactly: It is possible think of a metaphysics of the sublime, based on Nietzsche?

  19. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  20. Care of the comatose patient: building mutual staff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, P B; Smoot, F L

    1985-05-01

    Recognizing individuals' value differences is important to the success of health teams that care for comatose patients, since decisions to withhold or withdraw life-support treatment may lead to conflicts among team members. Such conflicts can adversely affect professional and family relationships. For example, health care personnel cannot work together in harmony or help the family effectively if they disagree about treatment decisions. Although institutional procedures for "do not resuscitate" orders, the treatment of incompetent patients, and other complex issues are helpful, they rarely address value conflicts, which inevitably influence a problem's resolution. Staff members therefore must acknowledge and confront differences they have faced. Such reflection enables catharsis as well as reconciliation of unresolved conflict and permits the group to develop guidelines for future situations. A fictional case also may be used to help work groups gain an understanding of the need for community. Ideally, the team members will sharpen their decision-making skills and gain the confidence to make tough choices in an imperfect, unpredictable world.

  1. Some remarks on the conflict between faith and science

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    Tadeusz Pabjan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conflict between faith and science. Since the issue is extensive, only selected aspects of this question are discussed. At first, the origin of the problem is outlined – it is argued, that the fundamental difference between the language and the method of science on one hand and of theology understood as a rational reflection on the truths of faith on the other is responsible for the conflict. Afterwards, two aspects of the conflict are presented – the first one concerns inconsistencies which appear on the plane of content – when some scientific statements or theorems seem to deny some theological claims; the second one involves differences in mentality and in worldview which appear on the plane of attitude. It is argued, that the content discrepancies can be eliminated with the help of two methods: of separation and of catharsis. But the differences in mentality which appear on the plane of attitude cannot be so easily eliminated. So finally the characteristics of these two different attitudes – of faith and of science – is discussed. It is argued, that a fundamental dissimilarity between the character of scientific knowledge (especially its empiricism and of religious faith is a basic source of mutual estrangement and alienation.

  2. Intra-individual comparison of magnesium citrate and sodium phosphate for bowel preparation at CT colonography: automated volumetric analysis of residual fluid for quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannas, P; Bakke, J; Munoz del Rio, A; Pickhardt, P J

    2014-11-01

    To perform an objective, intra-individual comparison of residual colonic fluid volume and attenuation associated with the current front-line laxative magnesium citrate (MgC) versus the former front-line laxative sodium phosphate (NaP) at CT colonography (CTC). This retrospective Health Insurance and Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. The study cohort included 250 asymptomatic adults (mean age at index 56.1 years; 124 male/126 female) who underwent CTC screening twice over a 5 year interval. Colon catharsis at initial and follow-up screening employed single-dose NaP and double-dose MgC, respectively, allowing for intra-patient comparison. Automated volumetric analysis of residual colonic fluid volume and attenuation was performed on all 500 CTC studies. Colonic fluid volume volumetric analysis suggests that the replacement of NaP by MgC as the front-line laxative for CTC has not compromised overall examination quality. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Technology addiction's contribution to mental wellbeing: The positive effect of online social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Billotte-Verhoff, China; Greene, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    This research examines the effect of online social capital and Internet use on the normally negative effects of technology addiction, especially for individuals prone to self-concealment. Self-concealment is a personality trait that describes individuals who are more likely to withhold personal and private information, inhibiting catharsis and wellbeing. Addiction, in any context, is also typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that communication technology addiction may positively affect wellbeing for self-concealing individuals when online interaction is positive, builds relationships, or fosters a sense of community. Within these parameters, increased communication through mediated channels (and even addiction) may reverse the otherwise negative effects of self-concealment on wellbeing. Overall, the proposed model offers qualified support for the continued analysis of mediated communication as a potential source for improving the wellbeing for particular individuals. This study is important because we know that healthy communication in relationships, including disclosure, is important to wellbeing. This study recognizes that not all people are comfortable communicating in face-to-face settings. Our findings offer evidence that the presence of computers in human behaviors (e.g., mediated channels of communication and NCTs) enables some individuals to communicate and fos ter beneficial interpersonal relationships, and improve their wellbeing.

  4. O ressentimento insular em «La estrella fugaz» de Carlos Victoria

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    Marina Haizenreder Ertzogue

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O texto procura analisar o sentimento insular no conto “La estrella fugaz” de Carlos Victoria. Escritor cubano exilado em Miami, em 1980, que emigrou para os Estados Unidos no êxodo de Mariel. O conto narra o exílio de três escritores, dissidentes da Revolução cubana (1959, Reinaldo Arenas, Guillermo Rosales e Carlos Victoria, em um Miami marcado por recordações e tragédias. Também destaco a trajetória de vida de Carlos Victória, um intelectual dissidente na Cuba pósrevolucionária que produz literatura como forma de resistência e catarse.Palavras-chave: Narrativa cubana; exílio; recordações. Abstract: This paper intends to analyze the insular feeling in the story “La estrella fleeting” Carlos Victoria. Cuban writer in exile in Miami in 1980, who emigrated to the United States in the Mariel boatlift. The tale recounts the exile of three writers, dissidents of the Cuban Revolution (1959, Reinaldo Arenas, Guillermo Rosales and Carlos Victoria in Miami marked by memories and tragedies. Also I point out the life trajectory of Carlos Victoria, a dissident intellectual in post-revolutionary Cuba that produces literature as a form of resistance and catharsis.Keywords: Cuban narrative; exile; memories.

  5. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called “game addiction”). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use. PMID:24058355

  6. National elements in modern Irish drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first performances of the Irish National Theatre took place in 1899. Soon after, in 1902, the Abbey Theatre took the role of the main national theatrical institution due to a small group of enthusiasts who believed that Irish drama could achieve European prominence. The main innovator of this institution was W. B. Yeats with his poetic and highly symbolic plays. In the plays he depicted historical events, the Celtic myths and legends from the folk past, and he also advised the other young Irish playwrights (Synge, O’Casey and others to do the same. He wrote guided by the idea that the Irishman need to know and discover their national identity and essence. Irish dramatists used some national legends, historical figures, aspects of traditional village life and wild nature of Ireland to express and to restore to life the sense of national oppression, traditional and cultural essence in modern time. The plays of already mentioned Irish playwrights are the expressionistic evidence of man's spiritual reality and the Irish consciousness through the process of national identity as the catharsis.

  7. [Differential group experiences of cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic group psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzke, Birgit; Scheel, Sylvia; Bauer, Christina; Rüddel, Heinz; Jürgensen, Ralph; Andreas, Sylke; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Research concerning the question, whether and to what extent cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic (PD) therapy consist of differing process components under clinical representative conditions, is relevant especially for a valid interpretation of comparative outcome research, for identifying differential beneficial factors of psychotherapy and for a systematic indication for, respectively assignment of, patients to the two treatments. In this study it is investigated whether PD and CB differ concerning the realisation of factors of group experience, respectively of beneficial group elements (e. g. cohesion, catharsis, learning by feedback). For this purpose, in a naturalistic design, a stratified sample (N = 36) of 104 videotaped sessions (PD groups, interactional CB groups and indicative CB groups; N = 171 patients with a broad spectrum of F-diagnoses of ICD-10, especially F3/F4) were rated by observers using the Kieler-Gruppenpsychotherapie-Prozess-Skala (KGPPS). Analyses of variance and a priori Helmert-contrasts reveal differences between PD and CB with at least medium effect sizes in 12 of the 16 factors of group experience. However, differences also were found between the two CB group treatments (9 factors of group experience with differences with large effect sizes). The results suggest that the different treatment approaches foster different qualities and quantities of group experience and that the latter seems not to evolve from the group context "per se" (i. e. by the plurality of the group).

  8. Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) inhalation as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Brian

    2010-05-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used widely in the treatment of psychiatric conditions; however, its use is not without controversy with some recommending a moratorium on its clinical use. Complications and side effects of ECT include memory loss, injury, problems originating from sympathetic stimulation such as arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia and the risk of general anesthesia. Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) could potentially substitute for ECT as it shares some similar effects, has potential beneficial properties for these psychiatric patients and is relatively safe and easy to administer. Nitrous oxide induces laughter which has been described as nature's epileptoid catharsis which one might surmise would be beneficial for depression. It also produces a central sympathetic stimulation similar to ECT and causes release of endogenous opioid peptides, which are potential candidates for the development of antidepressant drugs. Nitrous oxide is also associated with seizure like activity itself. Administration of nitrous oxide as a substitute for ECT is eminently feasible and could be given in a series of treatments similar to ECT therapy.

  9. "Pop" psychoanalysis, kitsch, and the "as if" theater: further notes on Peter Shaffer's Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, S

    1976-01-01

    This paper is intended as an examination of Dr. Stamm's (1975) paper and of Dr. Jules Glenn's discussion of Peter Shaffer's previous work. Its premise is the futility of subjecting Equus to a traditional psychoanalytic investigation, as a product of the playwright's unconscious, when the play represents a skillful, highly conscious use of analytic cliches to manipulate the audience. This phenomenon, however, and the play's great popularity prompt some reflections on the nature of kitsch, or false art, and its differences from authentic drama. The experience of kitsch can be identified when the spectator feels coerced by exaggerated, unconvincing theatrical devices, and fails to experience genuine empathy with the characters in a play. In the experience of authentic tragedy there is some element of voluntary surrender, of suspension of disbelief with full consent of will, as in the Aristotelian concept of catharsis. Shaffer's play is discussed as an illustration of this distinction and its relation to pseudoemotionality, the impostor syndrome, and the "as if" personality. In conclusion, the play's failure to evoke a genuine emotional response is explained by interpreting Equus as an "as if" tragedy.

  10. “And all the windows, great and small”. Finestre in Nightwood di Djuna Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a recurring subject and powerful symbol, the window dominates the female literary and artistic imagery of the twentieth century. It has been developed into mirror, photograph or painting, according to the writer’s needs, yet the basic shape of the frame is always retraceable. Among late modernist and postmodernist women writers, Djuna Barnes explores in detail the structural resources of this literary device. Although she already understands the potential of the frame in her early career as a journalist, she mostly challenges its extents of versatility in Nightwood (1936. Its crucial moments – either flashing epiphanies or missed catharsis – involve the physical presence of a window, which embodies a powerful narrative agent; more than mere symbol, it is active at several levels. Thematically, doors and windows, pictures and mirrors, play an important cohesive role. At a deeper stage of analysis, the structure of the novel itself is shored up by doors and windows, since the setting is essentially organized into indoors and outdoors scenes; windows and doors allow the characters to move between these two dimensions. On the metaphorical level, windows and doors represent a communicative channel; a room-door opening suggests the access to one’s inner life, whereas a shut window denies any chance of dialogue. However, all the characters seem to be too absorbed by their obsessions to realize such communicative potential, and rather meander uselessly in their mental frames.

  11. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called "game addiction"). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.

  12. [Contagion - some notes on the epistemology and the ethics of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Manuel Silvério; Ferreira, Carlos Miguel

    2010-01-01

    European Medical thought on epidemics - ranging from the opposition clean/dirty, pollution, malaria, pestilential seeds to 19th century microbiology - has always been ruled by figures such as the miasma, the repulsive, the excrement, the filth, the corrupt, the contagion. Theoretically framed, in general, by Foucault's ideas, this research focuses on some aspects of the historical epistemology and ethics of Public Health. Based on the history of Tuberculosis (TB) management in Portugal and, more briefly, on the flu pandemics, we thematize aspects of Biopolitics, namely, the disciplinary power and the processes of indifferentiation and reification. We will focus on the disjunction between contamination and transmission, on the systems of inclusion and exclusion and on the differences between uncertainty, risk, danger, precaution and prevention, aiming to contribute to the public debate on an ethic of precaution. It will be attested that the praxis of Public Health inevitably calls together, at various levels, the old categories of medical ethos, among which are the catharsis, the crisis, and the kairos.

  13. Effectiveness of music intervention on the quality of life of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yin Yi; Chan, Moon Fai; Mok, Esther

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the effect of music on the quality of life of community-dwelling older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Older people's quality of life can be improved by preparing for the transition into old age. Listening to music, as a vehicle for feeling, can facilitate the non-verbal expression of emotion, reaching people's inner feelings without being threatening, and it can be a tool for emotional catharsis. A randomized controlled trial design was conducted from in 2007 in a community centre in Hong Kong. A total of 66 older people (31 in music group and 35 in control group), aged from 65 to 90 years were randomly assigned to undergo either a 30-minute music intervention or a rest period for 4 weeks; quality of life outcomes were then measured. Quality of life improved weekly in the music group, indicating a cumulative dose effect, and a statistically significantly better quality of life was found over time in each sub-score for those in the music group compared with the controls. However, in the music group, there were no statistically significant improvements of quality of life in each sub-score over the 4 weeks. Being engaged in music activities can help a person to connect with their life experiences and with other people, and to be more stimulated. Music is a non-invasive, simple and inexpensive therapeutic method of improving quality of life in community-dwelling elders. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  15. Suicidal communication signifies suicidal intent in Chinese completed suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue Mei; Jia, Shu Hua

    2012-11-01

    Recognizing suicidal communication from the distressful catharsis in a high-risk group with suicidal tendencies is essential for suicide prevention. This study analyzes whether suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Various types of suicidal communication are defined, and their clinical significance is further explored. A comprehensive analysis of the psychological autopsy data of 200 victims of completed suicide, including their general socio-demographic status, suicidal communication methods, previous suicide attempts, mental disorders, and psychosocial situation. Our results showed that 39.5% of all the subjects were suicidal communicators, 23.0% had previously attempted suicide, and 14.0% left suicide notes; 32.4% of 142 subjects free of physical disease suffered from mental disorders. Suicidal communication included verbal communication, behavioral communication, and suicidal notes. Younger people with a higher level of education were more inclined to communicate their suicidal intent by leaving a suicide note. Suicide notes, but not previous suicide attempts or psychosocial situation, were significantly correlated with suicidal intent. Suicidal communicators showed higher depression scores than non-communicators. Those who suffered from mood disorders with higher levels of both depression and suicidal intent were more likely to expose their intent through behavioral communication. The present study provides strong evidence that suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Current findings help interpret high-risk, self-destructive behavior and consequently provide the theoretical basis for a feasible suicide prevention program.

  16. Filmoterapia i fototerapia – filmy i zdjęcia jako narzędzia w procesie terapeutycznym. Możliwości i limitacje terapeutycznych oddziaływań dzieła filmowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Makowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to show therapeutic context of use such imaging tools as cinematherapy and phototherapy. Simultaneously, some efforts were made to locate these forms of therapeutic support on a wider map of therapeutic factors in psychotherapy. There was also made a comparison of cinematherapy and phototherapy. The similarities in perceiving photography and movies were described as well as the differences in the psychological impact of these tools were specified. There was also led critical analysis of cinematherapy in its broader sense – eg.: “prescribed” movies, self-therapy, experiencing catharsis state. There were showed limits in movies` usage in therapy as well as its potential links to other significant psychotherapeutic process factors such as contract, therapeutic alliance, motivation and therapeutic relation. Finally, there has also been raised issue of proliferation harmful illusion that watching movies, as an isolated experience, used as a form of self-healing is equivalent to the art of professional psychotherapy led by qualified person.

  17. Swearing: A Biopsychosocial Perspective

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    Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Swearing, also known as cursing, can be best described as a form of linguistic activity utilizing taboo words to convey the expression of strong emotions. Although swearing and cursing are frequently occurring behaviors, the actual functions of swearing remain largely unknown. Since swearing typically includes taboo words, these words can be more powerful than non-swear words. Therefore, people who swear are often judged negatively, because the uttered swearwords can shock and disturb others, though the comments of others are strongly dependent on contextual factors. In this review, we provide an insight into the current state of the literature with respect to the interpersonal functions of swearing. In addition, we briefly discuss neurological, psychosocial and contextual factors that may contribute to person’s swearing behavior. Swearing is hypothesized to produce a catharsis-effect, which results in a relief of stress or pain. Swearing also influences the perceived credibility, intensity, and persuasiveness of the swearer. Additionally, swearing can have a variety of interpersonal consequences, including promoting group bonding and solidarity, inhibiting aggression, eliciting humor, and causing emotional pain to others. This paper further presents a hypothetical model of swearing that draws from basic emotion research in an attempt to provide a scaffolding for future research.

  18. Bernese motive and goal inventory in exercise and sport: Validation of an updated version of the questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Julia; Gut, Vanessa; Conzelmann, Achim; Sudeck, Gorden

    2018-01-01

    Target group-specific intervention strategies are often called for in order to effectively promote exercise and sport. Currently, motives and goals are rarely included systematically in the design of interventions, despite the key role they play in well-being and adherence to exercise. The Bernese motive and goal inventory (BMZI) allows an individual diagnosis of motives and goals in exercise and sport in people in middle adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to elaborate on the original BMZI and to modify the questionnaire in order to improve its psychometric properties. The study is based on data from two samples (sample A: 448 employees of companies and authorities; sample B: 853 patients of a medical rehabilitation programme). We applied confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modelling. Overall, both the original and the updated BMZI had an acceptable to good validity and a good reliability. However, the revised questionnaire had slightly better reliability. The updated BMZI consists of 23 items and covers the following motives and goals: Body/Appearance, Contact, Competition/Performance, Aesthetics, Distraction/Catharsis, Fitness and Health. It is recommended as an economical inventory for the individual diagnosis of important psychological conditions for exercise and sport.

  19. Factors related to coping strategies during Japanese physical therapy students’ clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Daisuke; Echigo, Ayumi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify social skills and support that are related to the coping strategies Janpanese physical therapy students use during their clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Third-year students who were finished with their clinical practice participated. Self-administered questionnaires were used, including the daily life skill scale, social support scale, and tri-axial coping scale. Spearman’s partial correlation coefficients were calculated between social skills, support of daily living, and coping strategies used during the clinical practice, while controlling for gender. [Results] A total of 56 completed questionnaires (median of age: 21 years; 27 males). Social skills during personal situations—knowledge summarization, self-esteem, and positive thinking—were significantly, positively correlated with planning and affirmative interpreting strategies to approach stressors regarding clinical practice, and negatively related to giving up strategies to avoid stressors. Intimacy, leadership, and empathy (social skills during interpersonal situations) were significantly, positively correlated with the following responses to approach stressors: catharsis, information gathering, and affirmative interpreting. Moreover, emotional/companionship social support was significantly, positively correlated with all avoidant coping strategies. [Conclusion] Japanese physical therapy students who had low personal and interpersonal social skills and excess emotional/companionship support in daily life tend to select avoidance, not approach, coping strategies during clinical practice. PMID:28878475

  20. Factors related to coping strategies during Japanese physical therapy students' clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Daisuke; Echigo, Ayumi

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify social skills and support that are related to the coping strategies Janpanese physical therapy students use during their clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Third-year students who were finished with their clinical practice participated. Self-administered questionnaires were used, including the daily life skill scale, social support scale, and tri-axial coping scale. Spearman's partial correlation coefficients were calculated between social skills, support of daily living, and coping strategies used during the clinical practice, while controlling for gender. [Results] A total of 56 completed questionnaires (median of age: 21 years; 27 males). Social skills during personal situations-knowledge summarization, self-esteem, and positive thinking-were significantly, positively correlated with planning and affirmative interpreting strategies to approach stressors regarding clinical practice, and negatively related to giving up strategies to avoid stressors. Intimacy, leadership, and empathy (social skills during interpersonal situations) were significantly, positively correlated with the following responses to approach stressors: catharsis, information gathering, and affirmative interpreting. Moreover, emotional/companionship social support was significantly, positively correlated with all avoidant coping strategies. [Conclusion] Japanese physical therapy students who had low personal and interpersonal social skills and excess emotional/companionship support in daily life tend to select avoidance, not approach, coping strategies during clinical practice.

  1. Translating concerns into action: a detailed qualitative evaluation of an interdisciplinary intervention on medical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannick, Samuel; Archer, Stephanie; Johnston, Maximillian J; Beveridge, Iain; Long, Susannah Jane; Athanasiou, Thanos; Sevdalis, Nick

    2017-04-05

    To understand how frontline reports of day-to-day care failings might be better translated into improvement. Qualitative evaluation of an interdisciplinary team intervention capitalising on the frontline experience of care delivery. Prospective clinical team surveillance (PCTS) involved structured interdisciplinary briefings to capture challenges in care delivery, facilitated organisational escalation of the issues they identified, and feedback. Eighteen months of ethnography and two focus groups were conducted with staff taking part in a trial of PCTS. PCTS fostered psychological safety-a confidence that the team would not embarrass or punish those who speak up. This was complemented by a hard edge of accountability, whereby team members would regulate their own behaviour in anticipation of future briefings. Frontline concerns were triaged to managers, or resolved autonomously by ward teams, reversing what had been well-established normalisations of deviance. Junior clinicians found a degree of catharsis in airing their concerns, and their teams became more proactive in addressing improvement opportunities. PCTS generated tangible organisational changes, and enabled managers to make a convincing case for investment. However, briefings were constrained by the need to preserve professional credibility, and staff found some comfort in avoiding accountability . At higher organisational levels, frontline concerns were subject to competition with other priorities, and their resolution was limited by the scale of the challenges they described. Prospective safety strategies relying on staff-volunteered data produce acceptable, negotiated accounts, subject to the many interdisciplinary tensions that characterise ward work. Nonetheless, these strategies give managers access to the realities of frontline cares, and support frontline staff to make incremental changes in their daily work. These are goals for learning healthcare organisations. ISRCTN 34806867. © Article author

  2. Smartphone self-monitoring to support self-management among people living with HIV: perceived benefits and theory of change from a mixed-methods randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Ramanathan, Nithya; Baetscher, Laura; Medich, Melissa; Scheffler, Aaron; Comulada, W Scott; Estrin, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    Self-monitoring by mobile phone applications offers new opportunities to engage patients in self-management. Self-monitoring has not been examined thoroughly as a self-directed intervention strategy for self-management of multiple behaviors and states by people living with HIV (PLH). PLH (n = 50), primarily African American and Latino, were recruited from 2 AIDS services organizations and randomly assigned to daily smartphone (n = 34) or biweekly Web-survey only (n = 16) self-monitoring for 6 weeks. Smartphone self-monitoring included responding to brief surveys on medication adherence, mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors, and brief text diaries on stressful events. Qualitative analyses examine biweekly open-ended user-experience interviews regarding perceived benefits and barriers of self-monitoring, and to elaborate a theoretical model for potential efficacy of self-monitoring to support self-management for multiple domains. Self-monitoring functions include reflection for self-awareness, cues to action (reminders), reinforcements from self-tracking, and their potential effects on risk perceptions, motivations, skills, and behavioral activation states. Participants also reported therapeutic benefits related to self-expression for catharsis, nonjudgmental disclosure, and in-the-moment support. About one-third of participants reported that surveys were too long, frequent, or tedious. Some smartphone group participants suggested that daily self-monitoring was more beneficial than biweekly due to frequency and in-the-moment availability. About twice as many daily self-monitoring group participants reported increased awareness and behavior change support from self-monitoring compared with biweekly Web-survey only participants. Self-monitoring is a potentially efficacious disruptive innovation for supporting self-management by PLH and for complementing other interventions, but more research is needed to confirm efficacy, adoption, and sustainability.

  3. Reducing depression among community-dwelling older adults using life-story review: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Leong, Katherine S P; Heng, Boon Ling; Mathew, Blessy Koottappal; Khan, Sher Banu A L; Lourdusamy, Sumathi Sagayamary; Nagapan, Mina; Woo, Sook Fan; Chee, Wai Yan; Ho, Roger C M; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2014-01-01

    A life-story review can serve as an effective intervention to express one's inner feelings and provide emotional catharsis. The research aim was to examine the effects of life-story review on depression levels in community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. This pilot experimental pre-post-follow-up study was conducted from July 2012 to February 2013. Twenty-nine older Malays aged 60 and above, with mild to moderate depression, were randomly allocated to the life-story review (intervention) group (n = 15) or the non life-story review (control) group (n = 14). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and collected five times over eight weeks. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of the intervention on the elders' depression levels, controlled for age, gender, medication use, existence of chronic disease, and diary writing experience. Reductions in depression scores were found in the intervention group from week 1 (Mean ± SD 5.9 ± 2.3) to week 8 (1.9 ± 1.6) compared with the control group (week 1: 5.0 ± 1.3; week 8: 3.5 ± 1.5). At week 8, the intervention group showed a significantly lower level of depression than the control group (χ(2) = 14.61, p story review in improving depression levels in cognitively intact community dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical Interpretations of Patient Experience in a Trial of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder

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    Michael P. Bogenschutz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After a hiatus of some 40 years, clinical research has resumed on the use of classic hallucinogens to treat addiction. Following completion of a small open-label feasibility study, we are currently conducting a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol use disorder. Although treatment effects cannot be analyzed until the study is complete, descriptive case studies provide a useful window into the therapeutic process of psychedelic-assisted treatment of addiction. Here we describe treatment trajectories of three participants in the ongoing trial to illustrate the range of experiences and persisting effects of psilocybin treatment. Although it is difficult to generalize from a few cases, several qualitative conclusions can be drawn from the data presented here. Although participants often find it difficult to describe much of their psilocybin experience, pivotal moments tend to be individualized, extremely vivid, and memorable. Often, the qualitative content extends beyond the clinical problem that is being addressed. The participants discussed in this paper experienced acute and lasting alterations in their perceptions of self, in the quality of their baseline consciousness, and in their relationship with alcohol and drinking. In these cases, experiences of catharsis, forgiveness, self-compassion, and love were at least as salient as classic mystical content. Finally, feelings of increased “spaciousness” or mindfulness, and increased control over choices and behavior were reported following the drug administration sessions. Ultimately, psilocybin-assisted treatment appears to elicit experiences that are extremely variable, yet seem to meet the particular needs of the individual.

  5. The meaning of destruction: Definition and contextualization of disaster movies

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    Tomašević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The disaster movie is one of the most persistent genres in cinematography, but it constantly escapes our attention because it is presented as “easy summer fun”. If we want to understand it as a cultural document of an epoch in which the genre is important and popular, we need to come up with a definition, formula and conventions of a disaster movie. Also, we must propose one of many possible comprehensions of its popularity and religious heritage. The paper uses definitions of genre, conventions and formulae in the attempt to show a way of using popular narratives in the transmission of a world view. Using a narrative structure gives us a glimpse into the deeper cultural, social and political context in which the disaster movie is created, popular or rejected. The paper discusses disaster movies as cultural artifacts, as a ritual we are practicing without remembering its purpose. Also, paper is examining identifying apocalyptic and catastrophic as an product of interposition of Apocalypse to Johan and Great Tribulation. Using apocalyptic literature, end times narratives and disaster movies, the paper shows the fruitfulness of destruction representations and imaginarium of terror. Using fear and shock, the messages of disaster movies seems more urgent and relevant. Through the ideas of Susan Sontag and Maurice Yacowar, the paper presents a way for analyzing the contemporary disaster movie. Conventions and formulae of disaster movies help us to understand the way modern cinematography is used for cultural and political means. The popularity of disaster movies can be seen as a form of ”ritualization of discontent” wherein the viewers experience some sort of catharsis. Also, disaster movie gathers different interests and actualizes thirstness for transformation of order or achieving justice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  6. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Liao, Yi-Jun; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Hostile jokes (HJs) provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that HJs are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes (NJs). The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing HJs, NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs) and non-hostile sentences (NSs). HJs primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, NJs primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial PFC (mPFC) for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of HJs showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of NJs displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. HJs versus NJs primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas NJs versus HJs primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC-dlPFC and midbrain-dmPFC for HJs and functional coupling of the vmPFC-midbrain and amygdala-midbrain-NAcc for NJs. Surprisingly, HJs were not perceived as funnier than NJs. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation based on the psychoanalytic and superiority theories of humor.

  7. Kajian Aspek Ketidaksadaran dalam Karya Seni Rupa Indonesia Periode 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Damajanti

    2014-04-01

    thethree artists is originated in their traumatic experiences which generate fear, pain, andaggression. For them, painting is their catharsis process, the media to sublime/smoothentheir impulse of fear, pain, and aggression so that the society can accept and appreciatetheir works.

  8. [The shame cycle in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, B

    2016-12-01

    In Western countries obesity is currently a major public health issue. Part of a complex system, it should not be studied alone. Yet it is often seen only as the result of qualitatively and/or quantitatively deviant dietary-intake and is seldom questioned as a symptom in the psychoanalytic sense, i.e. as a part of a package that makes sense. The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of shame in the psyche of obese subjects as "subjective backup". The author questions the experience of shame in obese subjects as the cornerstone of this symptom in the psychoanalytic sense. While reporting a clinical case, the author notes the occurrences of shame in the discourse of the patient. The subsequent analysis is presented based on the transferential and counter-transferential relationship. To carry out this study, the author drew on a device supporting catharsis. The author addresses successively: the complaint of obese subjects and the effect of shame, their shame as the alpha and omega of bulimic crises and lastly their body as a work of art by building a monstrosity. The author concludes with the social dimension of shame and how it is part of the symptom of body transformation in obese subjects. It appears that pathological shame reveals a difficulty to maintain a sense of existence. For this reason, it seems important to consider this effect and to establish a framework for the emergence of the latter in the consultations of patients with eating disorders. Under these conditions, the patient is able, on the pedestal of shame, to voice his shame of being and to support a subjectivity. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Sayembara Sebagai Bentuk Resistensi Perempuan dalam Menolak Hegemoni Laki-Laki dalam Cerita Rakyat Roro Jonggrang, Roro Mendut, dan Sangkuriang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mustofa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini membahas secara singkat beberapa masalah dalam lingkup resistensi terhadap hegemoni patriarki dalam tiga cerita rakyat Indonesia; Roro Jonggrang, Roro Mendut, dan Sangkuriang. Teori subalterniti Gayatri Spivak dipergunakan untuk membingkai pembacaan kritis terhadap ketiga cerita. Ketiga cerita rakyat yang dikaji mendedahkan resistensi perempuan terhadap dominasi hegemonis pria dalam lingkup masyarakat patriarkis. Temuan dari pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa tokoh-tokoh perempuan dalam ketiga cerita berasal dari strata sosial tertentu dalam masyarakat mereka yang telah memiliki subjektifikasi dan identifikasi tersendiri. “Sayembara” yang secara taktis direka dan diciptakan oleh ketiga tokoh perempuan merupakan alat alternatif untuk menolak dominasi dan kekuasaan pria. Katarsis ketiga cerita rakyat menunjukkan bahwa ketiga tokoh perempuan menemui ajal atau mengalami perubahan wujud yang merupakan konsekuensi dari pemberontakan. Citra perempuan dalam ketiga cerita rakyat berdasarkan berbagai versi penceritaan adalah pemberontak dan subversif. Abstract: This paper briefly shares some insights in the matters of resistance toward patriarchic hegemony in three Indonesian folktales; Roro Jonggrang, Roro Mendut, and Sangkuriang. Spivak’s subalternity is used to carve out the critical reading on the three stories. The three stories tell women’s resistances toward men’s hegemonic dominions in patriarchic societies. The findings of the discussion show that woman characters in the three stories come from certain social stratum in their own societies who have their own subjectification and identification. “Sayembara” which was tactically created by those women characters is a means of their alternative weapon to resist men’s dominion and power. The catharsis of the three folktales shows that the three woman characters find their dead or evanescent as the consequences of their being rebel. The images of women in the three stories based

  10. Preoperative psychological distress, coping and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The influence of Cervantes on the future creator of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L; Rodríguez, J F

    1984-01-01

    Our work is intended to recreate the origins of the 'future creator of psychoanalysis'. Cervantes had a decisive influence on Freud. Don Quixote occupied a central place during a period which we consider to be crucial in the creation of psychoanalysis; we refer to the summer of 1883 during which Freud confessed to Martha that he had become more interested in this book than in brain anatomy. In this work, Cervantes delves in-depth into problems which he had set out in The Colloquy of the Dogs, read by Freud in his adolescence when he was learning Spanish and which confronted some of the great psychoanalytic themes such as reality-fantasy, language, instinct and reason, traumatic situations, 'family romance', etc. These themes appear in a psychoanalytically structured dialogue in which one of the dogs, Berganza, tells his life story (in the form of catharsis) to the other dog, Cipión, with whom Freud identified himself. Basically, it is the psychotherapeutic model that Freud used with his own hysterical patients. Another dialogue which was essential for Freud was that of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, due to the following major reasons (as well as others): For the clear discrimination between reality and fantasy as well as their interplay. Because madness is presented as a complex phenomenon, but intelligible in terms of human motives. For the penetrating description of the transition in Don Quixote from mania to depression. Because at that moment of his life, Freud himself was living through a personal conflict between his dreams of carrying out some scientific feat and the demands of attending to his mundane necessities.

  12. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Liao, Yi-Jun; Tu, Cheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Hostile jokes (HJs) provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that HJs are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes (NJs). The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing HJs, NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs) and non-hostile sentences (NSs). HJs primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, NJs primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial PFC (mPFC) for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of HJs showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of NJs displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. HJs versus NJs primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas NJs versus HJs primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC–dlPFC and midbrain–dmPFC for HJs and functional coupling of the vmPFC–midbrain and amygdala–midbrain–NAcc for NJs. Surprisingly, HJs were not perceived as funnier than NJs. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation based on the psychoanalytic and superiority theories of humor. PMID:27840604

  13. Humanized assistance in the terminal phase La asistencia humanizada en la fase terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Some reflections on the humanized assistance to terminal patients are presented, namely that modern Medicine considers death as a physical phenomenon resulting from a series of measurable facts but does not take into consideration the transcendental death of the person with feelings, morality and spirituality. Good listening should be offered and catharsis stimulated to allow the patient to advance from the archaic phase of suffering to that of communication and solidarity, specially through the sense of tact.

    Se presentan algunas reflexiones sobre la asistencia humanizada del paciente en fase terminal: la medicina actual considera la muerte como un fenómeno físico que resulta de una serle de hechos medibles; no se ocupa de la muerte trascendental de la persona con sentimientos, moralidad y espiritualidad. Es Importante permitir la catarsis del paciente para que pase de la fase arcaica del sufrimiento a las de comunicación y solidaridad, empleando los distintos sistemas de comunicación Interhumana, especialmente el sentido del tacto. El personal de la salud debe evitar herir los sentimientos del paciente y su familia. Se reflexiona sobre lo espiritual y 10 religioso como fuentes de humanización. ";Lo espiritual es fuerza unificada que motiva hacia la búsqueda de un significado a la existencia, que trasciende el individuo y le define la conducta a seguir";.

  14. Voix-off et silences chez Isabel Coixet

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    Silvina Bénévent González

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Le recours presque systématique de la voix-off chez Isabel Coixet laisse présupposer une unité de sens qui reste à démontrer. L'originalité de A los que aman (1997, La vida secreta de las palabras (2005 et El mapa de los sonidos de Tokio (2009apparaît dans leur capacité à montrer une voix qui semble incarner la présence mais renvoie paradoxalement à l’absence. De fait, on pourra s'interroger sur l'acte de parole comme véritable lien entre le corps et le code quand la voix-off complète une confession salvatrice et révèle le sens du vécu. En effet, entre mémoire et prise de conscience, la voix-off dit surtout la douleur de la situation traumatique. Mais est-elle pour autant l'instrument de la catharsis ?El empleo casi sistemático de la voz en off en la obra de Isabel Coixet ofrece una unidad de sentido que incita a buscar más allá. La originalidad de tres películas en concreto - A los que aman (1997, La vida secreta de las palabras (2005 et El mapa de los sonidos de Tokio (2009- emerge de su capacidad a mostrar una voz que parece remitir a una presencia y sin embargo remite paradójicamente a una ausencia. De hecho, cabe interrogarnos sobre este acto de palabra que conlleva una verdadera unión del cuerpo y del código cuando la voz en off completa una confesión que ha de salvar y revela pues el sentido de lo vivido. En efecto entre memoria y toma de conciencia, la voz en off confiesa sobre todo el dolor del trauma. ¿ Apunta entonces tal proceso a la catarsis inadvertida en la confesión ?

  15. PERSEPSI ANAK PADA ACARA TELEVISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandiyo Pradekso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The poor quality of television program available to Indonesian children and the escalating cases of anti-social and delinquency among children are undeniably the hard fact. But linking the two in a causal relationship is a mere speculation that oversimplifying the issue. At the conceptual level in the study of mass communication, there are theories based on the perspective of the limited influence of the mass media. Theories such as those of Klapper’s phenomenistic, DeFleur’s individual differences and social category, selective processes theory, and  Seymour Feshbach’s catharsis theory, are all discouraging the behavioral effect of mass communication. Media influence on children is determined by their comprehension in TV viewing. By about age 8 or 9 (Huston et.al, children are about as accurate as adults in judging whether a television program is presenting fiction or fact. There are arguments on how children perceive the reality out of the television. First, Aletha C. Huston explained that perceptions of reality occur on two dimensions: factuality and social realism. Second, Gunter and McAleer pointed out that children use three categories of television versus real-life comparisons. These include the category of the ‘actual’, the ‘possible’, and the ‘impossible’. The third explanation dealt with the way children evaluate characters in television programs. Findings revealed that perception on factuality was dominant in programs such as news, sports, infotainment, talk-show, variety-show, music, and reality-show. Perception of social realism was dominant in cartoons, movies, and soap-operas. Similar to those of factuality, the actual category appeared predominantly in news, sports, religion, talk-show, variety-show, music, and reality-show. The possible was slightly highlighted in cartoons, movies, and soap-operas. While the impossible also seemed dominant in cartoons, movies, and soap-operas. Conceptually, the 4 children

  16. Размышления о божественной литургии: границы театральности в творчестве Н. В. Гоголя | Dieviškosios liturgijos apmąstymai: teatrališkumas Nikolajaus Gogolio kūryboje | Meditations on the divine liturgy: boundaries of the theatricality in the creative work of Nikolay Gogol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Vidugirytė

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditatons on the divine liturgy: boundaries of the theatricality in the creative work of Nikolay GogolInga VidugirytėSummary The purpose of the present article is to demonstrate the theatricality of Gogol’s Meditations on the Divine Liturgy. Theatricality is “the language of theatre as art”, as Jurij Lotman has stated. Phillis Hartnoll points out three aspects, viz. an actor, a dialogue, and a spectator, that separate theatre from its origins – the ritual. The birth of the spectator seems to Lotman and to Boris Uspenskij to be the decisive factor to establish a situation of the performance. The visuality of the performance is the main feature of theatre as art.There are three presumptions Gogol has about liturgy: (1 liturgy is a dramatic form of the evangelical plot, (2 the forms of worship in liturgy are so perfect that watching them is enough to understand the meaning of the ritual, (3 in liturgy, it is possible to achieve the unity of souls and feelings of all participants of the ritual. Gogol presents liturgy as performance. The narrative is based on separate scenes with clearly marked beginnings and ends. Gogol even renders intonations of dialogues between a priest and a deacon. The motif of performing distinguishes Gogol’s work from his predecessors.The only point of view in the text is from the outside. The narrator is one of the spectators of liturgical performance. On the other hand, the narrator is also a participator of the worship. Gogol shows the effect the performance makes on people and also renders their praying. Taking the sacrament is described as catharsis and in the same terms as Aristotle has done, viz. the horror and the purging. So even at this moment the theatrical nature of liturgy is retained.In the context of the Gogol’s discourse of theatre, liturgy seems to be the ideal performance. One can presuppose that the writer’s wish to explain the role of the theatre has ended with describing the most

  17. [Compatibility regularity of compound traditional Chinese medicine patents based on association principle and entropy method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiang-jun; He, Qing-yong

    2015-02-01

    compatibility among drugs shall be given attention, and highly correlated drugs should be preferred: e. g. Prunellae Spica, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma; Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Radix; Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Alismatis Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Radix; (5) Core drugs should be dominant and compatible, e. g. in the digestion catharsis method, the core drugs is Crataegi Fructus and compatible with Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma; (6) Application of new prescriptions: Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Platycladi Semen, Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix; Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Poria, Coicis Semen, Pinelliae Rhizoma.

  18. System of screen violence’s marking: problems and perspectives

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    E. V. Plyusnin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence is so widespread on modern screens that it becomes to be especially important in the discourse of the humanitarian knowledge. Significantly actual is the problem of the impact of media content on the audience and ways of its effective regulation. In this connection, the need to create a system of control over the information space comes to the fore. In Ukraine there is no adequate model of the estimation of media content. As to our opinion, the existing rating system focuses the attention on age limitations and does not take into account the semantic characteristics that are used effectively in systems of Western countries. The problem of individuals’ protection from interaction with the content, which contains violence, can not be solved by the restriction of the access to information, but instead the situation of temptation to get what is tabooed is created. Despite the obvious usefulness of classification systems, the question of their modern low effectiveness arises, when it comes to the individuals’ protection from the undesirable audiovisual information. Attempts to revise the criteria for an objective analysis of media content were, in particular, the motivation for the creation of an alternative classification system, based on the principle of informing with the help of pictograms. A serious work on the study of various theoretical approaches to the research of the screen cruelty has been made by the author (the experiment by A. Bandura, the study by T. Payne’s fund of theoretical and experimental science on the impact of the violence on adolescent behavior, Gerbner’s cultivation theory, the hypothesis of catharsis by D. Zallman and R Gibson. It has been established that an individual who has not received the sufficient social experience and education level is at risk. There comes a threat of influence of factors capable, which can deform ideas about the world around us. Main definitions have been made in the article and

  19. Wytwarzanie „winy obojętności” oraz kategorii „obojętnego świadka” na przykładzie artykułu Jana Błońskiego „Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto”

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    Tomasz Żukowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Producing the 'guilt of indifference' and the category of "indifferent witness". A case study of Jan Błoński’s 'Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto' Błoński’s article Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto (1987 is regarded as a milestone for the Polish awareness of the Holocaust. Błoński tried to tackle the issue of the Polish complicity, and his narration updated an important model in the Polish culture. It contained some facts about the wartime reality, but at the same time it overturned much of the knowledge about those times and rendered it mostly transparent. The analysis of Błoński’s article allowed me to elucidate the relation between the catharsis effect and the denial, which appeared as the effect of the article. The paper attempts at answering some important questions: What is the Polish complicity according to Błoński? What are the different perceptions of the relations between Poles and Jews? What is the perception of the majority? How the different opinions on the Polish complicity in the Holocaust are legitimised by the majority? How are they removed and delegitimised at the same time? [The article was prepared with financial support of the NPRH.]   Wytwarzanie „winy obojętności” oraz kategorii „obojętnego świadka” na przykładzie artykułu Jana Błońskiego „Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto” Tekst Jana Błońskiego Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto (1987 uznaje się za przełomowy dla polskiej świadomości zbiorowej dotyczącej Zagłady. Błoński stawia w nim problem polskiej współwiny. Jego narracja aktualizuje ważny wzór polskiej kultury. Zawiera elementy wiedzy o wojennych realiach, a jednocześnie ją unieważnia i czyni w dużym stopniu niewidoczną. Analiza tekstu Błońskiego pozwala uchwycić związek między efektem przełomu i jednoczesnym wyparciem. Autor pyta, w jaki sposób Błoński stawia kwestię polskiej winy, jakie wyobrażenia relacji polsko-żydowskich jej towarzyszą, jaki jest obraz

  20. Intra-individual comparison of magnesium citrate and sodium phosphate for bowel preparation at CT colonography: Automated volumetric analysis of residual fluid for quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannas, P.; Bakke, J.; Munoz del Rio, A.; Pickhardt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To perform an objective, intra-individual comparison of residual colonic fluid volume and attenuation associated with the current front-line laxative magnesium citrate (MgC) versus the former front-line laxative sodium phosphate (NaP) at CT colonography (CTC). Materials and methods: This retrospective Health Insurance and Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. The study cohort included 250 asymptomatic adults (mean age at index 56.1 years; 124 male/126 female) who underwent CTC screening twice over a 5 year interval. Colon catharsis at initial and follow-up screening employed single-dose NaP and double-dose MgC, respectively, allowing for intra-patient comparison. Automated volumetric analysis of residual colonic fluid volume and attenuation was performed on all 500 CTC studies. Colonic fluid volume <200 ml and mean attenuation between 300–900 HU were considered optimal. Paired t-test and McNemar's test were used to compare differences. Results: Residual fluid volumes <200 ml were recorded in 192 examinations (76.8%) following MgC and in 204 examinations (81.6%) following NaP (p = 0.23). The mean total residual fluid volume was 155 ± 114 ml for MgC and 143 ± 100 ml for NaP (p = 0.01). The attenuation range of 300–900 HU was significantly more frequent for MgC (n = 220, 88%) than for NaP (n = 127, 50.8%; p < 0.001). Mean fluid attenuation was significantly lower for MgC (700 ± 165 HU) than for NaP (878 ± 155 HU; p < 0.001). Concomitant presence of both optimal fluid volume and attenuation was significantly more frequent for MgC 65.2% than for NaP (38%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Objective intra-individual comparison using automated volumetric analysis suggests that the replacement of NaP by MgC as the front-line laxative for CTC has not compromised overall examination quality. - Highlights: • Automated volumetric analysis provides

  1. Hanford's Battle with Nuclear Waste Tank SY-101: Bubbles, Toils, and Troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    people, from pervasive misconception to grand insight, near miss to sweeping success, meddling interference to close teamwork, all on an uncommonly large scale. It was a necessary catharsis that transformed the entire Hanford culture from a closed defense production operation to an open environmental cleanup project. Its tight project discipline and close teamwork became the Hanford standard. The final remediation of SY-101 placed second in an international ''project of the year'' competition. Many consider SY-101 work the peak of their careers and measure all other experience by it. SY-101 defines some of the worst and the best of Hanford history. This book attempts to narrate and explain the whole vast story

  2. 'Life?': modernism and liminality in Douglas Livingstone’s A littoral zone

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    E. Terblanche

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find his place within nature in South Africa and in a global modern context, Douglas Livingstone returns strongly to modernist poetry in his 1991 volume A littoral zone. In contrast to his predecessors like Wallace Stevens in “The glass of water” and T.S. Eliot in The waste land, this volume at critical moments gets stuck in a liminal stage. Images and poems, and eventually the volume as a whole, despite the highlights they present, say that it no longer seems so possible to end up also within the postliminal stage, so as to complete a rite of passage. Yet modernist poems such as Stevens’s “The glass of water” have the ability to end up in postliminal affirmation through and beyond the liminal stage of the overall process. Here light becomes a thirsty lion that comes down to drink from the glass, with a resultant transcendence of the dualistic between-ness that characterises the liminal stage in the modernist poetic mode, while this further results in the incorporation of a deeper and refreshing, dynamic unity. Even more remarkable is that this poetic rite is not of a closing nature, but open, especially in the sense that it affirms all that is possible and greater than the individual ego or subject, this, while getting stuck within a liminal stage just short of the postliminal stage can be in the nature of closure, as Livingstone shows, for example, when he says in “Low tide at Station 20” that humanity is trapped in its inability to see the original power of unity with and within nature in order to live within it; and while humanity remains an ugly outgrowth on the gigantic spine of evolution. In provisional conclusion this article finds that it will be better to view Victor Turner’s 1979 celebration of what he terms the “liminoid” in the place of a “true liminality” critically. Although it is impossible to return to a collective catharsis in watching a play, one cannot feel too comfortable about

  3. DIÁRIOS DE AULA: DO PRESENCIAL AO VIRTUAL, RECURSOS PEDAGÓGICOS EM CONSTANTE REVISÃO. DAILY CLASSROOM: FROM PRESENTIAL TO VIRTUAL, EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN CONSTANT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Rigo

    2013-11-01

    professores, significativa alternativa de atualização; apesar de enfrentarem jornadas de 40 ou 60 horas de trabalho, muitos encontram na EAD alternativas de atualização profissional. This paper aims to present results of the analysis of the records described in the reflective journals of teachers working in public schools and attending the e-learning course “Continuing Education of Teachers in Accessible Information and Communication Technologies” in the virtual environment software TelEduc – a distance learning environment in which one can conduct courses through the Internet. Thus, it was guided by the following problem: How can the records described in the diaries of teachers working in public schools and belonging to the training course become a source of research? This analysis helped us understand how such records can constitute permanent practices of (re construction of pedagogical actions, as well as actions that allow identifying how teachers who work with kindergarten and early school develop, during the exercise of their teaching practice, the reflection about their work with autonomy, criticism and theory, turning it into pedagogical knowledge. Contributions by Zabalza (2004, Weffort (1996, Litto and Formiga (2009 are used as the basis of this paper, for the authors instigate reflection and can assist the teacher in the sense that, by registers, they can experience a catharsis, reflecting about and improving their teaching action. So our theme brings, as fundamental point, the importance of the teacher records in a virtual environment. The methodology used in this study was guided by the principles of qualitative research and highlights as the most significant findings of the research: the investigated teachers seek updated alternatives after the completion of the first graduation course; most have at least an undergraduate degree and a specialization conducted in presential classes; distance education is a significant update alternative for teachers

  4. A pedagogia histórico-crítica e a defesa da transmissão do saber elaborado: apontamentos acerca do método pedagógico

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    Tiago Nicola Lavoura

    2015-06-01

    teaching activity in school education as that responsible by the ideal reproduction of the real school subjects movement, enabling the reach of categorical wealth of teaching objects as synthesis of multiple determinations and numerous relationship. So, it is made explicit the movement of knowledge as the passage from the empirical to the concrete by abstract mediation, highlighting the mediating character of education in social practice, taking this as a starting point and end point of the educational work, taking the questioning of this social practice as intermediate moments of pedagogical method , the manipulation through the transmission of knowledge in its most elaborate forms and catharsis as student development synthesis and consequently the possibility of changing human-generic social practice. In this sense, understanding the pedagogical method of this theory founded on Historical-Dialectical Materialism is essential to successfully and coherently carry out its proposition. Keywords: School Education. Historical-critical Pedagogy. Dialectical Method.   La pedagogía histórica-crítica y la defensa de la transmisión del saber elaborado: anotaciones sobre el método pedagógico  Resumen El objetivo del artículo es realizar una discusión sobre el método pedagógico de la pedagogía histórica-crítica, explicado en las bases de su fundamentación referenciada en el Método de la Economía Política elaborado por Marx en la famosa Introducción de 1857. De este modo, se explicita el movimiento del conocimiento como el paso de lo empírico a lo concreto a través de la mediación de lo abstracto, resaltando el carácter mediador de la educación en la práctica social, tomándola como punto de partida y punto de llegada del trabajo educativo, teniendo como momentos intermedios del método pedagógico el problematizar esta práctica social, la instrumentalización a través de la transmisión de los conocimientos en sus formas más elaboradas y la catarsis, como

  5. ЖАНР КРИПТОІСТОРІЇ ЯК КРОК ДО НЕОМОДЕРНОГО РОМАНУ (НА МАТЕРІАЛІ ТВОРІВ В. КОЖЕЛЯНКА «ЕФІОПСЬКА СІЧ» ТА «ЛЖЕNOSTRADAMUS» / Secret history genre as a start of newmodern novel (by the works of V. Kozhelanko “Ethnoplan sitch” and “Falsenostradams”

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    Аністраненко Антоніна

    2015-12-01

    тоистория, Василий Кожелянко, роман, «Эфиопская Сеч», «ЛжеNostradamus», фентези, неомодернизм, историческая проза. Аnistratenko Antonina. Secret history genre as a start of newmodern novel (by the works of V. Kozhelanko “Ethnoplan sitch” and “Falsenostradamus” The article is devoted to the genre and stylistic features of two V. Kozhelyanko secret historycal novels "Ethiopian Sitch" and "FalseNostradamus". The article tries to determine the identity and the way of newmodern novel in Ukraine and its comparative position in the stage of foreign novel in this genre. The novel "Ethiopian Sitch" has three part’s classical composition: the prologue, twelve chapters and an epilogue. By geography of novel events we can see three parts there: the first is realized in the Ukrainian Zaporiska Sitch. Young man from Volyn` district went into Zaporiska Sitch for easy money. That was the first point of divergence. After it comes the second point of divergence (events in Ethiopia. Peter Pavlo Lazarenko turns personal lifestory (Story to the Big State history (History.And the third point of divergence never happens in the novel. The process of repentance and catharsis is left for readership. Secret history is a fiction genre, based on the fantastic change of the real history; its way is different from the known, but it has been forgotten, hidden or falsified. The historical element of the secret history novel as a kind of alternative history is made by protagonist from Cossack army Pavlo Lazarenko in the field of real facts of Ethiopia history. It is about the times of reign of Emperor Sysyniy (1607 - 1632, who tried to instill his population to Catholicism. However, alternative history lacks historical background, its next alternative change -a point of divergence - is described in the middle of the novels plot, when the Turkish galley fated "throws" Pavlo Lazarenko to Ethiopia. At ones, novel is constructed