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Sample records for catharsis

  1. Catharsis and Media Violence: A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Gentile

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept that doing something to “vent” aggression as a method of reducing aggressive feelings and behaviors, such as watching media violence or playing violent video games, continues to enjoy widespread public support despite a lack of empirical support. This article describes the historical origins of the concept and examines how well these conceptions fit with the modern usage of the aggression catharsis hypothesis. It is argued that there are four primary flaws with the catharsis hypothesis. First, the metaphor underlying Freud, Breuer, and Lorenz’s conception of aggression is flawed. Aggression is not a drive. Second, although Aristotle did use the term catharsis with relation to violent media (plays and poetry, he did not mean that viewing media violence can purge the viewer of aggressive feelings or behaviors. Furthermore, he describes several detailed requirements of plot and character that must be followed if his type of catharsis is to be achieved, and modern media violence does not meet these requirements. Third, the empirical support is not only lacking, a large empirical base contradicts the catharsis hypothesis. This is seen both in studies attempting to demonstrate catharsis directly and in the broader media violence literature. Fourth, human neuroscience contradicts the catharsis hypothesis. Learning is not hindered by viewing something one more time—it is improved. Taken together, it appears that there is no possible way that the aggression catharsis hypothesis can be accurate. It nevertheless continues to “feel” correct at a phenomenological level, and the reasons for this are discussed.

  2. Catharsis and Media Violence: A Conceptual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept that doing something to “vent†aggression as a method of reducing aggressive feelings and behaviors, such as watching media violence or playing violent video games, continues to enjoy widespread public support despite a lack of empirical support. This article describes the historical origins of the concept and examines how well these conceptions fit with the modern usage of the aggression catharsis hypothesis. It is argued that there are four primary flaws with the catharsis hy...

  3. Contesting Pornography: Terministic Catharsis and Definitional Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Catherine Helen

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the debates over the MacKinnon-Dworkin Anti-Pornography Ordinance to explore one instance of definitional argument: the attempt to effect a redefinition. Argues that advocates for a definitional shift created the possibility for a "terministic catharsis" by simultaneously locating pornography in multiple locations on the pentad,…

  4. The Censorship of pornography: catharsis or learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, T

    1988-10-01

    Contemporary research on pornography reveals an impasse between the models of catharsis and learning. Preference for the latter by a recent government report is based on ideological rather than scientific considerations. The breakdown in the liberal tradition, current pornography research based on behaviorism, and two major theoretical problems are discussed. The interface among psychology, sociology, and literary criticism is suggested as a positive direction for understanding pornography; censorship, however, may obstruct research and fail to advance feminist goals.

  5. Appearance of catharsis phenomenon in the arabesque genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Mustan Dönmez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was composed to tackle the appearange of catharsis, psychologic and ethic phenomenon, in arabesque music that is emerged after 1960’s in Turkey. At first, catharsis was defined in the context of philosophical and artistic meaning as soul’s pufication from its passion by means of sensation of pathos and fear in tragedy art. After, it was determined that catharsis phenomenon also becomes owing to music and its elements such as melody, ritm, harmony, lyrics provide to become the catharsis phenomenon by means of tension and relaxation circumstance which contain knot and solution. It was determined that not only suburb culture, which is resulted from rapid and unplanned urbanization, but also Middle Eastern’s deep-rooted musical tradition is reason of appearing the arabesque music as a sociological affair; it was also determined that sadness and pain arising from rapid and unplanned urbanization provided cathartic quality to arabesque. Lastly, appearing of catharsis in the two main elements of arabesque music, lyrics and melody, was analysed. This study was constituted by means of the disciplines of musicology, philosophy and sociology. After catharsis phenomenon was analysed etymologicaly and philosophicaly, it was emphasized that its appearance in music. Then, a small-scale sociological debate was initiated about genesis causes of arabesque and its general characteristics. Lastly, the appearance of this phenomenon in arabesque was shown throught the medium of melodic and lyric structural analysing.

  6. Corrigendum: Like a Magnet: Catharsis Beliefs Attract Angry People to Violent Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Bushman, B. J., & Whitaker, J. L. (2010). Like a magnet: Catharsis beliefs attract angry people to violent video games. Psychological Science, 21, 790-792. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797610369494). PMID:27207875

  7. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

  8. THE CONCEPT OF CATHARSIS IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S WORKS: FROM THE NEWSPAPER POLEMICS OF 1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Zakharova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of catharsis was first brought up by Aristotle in his Poetics. Aristotle used to interpret catharsis in an extended sense. For him it could be tragic or musical, but it always meant purification or purgation as a dialogue between a poet and a spectator seen as one of the aims of art. In Dostoevsky’s thesaurus there is no such a category as catharsis, but there is this word’s equivalent in the Russian language: ochishchenie (which can be translated as purification. Purification through suffering is one of the key ideas of Dostoevsky’s works. He expressed this idea in his prose beginning with Notes from the House of the Dead, but it was first stated directly in the third chapter (entitled Environment of A Writer’s Diary of 1873. Dostoyevsky contrasted the socialist doctrine of environment with the Christian idea of personal responsibility for our own and other people’s actions. Liberal journalists didn’t accept Dostoevsky’s idea of “purification through suffering” and met it with derision (e.g., L. K. Panyutin, A. G. Kovner, V. P. Burenin, A. S. Suvorin. Instead of understanding and a justifiable dispute, Dostoyevsky faced malediction and rudeness. Conservative critics, on the other hand, overlooked this episode of A Writer’s Diary. This idea started to be appreciated only in the 20th century, long after the writer’s death, and was developed in the works of S. Zweig, N. Berdyaev and others. Notwithstanding the fact that contemporary critics question the presence of catharsis in Dostoevsky’s prose, one should admit that it is one of the categories of his poetics. The purification through suffering is the essence of the aesthetic empathy between the author and his reader. It implies the meaning of his creative works.

  9. Couples Counseling Directive Technique: A (Mis)communication Model to Promote Insight, Catharsis, Disclosure, and Problem Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    A psychoeducational model for improving couple communication is proposed. An important goal in couples counseling is to assist couples in resolving communication conflicts. The proposed communication model helps to establish a therapeutic environment that encourages insight, therapeutic alliance formation, catharsis, self-disclosure, symptom…

  10. A catharsis in the mirror: Lobo Antunes’s Os cus de Judas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Kampff Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1979 novel Os cus de Judas by António Lobo Antunes, is part of a trilogy with Memória de elefante ([1979] 2009 and Conhecimento do inferno ([1980] 2006, which he calls ‘the learning cycle’. It demystifies, in fiction, the official reports on the colonial war in an autobiographical elaboration. Dealing with the African colonial war, contemporary Portuguese society, alienation about the African events and the omissive silence among the upper classes, the narrative of a comeback is revealed by auto-reflexive reminiscence. The process, conducted by the Antonian narrator, constitutes a catharsis in front of the mirror, whose protagonist is a psychiatrist who speaks about, in and for himself from his childhood to the present. An overwhelming and vigorous writing introduces a new perspective into Portuguese literature in the historical period of post-25th April, dealt with in current article.

  11. Inplenentation of psychological catharsis systen based on Kinect sonatosensory sensor%基于Kinect体感传感器的心理宣泄系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建敏; 许晓伟; 贾慧媛

    2014-01-01

    击打宣泄是心理宣泄疗法的主要手段。基于Kinect体感传感器和Direct3D图形绘制编程接口,设计并实现了心理宣泄系统。系统利用Kinect体感传感器采集人体关节点坐标信息,控制虚拟拳头击打虚拟击打对象,模拟真实拳击运动,通过击打实现心理宣泄。实验表明:该系统不仅能获得良好的心理宣泄效果,而且,可以为健身运动提供新的体验平台,其计算出的击打力还可作为拳击训练的重要参考标准。%Hitting catharsis is the primary means of psychological catharsis therapy. Based on Kinect somatosensory sensor and Direct3D graphics rendering programming interface,psychological catharsis system is designed and implemented. This system uses Kinect somato sensory sensor to collect coordinates information of joints of human body,to control virtual fist to hit virtual hitting objects,and to simulate real scene of boxing,in order to achieve psychological catharsis by hitting. Experimental results show that this system can not only achieve good psychological catharsis effect,but also can provide a new experience platform for fitness exercises,and at the same time,the impact force calculated can be used as an important reference of boxing training.

  12. Emotional Catharsis of High School Students from the Perspective of Popular Music Aesthetic Theory%论高中生在通俗音乐审美中的情感宣泄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨名莉

    2012-01-01

    通俗音乐作为音乐的一种形式,关注人的情绪与情感、成长与生活,成为了很多人宣泄情感、张扬生命的方式。它具有主题内容通俗、简单性、娱和}生、流行性以及多元文化性等特征,这些特征促使通俗音乐成为各种心灵压抑不同的人的情感宣泄地带。高中学生精神上的压力是极大的,通俗音乐的曲调和歌词能张扬他们的内心世界,宣泄他们的情感,减轻他们的沉重压力,使他们有轻松的精神去迎接学习和生活上的挑战。%Popular music,as a form of music, focuses on people' s mood and emotion,growth and tile and has been the way tor many peo- ple's emotional catharsis. It is characterized by popular content, simplicity, entcttaintnent, epidemic and multiple cultural features, which make popular music emotional catharsis for the depressed. High school students study under great pressure mental, and the melodies and lyrics of pop- ular music can help them publicize their inner world,give vent to their emotional,relieve their stress,and relax themselves to meet the challeng- es in study and life.

  13. 漂白土洗胃联合清胰Ⅱ号导泻对口服百草枯中毒兔的治疗观察%Therapeutic effects of gastric lavage with fuller earth combined with QingyiⅡ catharsis in treatment of oral paraquat poisoning in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆元兰; 周满红; 胡杰; 李建国

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutic effects of gastric lavage with fuller earth combined with QingyiⅡ catharsis in treatment of oral paraquat poisoning in rabbits.Methods Thirty healthy adult Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: namely control group, model group, gastric lavage group (lavage of 10%fuller earth suspension), catharsis group (QingyiⅡ catharsis), and combination group (10 minutes after gastric lavage of fuller earth suspension liquid, giving QingyiⅡ for catharsis), with 6 rabbits in each group. All groups were challenged with paraquat (100 mg/kg) diluted to 5 mL with normal saline by lavage to reproduce the model of acute poisoning, while the control group was given 5 mL of normal saline instead. Each treatment group was treated accordingly at 1 hour after gavages of paraquat, and treatment continued for 3 days. The animal survival rate was observed. Venous blood samples were collected from ear marginal vein to determine the plasma concentration of paraquat by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours after the poisoning. The animals were sacrificed by intravenous air injection on the 8th day after the poisoning, and the right lower lobe of lung was harvested to observe the lung tissue pathological changes with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining.Results① Survival rate: the surviving rate of the combination group (6 rabbits) was higher than that of gastric lavage group (5 rabbits), catharsis group (2 rabbits) and model group (0 rabbit) on the 2nd day with statistically significant difference (P< 0.001). The survival rate on the 7th day in combination group (5 rabbits) was higher than that of gastric lavage group (3 rabbits), and catharsis group (0 rabbit) with statistically significant difference (P = 0.003).② Plasma concentrations of paraquat: plasma paraquat concentration in all groups peaked at 2 hours after intoxication, and its levels in the gastric lavage, catharsis and combination groups were

  14. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  15. Confusion and Catharsis in Filmmaking for Fieldwork.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Andy Richard James

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides a commentary on three films that I have made on the subjects of childbirth and death; Born (Lawrence 2008); The Lover and the Beloved: A Journey into Tantra (Lawrence 2012); The One and the Many (Lawrence 2013). I discuss these films as practice-based research within the discipline areas of anthropology, media and performance in order to suggest an innovative way in which intersubjectivity may be explored and evoked through a method of ethnographic filmmaking. After a bri...

  16. 宣泄和认知疗法对肺癌患者心理状况的影响%Influence of catharsis and cognitive therapy on the psychology of patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 张丽辉; 黄带发

    2005-01-01

    的抑郁、焦虑等负性情绪,对改善其精神心理状态、提高机体免疫调节功能是有帮助的.%BACKGROUND: The negative emotion can directly attenuate the humoral and cell mediated immunity, which contributing to the onset of lung cancer,therefore psychological therapy is crucial for the prevention of lung cancer.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of catharsis and cognitive therapy on the psychology of patients with lung cancer, as well as the short-term clinical therapeutic effect, so as to exploring the importance of psychological interventionDESIGN: Non-randomized same period control, 1:1 matched observation SETTING: Cadres Therapeutic Ward of Affiliated Second Hospital of China Medical University and Cadres Therapeutic Ward of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 124 patients with lung cancer, received treatment at Cadres Therapeutic Ward of Affiliated Second Hospital in China Medical University and General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Commaud of Chinese PLA from February 1999 to December 2002, volunteered into this study, were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, all data was paired by 1:1 according to age, gender, UICC-TUM stage and pathological type, totally 42 pair data were obtained.METHODS: All participant received the same chemotherapy and radiotherapy (etoposide carboplatin), the patients in treatment group were given additional emotional catharsis and cognitive therapy at the beginning of treatment once every five days for 1-3 times; And then patients were informed of related cancer knowledge once or twice a week for totally 6 weeks. Before treatment, SCL-90 (including 9 symptomatic factors that divide into five grades: 0 score meant never, 1 score was gentle, 2 scores were medium, 3 scores were quite severe and 4 scores were severer) was used to evaluate the psychology of patients; moreover the therapeutic effect was assessed according to WHO standards for

  17. Debriefing as a form of reflection and catharsis for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie Michelle; Peters, Kath; Villarosa, Ariana; Villarosa, Amy Ruth; Curmi, Claire; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-09-01

    Background The collection of sensitive data can arouse emotional reactions and researchers may have difficulty distancing themselves from personal stories. Debriefing can address the emotional effect of an experience on researchers. Aim To explore the debrief responses of three research assistants who were involved in the review of retrospective charts and medical notes in a study that examined the risk factors for readmission in young people with anorexia nervosa. Discussion Based on a review of the responses, the principal research team reflected on the value and effectiveness of a debrief tool for research assistants entering sensitive quantitative data. The paper highlights these reflections. Conclusion The use of an electronic debrief tool, while not without its challenges, provides an opportunity for individual reflection and a platform for emotional release for researchers engaged in sustained and intensive collection of sensitive data. This type of tool may serve as a guide for research teams and assist them in monitoring the well-being of those collecting sensitive data. We also advocate that a debriefing tool may contribute to closure for research assistants who become emotionally invested and affected by meticulous quantitative data entry. Implications for practice This paper provides recommendations for future use of an electronic debrief tool for researchers collecting sensitive data. PMID:27641704

  18. 一种芦荟成分为主保健食品通便功效的动物试验研究%Experimental animal study on the effect of aloe leave as the main component of the health food on catharsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张露勇; 刘婷; 刘师卜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of aloe leave freeze-dried powder, wheat food fiber and Pingguocu powder as the main ingredients of health food on catharsis.Methods Experiments were carried out in accordance with the detection methods for loo-sing the bowel to relieve constipation specified in"the Health Food Inspection and Evaluation Technical Specifications"of the Ministry of Health (2003 Edition) .In animal experiments, the KM mice were given the test substance at a dosage of 3.0, 1.0 and 0.5 g /kg BW ( roughly equal to 10, 30 and 5 times the recommended amount for humans) for a succession of 15 days.Then, the intestinal peri-stalsis inhibition model and constipation model were developed by using different doses of compound diphenoxylate.The driving rate of feces, defecation time, the amount of defecation and the total weight of defecation were determined in the mice of the intestinal peristal-sis inhibition model.Results The KM mice were given the test substance by gavage at dosages of 3.0g, 1, 0g and 0.5g kg BW, for re-spectively 7 and 15 days.For the animals given different doses, no obvious changes could be noted in the body weight and rate of weight gain.Significant changes could neither be seen in intestinal driving rate, the defecation time of the first grain of feces, total grains of black feces in 6 hours and total weight of black feces for the low-dose and medium-dose animals, and there was no statistical signifi-cance, when comparisons were made between them(P>0.05).The intestinal feces driving rate and feces driving transfer rate of the high-dose animals increased significantly.The first grain of black feces was ahead of time, the total grains of black feces within 6 hours and total discharge of black feces also increased significantly.Significant differences could be noticed, when it was compared with that of the model control group(P<0.05).Conclusion In accordance with the "Technical Specifications for Health Food Inspection and Evaluation"(2003

  19. Preliminary study on the functional elements in the mixture of wasabi leaf and leaf stalk and its catharsis effect%山葵叶片、叶柄混合物的润肠通便作用及其功效物质的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琼; 周惠云; 刘先俊

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore catharsis effect and its efficiency matter in the mixture of leaf and leaf stalk in wasabi, and to provide basaes for development and utilization leaf and leaf stalk in wasabi that is by-product in wasabi planting as pharmaceutical application. Methods:The mixture of dried powder of wasabi leaf and leaf stalk was obtained by freeze-drying and crushing fresh leaves and leaf stalks. With enzymatic-gravimetric method,total dietary fibre,soluble dietary fibre(SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre(IDF) in mixture of dried powder are determined.Isothiocyanates in mixture of dried powder was removed by adding water and incubating in 371 overnight. The matters soluble in water were removed by adding water,incubating in 371 overnight,centrifugation in 5 000 r/ min×10 min and precipitation. The effect were tested in moistening intestines and freeing the stool in mice (advancing movement of small intestine,the time of first black feces excretion,the numbers of feces in 6 h and the weight of feces in 6 h). The above samples included the mixture of dried powder of wasabi leaf and leaf stalk,that free of isothiocyanates and that free of water-soluble elements. Results:The total dietary fibre in mixture of dried powder of wasabi leaf and leaf stalk was 92.3 g/kg,soluble dietary fibre (SDF) was 48.2 g/kg,insoluble dietary fibre(IDF) was 44.1 g/kg and ratio of SDF and IDF is l.l.As for the effect in moistening the intestines and freeing the stool,the above three samples (mixture of dried powder of wasabi leaf and leaf stalk,that free of isothiocyanates, and that free of water-soluble elements) had effect in enhancing small intestine movility, shortening the first time of caca-tion, increasing the amount of feces pellets in 6 h and total quantity of feces in 6 h. The comparison between the three samples in 3 groups showed significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusion: The total content of and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) in mixture of dried powder of wasabi leaf and

  20. Catharsis from Violence Content in Video Games%游戏暴力的宣泄作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缑赫; 李景华

    2013-01-01

    电子游戏中的暴力成分一直广受诟病,许多研究都认为它增加了青少年的暴力倾向,然而却往往忽略了玩家自身的感受.电子游戏的参与性决定了它与其他媒介暴力的不同,许多玩家表示玩游戏的过程使他们感到放松,有宣泄负面情绪的作用.以费什巴赫的“宣泄”假说和心理学上的“替代性满足”为理论依据,通过对游戏玩家的调查访问,采用自传研究法,论证游戏暴力的宣泄作用.

  1. "EROTIC CATHARSIS" BODY ON THE BASIS OF ANTI-ESSENTIALISM%“情欲”的身体:一种反本质主义的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林生

    2013-01-01

    伯格认为裸女像是观者情欲宣泄的对象,而非肯尼思·克拉克将其视为艺术“形式”的认识.伯格对身体画像所具有情欲性的认识,意在强调观看过程中感性因素的凸显,从而颠覆了形而上的理性原则对身体的统治,将感性的身体置入到了反本质主义的思潮之中.女性的身体由此成为了经验对象,成为了“旁观者思想的产物”.

  2. Effects of Varying Session Length and Frequency in Brief Emotive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierenbaum, Howard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study examined the role of emotional catharsis in brief emotive psychotherapy and its differential effects within three time frames. The findings are seen as supporting the contention that within a specific time frame emotional catharsis can lead to certain positive outcomes in brief emotive psychotherapy. (Author)

  3. 宣泄和认知行为干预对乳腺癌术后化疗患者生活质量的影响%Effects of catharsis and cognitive behavior intervention on quality of life among breast cancer patients receiving postoperative chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林细吟; 覃惠英; 尤黎明; 王晓丽; 陈洁丽; 赵飞英

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨宣泄和认知行为干预对乳腺癌术后化疗患者生活质量的影响.方法 将97例乳腺癌患者随机分为试验组47例和对照组50例.两组患者均采用常规的护理措施,试验组在此基础上实施宣泄和认知行为干预,干预前后分别采用QLQ-C30量表进行评定,观察患者生活质量的变化情况.结果 干预后两组患者生活质量的5个功能维度、3个症状维度和整体生活质量得分比较,差异具有统计学意义(P < 0.05或P < 0.01);试验组护理干预后较干预前生活质量有明显改善.结论 对乳腺癌术后化疗患者在常规护理的基础上,配合以宣泄、认知教育、放松训练为主的行为干预,可以提高患者的生活质量.

  4. Effect of catharsis and cognitive behavior intervention on anxiety and depression among breast cancer patients receiving postoperative chemotherapy%宣泄和认知行为干预对乳腺癌术后化疗患者焦虑抑郁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林细吟; 赵婉文; 王晓丽; 马雪霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨宣泄疗法和认知行为干预对乳腺癌术后化疗患者焦虑和抑郁的影响.方法 选择2006年9月至2009年3月的97例乳腺癌术后化疗患者,分成试验组(47例)和对照组(50例).试验组存常规护理的基础上结合以宣泄、认知教育、放松训练为主的综合性护理干预措拖,对照组仅用常规护理.护理干预前后分别采用Zung焦虑自评量表(SAS)和Zung抑郁自评量表(SDS)测评患者的焦虑和抑郁情绪,比较两组患者焦虑和抑郁情绪的变化.结果 试验组护理干预后较干预前焦虑和抑郁情绪有明显改善(P<0.01).结论 VEGF在晚期胃癌组织中表达与治疗后的生存期有关,可能影响治疗方案的选择.

  5. Outcome of Brief Cathartic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Michael P.

    1974-01-01

    This comparison (with University Health Service patients) between emotive psychotherapy and insight oriented analytic therapy confirmed effectiveness of emotive psychotherapy in producing catharsis leading to therapeutic improvement. (Author/EK)

  6. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  7. Memory as Travel in Asian American Children's Literature: Bridging Home and School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Stuart H. D.; Pataray-Ching, Jann

    2002-01-01

    Examines Asian American children's literature. Suggests that four representations of memory in Asian American children's literature (memory as recovery, as cultural change, as catharsis, and as border crossing) compose an empowering discourse for Asian and Asian American students negotiating competing cultural and economic motives in American…

  8. Collaboration and Cultural Identity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Andrea Faye

    2014-01-01

    Andrea Faye Hart is a community journalist and teaching artist who experiments with citizen media to especially empower youth. She runs a civic media and a catharsis through media-making programs for Free Spirit Media, as well as a verse and investigative journalism program for Young Chicago Authors. In this article, as a teaching artist working…

  9. Technology addiction's contribution to mental wellbeing: The positive effect of online social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Billotte-Verhoff, China; Greene, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the effect of online social capital and Internet use on the normally negative effects of technology addiction, especially for individuals prone to self-concealment. Self-concealment is a personality trait that describes individuals who are more likely to withhold personal and private information, inhibiting catharsis and wellbeing. Addiction, in any context, is also typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that communication te...

  10. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Masango

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that...

  11. 'Torture in the country of the mind', a study of suffering and self in the novels of Patrick White / Albert Pieter Brugman

    OpenAIRE

    Brugman, Albert Pieter

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with an evaluation of the suffering and self of the elected characters in the novels of Patrick White. The suffering these elected characters endure, apart from the uncomprehending antagonism of society, takes place mainly in the country of the mind - "that solitary land of the individual experience, in which no fellow footfall is ever heard" (Epigraph to The Aunt's Story) - and is a form of catharsis in preparatory to a reunion with God as the ...

  12. テレビ暴力番組の非社会的行動に及ぼす効果の実証的研究(視聴覚教育)

    OpenAIRE

    渡辺, 功; ワタナベ, イサオ; Isao, Watanabe

    2001-01-01

    1. The Background Research on the influence among viewers of violent television programs has been very active since the 1960s. From previous research findings, the consequence of violent television program viewing can be explained through the theories of catharsis, observational learning, desensitization and cultivation. However, due to the current lack of empirical evidence concerning the cathartic effect of violent television programs, research on it is not now popular. Research on televisi...

  13. Dream and emotion regulation: insight from the ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Duclos, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    During dreaming, as well as during wakefulness, elaborative encoding, indexing and ancient art of memory (AAOM) techniques, such as the method of loci, may coincide with emotion regulation. These techniques shed light on the link between dreaming and emotional catharsis, post-traumatic stress disorder, supermemorization during sleep as opposed to wakefulness, and the developmental role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in children. PMID:24304754

  14. Northern Economic Hub:Beijing or Tianjin?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government says Tianjin, today's market suggests Beijing and some academics say the "or" is all wrong Beijing and Tianjin, the two largest cities in north China, are going through catharsis. According to the re-planning of the State Council, Beijing should shed its role as north China's economic center, and Tianjin should grow into being just that. Tianjin has long been viewed as an important economic center, but not the cen

  15. Discussion on Confucian culture on modern ceramic art innovation%Discussion on Confucian culture on modern ceramic art innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓东

    2012-01-01

    Chinese contemporary ceramic art influenced by abstract expressionism and the influence of post- modernism, began to abandon the traditional and the pursuit of emotional catharsis, Undeniably, this approach has accelerated the modern ceramic art in China's development process, but the traditional culture is worthy of a lot of Chinese artists to study and research. In view of this, this paper mainly discusses the influence of Confucianism on modern ceramic art.

  16. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called “game addiction”). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, ...

  17. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: The gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES)

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph eHilgard; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called game addiction). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization,...

  18. Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Tekerek

    2013-06-01

    Action and character are two major concepts which called human into being in the past and also for the moment and will render human exist in the future. If action is being executed through the preference of free will of a conscious and prudent person then character of that person can be spoken. Action, character and preference of free will have an important position at the ethical and aesthetical views of Aristotle. He presents his views on the function of action, character and tragedia at his work Poetics in which he composed theatre aesthetics of the era by analysing tragedias originated from rituals and mythology and which are played for thousands of people. According to his views, sciences can be classified as practical and theoretical. Since practical sciences deal with human-character which is the source of action, theatre can be evaluated as practical art by following his views on tragedia and examples. Because tragedia is the imitation of an action which is experienced by a character who is better than the average, and this action orients the person to the good through catharsis which it creates. Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound” and Sophocles’ “Antigone”, which are among the most important and mature tragedias, are two examples projecting Aristotle’s ideas on action, character, free will, individual preference and average ethics. Only a tragic hero who executes his action by using his individual preference with his free will and carries out this action coherently can create catharsis on the audience. The audience watchs the conflict between equal powers developed by the tragedia, gets into catharsis; and the calmness after catharsis serves the view of good-wise citizen which is the target of Atistotle’s total views. Thinking once more on this dialectical relation between action, character, free will and individual preference which are also the basis of Aristotle’s philosophy is important in terms of interrogating the human and his values, of

  19. Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Tekerek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality Research AwardEditorial InformationEditorial SummaryEditorial BoardSearch Home Journal Archive Vol.1,no.1,2012,Abstract10Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles   Ismet TEKEREKPh.D., Aegean University, Izmir.   ABSTRACT Action and character are two major concepts which called human into being in the past and also for the moment and will render human exist in the future. If action is being executed through the preference of free will of a conscious and prudent person then character of that person can be spoken. Action, character and preference of free will have an important position at the ethical and aesthetical views of Aristotle. He presents his views on the function of action, character and tragedia at his work Poetics in which he composed theatre aesthetics of the era by analysing tragedias originated from rituals and mythology and which are played for thousands of people. According to his views, sciences can be classified as practical and theoretical. Since practical sciences deal with human-character which is the source of action, theatre can be evaluated as practical art by following his views on tragedia and examples. Because tragedia is the imitation of an action which is experienced by a character who is better than the average, and this action orients the person to the good through catharsis which it creates. Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound” and Sophocles’ “Antigone”, which are among the most important and mature tragedias, are two examples projecting Aristotle’s ideas on action, character, free will, individual preference and average ethics. Only a tragic hero who executes his action by using his individual preference with his free will and carries out this action coherently can create catharsis on the audience. The audience watchs the conflict between equal powers developed by the tragedia, gets into catharsis; and the calmness after catharsis serves the view of good-wise citizen which is the

  20. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  1. An Angle of Seeing: Pornography and Profanity as Pharmakon in Darko’s Beyond the Horizon and The Housemaid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philomena Abeka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available What strategies does a female writer develop to overcome her anxiety of correcting the moral decadence in her society? Inappropriate as the use of pornography and profanity must have always seemed, Amma Darko has managed to put some positive and meritorious spins on them and seriously use them. In this paper, we examine how in two books, Beyond the Horizon and The housemaid, Amma Darko strategizes to use pornography and profanity as remedies; that moral cleansing can be achieved by the strategic use of immoral pictures and language. This strategy traces back to Aristotle’s age-old prescription that catharsis must be the final achievement of curtailing tragedy. In this paper, therefore, we observe how the use of pornography and profanity can contribute to the cleansing of a society whose moral fibre is engulfed in decadence. Furthermore, a near-laser analysis of the relationships between (catharsis-based pharmakon, pornography and profanity as given in the books in discussion is done.

  2. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  3. 《文选》中哀伤赋以及选录标准%Grief Fu in"The Selection of Literary Works"and Selecting Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭家嵘

    2014-01-01

    魏晋南北朝中弥漫着哀怨伤感的气息,《文选》中的哀伤赋正是这乱世文人在作品中的宣泄呐喊,作者巧妙地运用抒情小赋特有的铺陈手法,再现了六朝黑暗狡诈的社会现实以及文人沉浮其中的感情内涵。%It was filled with sorrow and sadness in the Wei ,Jin ,Northern and Southern Dynasties ,so the grief Fu in"The Selection of Literary Works"was the literators'catharsis and cry in this trouble time .The author skillfully used the elaborated method that lyrical Fu peculiarly had to reproduce dark cunning social reality of Six Dynasties and the literators'emotion connotation .

  4. The Emotional Healing Efficacy of Romance Fiction for Undergraduates with Love-related Emotional Disturbance Problems: An Exploratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-may Sheih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that emotional healing reading materials can sooth readers’ negative emotions. Among the various reading materials, the romance fiction is a genre of high healing efficacy for undergraduate students who encounter love-related emotional disturbance. To explore the problems they experience in love relationships and the emotional healing efficacy of romance fictions for such situations, this study first employed content analysis to identify a list of fictions that are considered of emotional healing efficacy. It continued to conduct an online survey to examine the emotional healing process in undergraduate students’ reading experiences. The results showed that undergraduate students often experienced one-sided love, ambiguous relationship, lack of intimacy, rivalry, conflict, and breakup. It also identified 18 Chinese romance titles that may assist the readers to go through the emotional healing stages of identification, catharsis, and insight. [Article content in Chinese

  5. Otázka viny a trestu v Aristotelovej Poetike (Question of Guilt and Punishment in Aristotle’s Poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vydra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Greek term hamartia means guilt, and sin, mistake or error as well. The origin of the word is a verb hamartanein—missing the mark. In his Poetics Aristotle describes it as an important constituent of tragedy. Guilt must be punished, even if it is not personal. A hero can be punished without his personal participation on any guilt. Father’s sin is sufficient reason for son’s punishment—that is a problem of “ancestral sin.” Two examples of Greek dramas, of Aeschylus and Euripides, point out to the use of the word in different contexts. Guilt (or sin and punishment of tragic hero lead beholders to the catharsis of two emotions: of pity and fear.

  6. An Expressionist Interpretation of Tennessee Williams’ The Two-Character Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danni Lin

    2015-01-01

    Tennessee Williams was a master playwright of the twentieth century, and his plays A Streetcar Named Desire, The Glass Menagerie, and Cat On A Hot Tin Roof are considered among the finest of the American stage. However, his stylistic innovations in his later period had the playwright trapped in negative criticism. Since scholars have largely ignored the study of his late plays, this essay aims to rediscover one of Tennessee Williams’ late plays, The Two-Character Play for its expressionist features: the abstraction of time and place; the symbolic settings and the use of monologues and fragmented utterances. Through the in-depth study of the playwright’s rendering of human tragedies and desperation, the thesis aims to expose the existential crisis of modern man, thus serving the function of catharsis in Tennessee Williams’ tragedies.

  7. How music-inspired weeping can help terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Kay

    2011-09-01

    Music's power to improve the 'human condition' has been acknowledged since ancient times. Something as counter-intuitive as weeping in response to music can ameliorate suffering for a time even for terminally ill patients. Several benefits-including catharsis, communication, and experiencing vitality-can be associated with grieving in response to "sad" music. In addressing the potential rewards of such an activity for terminally ill patients, this author combines concepts from philosopher Jerrold R. Levinson's article, entitled "Music and Negative Emotion," an illustration from a major motion picture, and supporting research from medical reports and aesthetic writings. Carefully offering this experience is recommended for patients who retain the capacity to express preference.

  8. COMIC AGENTS: FROM A POETIC TO AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF COMEDY (ARISTOTLE AND ALFRED GELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA KAWALEC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities, however, this approach took over. The “ performative turn” represents its more recent version. It allows one to interpret Poetics and other classical works not in the context of an object (comedy, but in the context of the acting subject. I claim that social anthropology further explores the concept of comedy and itself presumes it in its conceptual foundations and research approach. I elaborate the argument on the basis of the concept of the “spirit of comedy” coined by Alfred Gell .

  9. Die term dramaties: terug na Aristoteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pauw

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The word dramatic: Back to AristotleExpressions such as dramatic portrayal, dramatic action or dramatic scene frequently occur in works discussing drama. What is, however, meant by the word dramatic? Do we fully appreciate its meaning as it was meant to be understood by Aristotle in his Ars Poetica? Commencing from Aristotle's definition of tragedy and his ensuing discussion of its elements, the wide spectrum of meaning of the word dramatic is illustrated. The aspects touched upon are the following: the functionality of information, conflict, complication, suspense, turning point, tragic flaw, catharsis and pathos. The identification with protagonist and antagonist is discussed, as well as the relevance of character portrayal for the action. Graphic, exciting and moving descriptions form part of dramatic portrayal, and so do the monologue, the speech and dialogue, finally, the word dramatic may he defined in terms of emotions evoked, while dramatic action mostly comprises a timeless universal truth.

  10. Angelic and Crepuscular in Alexandru Sever’s Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IANCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The illustration of a world, apparently drifting, the (demystification of the transcendent and of the act of creation, as idea and textual strategy, seem to Alexandru Sever (1921-2010 a means for another beginning. The impossibility of action in Înger bătrîn/ The Old Angel (1977 and the pact-making in Îngerul slut/ The Miscreated Angel (1982, imply metamorphosis in essence, supported by the dialogue with the great texts of the world, by intertextuality (the biblical text, Shakespeare's texts -Hamlet -Yorick, texts written by Göethe, Beckett, Marlowe, Dostoevsky, J. P. Sartre, Mikhail Bulgakov and others. The projection of Auschwitz, as a Siberia of the spirit, and that of Faustianism, result in a detailed analysis of the human, both as individuality and as community, in an attempt to illustrate the (inintelligible inaction, death involving catharsis in the mundane and the theatre alike.

  11. A Critical Study of Modern Religious Poetry of pre –Islamic Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m akrami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious verse is a kind of committed verse which has religious color with regard to semantic aspect and originates from religious teachings and Islamic history. Religious rituals, praising religious figures, paying attention to celestial issues and catharsis of man are in the center of it. Emergence of new religious verse in 40’s and 50’s should be considered as a major event in Persian literature. Undoubtedly, extensive entrance of religious forces to the scene of political and cultural fight was the origin of emergence of this branch of social verse. Because of some reasons, in most sources about the new Persian verse (free, blank, New Wave new religious verse has been neglected which, consequently, made a work like this one inevitable.

  12. The rites in the mysteries of Dionysus: the birth of the drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Mari Näsström

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek drama can be apprehended as an extended ritual, originating in the ceremonies of the Dionysus cult. In particular, tragedy derived its origin from the sacrifice of goats and the hymns which were sung on that occasion. Tragedia means "song of the male goat" and these hymns later developed into choruses and eventually into tragedy, in the sense of a solemn and purifying drama. The presence of the god Dionysus is evident in the history and development of the Greek drama at the beginning of the fifth century B.C. and its sudden decline 150 years later. Its rise seems to correspond with the Greek polis, where questions of justice and divine law in conflict with the individual were obviously a matter of discussion and where the drama had individual and collective catharsis (purifying in mind.

  13. Eluding meaninglessness: a note to self in regard to Camus, critical care, and the absurd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimos, Thomas John

    2014-01-01

    Here I present a medical narrative, as a catharsis, regarding Albert Camus’s The Myth of Sisyphus in an attempt to elude meaninglessness in my difficult everyday practice of critical care medicine. It is well documented that physicians who practice critical care medicine are subject to burnout. The sense of despair that occasionally overwhelms me prompted my rereading of Camus’s classic text and caused me to recount his arguments that life is meaningless unless one is willing to take a leap of faith to the divine or, alternately, to commit suicide. This set up the examination of his third alternative, acceptance of a life without prima facie evidence of purpose and meaning, a view that may truly have some bearing on my professional life in the intensive care unit.

  14. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  15. Práxis e "catarsis" como referências avaliativas das ações educacionais das ONG'S, dos sindicatos e dos partidos políticos Praxis and "catarsis" as evaluative references of the education activities of NGO'S, trade unions and political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Francisco Martins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das referências avaliativas das ações educacionais desenvolvidas pelas ONG's, sindicatos e partidos políticos, que são entendidas como práxis capazes de gerar "catarsis" de diferentes tipos. Sustentado teoricamente em, basicamente, três autores: Marx, Gramsci e Vázquez, o texto inicia apresentando alguns apontamentos sobre o conceito de práxis e sobre o de "catarsis", para posteriormente identificar a educação como um processo práxico e catártico. Essa compreensão da educação, que resgata os conceitos de "práxis comunitária" e "práxis social", resulta em dupla asserção conclusiva, a saber: primeiro, que todo processo educativo resulta em alguma transformação e, segundo, que nem toda transformação resultante da educação é capaz de alterar as estruturas e superestruturas que caracterizam a totalidade da vida social.This article refers to the evaluation of educational activities developed by NGO's, trade unions and political parties, which are understood as praxis capable of generating "catharsis" of different types. Referenced in basically three authors: Marx, Gramsci and Vázquez, the text begins by presenting some remarks on the concept of praxis and "catharsis", identifying afterwards education as a process at the same praxic and cathartic. This understanding of education, which recalls the concepts of "community praxis" and "social praxis", resulting in a double conclusive assertion, namely: first that the entire educational process results in some change, and second, that not all resulting transformation of education is able to change the structures and superstructures that characterize all social life.

  16. Positive Psychology Group Counseling for New Students of Higher Vocational Schools%积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶红萍; 陆伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生主观幸福感的影响。方法:将50位高职新生随机分组,实验组接受为期10周、每周一次的积极心理学团体辅导,将其余学生列入等候名单,设为对照组,比较两组团体辅导前后主观幸福感有无差异,分析团体辅导中的疗效因素。结果:1)经过10周的积极心理学团体辅导后,实验组的主观幸福感各项指标均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。2)高职新生积极心理学团体辅导中,重要的疗效因子依次为:存在意识因子、团体凝聚力、情绪宣泄。结论:积极心理学团体辅导能有效提高高职学生的主观幸福感,存在意识、团体凝聚力和情感宣泄是积极心理学团体辅导发挥积极影响的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the effectiveness of positive psychology group counseling on the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Methods:50 new students of vocational institute were randomized to Positive Psychology Group Counseling as experiment group or waiting list as control group for an 10-week observation.Index of well-being were administered to compare independently both at baseline and at the end of 10th week.The important therapeutic factor was also suryeyed.Result:1)Compared to control group,after 10-week positive psychology group counseling,index of well-being of the experiment group is significantly higher.2)The important therapeutic factors in positive psychology group counseling were existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis.Conclu sion:Positive psychology group counseling can heighten the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis play significant role in positive psychology group counseling.

  17. 团体心理治疗对强迫症患者治疗的疗效因子研究%Study for therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 李幼辉; 连楠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relative importance of therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.Methods Thirty obsessive-compulsive disorder patients underwent 12 weeks of group psychotherapy were given the therapeutic factors questionnaire to assess the relative importance of therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy.Results The important group therapeutic factors were sorted as following:interpersonal gain,interpersonal pay-out,self-realization,catharsis,existential factors,group cohesiveness,universality,instillation of hope,information imparting,altruism,the corrective recapitulation of the primary family group,imitative behavior.One-Way ANOVA showed that the mean difference was significant (P < 0.05 ).Conclusions The relatively important group therapeutic factors are interpersonal gain,interpersonal pay-out,self-realization,catharsis,existential factors and group cohesiveness.%目的 探讨在对强迫症患者进行团体心理治疗过程中各个疗效因子的相对重要性.方法 对符合入组标准的同时完成为期12周的团体心理治疗的30例强迫症患者,进行团体治疗疗效因子问卷的测量,对团体治疗疗效因子的重要性做出评定.结果 本研究提示在强迫症的治疗中,团体心理治疗疗效因子的相对重要性排序为:人际学习(获取)、人际学习(付出)、自我了解、宣泄、存在意识、团体凝聚力、普遍性、希望重塑、传递信息、利他性、原先家庭的矫正性重现、行为模仿.12个因子平均数方差分析差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 人际学习(获取和付出)、自我了解、宣泄、存在意识、团体凝聚力是团体治疗中相对比较重要的疗效因子.

  18. An evaluation of college and low-income youth writing together: self-discovery and cultural connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Genevieve E

    2002-01-01

    Although the health and healing effects of writing have been documented in the literature, most of the studies have focused primarily on individuals writing alone. This formative evaluation is a component of an intervention reported elsewhere. The evaluation describes the experience of low-income youth and college students (n = 7) writing in a group during a 10-week workshop. The results revealed the development of protective processes of self-esteem, self-efficacy, coping strategies, social support, and cultural connections. In the weekly 2-hr writing sessions, using the Amherst Writers and Artists method, participants were encouraged to write their stories in their own voices in response to prompts, followed by reading aloud and positive feedback. At the end of the 10 weeks participants were interviewed about their experience within the group and outside the group. Analysis of interviews revealed two themes that emerged from the experience of writing together: connection to self through feelings, reflection, and behaviors; and connection to others through learning and empathy. The results suggest that writing in a group using a specific approach facilitated emotional catharsis, increased self knowledge, coping strategies, and understanding and appreciating of others.

  19. On the Wechat and Moral Education%浅议微信与高校德育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣香

    2015-01-01

    随着智能手机的普及,微信逐渐占据网络社交媒介的主导地位,微信不仅给大学生提供了交流、宣泄和学习的平台,也对大学生的人格和道德带来一定的影响.微信正深刻地影响着大学生的人生观、世界观和价值观,既给高校德育带来了挑战也带来了一定的机遇.如何利用微信实现对大学生道德教育的实效性,成为高校德育工作者面临的重要课题.%With the popularity of smart phones, Wechat is occupying the dominant position of social media. Wechat brings a platform for college students to chat, catharsis and study, and brings influence for students' personality and ethics. Wechat is having a profound impact on the college students' life, world outlook and values. It brings both opportunity and challenge. How to use wechat to realize college students' moral education becomes a major issue for educators.

  20. 心理健康视角下的大学生失业群体问题研究%A Study of Unemployed Graduate College Students From Mental Health View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常保瑞; 方建东

    2013-01-01

    在职业危机面前,大学生失业群体面临巨大的心理应激,表现在心理健康方面主要为孤独感、焦虑、抑郁、低自尊、偏激、攻击行为和非理性情绪宣泄等方面,他们在承受生活窘困、身心痛苦的同时也可能对社会产生一些负面影响。因此,对失业大学生应该进行心理辅导,建立社会支持体系、注重预防的工作机制。%Under career crisis unemployed graduate college students face severe stress,which is loneliness,anxiety,depression,low self-esteem,crankiness,Aggressive behavior and Irrational emotion catharsis in mental health.They may have some negative impacts on the society as bearing living embarrassment mental and physical pain.We must set up a system of management on stress and social support and psychological communication.

  1. 健脾疏肝法治疗中青年女性痤疮临床体会%The discussion about treatment of middle -aged female acne with Strengthening Spleen and Soothing Liver therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司小婷; 崔云竹

    2016-01-01

    With the change of modern life style,the incidence of acne gradually increased,it is worth to pay attention to.In TCM,"cover various shaped Zhu",spleen lose health shipped catharsis liver failure,cohesion can cause heat evaporate face and hair acne,clinical with soothing the liver and strengthening the spleen,clearing heat and removing dampness as the basic principle,the stomach of Xuanping powder combined with Jiawei Xiaoyao San,combined with clinical manifestation,syndrome differentiation and square cut,so as to improve acne cure rate.%随着现代生活方式的改变,痤疮发病率逐渐上升,值得引起重视。中医学认为,“盖有诸内者形诸外”,脾失健运、肝失疏泄,可致湿热内聚上蒸面部而发痤疮,临床以健脾疏肝、清热利湿为基本原则,方选平胃散合加味逍遥散加减,并结合临床具体表现,辨证裁方,从而提高痤疮的治愈率。

  2. An Inquiry into Middle School Students' Emotional Management%中学生情绪管理探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2011-01-01

    情绪是影响中学生生活、学习和人际交往的重要因素,情绪管理有助于中学生保持良好的情绪状态,有利于中学生的身心健康。因此,应加强对中学生情绪管理能力的培养,尤其要重视对中学生的认知调控能力、情绪宣泄能力、对象转移能力等方面能力的培养。%Emotion is an important factor in affecting students' life, learning and interpersonal communications, and emotional management can help middle school students to maintain good emotional state,physical and mental health.Therefore,students should strengthen emotional management ability,with particular emphasis on the students' cognitive control, emotional catharsis capabilities, object transfer ability and so on.

  3. 大学生对突发公共事件微博网络舆情的认知%A Study of College Students'Online Opinion on Emergency lncidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓浩; 谭顺霞; 常进

    2015-01-01

    在微博新媒体时代下,大学生上网方式、使用时长、表达方式与以往都有较大改变。面对突发公共事件网络舆情,大学生群体通过微博平台,其心理认知具体表现为片面仇官仇富与质疑、逆反宣泄、娱乐消遣等。大学生群体对突发网络舆情的舆情主体、对象、基础以及政府调控都有不同的体认。%In the era New Media,Weibo has changed not only the way college students get online,but also the time they spend online and the way they express themselves.Opinions college students ex-press via Weibo on public incidents show that they tend to harbor negative feelings like one-sided ha-tred for government officials or the rich,skepticism,rebellious catharsis or simple amusement.Col-lege students as a group have different views about the subject,the object and the foundation of public incidents and about the government control.

  4. 从《银饰》看悲剧的深化与消解%On the Deepening and Deconstruction of Tragedy from FOR LOVE OF A SILVER-SMITH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文少雄

    2013-01-01

      《银饰》结构上存在悲剧深化和消解的二元结构。作品一方面通过人物的反常化行动与死亡推动悲剧的深化,另一方面又通过人物的死亡和叙事结构来消解故事的悲剧效果。这种深化与消解的二元结构完成了亚氏悲剧理论所提出的悲剧“借引起怜悯与恐惧来使这种情感得到陶冶”的社会功用。%There is dualistic structure of tragedy deepening and deconstruction in FOR LOVE OF A SILVERSMITH . On the one hand, FOR LOVE OF A SILVERSMITH promotes the tragedy effect by the abnormal actions of characters .On the other hand, it deconstructs tragedy effect by the characters death and narrative structure of the passage .The dualistic structure of deepening and deconstruct achieved the catharsis of Aristotle's theory of tragedy—The social function of tragedy "is to arouse pity and panic so that the emotion is sensed".

  5. An interpretation of the symbolic function of Water Myth and itsmanifestations in Firdowsi’s Shahname based on mythological criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    قائمی قائمی

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mythological or archetypical criticism is an interdisciplinary approach which analyzes the literary text based on the findings of such sciences like psychology, anthropology, history of religion and history of civilization. In the present paper, the writers have studied the function of the aqueous archetype image in the myth of creation and the resulting mysteries in the context of mythological doctrines centered around Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh (Epic of Kings. Water myth, as one of the four contradictory elements forming the mythological material world, has assumed certain roles and is a common phenomenon in the world myths and Shahnameh. The symbolic functions of the water myth have been divided into three parts: 1. In different human cultures, the aqueous myth is a symbol of the beginning of material creation and life cycle in the universe. This function is symbolized in the primal creation of the world out of water and its symbolic end in it. 2. Water Myth is the main symbol of eternity and continuity of material life. This function is symbolized in the "life-sustaining water" and "the healing water". 3. The third function of Water Myth is manifested in the myth of passage through water (water test and symbolic washing by it (baptism myth; this is used as a test for the human catharsis, passage from a former stage into a new, exalted stage symbolized as the archetype of death and rebirth. Keywords: Water Myth, Four Elements, Mythological Criticism (Archetypical criticism, Archetype, Jung, Shahnameh

  6. Investigation and research of self-efficacy and mental remodeling strategy of medical students%医学生自我效能感调查及心理重塑对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄文敏

    2013-01-01

    大学生自我效能感和人格特征关系密切,对其心理健康的影响作用显著。目前影响医学大学生心理健康因素中,人格状态是个重要的影响因子。研究发现个体的自我效能感和人格中猎奇性、躲避伤害性和奖赏依赖性等特征呈显著正相关。医学生可以通过人格塑造、合理归因和适当的情绪宣泄来提升自我效能,同时促进心理健康。%The students’ self-efficacy is related to personality characteristics, has a significant impact on the mental health effects. In the factors influencing medical college students' mental health, personality is an important influence factor. Study found that the individual self-efficacy and personality of novelty, avoiding harm and reward dependence and other characteristics have significant positive correlation. Medical students can through personality, attribution and appropriate emotional catharsis to enhance self-efficacy, while promoting mental health.

  7. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Przybyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  8. The Limited Yet Eternal Life in Ceremony--A Cultural Anthropology Study on Guanzhong Funeral Ritual%在仪式中获得永生的有限存在者1--关中丧葬仪礼的文化人类学考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵周宽

    2015-01-01

    Funeral ritual is an important part of the tradition in peasant society. The decedent is well-locat⁃ed in the history of the family. Complicated rituals serve as a comfort to catharsis the sad of the family ,and the fear for dead is overcome. Certain"eternal life of the individual life"is realized in the funeral rituals.%扶风丧葬礼仪是乡民社会小传统的一个重要组成部分。在丧葬仪式中,逝者的文化身份在“血地一体”的复杂社会关系网络中得到准确定位,在繁复多样的仪式中,痛失至亲者的情感得以宣泄,并获得精神的慰藉,个体对于死亡的恐惧得到克服。丧葬仪式实现了个体生命的象征性“永生”。

  9. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called "game addiction"). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.

  10. Network Literature: Moving towards Maturity --A Comparative Study of City of Masks and Please Forgive Me%网络文学:从青涩走向成熟——小说《蒙面之城》和《网逝》创作比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叔明

    2012-01-01

    The existence and development of network literature fits the needs of emotional communication and catharsis in our life. As a representative piece of the early works of network literature, City of Masks breaks away from the common failing of network literature catering to vulgar tastes through the author' s successful characterization. Meanwhile, Please Forgive Me is one of the recent representatives of network literature. The two network literary works stand out among their peers, with the latter surpassing the former in terms of characterization, ideological content, artistic representation, storyline crafting, etc.%《蒙面之城》是网络文学的前期作品,它摆脱网络文学低俗化的通病,走向成熟,其标志在于较为成功地塑造了人物性格。《网逝》是网络文学的近期作品,如果说《蒙面之城》超越一般的网络文学作品,那么《网逝》从人物形象、思想性、艺术手法、故事情节等方面较之《蒙面之城》更胜一筹。

  11. Care of the comatose patient: building mutual staff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, P B; Smoot, F L

    1985-05-01

    Recognizing individuals' value differences is important to the success of health teams that care for comatose patients, since decisions to withhold or withdraw life-support treatment may lead to conflicts among team members. Such conflicts can adversely affect professional and family relationships. For example, health care personnel cannot work together in harmony or help the family effectively if they disagree about treatment decisions. Although institutional procedures for "do not resuscitate" orders, the treatment of incompetent patients, and other complex issues are helpful, they rarely address value conflicts, which inevitably influence a problem's resolution. Staff members therefore must acknowledge and confront differences they have faced. Such reflection enables catharsis as well as reconciliation of unresolved conflict and permits the group to develop guidelines for future situations. A fictional case also may be used to help work groups gain an understanding of the need for community. Ideally, the team members will sharpen their decision-making skills and gain the confidence to make tough choices in an imperfect, unpredictable world. PMID:10271501

  12. [A brief history of recognition on urolithiasis before medieval period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jianlin; Wu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Urinary stone was first found by human as early as 4900 BC when the Egyptian monks applied emesis, catharsis, diuresis, and diaphoresis for its treatment which, as they claimed, can expel the stones out of the body occasionally. In 2700 BC, definite records on urinary stone were seen in Egytian papyrus which attempted to cure this disorder by sucking method. In the 4(th) century BC, the Greek physician Alexandria mentioned that such stones can be expelled after being smashed. By then, the Greeks recognized the existence of renal stone by describing its manifestations. Sushruta, an ancient Indian royal physician mentioned in 6(th) century BC, the picking up of stones by splints through the urethra and the complications of such disorder in his Sushrutasamhita. He also recommended the removal of stones through the perineal part. Unfortunately, many patients died of such operation. Ancient Roman physicians described such operation circumstantially and the herbs for its treatment in the 1(st) century BC. During the 10(th) century, the Arabian physician Abukasis was the first to advocate the method of smashing stones in the urethra with an instrument he devised. In the period before medieval age, the removal of urinary stones through the perineal incision had been the main method which was so limited an approach due to the lack of anatomical knowledge and antiseptic conception.

  13. “And all the windows, great and small”. Finestre in Nightwood di Djuna Barnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a recurring subject and powerful symbol, the window dominates the female literary and artistic imagery of the twentieth century. It has been developed into mirror, photograph or painting, according to the writer’s needs, yet the basic shape of the frame is always retraceable. Among late modernist and postmodernist women writers, Djuna Barnes explores in detail the structural resources of this literary device. Although she already understands the potential of the frame in her early career as a journalist, she mostly challenges its extents of versatility in Nightwood (1936. Its crucial moments – either flashing epiphanies or missed catharsis – involve the physical presence of a window, which embodies a powerful narrative agent; more than mere symbol, it is active at several levels. Thematically, doors and windows, pictures and mirrors, play an important cohesive role. At a deeper stage of analysis, the structure of the novel itself is shored up by doors and windows, since the setting is essentially organized into indoors and outdoors scenes; windows and doors allow the characters to move between these two dimensions. On the metaphorical level, windows and doors represent a communicative channel; a room-door opening suggests the access to one’s inner life, whereas a shut window denies any chance of dialogue. However, all the characters seem to be too absorbed by their obsessions to realize such communicative potential, and rather meander uselessly in their mental frames.

  14. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  15. Creation and validation of the personal blogging style scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Moore, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    A review of blog literature suggests that blogs may have many social and emotional benefits. In particular, there is the suggestion that blogging may have benefits in the forms of coping, insight and growth, catharsis, as a free space to communicate, through feedback, through recognition, and in social support. However, while there have been numerous studies on the potential motivations for and effects of blogging, little quantitative research has been conducted on defining the manner in which one experiences blogging. Thus rather than focusing on motivation for blogging, the present study examined the way in which bloggers perceived and experienced their activity, that is, their blogging style. A 16-item Personal Blogging Style Scale (PBSS) was created after a factor analysis of 25 sample items. Participants were 182 experienced bloggers. The PBSS classifies user experiences by four independent and unique subscales: Therapeutic Blogging, Self-Censoring Blogging, Connected Blogging, and Substitution Blogging. Reliability and validity evidence were presented for the subscales of the measure.

  16. 音乐干预对高职学生负性情绪的影响研究%Study on the Influences of Music Intervention to the Negative Emotions of Vocational Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白毛毛

    2014-01-01

    Music has various mental efficiencies, such as transfer, catharsis, infection. By means of music intervention to higher vocational students’negative emotions to positive effect; the paper proves that it can achieve the goal of slowing students’negative emotions. 80 freshmen are selected in this experiment, and they are divided into two groups equally. The intervention group is interfered by means of music intervention, while the control group adopts the conventional music teaching method. The SCL-90 scales is used to measure the two groups’level of negative emotions. After 8 weeks, it shows that music intervention can effectively reduce the vocational students’level of negative emotions.%本实验共选取80名高职一年级新生,分为人数相等的两组进行对比研究。干预组采用音乐干预手段,对照组采用常规音乐教学手段,通过为期8周的实验,采用SCL-90等量表来测量两组学生的负性情绪水平。研究结果表明,音乐干预能够有效降低高职学生的负性情绪水平。

  17. 流行音乐及其情感表达刍议%Discussion on Popular Music and Its Emotional Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周璇

    2015-01-01

    Pop music as a form of music is concerned about the individual’ s emotions and feelings and growth and life, while it has become the means of the emotional release and publicity of life.Its content is featured non-mainstream, entertainment, com-mercial, fashion and cultural diversity, and these features prompted the pop music into the zone of emotional catharsis.Pop tunes e-voke audience’ s spiritual pleasure and rich lyrics publicizes people’ s inner world.%流行音乐作为音乐的一种现代表达形式,关注人的情绪与情感、成长与生活,成为目前很多人情感宣泄、张扬生命的方式。它具有内容非主流性、娱乐性、商品性、流行性以及多元文化性等特征,而这些特征促使了流行音乐成为人的情感宣泄地带。流行音乐的曲调唤起了听众精神上的愉悦,丰富的歌词张扬了不同人的内心世界。

  18. [A brief history of recognition on urolithiasis before medieval period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jianlin; Wu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Urinary stone was first found by human as early as 4900 BC when the Egyptian monks applied emesis, catharsis, diuresis, and diaphoresis for its treatment which, as they claimed, can expel the stones out of the body occasionally. In 2700 BC, definite records on urinary stone were seen in Egytian papyrus which attempted to cure this disorder by sucking method. In the 4(th) century BC, the Greek physician Alexandria mentioned that such stones can be expelled after being smashed. By then, the Greeks recognized the existence of renal stone by describing its manifestations. Sushruta, an ancient Indian royal physician mentioned in 6(th) century BC, the picking up of stones by splints through the urethra and the complications of such disorder in his Sushrutasamhita. He also recommended the removal of stones through the perineal part. Unfortunately, many patients died of such operation. Ancient Roman physicians described such operation circumstantially and the herbs for its treatment in the 1(st) century BC. During the 10(th) century, the Arabian physician Abukasis was the first to advocate the method of smashing stones in the urethra with an instrument he devised. In the period before medieval age, the removal of urinary stones through the perineal incision had been the main method which was so limited an approach due to the lack of anatomical knowledge and antiseptic conception. PMID:24774894

  19. Mito, magia, mimesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Subirats

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The topics developed in this essay are: Mythological memory and the subsistence of traditional cultures; colonialism and the destruction of mythological memories; Christian conversion, and the collapse of the American cosmos. The opposition of mythos and logos thorough Western history. Western longing for mythical roots and the mythological founding of political power. A "mythological" critique of Western civilization: Marx, Nietzsche, Freud. It also focuses on the aesthetic, anthropological and philosophical definitions of mimesis. Its thesis is that mimesis cannot be equated to imitation. The analysis offers a sharp critique of the avant-garde definition of mimesis. This essay analyses the relation of mimesis and possession in the history of religions as well as the relationship between mimesis and catharsis and between mimesis and magic. I also focus on the presence of American myths in modern classical Latin-American literature, in particular the work of Mário de Andrade, Juan Rulfo, and João Guimarães Rosa.

  20. [The present conditions and future of National Sanatorium Kikuchi Keifuen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Reiko

    2015-09-01

    National Sanatorium Kikuchi Keifuen (NSKK), housing 286 residents as of May 2015, is one of the biggest and oldest Hansen's disease sanatoriums in Japan. Located near the center of Kumamoto city, NSKK has maintained an excellent working relationship with Kumamoto University along with other neighboring medical institutions over the years. However, despite its advantages in standing, it may suffer the same problems as other sanatoriums: continually declining numbers of residents combined with the increasing frailty and dementia of existing residents due to aging and an increasing difficulty in maintaining a competent medical staff into the future. By placing our social exchange hall/historical museum as the focal point for the production and dissemination of information, we are producing an educational DVD that records an oral history through actual testimony on film as a cooperative effort between the residents' association and NSKK. Both perspectives are very important to verify the historical problems that Hansen's disease has encountered. One expected benefit of this project is the catharsis found in reminiscing over the past thus promoting the spiritual care of the residents; a matter which remains as a top priority in our sanatorium's "ending period". PMID:26630799

  1. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: The gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eHilgard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called game addiction. This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty. Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes towards the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players’ evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.

  2. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called "game addiction"). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use. PMID:24058355

  3. [A treated case of facial tic caused by a psychological factor. Successful case approached by psychosomatic dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, M; Ishii, K; Motokawa, W; Yoshida, Y

    1989-01-01

    As the oral psychosomatic diseases of infants appear connected with a predisposition of their environment, environmental adjustment and psychotherapy on the basis of psychosomatic dentistry are necessary in the treatment. We encountered a 9-year-old boy who seemed to be suffering from a facial tic caused by psychological factors. An attempt of therapy on the basis of psychosomatic dentistry was made in this case. The results as follows were obtained: 1. Intake interview to a mother was carried out regarding a cause of the tic. It was shown that the attitude of the mother will bring up the child and her meddling as well as the stress of school life caused his facial tic. 2. With our guidance, the mother reconsidered her meddling attitude toward the patient. And she was able to handle the patient with a kind attitude. 3. After play therapy as preparation, catharsis was carried out on the patient, the tic decreased rapidly. 4. Finally a token economy method was used. 5. It was thought that sufficient correspondence on the basis of psychosomatic dentistry was beneficial in the therapy of patient with psychosomatic disease in pedodontics.

  4. Attitudes of Iranian Male University Students Toward Sport and Exercise with Reference to Age, Educational Level, and Field of Study

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    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to discover the attitudes of Iranian male university students toward sport and exercise. This study is based on the same research as another published paper regarding the attitudes of Iranian female students toward sport and exercise. Participants (N = 821 were selected from different educational levels and fields of study from among 12 public universities. Data were collected by a modified and developed version of Kenyon's scale (1968, which measures the attitudes of people toward physical activity. For the analysis of the data, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were employed (p < 0.05. The results indicated that the attitudes of the respondents can be identified as fitness (3.96 ± 1.02, catharsis (3.84 ± 0.80, social (3.82 ± 1.10, aesthetic (3.03 ± 1.14, vertigo (2.15 ± 1.16, and ascetic (2.07 ± 0.79. Furthermore, it was found that various demographic and social characteristics affected participants' attitudes toward sport and exercise (p < 0.05. Based on the results, it was concluded that the sport programs should be organized around students' dominant attitudes toward regular activities. In addition, planning and organizing sport programs with regard to the wide attitudinal differences between male and female students could be a big step toward improving students' participation rate in sporting activities at Iranian universities.

  5. 从阴阳失调辨治失眠%Treating Insomnia from Imbalance of Yin and Yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷凌云; 王蕴伶; 查青山

    2013-01-01

    中医药治疗失眠具有副作用小、消除症状快、临床疗效好等优势。失眠的病因病机:眠为阴,醒为阳,阳气重则醒,阴气重则眠,正常的睡眠是阴阳运行平衡的结果,心肾不交、脾胃不和、肝失疏泄、肺失宣降等导致阴阳的失调而引起失眠。无论病因虚实,均致阴阳失调,才是失眠的关键所在。%Chinese medicine treatment of insomnia have side effects,rapid elimination of symptoms,the clinical efficacy and good advantage. Pathogenesis of insomnia:sleep is yin,yang awake,yang weight is awake,chi while in sleep,normal sleep is the result of running balance of yin and yang,heart and kidney,stomach and liver failure catharsis,lung failure declared down as a result of the imbalance of yin and yang and cause insomnia. Regardless of cause actual situation,are caused by imbalance of yin and yang,is the key to insomnia.

  6. PENGARUH MENULIS PENGALAMAN EMOSIONAL DALAM TERAPI EKSPRESIF TERHADAP EMOSI MARAH PADA REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Theozard Fikri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study focused on the adolescent’s anger, and efforts to manage the emotion of anger. This research used expressive therapy by writing about emotional experience that aims to help adolescents able to express their anger and as a medium of catharsis. The research design was a single group design with “one group pre-test and post-test experimental” method. Participants who attend this research are eight male, with age between 16 to 21 years and had high scores on STAXI Scale. Participants were asked to write down their emotional experiences in a book. The result of the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test showed a significant decreasing in participant’s anger after writing session. The results show that writing an emotional experience in expressive therapies able to reduce the emotion of anger in adolescent.Keywords: anger, emotion, writing emotional experience therapy.

  7. PENGARUH MENULIS PENGALAMAN EMOSIONAL DALAM TERAPI EKSPRESIF TERHADAP EMOSI MARAH PADA REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Theozard Fikri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the emotion of adolescent’s anger, and effortsto manage the emotion of anger. This research used expressive therapy bywriting about emotional experience that aims to help adolescents are ableto express their anger and as a medium of catharsis. The research designwas a Single Group Design with “one group pre-test and post-testexperimental” method. Participants who attend this research are eight male,with age between 16 to 21 years and had STAXI’s high scores. Participantswere asked to write down their emotional experiences in a book. Theresult of the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test showed a significant decreasingin participant’s anger emotional after writing session, that is while the pre-test to post-test with a value of z = -1.893 with p = 0.029 (p While pre-test to follow-up with the value z = - 2.524 with p = 0.006 (pwith p = 0.046 (p experience in expressive therapies able to reduce the emotion of anger inadolescent.Key word : writing emotional experience therapy, anger, and emotion.

  8. Integrating African and Western healing practices in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, G

    1994-01-01

    Through a detailed analysis of a dream shared by three adolescent girls suffering from PTSD, this paper has outlined many similarities between an African and a Western understanding of their symptoms. It has shown how both systems would acknowledge these symptoms to be a function of: (a) the breaching of stimulus boundaries; (b) the existence of survivor guilt; (c) the phenomenon of frozen mourning. It has illustrated further how many factors considered to be part of Western psychotherapy, e.g., (a) catharsis following an emotional reliving of the traumatic event; (b) re-ordering of perceptions following insight; (c) fostering hope for the future following a re-establishment of continuity with the past, may be promoted while interpreting dreams within the traditional meanings ascribed to them by an African healing framework. That is, it has been shown how these elements may be fostered while working within the African belief that dreams are not the manifestation of intrapsychic conflict but communications from ancestral spirits concerning interpersonal duties that need to be fulfilled. Finally this paper has illustrated the importance of therapists developing a general appreciation of myths and metaphors. PMID:7992875

  9. Diferencias en el uso de las estrategias de afrontamiento, el catastrofismo y el estado de ánimo en función del tiempo de evolución del dolor crónico Coping strategies, catastrophism and mood differences depending on chronic pain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peñarroya Baulíes

    2011-04-01

    use of pain coping strategies depending on the time of evolution. The assessment instruments are McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, "Strategies for Coping with Chronic Pain" (CADR, Hopital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, Catastro-phism Scale CSQ (CSQ-C. Participants of this study are patients with chronic pain and are treated in to specialized unit. The results show that duration and patient's age are associated with the use of a passive strategy, the "catharsis". The perception of pain has a positive relationship with catastrophizing, passive strategies, anxiety and depression. Results: results obtained by comparing the average of the two groups, one with 1 to 5 years of evolution, and another 13 to 33 years, show that the group of shorter duration makes greater use of the coping strategy of catharsis and it has scored higher on catastrophizing compared to another group. Conclusion: we observe the relationship between pain and psychological variables of this study and changes that may occur in different stages of duration of pain.

  10. En Inde, dans les salles de cinéma, les spectateurs sont-ils acteurs ou simples spectateurs ? In Indian cinemas, can members of the audience be qualified as actors or simply spectators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cutler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Si la question du rôle du spectateur peut se poser sur un plan général, elle prend une dimension particulière lorsque l’on se penche sur le cas des spectateurs indiens. En effet, en Inde, depuis les débuts du cinéma, le public ne se contente pas d’être seulement spectateur des œuvres projetées. Il se démarque ainsi du rôle qui lui avait été originairement attribué dans l’épopée indienne le Ramayana où il assistait sans réagir au sacrifice de Sita. On peut donc se demander s’il conviendrait de lui attribuer le qualificatif de « spectacteur », néologisme utilisé dans le cadre des SIC1. Pour répondre à cette interrogation, nous remonterons aux premières réflexions portant sur le public de théâtre, dominées par la notion aristotélicienne de catharsis. De là, nous ferons un parallèle avec le « contrat de feintise » évoqué dans le Nâtya-Shâstra (ou traité de théâtre indien, et verrons dans quelle mesure ce contrat entre le spectateur et l’œuvre peut s’appliquer au public de cinéma en Inde. Par la suite, dans une étude plus générale de la place du spectateur d’œuvres cinématographiques, nous expliquerons en quoi les spectateurs indiens se différencient, ne serait-ce que dans leurs attitudes lors des projections filmiques, des spectateurs occidentaux. Cela nous conduira à aborder la question de l’interactivité entre le public et l’œuvre, et à déterminer de quelle manière le public peut interagir sur une œuvre projetée.The spectator’s role in general is often questioned, but in the case of Indian spectators, it takes a whole new turn. Indeed, in India, since the arrival of cinema, members of the audience do not content themselves with being simply spectators of the films projected. In that way, they distinguish themselves from their original role attributed by the epic poem, the Ramayana, in which they watched Sita’s sacrifice without reacting. Therefore, we can ask

  11. Kajian Aspek Ketidaksadaran dalam Karya Seni Rupa Indonesia Periode 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Damajanti

    2014-11-01

    thethree artists is originated in their traumatic experiences which generate fear, pain, andaggression. For them, painting is their catharsis process, the media to sublime/smoothentheir impulse of fear, pain, and aggression so that the society can accept and appreciatetheir works.

  12. 网络帖子文学论略%On the E-post Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同胜

    2014-01-01

    随着数字网络技术的发展,在许多电子媒介社区、论坛、BBS等上都开辟了发帖子的栏目,而这些栏目则发展了网络帖子文学。网络帖子文学由于电子第二媒介的独特性而具有自身的特点:声像化、互动化、链接化、民主化、复调性、原生态和娱乐化等。网络帖子文学的特点决定了其具有心理宣泄、促进民主和视听娱乐等功能。随着超媒体的发展,网络帖子文学将成为文化球域化的重镇,从而走向真正的“全球文学”。%With the development of digital technology, there are countless columns in the virtual communities, forums and BBS where net citizens can issue their electronic posts, some of which carry the characteristics of literature and therefore they are called E-post literature. Just as McLuhan said,“The medium is the message.”Due to the Second Media, the E-post literature has the characteristics of visualization, inter-communication, super-linking, democratization, multiple-voices, original ecology and entertainment etc., which determine the functions of psychology catharsis, democracy promotion and audile-visual amusement and so on. A prediction might be made that E-post literature may be becoming an important part of the global literature.

  13. On the transformation of antique stories and images in German literature of the 20th century

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    Sharypina T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of Russian and foreign scholars, the work is aimed at studying the specificity of the transformation of antique stories and images, which is the desired model in the art of the 20th century thanks to its fluidity and unlimited variability. Actualization of antique stories and images in the works of German-language writers account for life-changing moments of social life, the periods of losing of constant moral landmarks and the periods of looking for new moral and aesthetic ideals. The analysis of the reception and transformation of mythological stories and images in the contemporary literature proves the conception of its polysemy. The built-in contradiction of myths is realized through the transformation of mythological stories and images in the literary works of contemporary writers and is explained by the individuality of writers and theirs aesthetic aims. On the one side, the absence de facto in German drama of the 20th century of interpretations of the story about Achilles and of the image of Achilles, and numerous variations on the topic of moral strivings of fearless and peccant Ulysses, on the other side, are proving the statements of classic aesthetic that the tragedy is based on the conflict, which is close to lofty and linked with the idea of dignity of the man, which is ready and capable of promoting the views of his own by the real acts that are often lead to suffer and death. According to Aristotle, the sympathy for the character leads to catharsis - the basis of education of real civic-mindedness and humanness.

  14. 大学生网络去个性化行为与内外控的关系研究%Study on the Elationship between Internet Deindividualization of College Students and Locus of Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective to understand students' network to personalized features and locus of control relationship. Methods using the Internet to individualized questionnaire and Rotter "I-E" psychological and locus of control scale survey 502 College students. Results (1) network to individual existence time, gender differences; (2) college students network to personalization in aggressive behavior, emotional catharsis, self control horizontal dimension, significant gender differences; (3) network to personalization in locus of control there were significant differences. Conclusion (1) time, gender, locus of control and other factors that affect the network to personalized important variables; (2) for men than women are more vulnerable to network attack behavior, self-control ability is low and negative performance.%目的 旨在了解大学生网络去个性化的表现特点及其与内外控的关系.方法 采用大学生网络去个性化调查问卷和罗特“I-E”心理控制源量表调查502名大学生.结果 网络去个性化存在时间、性别差异;大学生网络去个性化在攻击行为、情感宣泄、自我控制水平3维度上,呈现显著的性别差异;网络去个性化在内外控上呈显著差异.结论 时间、性别、内外控等因素是影响网络去个性化的重要变量;男生较女生更易出现网络攻击行为、自控能力低等消极表现.

  15. The meaning of destruction: Definition and contextualization of disaster movies

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    Tomašević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The disaster movie is one of the most persistent genres in cinematography, but it constantly escapes our attention because it is presented as “easy summer fun”. If we want to understand it as a cultural document of an epoch in which the genre is important and popular, we need to come up with a definition, formula and conventions of a disaster movie. Also, we must propose one of many possible comprehensions of its popularity and religious heritage. The paper uses definitions of genre, conventions and formulae in the attempt to show a way of using popular narratives in the transmission of a world view. Using a narrative structure gives us a glimpse into the deeper cultural, social and political context in which the disaster movie is created, popular or rejected. The paper discusses disaster movies as cultural artifacts, as a ritual we are practicing without remembering its purpose. Also, paper is examining identifying apocalyptic and catastrophic as an product of interposition of Apocalypse to Johan and Great Tribulation. Using apocalyptic literature, end times narratives and disaster movies, the paper shows the fruitfulness of destruction representations and imaginarium of terror. Using fear and shock, the messages of disaster movies seems more urgent and relevant. Through the ideas of Susan Sontag and Maurice Yacowar, the paper presents a way for analyzing the contemporary disaster movie. Conventions and formulae of disaster movies help us to understand the way modern cinematography is used for cultural and political means. The popularity of disaster movies can be seen as a form of ”ritualization of discontent” wherein the viewers experience some sort of catharsis. Also, disaster movie gathers different interests and actualizes thirstness for transformation of order or achieving justice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  16. Research on the working mechanism of“580”emotional conversion station%“580”情绪转化站的创业机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏; 伍剑; 杨霞; 袁晓玲; 张庆艳

    2015-01-01

    着眼于转变大学生的培养模式、提高大学生社会适应能力、增强大学生就业竞争力的大学生创新创业训练计划是国家创新体系建设的重要组成部分。四川省省级创业训练项目“580情绪转化站”以自主研发的www.qxzhz580.icoc.cn网站为创业平台,在对客户负性情绪在线调查后提供咨询、倾诉、疏泄、转化等系列在线问诊的专业服务,最终将客户的负性情绪转化成正能量,提高客户的幸福指数,从而产生良好的社会效益和可观的经济效益,成功实现创业计划。%In order to change college students’training mode,improve their ability to adapt to society, enhance their employment competitiveness,innovation and entrepreneurship training program is an important part of the construction of national innovation system.“580”emotional conversion station,provincial entrepreneurship training project of Sichuan,developed website www.qxzhz580.icoc.cn independently as a business platform. The website will supply series online professional service to customers after online survey on negative emotions,such as inquiry,talk,catharsis,transformation. This program will eventually change customer’s negative emotions into positive energy and improve customer’s happiness index,so that it can produce good social benefits and economic profits,realize the business plan successfully.

  17. The Dilemma of Folk Traditional Sports' Development in the Context of Globalization%全球化背景下民族传统体育发展的困境及策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳家鹏; 向春玉

    2012-01-01

    对民族传统体育面临的发展困境进行分析,并在全球化背景下探讨民族传统体育的发展途径。认为:民族传统体育的传统性、朴素性和注重伦理的特征与当今社会的功利性和宣泄性的需求不一致,民族传统体育实践主体逐渐流失以及西方体育的强势推进等制约了民族传统体育的发展。重新认识民族传统体育的现代性价值,不断提高民族传统文化自觉,增强民族传统体育文化自信,建立民族传统体育文化与西方文化的"互哺"机制才能使我国民族传统体育的发展走出困境。%The present paper has analyzed the difficult position of folk traditional sports in the process of development and dis cussed the development approaches of folk traditional sports under the background of globalization. It holds that folk traditional sports' traditional, guileless and stress on the importance of ethics characteristics are against the present utilitarian and catharsis demands. The progressive loss of folk traditional sports' subject practice and the aggressive push of westernsports restrict the development of folk traditional sports. To help folk traditional sports out of the dilemma, we should rediscover the modern value of folk traditional sports, enhance the consciousness of national traditional culture, improve the cultural confidence and set up the "mutual feeding" mechanism of folk traditional sports culture and western sports culture.

  18. 酒精性肝病治疗思路阐要%Main Points in the Treatment of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙劲晖; 赵鲲鹏; 孙岸弢

    2012-01-01

    本文首先论述了酒精性肝病的主要病机是酒毒损伤脾胃肝胆,并从中医病机演变角度阐明其病机特点有递进关系:初则脾胃损伤,继而肝失疏泄,肝脾不调,气血不和,最终演变为肝脾肾不调.接下来提出在辨病、辨证论治思想指导下,本病的病机发展阶段可分伤酒(酒痞)、酒癖、酒臌三期.最后提出本病应结合体质,在辨病、辨证思想指导下分期论治.%Attention is paid in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Firstly, the main pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease is described as alcoholic toxins progressively injuring spleen, stomach, liver and gallbladder according to the traditional Chinese medicine theory. The spleen and the stomach are impaired at the beginning, which results in catharsis dysfunction of the liver. The imbalance of liver and spleen then causes the disharmony of Qi and blood, which finally ends up with disorder of the liver, the spleen and the kidney. Secondly, the paper proposes that alcoholic disease can be staged as alcohol related to stuffiness, alcohol related to liver swelling and alcoholic tympanites based on the disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation therory in tradtional Chinese medicine. Finally, it presents a theory that alcoholic liver disease should be treated by staging with physical type based on the disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation therory in tradtional Chinese medicine.

  19. “I can’t live there no more” :Baldwin and Škvoreckv on Jazz and Exile “Je ne peux plus vivre là-bas”: Jazz et exil chez Baldwin et Škvorecký

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Daniel Sabatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les thèmes croisés du jazz et de l’exil dans Another Country de James Baldwin et The Bass Saxophone de l’écrivain tchéco-canadien Josef Škvorecký. D’autres écrivains exilés afro-américains et tchèques tels Richard Wright et Milan Kundera ont insisté sur l’aspect politique du jazz, que Wright décrit comme un “rejet extatique” de la société et que Kundera définit comme en constante évolution, en contraste avec la musique populaire. Dans Another Country de Baldwin, le jazz est fortement lié aux personnages les plus en marge de la société américaine: non seulement Rufus, le musicien de jazz noir, mais aussi Eric, le Blanc expatrié revenant de France. La musique de Bessie Smith et Billie Holiday offre une toile de fond aux moments les plus intimes de ces personnages, et elle-même témoigne d’un profond désir de trouver une meilleure patrie, malheureusement inexistante. Pour Škvorecký (qui a quitté l’Europe de l’Est pour l’Amérique du Nord et Baldwin (qui a quitté l’Amérique pour passer une grande partie de sa vie en Europe le jazz transforme les expériences douloureuses en art, servant à la fois d’inspiration et de catharsis.

  20. 权利与权力:对网络舆论中大学生政治表达解读%Right and Power: the Interpretation of College Students/ Political Expression in the Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盛

    2012-01-01

    Focus on the right and power as the core concepts of political science, college students/ understanding of the right and power in the internet public opinion was investigated and 10 cases of public opinion text were focused on as the empirical study. The discourse features of the students in the network of public opinion expression were analyzed. We pointed out that the internet has changed the inherent mechanism of the college students~ political identity to some extent, that is, the mediumlization of political cognition, catharsis of political emotion and virtualization of political behavior. The ideological and political educators should pay attention to the impact of network public opinion on college students~ political identity and do the guidance work online and offline in time.%聚焦权利和权力这对政治学的核心概念,将大学生对权利和权力的认识于网络舆情中予以考察,并集中对10个舆论案例的文本进行了实证研究。分析了大学生在网络舆论表达中的话语特征,指出互联网已在一定程度上改变了大学生政治认同的固有机制,即政治认知的媒介化、政治情感的宣泄化和政治行为的虚拟化。思想政治教育工作者要重视网络舆论对大学生政治认同的影响,及时做好网上和网下的引导工作。

  1. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for breast cancer patients%团体心理治疗对乳腺癌患者疗效因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建琴; 林丹平; 陈翠娥; 朱建东

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨团体心理治疗对乳腺癌患者的抑郁、焦虑疗效及各团体治疗疗效因子的相对重要性.方法对符合入组标准的62例乳腺癌患者用分层随机分为研究组(31例)和对照组(31例),疗程12周,并用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA),对团体治疗疗效因子进行问卷调查.结果(1)治疗前两组抑郁、焦虑评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);(2)治疗后研究组抑郁、焦虑较治疗前明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P0.05) before treatment. The scores of depression and anxiety were de-creased in study group after treatment compared to those before treatment P<0.05);while the depression and anxiety scores in study group were lower than those in control group after treatment (P<0.05). The questionnaire survey revealed that the interper-sonal learning (paying), group cohesion, instillation of hope, catharsis, awareness of existence in study group were significantly improved after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion The group psychotherapy can al eviate the symptom of depression and anxiety in patients with breast carcinoma.

  2. Phenomenological study of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients%严重烧伤患者创伤后成长的现象学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚贵芹; 张爱华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨严重烧伤患者创伤后成长的维度和促进因素。方法采用现象学研究方法,对本院接受治疗的严重烧伤康复期的患者,进行目的性抽样,抽取20例患者进行半结构式深度访谈。结果创伤后成长的促进因素包括:感情宣泄,社会比较,意义应对,自我效能;分析出PTG的3个结构维度:精神寄托,欣赏生活,苦难衍生。结论此次访谈收获的烧伤患者的创伤后成长维度和促进因素与其他研究具有共同点和不同之处。%Objective To explore the dimensions and positive influences of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients.Methods Phenomenological method was used in the study. A depth interview was conducted on 20 severe burn patients who were treated in our hospital and recruited by purposive sampling method.Results The positive influences of posttraumatic growth included emotional catharsis, social comparison, meaning response and self-efficacy. The factors which contributed to posttraumatic growth were spiritual sustenance, enjoying life and derivative sufferings.Conclusion There are common points and differences between our study and other studies on the positive influences and dimensions of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients.

  3. 论当代青春文学的审美特征%Aesthetic Features of Chinas Contemporary Youth Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志刚; 高建青; 彭晓波; 董倩

    2012-01-01

    In the late 20th century contemporary youth literature market into peopleg vision, has attracted wide at- tention also has caused widespread controversy. Important reason of the birth of youth literature comes from the era of environmental pressure the repressed young writers catharsis, youth literature mainly reflect real life type of theme is loneliness and sadness amplified criticism of the education system and the lost of love and friendship, nar- rative the diverse aesthetic with sharp language, the implantation of a large number of picture elements, as well as a stronger affinity aesthetic features of contemporary youth literature.%20世纪末当代青春文学以市场的方式进入人们的视野,引起了广泛关注也引起了广泛争议。青春文学的诞生的重要原因来源于时代环境压力下青年作家压抑的宣泄。青春文学产生反映现实生活类型化主题主要表现为放大的孤独与忧伤、对教育制度的批判以及友情和爱情的迷失。其叙事手法的多样、语言的唯美与犀利、大量图片元素的植入以及较强的亲和力是当代青春文学的重要审美特征。

  4. The characteristics of the fear emotion enhanced regulation of the soldiers with different mental quality levels%不同心理素质水平军人恐惧情绪增强调节特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋娟; 宋新涛; 涂静; 刘可愚; 佗婷婷; 杜征; 冯正直

    2012-01-01

    Quality Questionnaire of Armymen was used to select participants from 818 armymen,screening out 30 armymen with low mental quality,30 armymen with moderate and 30 armymen with high.With elicitation of fear emotion,the participants adopted enhance emotion regulation strategies (cognition emphasis and emotion catharsis),and their blood volume pulse( BVP),skin conductance( SC ),normalized high frequency spectral component(HFnorm),standard deviation of all normal intervals(SDNN) and the recovery time of BVP and SC were recorded.Results ( 1 ) The different mental quality of army men activity in the autonomic physiological changes were not significant differences in resting state.(2) When using the cognition emphasis,the SC of different mental quality of armymen were reduced,and low mental quality of armymen( ( -0.67 ± 1.05 )μ.Ω),moderate mental quality of armymen ( ( - 0.49 ± 0.75 ) μΩ) had larger SC than high mental quality of armymen ( ( - 2.16 ± 2.18 ) μΩ ) ;high mental quality of armymen( ( - 2.17 ± 8.96) nU ) had lower HFnorm than the control( ( 6.96 ± 7.08 ) nU ).When using emotion catharsis,high mental quality of armymen ( ( 1.95 ± 6.58 ) nU ) had lower HFnorm than the control( (6.96 ±7.08)nU).(3)When using the cognition emphasis,low mental quality of armymen ((65.50 ±43.43 )s) had longer recovery time of BVP than high mental quality of armymen( (26.50 ± 25.72)s).When using emotion catharsis,low mental quality of armymen( (71.50 ± 48.36)mm Hg)had longer recovery time of BVP than high mental quality of armymen ( ( 21.00 ± 35.50 ) mm Hg) ; low mental quality of armymen ( ( 103.50 ± 38.01 ) s)had longer SC than moderate( (63.50 ±48.59)s) and high mental quality of armymen( (61.50 ±33.09) s).Conclusion The ability to regulate sympathetic in low mental quality group is weaker than the high mental quality group,although sympathetic can be suppressed when enhanced emotion regulation are adopted.

  5. 郭沫若译《鲁拜集》的生态解读%An Eco-Translatology Perspective to Guo Mojo’s Translation of Rubaiyat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春岚; 黄芳

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the great poet and translator Guo Mojo’stranslation of Rubaiyatcan be best interpreted from the perspective of eco-tranlatology.Motionless as the original texts and target texts,constant conversations and linkage have taken place between the author,the translator and even the imagined or real readers,which has been influenced by the intrinsic and extrinsic ecologic environments of different languages and turns out to be the reorganized mechanism of competition and selection between different language features.From Guo’s translation,the intrinsic features of poems,not only catharsis and abandon,but assimilation between the original texts and target texts,which means the natural target language,can reflect the characteristics of the original texts to a larger extent.The translation process of Guo’s "assimilation,naturalness and creation" can be understood as the organic interaction between the original text,the target text and the readers.%在郭沫若译《鲁拜集》中,生态翻译批评的解读才是全面和综合的。原文和译本乍看是静止的,实质是译者与作者及虚构或者实在的读者在不断对话、广泛联系的过程。这种对话和联系受两种不同语言内部生态结构和外部生态环境的影响,是一个语言特征竞争与选择进行重组的机制。在郭译本中可以发现,他不仅重视诗歌本身特点的表达,有其"自然"、"浪漫"情绪的宣泄,也重视原作与译作的"淳化"过程,即如何用译文最自然的语言和结构反映原文的特点,他翻译的"淳化——自然——创作"的整个过程就是原文、译本及读者的有机互动过程。

  6. Validación del cuestionario de afrontamiento al dolor crónico reducido (CAD-R Validation of the reduced chronic pain coping questionnaire (CAD-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soriano

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los tópicos de mayor relevancia en las últimas décadas en el estudio del paciente con dolor crónico ha sido el afrontamiento. Dada la importancia de medir y evaluar las diferentes maneras con las que el individuo afronta el dolor, en las últimas décadas se han desarrollado diferentes instrumentos para evaluar dicha dimensión. El cuestionario de afrontamiento al dolor (CAD, inicialmente compuesto por 31 ítems, incluye 6 factores: autoafirmación, búsqueda de información, religión, distracción, catarsis y autocontrol mental. En este estudio se reduce el CAD, proponiendo una versión más corta del mismo, el CAD-R. Se evaluaron 314 sujetos por el Servicio de Psicología de la Unidad Multidisciplinar para el Tratamiento del Dolor del Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia. Del cuestionario original de 31 ítems (CAD se eliminaron 7 ítems reduciéndose a una versión con un total de 24 ítems (CAD-R. Se evalúa la validez de esta nueva versión, su consistencia interna y estabilidad temporal, así como las relaciones entre afrontamiento y afecto para determinar las estrategias más adaptativas.Coping has been turned over the last decades in one of the most important topics to board the patient with chronic pain. Given the importance of considering and evaluating the different forms that the individual has to cope with pain, different instruments in the last decades have been developed to evaluate the above mentioned dimension. The coping pain questionnaire (in Spanish, CAD, initially composed by 31 items, gathers 6 factors: autoaffirmation, Look for information, religion, distraction, catharsis and mental autocontrol. In this study the length of the CAD diminishes, proposing a small version of the same (CAD-R. 364 subjects were evaluated by the psychology service of the Multidisciplinary Pain Treatment Unit of the Valencia University General Hospital. Of the original questionnaire of 31 items (CAD, there was

  7. "EXPLICO ALGUNAS COSAS": LA AUTOEXÉGESIS NERUDIANA EN LA POESÍA RESIDENCIARIA Y PRE-RESIDENCIARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Duff

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se propone recorrer la poesía temprana de Pablo Neruda a lo largo de su eje autoexegético y metaliterario. Eligiendo de los primeros libros del poeta chileno aquellos poemas en los cuales haya una explicitación de un arte poética o una clara referencia metaliteraria, se analizará la evolución de la poesía de Neruda. Se dividirá la poesía de Neruda en distintos períodos, utilizándose para tal fin únicamente los textos metaliterarios: se detallarán las poéticas elaboradas por Neruda en sus distintos libros, desde la poética de la poesía como "terrible don", pasando por la poesía como catarsis, la poesía como don profético devaluado, hasta llegar a la poesía como compromiso. Analizando en dichos textos elementos que Octavio Paz definiría como analógicos o irónicos, se evaluarán posiciones sostenidas por determinados críticos con respecto a Neruda.The present work aims at traversing across Pablo Neruda's early poetry following the self-exegetic and metaliterary axis. The evolution of Neruda's poetry will be analyzed, focusing on those poems from the Chilean poet's early books in which there is an explicit formulation of an ars poetica or a clear metaliterary reference. Neruda's poetry will be divided into different periods by considering these metaliterary texts landmarks of successive changes in his poetics, ranging from the poetics of poetry as a "terrible gift", through the view of poetry as catharsis, as a debased prophetic gift, to finally arrive at a view of poetry as political commitment. By means of the analysis of textual elements that Octavio Paz would define as ironic or analogical, different critical stands about Neruda will be assessed.

  8. 网络对大学生情感的相关影响探讨%Impact of Internet to the Emotion of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾月珠

    2011-01-01

    In the contemporary studying and living of college students, in an increasingly wide range of network applications, but also for the formation and development of their emotional also had varying degrees of impact. In the information age, and exchange students through the network means more than catharsis, but not with relatives, teachers, friends, students exchanges in the real world is gradually reduced, which is not conducive to healthy emotional development of students, some students may even lead to of negative, pessimistic, lazy and other bad feelings, so in the future in higher education, the education sector must be network-related emotional impact on college students as an important research topic, and in practice, constantly sum up experience and accumulated to promote the comprehensive development of contemporary college students.%在当代大学生的学习和生活中,网络的应用日趋广泛,而且对他们情感的形成与发展也产生了不同程度的影响。在网络信息时代,大学生的情感交流和宣泄多是通过网络途径,而与亲人、老师、朋友、同学在现实中的交流在逐渐减少,这不利于大学生情感的健康发展,甚至有可能导致部分大学生出现消极、悲观、不思进取等不良情感。因此,在今后的高校教育中,广大教育工作者必须将网络对大学生情感的相关影响作为重要研究课题之一,并且在实践中不断总结和积累经验,以促进当代大学生的全面发展。

  9. A Study of Undergraduates' Psychological Status on College Desk Culture%大学生课桌文化的心理现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹏伟

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses college desk culture, applying opened questionnaire and content analysis method, to explore undergraduates' psychological status. The results revealed that eight psychological types were indicated from it: pondering on the meaning of life ( F1 ), groping for love and puzzling ( F2), undecided ( F3 ), the view of sex (F4), the dissatisfaction to the school, judging themselves and others (F6), boring catharsis (F7), learn and test anxiety (F8) . The diversity of eight psychological types was significance, and thereinto, it reflected the obvious of F1, F2, F7 and F8. Furthermore, there were great divergence among the different psychological characteristics of the types, and the same situation arose from the common study rooms and the rooms for postgraduate exam preparation.%运用开放式问卷和内容分析法对课桌文化进行分析,以此探究大学生的心理现状。结果表明:大学生课桌文化体现在八种心理类型:思索人生的意义型(F1)、情爱探索与困惑型(F2)、自我迷茫型(F3)、对性的看法型(F4)、对学校的不满型(F5)、评价他人与自我型(F6)、无聊宣泄型(F7)、学习与考试焦虑型(F8)。各种心理类型的差异非常显著,其中Fl、F2、F7和礴体现明显。此外,除无聊宣泄型外,其他类型的心理特征的差异显著;一般与考研教室的课桌文化的心理类型差异非常显著。

  10. Summary and Insights for Junior High School Counseling%对初中学校心理咨询的总结和感悟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乔丹; 王国猛

    2015-01-01

    本文主要从心理咨询工作者的角度对初中学校心理咨询做出总结和感悟,首先主要总结了现阶段初中生所面临的主要心理困惑和问题,主要包括三个方面:人际关系问题、学习压力问题、对未来的迷茫.这些问题的解决需要家长和老师共同协作,对学生应该给予足够的积极关注.另外还探讨了对学生进行积极有效心理咨询的策略,主要包括三个方面:正确引导、合理宣泄、榜样示范.作为心理咨询工作者,需要在咨询过程中全身心投入到对他们的关注中,充分发挥自己的专业优势,在力所能及的范围内有效地去帮助每一个学生.%This article from the perspective of workers in psychological counseling psychological counseling for junior high school summary and sentiment, first and foremost summarizes the main stage of mental confusion and problems faced by junior high school students, mainly in three aspects:relationship problems, learning pressure problem, uncertainty about the future. To solve these problems requires parents and teachers work together, students should be given enough positive atten-tion. It also explores the students active and effective counseling strategies, mainly in three aspects:the right guidance, rea-sonable catharsis, model demonstration. As psychological counseling workers in the consultation process needs to devote yourself to focus on them, and give full play to their professional advantage, within the limits of its resources effectively to help every student.

  11. Religious Feelings and Psychological Guidance of Public Opinions in New Stories about Social Incidents%突发事件报道中的宗教情感与舆论的心理引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雅仙

    2012-01-01

    宗教问题历来是新闻报道中最为敏感和复杂的政治话题之一,近年来各种与宗教相关的社会突发事件、社会热点事件不断发生,使得这些事件中的舆论引导问题成了大众传媒、宗教媒体比较棘手、需要迫切解决的重要课题,当前学术界相应的研究也显现不足。本文认为,具有偏执和妄想特征的宗教情感是一种特殊的群体心理,在突发事件或一定刺激下表现得更加强烈,传播者在坚持宗教禁忌报道的“恪守”原则等基础上,可以从归属、认同、怂动、凝聚四个方面加大舆论的感性心理引导,在满足其心理慰藉和情感宣泄的同时,能更有效地化解矛盾,使其宗教情感朝着更为平和与高尚、和谐与积极的方向发展。%Religion problem has always been one of the most complex and politically sensitive topics in the news reports. In recent years, a variety of social emergencies and social hot events associated with religion occur continu- ously. How to effectively guide the public opinion is more difficult and important issue in the mass media and reli- gion media. And the academic research also shows lack of corresponding. The article thinks religious feeling is a kind of special crowd psychology, with paranoid and delusional features. And it is more intense when emergencies and certain stimulation happened. So media should not only strictly follow the varieties of report principles, but also they can strengthen psychological guidance from the ownership, identity, encourage, condensed. It can meet the needs of the crowd psychological comfort and emotional catharsis, at the same time it can effectively resolve contra- dictions and can make the religious emotion toward a more peaceful, noble, harmonious, positive development.

  12. Early alcoholism treatment: the Emmanuel Movement and Richard Peabody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K

    1984-01-01

    felt that relaxation, suggestion and catharsis were important. Unlike the E. Movement, he regarded the unconscious as an obstacle. His method was also less spiritual. His philosophy seemed to have been derived from the mind-cure movement, including New Thought; he was not interested in the body. The fact that the practitioners of the Emmanuel and Peabody methods were not physicians is discussed. The treatment success of both methods is unclear.

  13. The experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救经验。方法:2011年2月-2013年12月救治急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒患者30例,对其实施救治措施。结果:本组30例患者经过救治,意识转清醒时间(1.83±1.2)天,胆碱酯酶活性恢复时间(3.2±1.6)天,住院时间(7.3±2.6)天。临床疗效:治愈29例,治愈率96.7%,死亡1例,死亡率3.3%。结论:清洗被污染的皮肤,彻底洗胃,眼污染时用微温水、2%碳酸氢钠溶液清洗,导泻,阿托品的应用以及早期足量使用氯磷定等,是急救急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的重要措施。%Objective:To summary the experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:30 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from February 2011 to December 2013. They were treated with first aid measures.Results:After treatment,the average time of 30 cases from consciousness turned to clear was(1.83 ± 1.2)days.Cholinesterase recovery time was(3.2 ± 1.6)days.Hospitalization time was(7.3 ± 2.6)days.Clinical curative effect:29 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 96.7%.1 cases died,and the mortality was 3.3%.Conclusion: There are important measures for emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,including:washing the contaminated skin,complete gastric lavage,If eye pollution cleaning its with lukewarm water and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution,catharsis, atropine application,early and adequate use of pralidoxime chloride poisoning.

  14. 大学生团体心理气氛及疗效因子的变化--动力取向人际关系团体心理咨询%Change of Group Climate and Therapeutic Factor in Dynamically Interpersonal Groups of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海荣; 赵冰洁

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is dynamically interpersonal group therapy to college students as the research subject. The purpose is to find the change of the group climate and the therapeutic factors in the dynamically interpersonal group psychotherapy. The method is to measure student group in early and late stage with climate questionnaire and therapeutic factor questionnaire. The results are: compared with that of the late stage, the engagement of group climate is low, the conflict and avoidance are high in early stage. The therapeutic factors that play more important role are catharsis, self-understanding and guidance in early stage. As the group process, the engagement of group climate is elated, the conflict and avoidance reduced in late stage. The therapeutic factors that play more important role are self-understanding, family reproduction and interpersonal input in late stage. At the same time in the early and late group, there is significant difference in terms of the therapeutic factors of altruism, interpersonal input, family reproduction and self-understanding. The conclusion is: dynamically college students interpersonal groups are different group climate and therapeutic factors in early and late stage.%目的:主要探讨动力取向大学生团体咨询气氛和疗效因子的变化。方法:运用团体气氛量表和疗效因素量表对团体施测。结果:经比较分析,早期气氛投入度低,冲突度和逃避度较高,晚期投入度升高,冲突度、逃避度下降;利他性、人际觉察、家庭重现、自我了解等因子有差异;与早期相比,晚期投入度高的气氛下,自我了解、家庭重现、人际觉察为重要疗效因子。结论:动力取向的大学生团体心理咨询早期和晚期气氛与疗效因子不同。

  15. Размышления о божественной литургии: границы театральности в творчестве Н. В. Гоголя | Dieviškosios liturgijos apmąstymai: teatrališkumas Nikolajaus Gogolio kūryboje | Meditations on the divine liturgy: boundaries of the theatricality in the creative work of Nikolay Gogol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Vidugirytė

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditatons on the divine liturgy: boundaries of the theatricality in the creative work of Nikolay GogolInga VidugirytėSummary The purpose of the present article is to demonstrate the theatricality of Gogol’s Meditations on the Divine Liturgy. Theatricality is “the language of theatre as art”, as Jurij Lotman has stated. Phillis Hartnoll points out three aspects, viz. an actor, a dialogue, and a spectator, that separate theatre from its origins – the ritual. The birth of the spectator seems to Lotman and to Boris Uspenskij to be the decisive factor to establish a situation of the performance. The visuality of the performance is the main feature of theatre as art.There are three presumptions Gogol has about liturgy: (1 liturgy is a dramatic form of the evangelical plot, (2 the forms of worship in liturgy are so perfect that watching them is enough to understand the meaning of the ritual, (3 in liturgy, it is possible to achieve the unity of souls and feelings of all participants of the ritual. Gogol presents liturgy as performance. The narrative is based on separate scenes with clearly marked beginnings and ends. Gogol even renders intonations of dialogues between a priest and a deacon. The motif of performing distinguishes Gogol’s work from his predecessors.The only point of view in the text is from the outside. The narrator is one of the spectators of liturgical performance. On the other hand, the narrator is also a participator of the worship. Gogol shows the effect the performance makes on people and also renders their praying. Taking the sacrament is described as catharsis and in the same terms as Aristotle has done, viz. the horror and the purging. So even at this moment the theatrical nature of liturgy is retained.In the context of the Gogol’s discourse of theatre, liturgy seems to be the ideal performance. One can presuppose that the writer’s wish to explain the role of the theatre has ended with describing the most

  16. The Chinese Logic and Governance of Government Network Crisis of Public Opinion---Analysis from Perspective of Netizens%政府网络舆论危机形成的中国逻辑及其治理--一种基于网民视角的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈相雨

    2013-01-01

    政府网络舆论危机是全球风险社会下中国社会结构紧张长期诱发的结果。处在中国社会急剧变迁中的普通网民,不单是政府网络舆论危机的发动主体,更是中国经验最为直接的感知者,因而,从普通网民视角探求政府网络舆论危机形成的中国逻辑具有合理性。政府网络舆论危机的形成,体现了网民“理性”和“非理性”言论相互交织的特点,在逻辑上具体包括利益表达逻辑、逼迫回应逻辑、群体极化逻辑、抗争动员逻辑以及情感宣泄逻辑等;在治理上,政府及相关部门应坚持利益共享、制度表达、公信修复、信息公开、网络盟友、话语引领及真诚沟通等原则,这才是政府网络舆论危机的标本并治之道。%Government network crisis is a long-term result of Chinese social structure tension in the global risky society. Ordinary netizens, in the rapid changed Chinese society, are not only the government�s main launched body of network media crisis, but also the most direct perceiver of Chinese experience. Thus, from the perspective of ordinary netizens, it is reasonable to explore the network of public opinion crisis. The forma-tion of Government network public opinion crisis reflects the netizens�“rational” and“irrational” speech inter-twined characteristics, including expression of interest logic, forced response logic, group polarization logic, protest mobilization logic and emotional catharsis logic; in governance, government and relevant departments should adhere to shared interests, the expression system, the public trust repair, information disclosure, net-work allies, discourse leading principles and sincere communication, and this is solution to government network opinion crisis.

  17. The Serum Levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy of Healthy University Students in Four Seasons and Their Correlation With Neuroticism and Life Events%健康大学生血清血管紧张素Ⅱ、一氧化氮、同型半胱氨酸水平的四时观测及其与神经质、生活事件的关联性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦昱; 唐利龙; 邓华亮; 赵勇; 吴昊; 郑敏; 赵燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changing laws of serum levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy of healthy university students in four seasons , and to study the correlation between the three indicators and neuroticism and life events .Methods From December 2011 to October 2012, we enrolled 308 healthy sophomore students in the universities of traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing , Shandong and Shanxi .Self-designed questionnaire of health condition , EPQ-RSC and self -administrated scale of adolescent life events were used to conduct survey on physical and psychological health condition .Three days before and after winter solstice , spring equinox , summer solstice and autumn equinox , the levels of serum AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy were measured, and the levels of healthy university students with different conditions of neuroticism and life events were analyzed.Results At last, 307 university students were included after the exclusion of one female student in Beijing who didn ′t finish the survey due to sick rest .According to the score of neuroticism in EPQ-RSC and life event , the students were divided into group of low neuroticism and low life event (group A, n=41) and group of high neuroticism and high life event (group, n=34) .These healthy students were significantly different in the levels of serum AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy (P0.05); the two groups were different in the amplitude of variation and changing trend of the levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy in the four seasons; B group had more cases with emotions like depression and preference for sighing and body discomfort , which resembled the symptoms of insufficient liver catharsis in TCM .Conclusion The serum levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy have changing laws with the four seasons .The three indicators have close correlation with neuroticism and life events.From the prospective of TCM , the phenomenon may be related with the catharsis function of liver .%目的 了解健康大学生血清血管紧张素Ⅱ (AT-Ⅱ)、 一氧化氮 (NO

  18. 健康大学生血清血管紧张素Ⅱ、一氧化氮、同型半胱氨酸水平的四时观测及其与神经质、生活事件的关联性研究%The Serum Levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy of Healthy University Students in Four Seasons and Their Correlation With Neuroticism and Life Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦昱; 唐利龙; 邓华亮; 赵勇; 吴昊; 郑敏; 赵燕

    2016-01-01

    survey on physical and psychological health condition .Three days before and after winter solstice , spring equinox , summer solstice and autumn equinox , the levels of serum AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy were measured, and the levels of healthy university students with different conditions of neuroticism and life events were analyzed.Results At last, 307 university students were included after the exclusion of one female student in Beijing who didn ′t finish the survey due to sick rest .According to the score of neuroticism in EPQ-RSC and life event , the students were divided into group of low neuroticism and low life event (group A, n=41) and group of high neuroticism and high life event (group, n=34) .These healthy students were significantly different in the levels of serum AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy (P0.05); the two groups were different in the amplitude of variation and changing trend of the levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy in the four seasons; B group had more cases with emotions like depression and preference for sighing and body discomfort , which resembled the symptoms of insufficient liver catharsis in TCM .Conclusion The serum levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy have changing laws with the four seasons .The three indicators have close correlation with neuroticism and life events.From the prospective of TCM , the phenomenon may be related with the catharsis function of liver .

  19. Cancer related fatigue in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy and coping style%乳腺癌术后化疗患者癌因性疲乏与应对方式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜萍岚; 王曙红; 蒋冬梅; 虞玲丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺癌术后化疗患者癌因性疲乏水平与应对方式的关系.方法:采用癌症疲乏量表和Jalowiec应对量表对396例乳腺癌术后化疗患者进行问卷调查,并分析其相关性.结果:乳腺癌术后化疗患者总疲乏发生率为96.97%,以中度疲乏最为明显;各维度疲乏发生率由高到低依次为躯体疲乏、情感疲乏、认知疲乏;乳腺癌术后化疗患者应对方式得分由高到低依次为乐观、勇敢面对、寻求支持、自我依赖、情感宣泄、逃避、听天由命、保守,其中应用最多的是乐观应对方式,应用最少的应对方式是情感宣泄;情感宣泄应对方式与癌因性疲乏各维度均呈正相关(P<0.01);乐观、勇敢面对、寻求支持、自我依赖、保守应对方式与情感疲乏呈负相关(P<0.05);乐观、寻求支持应对方式与躯体疲乏呈负相关(P<0.05);逃避、听天由命应对方式与总疲乏、躯体疲乏、认知疲乏维度均呈正相关(P<0.05).结论:乳腺癌患者普遍存在癌因性疲乏,应引导患者更多地采用积极有效的应对方式,避免采用消极的应对方式,以增强患者的心理适应能力,减轻癌因性疲乏,提高患者生活质量.%Objective To study the relevance between cancer related fatigue and coping styles in breast cancer patients after chemotherapy. Methods A survey was conducted in 396 patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy on cancer related fatigue scale and Jalowiec coping scale, and the relation was analyzed. Results The rate of overall fatigue in breast cancer patients was 96.97%, mostly moderate fatigue. The rate of fatigue dimensions from high to low was physical fatigue, feeling fatigue and cognitive fatigue, respectively. The score of coping styles in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy from high to low was optimistic coping, facing bravely, support seeking, self-reliance, emotional catharsis, avoidance, fatalism, and conservation. The most

  20. 认知行为团体治疗对住院抑郁症患者的疗效%Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in patients with major depression in inpatient department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤臻; 吴天诚; 李鸣

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨认知行为团体治疗对住院抑郁症患者的疗效. 方法:64例住院抑郁症患者随机分为研究组和对照组各32例.两组均给予盐酸舍曲林治疗,研究组同时接受为期8周,每周1次的认知行为团体治疗.两组分别于入组前及治疗8周接受汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD-17)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)及自动思维问卷(ATQ)的评定;治疗8周后接受团体治疗疗效因子问卷调查. 结果:两组HAMD、HAMA及ATQ评分均较治疗前显著降低(P均<0.01),以研究组HAMD、HAMA及ATQ评分显著低于对照组(t=-2.63,-2.93,-2.81;P <0.05或P<0.01).研究组团体治疗疗效因子中普同性、情绪宣泄、人际学习(获取)、人际学习(付出)、团体凝聚力等因子显著优于对照组(t =11.74,7.18,5.88,6.09,3.39;P均=0.001). 结论:认知行为团体治疗可有效提高住院抑郁症患者的疗效.%Objective:To investigate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in patients with major depression in inpatient department. Method;64 patients with major depression were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with cognitive-behavioral group therapy combined with sertraline ( study group, n = 32) or with sertraline only ( control group, n = 32 ). Efficacy was assessed with Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD-17) .Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA) and automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ) at the baseline and the end of 8 weeks after treatment. Two groups were also assessed by Yaloms therapeutic factors questionnaire at the end of 8 weeks. Results;Both groups had significant improvement with the assessment of HAMD, HAMA and ATQ after 8 week treatment(all P <0.01). However,compared to control group,study group had significant reduction in the scores of HAMD,HAMA and ATQ at the end of the 8 week treatment (t = -2. 63, -2.93, - 2. 81 ;P <0. 05 or P <0.01). It was suggested the important therapeutic factors were university, catharsis,interpersonal learning (input

  1. The influence of Naikan therapy plus cognitive-behavior group therapy on thera-peutic effectiveness of depression%内观疗法联合认知行为团体治疗对抑郁症临床疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔晓欣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of Naikan therapy plus cognitive-behavior group therapy on therapeutic effectiveness of depression .Methods Sixty-four patients with depression were randomly as-signed to two groups of 32 ones each .Both groups received sertraline treatment ,research group was plus Naikan therapy and cognitive-behavior group therapy for 8 weeks .Assessments were conducted with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) ,Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Automatic Thoughts Ques-tionnaire (ATQ ) at baseline and the end of the 8th week .Effect factors were assessed with the Group Therapeutic Factors Questionnaire (GTFQ ) at the end of the 8th week .Results At the end of the 8th week ,The HAMA ,HAMD and ATQ scores of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P<0 .01) ,so did those(P<0 .05 or 0 .01) and such factor score were significantly higher as university ,catharsis ,interpersonal learning (input) ,interpersonal learning (output) and group cohesive-ness ( P< 0 .001 ) in research than control group .Conclusion Naikan therapy plus cognitive-behavior group therapy could effectively relieve or eliminate anxious-depressive emotion of inpatients with depres-sion ,reduce the frequency of automatic thoughts ,and has an advantage in efficacy over single drug treat-ment .%目的探讨内观疗法联合认知行为团体治疗对抑郁症患者临床疗效的影响。方法将64例抑郁症患者随机分为两组,每组32例。两组均给予舍曲林治疗,研究组在此基础上联合内观治疗及认知行为团体治疗。观察8周。于治疗前及治疗8周末,采用汉密顿焦虑量表、汉密顿抑郁量表及自动想法问卷对两组患者进行测评。治疗8周末,采用团体治疗疗效因子问卷评估疗效因子。结果治疗8周末两组汉密顿焦虑量表、汉密顿抑郁量表及自动想法问卷评分均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),研究组显著低于对照组(P<0.05或0.01

  2. Contribution of historical and literary works to the understanding of political phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanovčić Vojislav

    2005-01-01

    ones from the 20th century, used found inspiration and drew ideas and incentives or material from the sources with which they supplemented their theoretical categories, notions and explanations, including the images of political life. These sources are represented in the great literary works. Contradictory opinions about the character and significance of ail and literature are found in Plato's and Aristotle's writings. Aristotle, who analyzed this problem, presented arguments why literary insights - precisely because of the character of insights they offer - deserve to stand in the same pedestal with philosophy. He used the expression he himself introduced to mark one aspect of the effect of art and literature - and that is catharsis. Psychology facilitates our insights into the motives and consequences of the participants' behavior social psychology being particularly important, but also ethics. The means used to convey a certain truth is less important, its essence is more important. Several Greek philosophers (Parmenides, Empedocles, Xenophon even the Roman ones (for example, Lucretius Cains wrote their philosophical treatises in verse. Kant's famous words Sapere aude! with which he asks people to have courage to use their own mind and thus become enlightened originate from the Roman poet Horace, and Michel de Montaigne also used them. Plato and Aristotle referred not only to the available sources about preceding philosophical ideas and political systems, including the first Greek historians, but also to the tragedians, primarily Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, to the comedy writers (like Aristophanes, to the lyricists (Solon, Simonides, Archilochus. When Aristotle expounds one of the key categories of his political theory about man as a political animal (zoon politikon, he refers to Homer to confirm what he himself believes. Anica Savić-Rebac quotes Strabo's formulations about poetry as "the first philosophy", as well as about Homer's work as "poetic

  3. Investigation of self-care knowledge and behavior of community elderly%社区老年人自我保健知识与行为的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳; 刘志英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore self-care knowledge level and elderly health behavior methods and provide theory basis for elderly health behavior.Methods Through the questionnaire survey manner,the survey of 4 communities in Beijing,and age is not less than 60 years old about the self-care knowledge and behavior.Results Average score of elderly self-care knowledge was (23.45 ± 5.27),and score of health behavior was (47.23 ± 11.06) ; the relationship was positive ( r =0.34,P <0.01 ) ; three highest scores about elderly selfcare knowledge were as follows: vegetables and fruits were rich in vitamin,Banana have travel catharsis function,alcohol and smoking were harmful for health; three highest scores about elderly behavior were:ventilation in the room,eating hot food and gluttony and hungry.Conclusions The elderly self-care knowledge and behavior in the overall level was medium and low.The elderly culture degree influences on the level of health care knowledge.Self health care knowledge can promote self care behavior.%目的 探讨增进老年人自我保健知识水平及保健行为的方法,为普及老年人自我保健知识及行为提供依据.方法 通过问卷调查的方式,调查北京市4个社区年龄≥60岁的老年人的自我保健知识和行为.结果 社区老年人自我保健知识平均得分(23.45±5.27)分和自我保健行为平均得分(47.23±11.06)分,两者呈正相关(r=0.34,P<0.01);社区老年人自我保健知识得分较高的前三位项目分别为:蔬菜、水果其维生素含量较丰富,香蕉具有通便作用,酗酒吸烟有害健康;行为得分较高的前三位项目分别为:室内通风,进食温热食品,暴饮暴食或过饥过饱.结论 老年人的自我保健知识和行为总体水平中等偏低,老年人的文化程度影响自我保健知识的掌握水平,自我保健知识的正确掌握对自我保健行为具有促进作用.

  4. Observando os grupos multifamiliares em uma instituição psiquiátrica Observing multifamily groups in a psychiatric institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lúcia Tinoco Ponciano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Investigaram-se as diversas práticas que incluem a família em uma instituição psiquiátrica. Destacou-se o grupo multifamiliar, que é um espaço privilegiado de atendimento. OBJETIVO: Buscou-se compreender como as famílias são atendidas, levantando as principais questões observadas em diversos grupos. MÉTODOS: Como método, utilizou-se a observação participante, sendo realizada no setor de atendimento infanto-juvenil, no Hospital-Dia, no Centro de Doença de Alzheimer e outras demências (CDA e no Programa de Estudos e Assistência ao Uso Indevido de Drogas (PROJAD. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que no grupo multifamiliar a catarse, o relato dos conflitos e o compartilhamento de informações produzem um efeito de rede. Os familiares trabalham juntos e as famílias se engajam em uma conversação que ajuda a construir uma comunidade de apoio. CONCLUSÕES: Em razão das questões apresentadas, considerou-se importante discutir o grupo multifamiliar, relacionando-o à terapia de grupo multifamiliar, aos grupos de psicoeducação e ao trabalho com rede social. Concluiu-se que a rotina da instituição psiquiátrica tem incluído a família, mas é necessário analisar a demanda e sistematizar os atendimentos feitos em grupo.CONTEXT: Several practices that include the family in a psychiatric institution were investigated. The focus was on the multifamily group, which is a privileged space for assistance. GOAL: There was an attempt to understand how families are assisted, raising the main questions observed in different groups. METHODS: Participant observation was conducted in the child and youth sector, the Day-Hospital, the Center for Alzheimer Disease and other dementia (CDA, and in the Program for Studies and Assistance in Inappropriate Use of Drugs (PROJAD. RESULTS: It was observed that in the multifamily group the catharsis, the account of conflicts and the sharing of information produce a network effect. Family members work

  5. HIV/AIDS病人及其亲属的心理状态和相关心理社会因素的质性研究%A qualitative study regarding psychological status and related psychosocial factors of HIV/AIDS patients and their families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖淑辉; 李玉英; 王金凤

    2013-01-01

    their feelings to others and self-catharsis. Conclusion Psychological problems of HIV carriers/AIDS patients and their families should not be neglected, and effective psychological interventions should be taken to help them get through their mental crisis. Support from the family is most important for HIV carriers/AIDS patients, so negative emotion of their family members should be intervened.

  6. Personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome%男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭汉珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome and summarize the coping styles.Method 32 patients with male climacteric syndrome involved in the investigation of personality characteristics and coping styles by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ).As a control,another 32 healthy subjects were enrolled for the controlled investigation.Results In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on extraversion(E)was significantly lower than that of the control group,the scores on neuroticism(N)and lie(L)were significantly higher than the control group(P<0.01).In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on active coping style was significantly lower than those of the control group and the scores on negative coping style score were significantly higher than those in the control group(P<0.01).Conclusions The patients with male climacteric syndrome is characterized with incomplete catharsis and emotional lability.They tend to suppress their negative emotions and take passive coping styles.%  目的探讨男性更年期综合征患者个性特征及应对方式。方法采用艾森克人格问卷(eysenck personality questionnaire,EPQ)和简易应对方式量表对32例男性更年期综合征患者进行性格特征和应对方式调查,并选择32例健康人进行对比。了解男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式状况。结果更年期综合征组中内外向(E)维度得分明显低于对照组,情绪稳定性(N)维度及掩饰性(L)维度得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01);更年期综合征组患者积极应对方式得分明显低于对照组,消极应对方式得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01)。结论男性更年期综合征患者具有不完善的宣泄和情绪不稳定性,过分压抑自己的负性情绪特点,而且倾向于采取消极的应对方式。

  7. Hanford's Battle with Nuclear Waste Tank SY-101: Bubbles, Toils, and Troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    people, from pervasive misconception to grand insight, near miss to sweeping success, meddling interference to close teamwork, all on an uncommonly large scale. It was a necessary catharsis that transformed the entire Hanford culture from a closed defense production operation to an open environmental cleanup project. Its tight project discipline and close teamwork became the Hanford standard. The final remediation of SY-101 placed second in an international ''project of the year'' competition. Many consider SY-101 work the peak of their careers and measure all other experience by it. SY-101 defines some of the worst and the best of Hanford history. This book attempts to narrate and explain the whole vast story

  8. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  9. Investigation of Yan′an Sport Spirit and Physical Exercise Motivation of College Students%延安体育精神与大学生体育锻炼动机的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加金轮; 孟祥乐; 苏清芳

    2015-01-01

    Through using the method of questionnaires,mathematical statistics,this paper studies the relationship be-tween Yan′an sport spirit and physical exercise motivation of college students. The results show that the levels of Yan′an sport spirit and physical exercise motivation both are higher than the medium level. The main motivations is the physical motivation,so the social motivations should be improved. The relationship between Yan′an sport spirit and physical exercise motivation is significant. Tenacity,initiative and optimism is the effective predictable variables to physical health;comity and initiative is the effective predictable variables to sociality;initiative is the effective predictable variables to catharsis;initiative and optimism is the effective predictable variables to body style. So it is suggested that culturing Yan′an sport spirit is an effective way to enhance physical exercise motivation.%运用问卷调查法、数理统计法调查研究了大学生的延安体育精神与体育锻炼动机的现状,初步探究了二者之间的关系.结果表明:(1)大学生的延安体育精神水平处于中等偏上水平,这与大学生在体育课中的表现具有明显差别.(2)大学生的锻炼动机水平高于理论中值水平,其动机仍然以身体动机为主导动机,社会性动机需要加强.(3)大学生的延安体育精神与锻炼动机有紧密联系.其中,坚韧、主动、乐观是体能与健康动机的有效预测指标;主动是乐趣与宣泄动机的有效预测指标;主动、乐观是外表与体形动机的有效预测指标;团结协作、主动是社交与休闲的有效预测指标.结论认为,大学生的延安体育精神能预测体育锻炼的动机水平,因此通过宣传、教育提高大学生的延安体育精神的水平是增强体育锻炼动机的一条有效途径.

  10. 中世纪前对尿石症的认识简史%A brief history of recognition on urolithiasis before medieval period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建林; 吴锐

    2014-01-01

    人类发现的最早的尿路结石,可追溯至公元前4 900年,当时埃及的僧侣使用催吐、泻下、利尿、发汗等方法治疗疾病,偶尔会将结石排出体外.公元前2 700年埃及纸草文中有关于尿路结石的明确记载,并试图用吸吮的方法将结石取出.公元前4世纪,古希腊人亚历山大里亚提出将膀胱结石粉碎后更易排出.此时古希腊人还认识到了肾结石的存在,并描述了肾结石的临床表现.公元前6世纪,印度御医Sushruta在《妙文集》记载了用夹板通过尿道取石,并记载了尿路结石的并发症.Sushruta还推荐了会阴切开取石,但很多患者死于这种手术.公元前1世纪,罗马帝国的医生更为详细地描述了会阴切开取石术,并记载了一些用于治疗尿路结石的药草.10世纪时,阿拉伯人阿布卡西斯最早采用了尿道内粉碎结石的方法,并设计了用手结石手术的器械.中世纪以前,会阴切开取石术一直是治疗尿路结石的主要方法,但缺乏解剖知识,没有无菌观念,很大程度上限制了人们对尿路结石的治疗.%Urinary stone was first found by human as early as 4900 BC when the Egyptian monks applied emesis,catharsis,diuresis,and diaphoresis for its treatment which,as they claimed,can expel the stones out of the body occasionally.In 2700 BC,definite records on urinary stone were seen in Egytian papyrus which attempted to cure this disorder by sucking method.In the 4th century BC,the Greek physician Alexandria mentioned that such stones can be expelled after being smashed.By then,the Greeks recognized the existence of renal stone by describing its manifestations.Sushruta,an ancient Indian royal physician mentioned in 6th century BC,the picking up of stones by splints through the urethra and the complications of such disorder in his Sushrutasamhita.He also recommended the removal of stones through the perineal part.Unfortunately,many patients died of such operation.Ancient Roman

  11. 'Life?': modernism and liminality in Douglas Livingstone’s A littoral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terblanche

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find his place within nature in South Africa and in a global modern context, Douglas Livingstone returns strongly to modernist poetry in his 1991 volume A littoral zone. In contrast to his predecessors like Wallace Stevens in “The glass of water” and T.S. Eliot in The waste land, this volume at critical moments gets stuck in a liminal stage. Images and poems, and eventually the volume as a whole, despite the highlights they present, say that it no longer seems so possible to end up also within the postliminal stage, so as to complete a rite of passage. Yet modernist poems such as Stevens’s “The glass of water” have the ability to end up in postliminal affirmation through and beyond the liminal stage of the overall process. Here light becomes a thirsty lion that comes down to drink from the glass, with a resultant transcendence of the dualistic between-ness that characterises the liminal stage in the modernist poetic mode, while this further results in the incorporation of a deeper and refreshing, dynamic unity. Even more remarkable is that this poetic rite is not of a closing nature, but open, especially in the sense that it affirms all that is possible and greater than the individual ego or subject, this, while getting stuck within a liminal stage just short of the postliminal stage can be in the nature of closure, as Livingstone shows, for example, when he says in “Low tide at Station 20” that humanity is trapped in its inability to see the original power of unity with and within nature in order to live within it; and while humanity remains an ugly outgrowth on the gigantic spine of evolution. In provisional conclusion this article finds that it will be better to view Victor Turner’s 1979 celebration of what he terms the “liminoid” in the place of a “true liminality” critically. Although it is impossible to return to a collective catharsis in watching a play, one cannot feel too comfortable about

  12. 大学生情绪调节方式与人际交往的关系%The Relationship between Emotion Regulation and Human Communication of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉文; 成欣蕊; 吕怀芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between emotion regulation and human communication in college students.Method:712 college students in Soochow University were selected,they were evaluated by Emotion regulation scale and Interpersonal competence scale respectively.Result:There was a big difference in undergraduate's adjusting way of emotion.Boys tended to value adjustment,but girls ignored and maintained regulation.Emotion regulation of sadness and shy had a large effect on interpersonal skills.With analysis of variance and chi-square analysis results,we knew among 10 kinds of emotions,way of regulating shyness and sadness had the impact on their interpersonal skills,students maintaining the shyness were more likely to achieve good interpersonal relationships than those who attached great importance to the adjustment,the probability of them got a good interpersonal relationship was 1.74 times of the other students.Conclusion:Now the college students have problems in adjusting the shy and sadness,so for sadness,shy,anger and other negative emotions,we suggest they should take a correct way of catharsis and positive adjustment.Effective emotion regulation can help the individual get good state of mood and excellent interpersonal communications kills,better meet the needs of the society and the environment.%目的:本文着重于初探大学生情绪调节方式与人际交往的研究。方法:选取712名苏州大学本科生,分别接受情绪调节方式量表、人际交往能力量表的评定。结果:大学生对于不同的情绪,调节方式有很大差异,男生偏向重视调节,女生则无明显偏向。针对悲伤和害羞两种情绪的调节方式对人际交往能力有较大的影响,对于害羞进行维持调节的大学生比那些运用重视调节的大学生更易获得较好的人际关系,其获得良好的人际关系的概率是重视调节学生的1.74倍。结论:当下大学生对于害羞、悲伤等情绪的忽

  13. Epidemiological Investigations on ExcessiveUse of Nitrites Cause Food Poi-soning%超量使用亚硝酸盐引起食物中毒事件的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文有; 杜艳秋; 姚岚

    2015-01-01

    Objective According to "People's Republic of China Food Safety Law," "national food safety emergency plan,""food poisoning diagnostic criteria and technical management General," "Food safety incidents epidemiological norms" and other laws and regulations, together with the use of the excess nitrous acid salt causes food poisoning epidemiological inves-tigation and analysis. Methods District CDC received reports of incidents of food safety, food safety incidents immediately start contingency plans for all three patients were investigating the case, rushed to the scene gathering suspect food CDC physical and chemical laboratory for testing, supervision departments Deshun hotel for incense take urgent control measures. Results Three patients with gastric lavage, rehydration, intravenous antidotes, enema catharsis treatment in stable condition improved. According to epidemiological investigation, clinical symptoms, suspected food poisoning on nine kinds of laborato-ry tests, the results of suspicious foods packaged beef dish nitrite content of 99.7mg/kg, raw beef (cooked) nitrite salt con-tent was 122.8 mg/kg, are excessive, leading to the main reason for this food poisoning. Conclusion District food safety inci-dents together with the Group of Experts initially identified as excessive use of nitrite caused the food poisoning.%目的 依据《中华人民共和国食品安全法》《国家食品安全事故应急预案》《食物中毒诊断标准及技术处理总则》《食品安全事故流行病学调查规范》等法律、法规对一起超量使用亚硝酸盐引起食物中毒事件进行流行病学调查和分析. 方法 区疾控中心接到食品安全事故的报告后,立即启动食品安全事故应急预案,对3例患者全部进行了个案调查,现场采集可疑食品送往市疾控中心理化检验室进行检测,监督部门对事发酒店采取紧急控制措施.结果 3例患者经洗胃、补液、静点解毒药物、灌肠导泻治疗

  14. Vigotski e o teatro: descobertas, relações e revelações Vygotsky y el teatro: descubrimientos, relaciones laborales y revelaciones Vygotsky and theatre: findings, relationships and discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlucia Robelia Oliveira de Barros

    2011-06-01

    aims to reveal the partial results of ongoing research that investigates the deep relationship of the writings of psychologist Lev S. Vygotsky (1896 - 1934 with the theatrical art. It presents data on the biography of the author, as a matter of him having been in youth, lover, reader of dramatic works, director and actor. Experiences that contributed to its formation and are expressed in productions such as The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1968, which has strong influences of the show Hamlet (1911, directed by Gordon Craig and Stanislavsky. Moreover, the text displays brief comments about the works of Vygotsky, among these, Psychology of Art (1965 that provides a notion of aesthetic reception based on contradictory catharsis. Data that are expanding knowledge and interpretations about the life and work of the Russian psychologist, as well as studies regarding his relationship with the theater.

  15. The Implication of Aristotle’s Aesthetics of Tragedy for the Philosophy of Education%亚里士多德悲剧美学在教育哲学上的蕴义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄藿

    2016-01-01

    Aristotle’s Poetics set the foundation for western aesthetics theories.The book discusses the formats and conditions for writing tragedy,which provides theoretical foundation for literature writing including tragedy.Aristotle differs from his master Plato in dealing with arts and poets.The latter looked down upon arts and proposed to banish poets from the polis.Aristotle held that the role of poets should be viewed objectively.He tried to define literature writing especially tragedy,which is very popular in ancient creek,from a new perspective.He took a positive stance towards tragedy and said,“Tragedy,then,is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete,and of a certain magnitude;in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament,the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play;in the form of action,not of narrative;with incidents arousing pity and fear,wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions.”Aristotle pointed out that the most important effect of tragedy is to cure and purify audi-ence’s hearts.Tragedy reflects the true aspect of human nature.The pity and fear aroused by the actions in tragedy can show the noble characters of true hero,resonate with people’s feelings and soul,and fur-ther release and improve audience’s emotions.This makes it possible for Aristotle’s Aesthetics of Tragedy Aristotle to complement other ethics theories and achieve goals that they cannot meet.%亚里士多德的《创作学》(或译为《诗学》),是西方美学理论的基础,全书讨论悲剧创作相关的形式与实质的条件,为悲剧与其他文类创作提供了理论的基础。亚里士多德与其师柏拉图贬抑诗人与艺术的立场相左,主张以一种客观超然的眼光来看待诗人与剧作家的角色,把文艺创作,尤其是古希腊流行的悲剧,尝试从新的角度来定义:悲剧是透过戏剧行动的模拟,表现戏剧行动者的崇高品格,以完整的布局

  16. Influence of place card health education on the post-traumatic growth in laryngeal cancer patients after the operation%台签式健康教育对喉癌术后患者创伤后成长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢蕾; 钱聪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of place card health education on the post-traumatic growth in laryngeal cancer patients after the operation .Methods Ninety-two laryngeal cancer patients from January 2012 to December 2013 were chosen and divided into the control group and the observation group , each with 46 cases.The control group received the routine health education , and the observation group received the place card health education on the basis of the routine health education .The patients were surveyed by Posttraumatic Growth Inventory ( PTGI ) , Jalowies coping scale , General Self-Efficacy Scale ( GSES ) before and after the health education.Results The total score of PTGI was (76.38 ±14.75) in the observation group, and was better than (52.18 ±12.02) in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( t=5.986, P<0.05).The score of GSES was (50.92 ±12.78) in the observation group, and was higher than (35.98 ± 6.72) in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( t =5.785, P <0.05 ).The differences were found in the all dimension of Jalowies coping scale before and after the health education ( P<0.05).The score of PTGI of laryngeal cancer patients after the operation was positively correlated with looking for support, optimism, face, and emotional catharsis included by Jalowies coping scale ( r =0.402,0.412, 0.325,0.336, respectively;P<0.05), and was negatively correlated with escape , fate, palliative, self-relying included by Jalowies coping scale (r=-0.352,-0.372,-0.363,-0.341, respectively;P<0.05).The score of PTGI was positively correlated with self-efficacy(r=0.396,P<0.05).Conclusions Place card health education can make the patients to raise positive response to the disease and learn to regulate negative emotions so as to improve their self-efficacy and promote their post-traumatic growth.%目的:探讨台签式健康教育对喉癌术后患者创伤后成长的影响。方法选取2012年1月-2013

  17. Sweat Under Leave Evil Moving Diaphragmatic Interrupting God and Adaptation of Gardenia Soup According to Syndrome Differentiation——Syndrome Differentiation of Gardenia Soup%第19章汗下留邪动膈扰神变通应用栀子豉汤——栀子豉汤类证的辨治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华龙

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the mechanism of " sweat under leave evil moving diaphragmatic interrupting god" and " adaptation of gardenia soup according to syndrome differentiation ".Methods:From the 76th,77th,76th article of the gardenia decoction treatise on febrile disease.Results:(1) Gardenia Soup syndrome and pathogenesis same but degree different,clinical manifestation from virtual tired not sleep-bother and hot,leave evil,the one god is heavier,the evil heat deeper;-—chests are smothering—pain in the heart,evil depression is increasingly heavy,and qi stagnation,qi activity.(2) There are attack under effect of pills the treatise on febrile disease such as didangwan and dadidang pill,treatment of blood storage heavy card respectively and big chest card,the fact of blood storage in lower heat exchange,the big chest card water heat exchange node in the upper energizer.After the accumulation of blood,blood stasis to heat left,its heat should be lower,this card micro vexed is evil faze mind,its is not possible in hardness,heat will be in the upper energizer reason gardenia dry ginger soup is big knot chest syndrome with after the big chest shot under attack.(3).Gardenia soup after the parties have served "after" have to spit,footnotes,vomit just muggy after taking the drug for potential catharsis hair have a form of performance,rather than the efficacy of the inevitable,have a have to vomit,after the clinical most won't appear vomiting after taking the medicine.But "have to vomit,after the check,the conclusion:the application of gardenia fish soup medicine may arise after the reaction,the prompt gardenia fish soup drugs dosage of degrees,more important is the main disease suggests gardenia fish soup in the upper energizer,to spit on every disease in later don't take the medicine.%目的:探讨“汗下留邪动膈扰神”及“变通应用栀子豉汤”的机理.方法:从《伤寒论》第76条、第77条、第78条、第80条、第81条、第221条、第228

  18. Clinical effects of perioperative fast-track surgery program in patients with colorectal cancer%结直肠癌患者围手术期快速康复外科新理念治疗的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钢; 黄河

    2011-01-01

    To observe the clinical effects of pcriopcrativc fast-track surgery (FTS) program in the patients with colorcctal cancer. Methods: Ninety-one patients with colorcctal cancer were randomly divided into FTS group (48 cases) and control group (43 cases). The patients in the FTS group received FTS program pcriopcrativcly, including psychological aid, cntcral nutrition and catharsis before operation, control of the volume of transfusion during the operation, small incision for operation, non-steroid analgesic treatment, early withdrawal of urc-thral catheter and gastric tube, and encouraging patients to be ambulatory early after operation. The patients in the control group received routine protocol pcriopcrativcly, including taking antibiotics orally, fasting, cleansing enema before operation, routine incision, large-volume transfusion, routine dainagc, opioid analgesic for pain, withdrawal of urinary catheter 3 days after operation. The duration from operation to the first flatus and defecation, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, rate of postoperative complications, postoperative nutritional state (scrum albumin level), and postoperative hospital stay, and hospitalization expenditure were compared between the two groups. Results:Compared to the control group, in the FTS group the duration from operation to the first passage of flatus and defecation was shortened, the incidence of complications after operation was reduced, the scrum albumin level was higher, the hospitalization time was shortened, and the hospitalization expenditure reduced. The rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting was simi-lcr between the two groups. Conclusions: FTS program can obviously increase the pcriopcrativc body constitution of the patients with colorcctal cancer, reduce the degree of operative trauma, decrease the incidence of complications, shorten hospital stay and lower hospitalization expenditure.%目的:观察结、直肠癌患者围手术期应用快速康复外科(FTS)新理念

  19. 碳酸氢钠联合乌司他丁治疗急性辛硫磷农药中毒胆碱酯酶活力的变化%The influence of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 杨兰菊; 肖磊; 孙宝泉; 邹宪宝; 高冬梅; 菅向东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning.Methods A total of 67 eligible patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,Who were admitted to the emeryency department of hospital from March 2011 to February 2014,Acording to different treatments au patients were randomly divided into the conventional treatment group (n=34) and the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group (n=35).The conventional treatment group were given thorough gastric lavage with water,the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were given gastric lavage with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution.Both groups were given such treatments as catharsis,administration of oxygen,fluid infusion,diuresis,and antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime methylchloride.On the basis of comprehensive treatment,people in the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group were given 5% sodium bicarbonate injection and ulinastatin.The clinical effect of the two groups were compared.Results The serum cholinesterase activity of the sodium bicarbonate +ulinastatin group was significantly higher than the conventional treatment group from the 5th day,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The total atropine dosage,total pralidoxime methylchloride dosage and hospitalization days were better than the conventional treatment group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The difference in the time of atropinization between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).The results of arterial blood pH,HCO3-of the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were higher than the conventional treatment group,and the difference of HCO3-at the 10th day was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce complications in the treatment of acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,and have beneficial

  20. 联合大黄为主中药组方序贯治疗急性百草枯中毒患者的前瞻性临床研究%Effect of rhubarb as the main composition of sequential treatment in patients with acute paraquat poisoning:a prospective clinical research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维展; 李伟; 李敬; 马国营; 李娜; 王璞; 肖青勉; 李柏艳; 刘永建; 高珣

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the effect of rhubarb as the main composition in the therapy for patients with acute paraquat poisoning (APP).MethodsA prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. 128 patients with APP admitted to Harrison International Peace Hospital from March 2011 to December 2013 were randomly divided into western medicine control group (n = 64) and western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combination group (n = 64). All the patients were treated with repeated gastric lavage and oral kaolin. The patients in western medicine control group were given 20% mannitol and (or) magnesium sulfate for catharsis, early (within 8 hours of admission) hemoperfusion (HP), and also given the routine combined therapy. In TCM combination group, in addition to the above treatment patients were given oral paraquat poisoning detoxification prescription No.1 every 2 hours for catharsis, which was composed of rhubarb 10 g, glauber salt 12 g, agrimony 12 g, and licorice 6 g. When green stool disappeared, detoxification therapy was changed to No. 2 compound once a day for 14 days, which was consisted of rhubarb 10 g, ginseng 6 g, agrimony 15 g, rhizoma chuanxiong 10 g, licorice 6 g. The poison volume, first dose of oral drug, time for the first HP, time of the first defecation, the time of last green stool, decontamination time, white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial blood gas analysis, blood lactic acid (Lac), liver and kidney functions, myocardial enzyme spectrum, chest CT, adverse reaction, days of hospitalization, and mortality rate were observed in both groups. The levels of paraquat in plasma and urine were determined before treatment and 12 hours after poisoning in both groups. Sixty days after discharge, chest CT was taken for observation of pulmonary fibrosis. ResultsThere were no significant differences in the poison volume, ingestion time and the time for the first HP between the two groups. Compared with western

  1. Coping style and psychological adaptation of college students%大学生的应付方式与其心理适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏宇; 魏文风

    2007-01-01

    results.RESULTS: A total of 422 copies of questionnaires were sent out, and 362 copies were drawn back, 19 copies were invalid questionnaires due to either there were missing answers or the answer had reflective tendency. At last, 343 sets of data entered the analysis procedure. ① According to factor analysis results, the main coping styles used by college students were F1 (seeking support), F2(positive thinking), F3(cognitive adjustment), F4(passive blame oneself), F5(facing reality), F6(avoidance), F7(emotional catharsis).There were three main coping styles from cluster analysis, that was, A (positive confrontation), B (passive avoidance) and C(passive catharsis).② Those who were more adaptive used A coping style more frequently, and those who had lower adaptation level used B or C coping style more frequently. But few students used C coping style. A coping style was significantly negatively correlated with mental or physical symptoms (r= -0.258,P< 0.01 ),but significantly positively correlated with adaptation level (r =0.467, P < 0.01);But both B and C coping styles were significantly positively correlated with mental or physical symptoms (r=0.338, 0.364, P < 0.01 ), B coping style was significantly negatively correlated with psychological adaptation(r =-0.140, P < 0.05). It seemed that C coping style had no correlation with long-term adaptation. A and C coping styles were two dependent styles respectively. In addition, different levels of stress were significantly correlated with three styles. Few A coping styles were used under high level of stress, but more B and C coping styles did.CONCLUSION: Coping style is complex. Use of different copying styles is significantly correlated with psychological adaptation levels. But the direction of correlation is effected by the factors, such as individuals, index of results and degree of stress.

  2. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis (2014 edition)%急性胰腺炎诊治指南(2014版)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华医学会外科学分会胰腺外科学组

    2015-01-01

    weeks,and is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndromes (SIRS) and organ failure,which is the first peak of mortality.Middle stage (successional phase) has a peripancreatic fluid collection or necrotic collection as the major characteristics from the second week to the fourth week.Late stage (infection phase) is characterized by infection of pancreas and peripancreatic necrotic tissues after the fourth week,and is the second peak of mortality.Acute peripancreatic fluid collection (APFC),acute necrotic collection (ANC),walled-off necrosis (WON) together with pancreatic pseudocyst are the local complications.For acute biliary pancreatitis,choledochotomy or common bile duct exploration should be performed when the condition is stable in the MAP patients,but in the late period or during the necrosectomy in the MSAP and SAP patients.The important non-surgical treatment in the early stage is fluid resuscitation and the organ function protection.The MSAP and SAP patients should be treated by enteral nutrition therapy when the intestinal function is recovered.For some susceptible patients,antibiotics should be used selectively.Treatments of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) include gastrointestinal decompression and catharsis,analgesia and sedation,using of muscle relaxant,bedside hemofiltration to reduce the tissue edema,relieving abdominal pressure by B ultrasound or CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneum.The indications for surgical treatment are infected necrosis and oppression symptoms.Surgery should not be done in sterile necrosis patients without symptoms.Surgical treatment should follow the delayed principle.In patients with infected necrosis,antibiotics and PCD could be the first choice of treatment.Surgical interventions of infected pancreatic necrosis include PCD,endoscopic,minimally invasive surgery (such as small incision surgery,video-assisted surgery) and open surgery (necrosectomy and drainage by the