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Sample records for catharanthus roseus cells

  1. Enhancing terpenoid indole alkaloid production by inducible expression of mammalian Bax in Catharanthus roseus cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU MaoJun; DONG JuFang

    2007-01-01

    Bax, a mammalian pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, triggers hypersensitive reactions when expressed in plants. To investigate the effects of Bax on the biosynthesis of clinically important natural products in plant cells, we generate transgenic Catharanthus roseus cells overexpressing a mouse Bax protein under the β-estradiol-inducible promoter. The expression of Bax in transgenic Catharanthus roseus cells is highly dependent on β-estradiol concentrations applied. Contents of catharanthine and total terpenoid indole alkaloid of the transgenic cells treated with 30 μmol/L β-estradiol are 5.0- and 5.5-fold of the control cells. Northern and Western blotting results show that expression of mammalian Bax induces transcriptional activation of Tdc and Str, two key genes in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway of Catharanthus roseus cells, and stimulates the accumulation of defense-related protein PR1 in the cells, showing that the mouse Bax triggers the defense responses of Catharanthus roseus cells and activates the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. Thus, our data suggest that the mammalian Bax might be a potential regulatory factor for secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plant cells and imply a new secondary metabolic engineering strategy for enhancing the metabolic flux to natural products by activating the whole biosynthetic pathway rather than by engineering the single structural genes within the pathways.

  2. Enhancing terpenoid indole alkaloid production by inducible expression of mammalian Bax in Catharanthus roseus cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bax,a mammalian pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family,triggers hypersensitive reactions when expressed in plants.To investigate the effects of Bax on the biosynthesis of clinically important natural products in plant cells,we generate transgenic Catharanthus roseus cells overexpressing a mouse Bax protein under the β-estradiol-inducible promoter.The expression of Bax in transgenic Catharanthus roseus cells is highly dependent on β-estradiol concentrations applied.Contents of catharanthine and total terpenoid indole alkaloid of the transgenic cells treated with 30 μmol/L β-estradiol are 5.0-and 5.5-fold of the control cells.Northern and Western blotting results show that expression of mammalian Bax induces transcriptional activation of Tdc and Str,two key genes in terpenoid indole alkaloid bio-synthetic pathway of Catharanthus roseus cells,and stimulates the accumulation of defense-related protein PR1 in the cells,showing that the mouse Bax triggers the defense responses of Catharanthus roseus cells and activates the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway.Thus,our data suggest that the mammalian Bax might be a potential regulatory factor for secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plant cells and imply a new secondary metabolic engineering strategy for enhancing the metabolic flux to natural products by activating the whole biosynthetic pathway rather than by engineering the single structural genes within the pathways.

  3. Differential patterns of dehydroabietic acid biotransformation by Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Suvi T; Lackman, Petri; Nygrén, Heli; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rischer, Heiko

    2012-01-20

    The aim of this study was to use whole cell catalysts as tools for modification of selected resin acids in order to obtain value-added functional derivatives. The enzymatic bioconversion capacities of two plant species were tested towards dehydroabietic acid. Dehydroabietic acid (DHA) is an abundant resin acid in conifers, representing a natural wood protectant. It is also one of the constituents found in by-products of the kraft chemical pulping industry. DHA was fed to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plant cell and tissue cultures and bioconversion product formation was monitored using NMR analysis. Both plant species took up DHA from culture medium, and various types of typical detoxification processes occurred in both cultures. In addition, diverse responses to DHA treatment were observed, including differences in uptake kinetics, chemical modification of added substrate and changes in overall metabolism of the cells. Interestingly, Catharanthus roseus, a host species for pharmaceutically valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids, exhibited a very different bioconversion pattern for exogenously applied DHA than tobacco, which does not possess a terpenoid indole pathway. In tobacco, DHA is readily glycosylated in the carbonyl group, whereas in periwinkle it is proposed that a cytochrome P450-catalyzed enzymatic detoxification reaction takes place before the formation of glycosylated product.

  4. Effects of mercury (II) species on cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L. (Hangzhou Univ. (China)); Cullen, W.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada))

    1994-11-01

    Mercury has received considerable attention because of its high toxicity. Widespread contamination with mercury poses severe environmental problems despite our extensive knowledge of its toxicity in living systems. It is generally accepted that the toxicity of mercury is related to its oxidation states and species, the organic forms being more toxic than the inorganic forms. In the aquatic environment, the toxicity of mercury depends on the aqueous speciation of the mercuric ion (Hg[sup 2+]). Because of the complex coordination chemistry of mercury in aqueous systems, the nature of the Hg[sup 2+] species present in aquatic environments is influenced greatly by water chemistry (e. g, pH, inorganic ion composition, and dissolved organics). Consequently, the influence of environmental factors on the aqueous speciation of mercury has been the focus of much attention. However, there is very little information available regarding the effects of the species and speciation on Hg (II) toxicity in plant-tissue cultures. Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus), commonly called the Madagascar Periwinkle, is a member of the alkaloid rich family Apocynaceae. The present investigation was concerned with the toxicity of mercury on the growth of C. roseus cell suspension cultures as influenced by mercury (II) species and speciation. The specific objectives of the study were to (a) study the effects of mercury species on the growth of C. roseus cultures from the point of view of environmental biology and toxicology; (b) evaluate the effects of selenate, selenite and selected ligands such as chloride, 1-cysteine in the media on the acute toxicity of mercuric oxide; (c) determine the impact of the initial pH of the culture media on the toxicities of mercuric compounds; (d) discuss the dependence of the toxicity on the chemical species and speciation of Hg (II). 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Precursor limitations in methyl jasmonate-induced Catharanthus roseus cell cultures.

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    Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T; Royce, Amber J

    2006-06-01

    Jasmonates enhance the expression of various genes involved in terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus. We applied precursor feeding to our C. roseus suspensions to determine how methyl jasmonate (MJ) alters the precursor availability for TIA biosynthesis. C. roseus suspensions were induced with MJ (100 microM) on day 6 and fed loganin (0.30 mM), tryptamine (0.15 mM), loganin plus tryptamine, or geraniol (0.1-1.0 mM) on day 7. While MJ increased ajmalicine production by 3-fold, induced cultures were still limited by terpenoid precursors. However, both induced and non-induced cultures became tryptamine-limited with excess loganin. Geraniol feeding also increased ajmalicine production in non-induced cultures. But MJ appeared to increase geraniol availability in induced cultures, due presumably to the increased expression of Dxs with MJ addition.

  6. Involvement of nitric oxide signaling in mammalian Bax-induced terpenoid indole alkaloid production of Catharanthus roseus cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bax, a mammalian pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, has been demonstrated to be a potential regulatory factor for plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis recently. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Bax-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis, we determined the contents of nitric oxide (NO) of the transgenic Catharanthus roseus cells overexpressing a mouse Bax protein and checked the effects of NO specific scavenger 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1- oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO) on Bax-induced terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) production of the cells. The data showed that overexpression of the mouse Bax in C. roseus cells triggered NO generation of the cells. Treatment of cPITO not only inhibited the Bax-triggered NO burst but also suppressed the Bax-induced TIA production. The results indicated that the mouse Bax might activate the NO signaling in C. roseus cells and induce TIA production through the NO-dependent signal pathway in the cells. Furthermore, the activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were significantly increased in the transgenic Bax cells as compared to those in the control cells, showing that the mouse Bax may induce NOS of C. roseus cells. Treatment of the transgenic Bax cells with NOS inhibitor PBITU blocked both Bax-induced NO generation and TIA production, which suggested that the mouse Bax might trigger NO generation and TIA production through NOS. However, the NOS-like activities and NO generation in the transgenic Bax cells did not match kinetically and the Bax-induced NOS-like activity was much later and lower than NO production. Moreover, the Bax-induced NO generation and TIA production were only partially inhibited by PBITU. Thus, our results suggested that the Bax-induced NO production and secondary metabolite biosynthesis in C. roseus cells was not entirely dependent on NOS or NOS-like enzymes.

  7. Production Pattern of Ajmalicine in Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don. Cell Aggregates Culture in the Airlift Bioreactor

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    RIZKITA RACHMI ESYANTI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to optimize the rate of aeration and initial weight of cell aggregates in the production of ajmalicine in Catharanthus roseus cell culture in airlift bioreactor. Catharanthus roseus culture were grown in Zenk medium with the addition of 2.50 x 10-6 M naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 10-5 M benzyl amino purine (BAP. Cell aggregates were sub-cultured two times before transferring 20 and 30 g/fw of cell aggregates into bioreactor, respectively, and aerated with the rate of 0.25 l min-1 and 0.34 l min-1, respectively. The pattern of ajmalicine production in bioreactor were observed in every three days within 24 days. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were conducted using HPLC connected to Cromatopac CL-7A Plus. The results showed that the cell aggregates and medium contain ajmalicine. The highest concentration was obtained in combination of 30 g/fw and 0.34 l min-1 aeration compare to 20 g/fw - 0.25 l min-1, 20 g/fw - 0.34 l min-1, as well as 30 g/fw – 0.25 l min-1. The highest ajmalicine content in cell aggregates was obtained on the 12 days (79.23 µg g-1 whilst in medium was obtained in the 18th days (981.15 µg l-1.

  8. UV-B-induced signaling events leading to enhanced-production of catharanthine in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures

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    Chelliah Jayabaskaran

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. In cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. However, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of UV-B irradiation was found to increase the amount of catharanthine and transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc and strictosidine synthase (Str. In the present study, the signaling pathway mediating UV-B-induced catharanthine accumulation in C. roseus suspension cultures were investigated. Results Here, we investigate whether cell surface receptors, medium alkalinization, Ca2+ influx, H2O2, CDPK and MAPK play required roles in UV-B signaling leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. C. roseus cells were pretreated with various agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components and their effects on the accumulation of Tdc and Str transcripts as well as amount of catharanthine production were investigated by various molecular biology techniques. It has been found that the catharanthine accumulation and transcription of Tdc and Str were inhibited by 3–4 fold upon pretreatment of various inhibitors like suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, inhibitors of calcium fluxes, staurosporine etc. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that cell surface receptor(s, Ca2+ influx, medium alkalinization, CDPK, H2O2 and MAPK play significant roles in UV-B signaling leading to stimulation of Tdc and Str genes and the accumulation of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. Based on these findings, a model for signal transduction cascade has been proposed.

  9. A novel cytochrome P450 gene from Catharanthus roseus cell line C20hi: cloning and characterization of expression

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    Lihong He

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An expressed sequence tag (EST obtained from a subtractive-suppression hybridization cDNA library constructed using Catharanthus roseus cell line C20hi and its parental cell line C20D was used to clone a full-length cytochrome P450 cDNA of cyp71d1. The encoded polypeptide contained 507 amino acids with 39–56% identity to other CYP71D subfamily members at the amino acid level. Expression characteristics of cyp71d1 were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cyp71d1 transcript was expressed in all three cell lines with the highest level in the cell line C20hi. In the mature C. roseus plant, the cyp71d1 cDNA was highly expressed in petals, roots and stems, but very weakly expressed in young leaves. Its transcription level increased with the development of flowers. 2,4-D could down-regulate the transcription of cyp71d1, as did KT, but only to a minor degree. Neither light nor yeast elicitor could induce the transcription of cyp71d1.

  10. Production and metabolic engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloids in cell cultures of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Madagascar periwinkle).

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    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Shao, Ji-Rong; Tang, Yi-Xiong

    2009-04-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] is a plant species known for its production of TIAs (terpenoid indole alkaloids), many of which are pharmaceutically important. Ajmalicine and serpentine are prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, whereas the bisindoles vinblastine, vincristine and 3',4'-anhydrovinblastine are used for their antineoplastic activity in the treatment of many cancers. However, TIAs are produced in small yields in C. roseus, which make them expensive. Cell and metabolic engineering has focused on increasing flux through the TIA pathway by various means, including optimization of medium composition, elicitation, construction of noval culture systems and introduction of genes encoding specific metabolic enzymes into the C. roseus genome. The present review will attempt to present the state-of-the-art of research in this area and provide an update on the cell and metabolic engineering of TIAs in C. roseus. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which TIA production can be achieved in different C. roseus culture systems.

  11. Simultaneous quantification of four indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus cell line C20hi by UPLC-MS.

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    He, Lihong; Yang, Li; Xiong, Aizhen; Zhao, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengtao; Hu, Zhibi

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify vindoline, catharanthine, serpentine and ajmalicine in Catharanthus roseus cell line C20hi is reported. Samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid, basified to pH 10 with ammonia, then extracted with ethyl acetate, dried, reconstituted with methanol-1% acetic acid water solution (1:1, v/v) and analyzed using an acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid gradient as the mobile phase. Detection was carried out by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive-ion mode with selective ion monitoring. The analysis of one sample was achieved in 6 min. The limits of detection were 0.46 - 0.70 ng/ml in cell samples, and 0.10 - 0.16 ng/ml in medium samples. The linearity of detection was over the wide range of 1.00 - 6250.0 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-day accuracies (recovery 88.0 - 111.8%) and precision (RSD 1.25 - 7.81%) showed the performance of the assay. This method provides a more sensitive and high-throughput technique to quantify the four alkaloids in large amount of samples, and will be helpful in high-production cultivar screening.

  12. Enhanced catharanthine and vindoline production in suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus by ultraviolet-B light

    OpenAIRE

    Ramani, Shilpa; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2008-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus were used to evaluate ultraviolet-B (UV-B) treatment as an abiotic elicitor of secondary metabolites. A dispersed cell suspension culture from C. roseus leaves in late exponential phase and stationary phase were irradiated with UV-B for 5 min. The stationary phase cultures were more responsive to UV-B irradiation than late exponential phase cultures. Catharanthine and vindoline increased 3-fold and 12-fold, respectively, on treatment with a 5-min UV-...

  13. Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids Biosynthesis and Metabolic Engineering in Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus L. (Madagascar periwinkle) biosynthesizes a diverse array of secondary metabolites including anticancer dimeric alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine) and antihypertensive alkaloids (ajmalicine and serpentine). The multi-step terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthetic pathway in C. roseus is complex and is under strict molecular regulation. Many enzymes and genes involved in the TIAs biosynthesis have been studied in recent decades. Moreover,some regulatory proteins were found recently to control the production of TIAs in C. roseus. Based on mastering the rough scheme of the pathway and cloning the related genes, metabolic engineering of TIAs biosynthesis has been studied in C.roseus aiming at increasing the desired secondary metabolites in the past few years. The present article summarizes recent advances in isolation and characterization of TIAs biosynthesis genes and transcriptional regulators involved in the second metabolic control in C. roseus. Metabolic engineering applications in TIAs pathway via overexpression of these genes and regulators in C. roseus are also discussed.

  14. Jasmonic Acid Effect on the Fatty Acid and Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Accumulation in Cell Suspension Cultures of Catharanthus roseus

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    Guitele Dalia Goldhaber-Pasillas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The stress response after jasmonic acid (JA treatment was studied in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus. The effect of JA on the primary and secondary metabolism was based on changes in profiles of fatty acids (FA and terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA. According to multivariate data analyses (MVDA, three major time events were observed and characterized according to the variations of specific FA and TIA: after 0–30 min of induction FA such as C18:1, C20:0, C22:0 and C24:0 were highly induced by JA; 90–360 min after treatment was characterized by variations of C14:0 and C15:0; and 1440 min after induction JA had the largest effect on both group of metabolites were C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C16:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0, catharanthine, tabersonine-like 1, serpentine, tabersonine and ajmalicine-like had the most significant variations. These results unambiguously demonstrate the profound effect of JA particularly on the accumulation of its own precursor, C18:3 and the accumulation of TIA, which can be considered as late stress response events to JA since they occurred only after 1440 min. These observations show that the early events in the JA response do not involve the de novo biosynthesis of neither its own precursor nor TIA, but is due to an already present biochemical system.

  15. Flavonoid glucosides from the hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus.

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    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Ali, Mohd; Lee, Oh-Kyu; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee; Yoon, Do-Young; Peebles, Christie A M; San, Ka Yiu

    2009-04-01

    Four new flavonoid glucosides, 3',4'-di-O-methylquercetin-7-O-[(4''-->13''')-2''',6''',10''',14'''-tetramethylhexadec-13'''-ol-14'''-enyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 4'-O-methylkaempferol-3-O-[(4''-->13''')- 2''',6''',10''',14'''-tetramethylhexadecan-13'''-olyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3',4'-di-O-methylbutin-7-O-[(6''-->1''')-3''',11'''-dimethyl-7'''-methylenedodeca-3''',10'''-dienyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and 4'-O-methylbutin-7-O-[(6''-->1''')-3''',11'''-dimethyl-7'''-hydroxymethylenedodecanyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), along with the three known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus hairy roots. Their structures were elucidated spectroscopically. The new flavonoid glucosides inhibited both MMP-9 activity and TNF-alpha production in THP-1 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide.

  16. In-depth proteome mining of cultured Catharanthus roseus cells identifies candidate proteins involved in the synthesis and transport of secondary metabolites.

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    Champagne, Antoine; Rischer, Heiko; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Boutry, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is the major source of terpenoid indole alkaloids, such as vinblastine or vincristine, used as natural drugs against various cancers. In this study, we have extensively analyzed the proteome of cultured C. roseus cells. Comparison of the proteomes of two independent cell lines with different terpenoid indole alkaloid metabolism by 2D-DIGE revealed 358 proteins that differed quantitatively by at least a twofold average ratio. Of these, 172 were identified by MS; most corresponded to housekeeping proteins. Less abundant proteins were identified by LC separation of tryptic peptides of proteins from one of the lines. We identified 1663 proteins, most of which are housekeeping proteins or involved in primary metabolism. However, 63 enzymes potentially involved in secondary metabolism were also identified, of which 22 are involved in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis and 16 are predicted transporters putatively involved in secondary metabolite transport. About 30% of the proteins identified have an unclear or unknown function, indicating important gaps in knowledge of plant metabolism. This study is an important step toward elucidating the proteome of C. roseus, which is critical for a better understanding of how this plant synthesizes terpenoid indole alkaloids.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterisation of two calmodulin isoforms of the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.

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    Poutrain, P; Guirimand, G; Mahroug, S; Burlat, V; Melin, C; Ginis, O; Oudin, A; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N; Pichon, O; Courdavault, V

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of Ca(2+) signalling in regulation of the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIA) in Catharanthus roseus has been extensively studied in recent years, albeit no protein of this signalling pathway has been isolated. Using a PCR strategy, two C. roseus cDNAs encoding distinct calmodulin (CAM) isoforms were cloned and named CAM1 and CAM2. The deduced 149 amino acid sequences possess four Ca(2+) binding domains and exhibit a close identity with Arabidopsis CAM isoforms (>91%). The ability of CAM1 and CAM2 to bind Ca(2+) was demonstrated following expression of the corresponding recombinant proteins. Furthermore, transient expression of CAM1-GFP and CAM2-GFP in C. roseus cells showed a typical nucleo-cytoplasm localisation of both CAMs, in agreement with the wide distribution of CAM target proteins. Using RNA blot analysis, we showed that CAM1 and CAM2 genes had a broad pattern of expression in C. roseus organs and are constitutively expressed during a C. roseus cell culture cycle, with a slight inhibitory effect of auxin for CAM1. Using RNA in situ hybridisation, we also detected CAM1 and CAM2 mRNA in the vascular bundle region of young seedling cotyledons. Finally, using specific inhibitors, we also showed that CAMs are required for MIA biosynthesis in C. roseus cells by acting on regulation of expression of genes encoding enzymes that catalyse early steps of MIA biosynthesis, such as 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase and geraniol 10-hydroxylase.

  18. Expressed sequence tags from Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus).

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    Murata, Jun; Bienzle, Dorothee; Brandle, Jim E; Sensen, Christoph W; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2006-08-07

    The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is well known to produce the chemotherapeutic anticancer agents, vinblastine and vincristine. In spite of its importance, no expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of this plant has been reported. Two cDNA libraries were generated from RNA isolated from the base part of young leaves and from root tips to select 9,824 random clones for unidirectional sequencing, to yield 3,327 related sequences and 1,696 singletons by cluster analysis. Putative functions of 3,663 clones were assigned, from 5,023 non-redundant ESTs to establish a resource for transcriptome analysis and gene discovery in this medicinal plant.

  19. New Sesquiterpene Glycosides from Culture Hairy Roots of Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNG ILL-Min; All Mohd; CHUN Se-Chul; LEE Sun-Joo; SAN Ka-Yiu; CHRISTIE A. M. Peebles; AHMAD Ateeque

    2007-01-01

    Two new compounds cadin-2-en-1β-ol-1β-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), guaia-1,7-dien-3β,13-diol-13α-D-glucofuranoside (2) along with three known compounds have been isolated from the Culture hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus. Their structures have been elucidated with the help of 500 MHz NMR using 1D and 2D spectral methods: viz: 1H and 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C HETCOR and DEPT aided by ELMS, FAB-MS, HR-FABMS and IR spectroscopy.

  20. A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus.

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    Liscombe, David K; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2011-11-01

    The anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine are bisindole alkaloids derived from coupling vindoline and catharanthine, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids produced exclusively by the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Industrial production of vinblastine and vincristine currently relies on isolation from C. roseus leaves, a process that affords these compounds in 0.0003-0.01% yields. Metabolic engineering efforts to either improve alkaloid content or provide alternative sources of the bisindole alkaloids ultimately rely on the isolation and characterization of the genes involved. Several vindoline biosynthetic genes have been isolated, and the cellular and subcellular organization of the corresponding enzymes has been well studied. However, due to the leaf-specific localization of vindoline biosynthesis, and the lack of production of this precursor in cell suspension and hairy root cultures of C. roseus, further elucidation of this pathway demands the development of reverse genetics approaches to assay gene function in planta. The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided efficient and effective means to assay gene function in diverse plant systems. A VIGS method was developed herein to investigate gene function in C. roseus plants using the pTRV vector system. The utility of this approach in understanding gene function in C. roseus leaves is demonstrated by silencing known vindoline biosynthetic genes previously characterized in vitro.

  1. Binary Stress Induces an Increase in Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus

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    Wei eZhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant, which produces a variety of indole alkaloids of significant pharmaceutical relevance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential stress-induced increase of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus using proteomic technique. The contents of the detectable alkaloids ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, and strictosidine in C. roseus were significantly increased under binary stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that the abundance of proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall was largely increased; while, that of proteins related to tetrapyrrole synthesis and photosynthesis was decreased. Of note, 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloid was two-fold more abundant in treated group compared to that in control. In addition, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway indicated an up-regulation in their transcription in C. roseus under UV-B irradiation. These results suggest that binary stress might negatively affect the process of photosynthesis in C. roseus. In addition, the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis appears to be responsive to binary stress.

  2. Progress in NMR-based metabolomics of Catharanthus roseus

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    Qifang PAN,Jingya ZHAO,Yuliang WANG,Kexuan TANG

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics has been rapidly developed as an important field in plant sciences and natural products chemistry. As the only natural source for a diversity of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs, especially the low-abundance antitumor agents vinblastine and vincristine, Catharanthus roseus is highly valued and has been studied extensively as a model for medicinal plants improvement. Due to multistep enzymatic biosynthesis and complex regulation, genetic modification in the MIA pathway has resulted in complicated changes of both secondary and primary metabolism in C. roseus, affecting not only the MIA pathway but also other pathways. Research at the metabolic level is necessary to increase knowledge on the genetic regulation of the whole metabolic network connected to MIA biosynthesis. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR is a very suitable and powerful complementary technique for the identification and quantification of metabolites in the plant matrix. NMR-based metabolomics has been used in studies of C. roseus for pathway elucidation, understanding stress responses, classification among different cultivars, safety and quality controls of transgenic plants, cross talk between pathways, and diversion of carbon fluxes, with the aim of fully unravelling MIA biosynthesis, its regulation and the function of the alkaloids in the plant from a systems biology point of view.

  3. A reliable protocol for transformation of Catharanthus roseus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

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    Srivastava, Toolika; Das, Sandip; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar; Srivastava, P S

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation of axillary shoot buds and multiple shoot formation in Catharanthus roseus was obtained in 96 % explants on MS medium (3 % sucrose) containing NAA + BA. 2,4-D induced callusing in both, the nodal as well as in leaf segments. Leaf-derived callus was used for transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404/pBI-S1. Bacterial cell concentration, duration of co-cultivation and acetosyringone concentration influenced transformation efficiency. Under optimal co-cultivation conditions, 98 % of the explants showed GUS expression. PCR based amplification of the transformed and subsequently selected callus tissue indicated the presence of uidA, Gly I and nptII genes.

  4. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

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    Elisa Vega-Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L. is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg significantly ( reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, . Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds.

  5. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    OpenAIRE

    S Ponarulselvam; Panneerselvam, C; K Murugan; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; S Thangamani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods: Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results: SEM showed the formation of silver nanopa...

  7. Allergy to periwinkle pollen (Catharanthus roseus G. Don.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debajyoti; Roy, Indrani; Chanda, Sunirmal; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati

    2007-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus G. Don. (CR) or periwinkle plants are widely grown/ cultivated as garden plants in the tropics and subtropics. In spite of its predominantly entomophilous nature, CR pollen had been reported to be airborne and allergenic. The objective of this study was to discover the seasonal changes of CR pollen concentration in air, to determine its potential to cause respiratory allergy and to analyze its allergenic components. A 2-year aerobiological survey was conducted with a Burkard 7-day sampler in an agricultural farm in the suburban zone of Calcutta city where CR pollen was found to be almost perennial with 3.6-5.4% contribution to the aeropollen load. Skin prick test was conducted on 282 respiratory allergic individuals living within a 15 km radius of the study area. 29.8% of them were positive to CR pollen. Among them, 80.9% were directly involved in gardening. The whole pollen extract was subjected to gel filtration in a Sephacryl S-200 column. Among 5 eluted fractions, fraction I showed optimum IgE-reactivity in ELISA-inhibition. The fraction I shows 4 protein components in SDS-PAGE, within which 3 (40-66 kD molecular mass) were found to be IgE-reactive in immunoblotting using patient sera. It can be concluded that CR pollen can trigger IgEmediated respiratory allergy in the people living in close proximity.

  8. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

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    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  9. Techniques for the maintenance and propagation of phytoplasmas in glasshouse collections of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Jennifer; Crossley, David; Dickinson, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma collections are a vital resource for researchers and diagnosticians studying phytoplasma diseases. They provide material as a point of reference and a research tool to increase our understanding of phytoplasmas and the diseases they cause. This chapter describes the techniques required to create and maintain collections of phytoplasma-infected Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle).

  10. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  11. Biotransformation of artemisinin by Catharanthus roseus and Ginkgo biloba cell suspension cultures%长春花及银杏植物细胞悬浮培养对青蒿素的生物转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩健; 戴均贵; 崔亚君; 占纪勋; 郭洪祝; 果德安

    2003-01-01

    Object To investigate the biotransformation of the antimalarial compound artemisinin( Ⅰ ) by Catharanthus roseus and Ginkgo biloba cell suspension cultures. Methods Plant tissue culture technology was employed. The product was isolated on silica gel column chromatography and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Results One product was obtained and its structure was characterized as 3α- hydroxydeoxyartemisinin ( Ⅱ ). Conclusion Both of C. roseus and G. biloba cell suspension cultures can bioconvert artemisinin.%目的对抗疟药物青蒿素(Ⅰ)进行了生物转化研究.方法利用长春花及银杏植物细胞悬浮培养细胞进行生物转化.用硅胶柱色谱进行产物的分离,波谱方法鉴定产物的结构.结果此两种植物悬浮细胞体系均能将青蒿素转化成3α-羟基去氧青蒿素(Ⅱ).结论此两种植物悬浮细胞体系均能有效转化青蒿素.

  12. In vitro evaluation of crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus for potential antibacterial activity

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    Goyal Pankaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle is an important medicinal plant, mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian Sanskrit literature. The plant is selected to evaluate the possibility for novel pharmaceuticals since most of the bacterial pathogens are developing resistance against currently available antibiotics. Aims: To determine the antibacterial activity of crude extracts from different parts of Catharanthus roseus against several bacterial species of clinical significance. Materials and Methods: Extraction of each plant part in appropriate solvent followed by evaluation of antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion assay against a total of six bacterial stains. Further, minimum inhibitory concentration(s was evaluated for active crude extracts. Results: Data indicated that the pattern of inhibition depends largely upon the extraction procedure, the plant part used for extraction, state of plant part (fresh or dry, solvent used for extraction and the microorganism tested. Dry powder extracts of all plant parts demonstrated more antibacterial activity than extracts prepared from fresh parts. Furthermore, extracts prepared from leaves were shown to have better efficacy than stem, root, and flower extracts. Organic extracts provided more potent antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous extracts. Among all the extracts, the ethanolic extract was found to be most active against almost all the bacterial species tested. Hot water and cold water extracts were completely inactive. Gram-positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: The study promises an interesting future for designing potentially active antibacterial agents from Catharanthus roseus.

  13. Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahin Aziz; Koushik Saha; Nasim Sultana; Husna Parvin Nur; Md.Aminul Ahsan; Shamim Ahmed; Md.Kamal Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the elemental composition of the leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus(C.roseus) due to the plant’s wide application in the indigenous medicinal system and its chemical constituents’ importance.Methods:The atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for quantitative analysis of various elements.Results:Total 13 important elements were analyzed in leaves and flowers of C.roseus.Results indicated the presence of Na,K,Ca,Mg,Cr,Fe,Zn,Al,Cu,Ni,Pb,Cd and Mn in both leaves and flowers.The most important finding of the work was that,leaves of C.roseus showed high concentration of all elements except K and Zn while flowers of C.roseus showed higher concentration of K and Zn.Conclusions:The elemental composition in both leaves and flowers of C.roseus were found to be different.Therefore,different parts of this medicinal plant are enriched in some micro and macro nutrients like Fe,Ca,Na,K,Zn,which are very important for biological metabolic system as well as human health.

  14. Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahin Aziz; Koushik Saha; Nasim Sultana; Husna Parvin Nur; Md Aminul Ahsan; Shamim Ahmed; Md Kamal Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the elemental composition of the leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) due to the plant's wide application in the indigenous medicinal system and its chemical constituents' importance. Methods: The atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for quantitative analysis of various elements. Results: Total 13 important elements were analyzed in leaves and flowers of C. roseus. Results indicated the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Mn in both leaves and flowers. The most important finding of the work was that, leaves of C. roseus showed high concentration of all elements except K and Zn while flowers of C. roseus showed higher concentration of K and Zn. Conclusions: The elemental composition in both leaves and flowers of C. roseus were found to be different. Therefore, different parts of this medicinal plant are enriched in some micro and macro nutrients like Fe, Ca, Na, K, Zn, which are very important for biological metabolic system as well as human health.

  15. ATP-binding cassette transporter controls leaf surface secretion of anticancer drug components in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-09-24

    The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), many of which have powerful biological activities. Such MIAs include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. However, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these MIAs involves extensive movement of metabolites between specialized internal leaf cells and the leaf epidermis that require the involvement of unknown secretory processes for mobilizing catharanthine to the leaf surface and vindoline to internal leaf cells. Spatial separation of vindoline and catharanthine provides a clear explanation for the low levels of dimers that accumulate in intact plants. The present work describes the molecular cloning and functional identification of a unique catharanthine transporter (CrTPT2) that is expressed predominantly in the epidermis of young leaves. CrTPT2 gene expression is activated by treatment with catharanthine, and its in planta silencing redistributes catharanthine to increase the levels of catharanthine-vindoline drug dimers in the leaves. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CrTPT2 is closely related to a key transporter involved in cuticle assembly in plants and that may be unique to MIA-producing plant species, where it mediates secretion of alkaloids to the plant surface.

  16. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. to Auto Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vijeta; Chandra, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Auto pollution is the by-product of our mechanized mobility, which adversely affects both plant and human life. However, plants growing in the urban locations provide a great respite to us from the brunt of auto pollution by absorbing the pollutants at their foliar surface. Foliar surface configuration and biochemical changes in plant species, namely, Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. grown at roadside (polluted site 1, Talkatora; polluted site 2, Charbagh) in Lucknow city and in the garden of the university campus, which has been taken as reference site, were investigated. It was observed that air pollution caused by auto exhaust showed marked alterations in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phaeophytin), and relative water content was reduced while antioxidative enzymes like catalase and peroxidase were found to be enhanced. The changes in the foliar configuration reveal marked alteration in epidermal traits, with decreased number of stomata, stomatal indices, and epidermal cells per unit area, while length and breadth of stomata and epidermal cells were found to be increased in leaves samples wich can be used as biomarkers of auto pollution.

  17. Overexpression of ORCA3 and G10H in Catharanthus roseus plants regulated alkaloid biosynthesis and metabolism revealed by NMR-metabolomics.

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    Qifang Pan

    Full Text Available In order to improve the production of the anticancer dimeric indole alkaloids in Catharanthuse roseus, much research has been dedicated to culturing cell lines, hairy roots, and efforts to elucidate the regulation of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA biosynthesis. In this study, the ORCA3 (Octadecanoid-derivative Responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain gene alone or integrated with the G10H (geraniol 10-hydroxylase gene were first introduced into C. roseus plants. Transgenic C. roseus plants overexpressing ORCA3 alone (OR lines, or co-overexpressing G10H and ORCA3 (GO lines were obtained by genetic modification. ORCA3 overexpression induced an increase of AS, TDC, STR and D4H transcripts but did not affect CRMYC2 and G10H transcription. G10H transcripts showed a significant increase under G10H and ORCA3 co-overexpression. ORCA3 and G10H overexpression significantly increased the accumulation of strictosidine, vindoline, catharanthine and ajmalicine but had limited effects on anhydrovinblastine and vinblastine levels. NMR-based metabolomics confirmed the higher accumulation of monomeric indole alkaloids in OR and GO lines. Multivariate data analysis of (1H NMR spectra showed change of amino acid, organic acid, sugar and phenylpropanoid levels in both OR and GO lines compared to the controls. The result indicated that enhancement of MIA biosynthesis by ORCA3 and G10H overexpression might affect other metabolic pathways in the plant metabolism of C. roseus.

  18. Sombreamento de plantas de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don 'Pacifica White' por malhas coloridas: desenvolvimento vegetativo

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Anderson Adriano Martins; Alvarenga,Amauri Alves de

    2009-01-01

    As malhas coloridas têm sido utilizadas para manipular o desenvolvimento vegetativo, melhorando a utilização da radiação solar por plantas ornamentais. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho estudar o efeito da redução de 50% da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa sobre o crescimento vegetativo de plantas de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, por meio de malhas azul e vermelha e malha preta, em comparação com plantas crescidas na ausência de sombreamento (pleno sol). As plantas foram obtidas a partir de s...

  19. Sub-acute oral toxicity study of methanol leaves extract of Catharanthus roseus in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYW Kevin; AH Hussin; I Zhari; JH Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the sub-acute (14 d) oral toxic effects of methanol leaves extract ofCatharanthus roseus (C. roseus) (Family: Apocynaceae) on liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty four female SD rats were used throughout the experiment. The first group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control, whereas the remaining three groups were orally treated with single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg of C. roseus extract, respectively for 14 d. Cage-side observations were done daily. Any animal died during the experiment was dissected for gross organ examination. Body weight changed, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-15 and used for determination of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M and analysed using Dunnett’s test. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 when compared to the control group. Results: Repeated oral administration of 0.5 g/kg and 1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus caused mortality and diarrhoea in rats after few days of treatment. There were no significant changes observed in serum biochemical markers, body weight changed, water and food intake and relative organ weight in rats treated with a single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg of C. roseus extract treatment for 14 d when compared to control group. Conclusionds: Fourteen days repeated oral administration of 0.1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus was safe in female SD rats without causing any significant damages to liver and kidney.

  20. PHOTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF VINBLASTINE IN 43 CULTIVARS OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L.

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    S.E AJADI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vinblastine is one of the alkaloids extracted from Catharanthus roseus L. which is used for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, and leukemia in children. In spite of the progresses in the synthesis of many drugs, synthesis of vinblastine is not feasible and it has been extracted from plant so far. In this study we used a screening method to facilitate selection for the best cultivar with a higher yield. Methods. The leaves of the 43 cultivars of C. roseus L was freeze dried and vinblastine was extracted with trifluroacetic acid 0.06% in water. The extraction was analysed by HPLC, using a gradient solvent system. Results and Discussion. The results of this study indicates that the amount of vinblastine is variable in different cultivars. The concentration of vinblastine in cultivar NO. 41 [C. roseus L (G. DON] is 5.1 times mare than the means of vinblastine in all cultivars. The cultivar No. 23 [C. roseus L (Pacifica Punch] has the minimum concentration of this alkaloid.

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ponarulselvam S; Panneerselvam C; Murugan K; Aarthi N; Kalimuthu K; Thangamani S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods:Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results:SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35-55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  2. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma hispanicum’, a novel taxon associated with Mexican periwinkle virescence disease of Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexican periwinkle virescence (MPV) phytoplasma was originally discovered in diseased plants of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) in Yucatán, Mexico. On the basis of results from RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MPV was previously classified as the first know...

  3. Complete nucleotide sequences of two begomoviruses infecting Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Nawaz, Kiran; Shafiq, Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Shahid, Ahmad Ali

    2013-02-01

    Though Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is an ornamental plant, it is famous for its medicinal value. Its alkaloids are known for anti-cancerous properties, and this plant is studied mainly for its alkaloids. Here, this plant has been studied for its viral diseases. Complete DNA sequences of two begomoviruses infecting C. roseus originating from Pakistan were determined. The sequence of one begomovirus (clone KN4) shows the highest level of nucleotide sequence identity (86.5 %) to an unpublished virus, chili leaf curl India virus (ChiLCIV), and then (84.4 % identity) to papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV), and thus represents a new species, for which the name "Catharanthus yellow mosaic virus" (CYMV) is proposed. The sequence of another begomovirus (clone KN6) shows the highest level of sequence identity (95.9 % to 99 %) to a newly reported virus from India, papaya leaf crumple virus (PaLCrV). Sequence analysis shows that KN4 and KN6 are recombinants of Pedilanthus leaf curl virus (PedLCV) and croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CrYVMV).

  4. Engineering overexpression of ORCA3 and strictosidine glucosidase in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots increases alkaloid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayi; Peebles, Christie A M

    2016-09-01

    Catharanthus roseus produces many pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) such as vinblastine, vincristine, ajmalicine, and serpentine. Past metabolic engineering efforts have pointed to the tight regulation of the TIA pathway and to multiple rate-limiting reactions. Transcriptional regulator ORCA3 (octadecanoid responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain protein), activated by jasmonic acid, plays a central role in regulating the TIA pathway. In this study, overexpressing ORCA3 under the control of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter in C. roseus hairy roots resulted in no change in the total amount of TIAs measured. RT-qPCR results showed that ORCA3 overexpression triggered the upregulation of transcripts of most of the known TIA pathway genes. One notable exception was the decrease in strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) transcripts. These results corresponded to previously published results. In this study, ORCA3 and SGD were both engineered in hairy roots under the control of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter. Co-overexpression of ORCA3 and SGD resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in serpentine by 44 %, ajmalicine by 32 %, catharanthine by 38 %, tabersonine by 40 %, lochnericine by 60 % and hörhammericine by 56 % . The total alkaloid pool was increased significantly by 47 %. Thus, combining overexpression of a positive regulator and a pathway gene which is not controlled by this regulator provided a way to enhance alkaloid production.

  5. Development of efficient catharanthus roseus regeneration and transformation system using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hypocotyls as explants

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    Wang Quan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a valuable medicinal plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. Some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. However, the yields of these TIAs are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. The recent development of metabolic engineering strategy offers a promising solution. In order to improve the production of TIAs in C. roseus, the establishment of an efficient genetic transformation method is required. Results To develop a genetic transformation method for C. roseus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was employed which harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 containing a report β-glucuronidase (GUS gene and a selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NTPII. The influential factors were investigated systematically and the optimal transformation condition was achieved using hypocotyls as explants, including the sonication treatment of 10 min with 80 W, A. tumefaciens infection of 30 min and co-cultivation of 2 d in 1/2 MS medium containing 100 μM acetosyringone. With a series of selection in callus, shoot and root inducing kanamycin-containing resistance media, we successfully obtained stable transgenic regeneration plants. The expression of GUS gene was confirmed by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and genomic southern blot analysis. To prove the efficiency of the established genetic transformation system, the rate-limiting gene in TIAs biosynthetic pathway, DAT, which encodes deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase, was transferred into C. roseus using this established system and 9 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The results of metabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

  6. The miRNAome of Catharanthus roseus: identification, expression analysis, and potential roles of microRNAs in regulation of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ethan M.; Singh, Sanjay K.; Ghosh, Jayadri S.; Patra, Barunava; Paul, Priyanka; Yuan, Ling; Pattanaik, Sitakanta

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous crucial biological processes in plants. However, information is limited on their involvement in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites in plants, including Catharanthus roseus that produces a number of pharmaceutically valuable, bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Using small RNA-sequencing, we identified 181 conserved and 173 novel miRNAs (cro-miRNAs) in C. roseus seedlings. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that a set of cro-miRNAs are differentially regulated in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). In silico target prediction identified 519 potential cro-miRNA targets that include several auxin response factors (ARFs). The presence of cleaved transcripts of miRNA-targeted ARFs in C. roseus cells was confirmed by Poly(A) Polymerase-Mediated Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (PPM-RACE). We showed that auxin (indole acetic acid, IAA) repressed the expression of key TIA pathway genes in C. roseus seedlings. Moreover, we demonstrated that a miRNA-regulated ARF, CrARF16, binds to the promoters of key TIA pathway genes and repress their expression. The C. roseus miRNAome reported here provides a comprehensive account of the cro-miRNA populations, as well as their abundance and expression profiles in response to MeJA. In addition, our findings underscore the importance of miRNAs in posttranscriptional control of the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. PMID:28223695

  7. Application of carborundum abrasion for investigating the leaf epidermis: molecular cloning of Catharanthus roseus 16-hydroxytabersonine-16-O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Dylan; Murata, Jun; Kim, Won S; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) produces the well-known and remarkably complex anti-cancer dimeric alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine that are derived from the coupling of vindoline and catharanthine monomers. This study describes the novel application of a carborundum abrasion (CA) technique for large-scale isolation of leaf epidermis-enriched proteins in order to purify to apparent homogeneity 16-hydroxytabersonine-16-O-methyltransferase (16OMT), which catalyses the second of six steps in the conversion of tabersonine into vindoline, and to clone the gene. Functional expression and biochemical characterization of recombinant 16OMT demonstrated its very narrow substrate specificity and high affinity for 16-hydroxytabersonine. In addition to allowing the cloning of this gene, the CA technique clearly showed that 16OMT is predominantly expressed in Catharanthus leaf epidermis. The results provide compelling evidence that most of the pathway for vindoline biosynthesis, including the O-methylation of 16-hydroxytabersonine, occurs exclusively in the leaf epidermis, with subsequent steps occurring in other leaf cell types.

  8. The bHLH transcription factor BIS1 controls the iridoid branch of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moerkercke, Alex; Steensma, Priscille; Schweizer, Fabian; Pollier, Jacob; Gariboldi, Ivo; Payne, Richard; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Miettinen, Karel; Espoz, Javiera; Purnama, Purin Candra; Kellner, Franziska; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; O'Connor, Sarah E; Rischer, Heiko; Memelink, Johan; Goossens, Alain

    2015-06-30

    Plants make specialized bioactive metabolites to defend themselves against attackers. The conserved control mechanisms are based on transcriptional activation of the respective plant species-specific biosynthetic pathways by the phytohormone jasmonate. Knowledge of the transcription factors involved, particularly in terpenoid biosynthesis, remains fragmentary. By transcriptome analysis and functional screens in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), the unique source of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA)-type anticancer drugs vincristine and vinblastine, we identified a jasmonate-regulated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor from clade IVa inducing the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA pathway. The bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) transcription factor transactivated the expression of all of the genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous terpenoid precursor geranyl diphosphate to the iridoid loganic acid. BIS1 acted in a complementary manner to the previously characterized ethylene response factor Octadecanoid derivative-Responsive Catharanthus APETALA2-domain 3 (ORCA3) that transactivates the expression of several genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing the conversion of loganic acid to the downstream MIAs. In contrast to ORCA3, overexpression of BIS1 was sufficient to boost production of high-value iridoids and MIAs in C. roseus suspension cell cultures. Hence, BIS1 might be a metabolic engineering tool to produce sustainably high-value MIAs in C. roseus plants or cultures.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a hybrid histidine kinase receptor in tropical periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papon, N; Bremer, J; Vansiri, A; Glévarec, G; Rideau, M; Creche, J

    2006-09-01

    Signalling pathways involving histidine kinase receptors (HKRs) are widely used by prokaryotes and fungi to regulate a large palette of biological processes. In plants, HKRs are known to be implicated in cytokinin, ethylene, and osmosensing transduction pathways. In this work, a full length cDNA named CRCIK was isolated from the tropical species CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L.) G. Don. It encodes a 1205 amino acid protein that belongs to the hybrid HKR family. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the highest homology with AtHK1, an osmosensing HKR in ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA. In return, CrCIK protein shares very low identity with the other 10 ARABIDOPSIS HKRs. Southern blot analysis indicates that the CRCIK corresponding gene is either present in multiple copies or has very close homologues in the genome of the tropical periwinkle. The gene is widely expressed in the plant. In C. ROSEUS C20D cell suspension, it is slightly induced after exposure to low temperature, pointing to a putative role in cold-shock signal transduction.

  10. Emerging trends in research on spatial and temporal organization of terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Catharanthus roseus: a literature update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Srivastava, Alka; Mathur, Archana

    2012-04-01

    Catharanthus roseus (The Madagaskar Periwinkle) plant is commercially valued for harbouring more than 130 bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Amongst these, two of the leaf-derived bisindole alkaloids-vinblastine and vincristine-are widely used in several anticancer chemotherapies. The great pharmacological values, low in planta occurrence, unavailability of synthetic substitutes and exorbitant market cost of these alkaloids have prompted scientists to understand the basic architecture and regulation of biosynthesis of these TIAs in C. roseus plant and its cultured tissues. The knowledge gathered over a period of 30 years suggests that the TIA biosynthesis is highly regulated by developmental and environmental factors and operates through a complex multi-step enzymatic network. Extensive spatial and temporal cross talking also occurs at inter- and intracellular levels in different plant organs during TIA biogenesis. A close association of indole, methylerythritol phosphate and secoiridoid monoterpenoid pathways and involvement of at least four cell types (epidermis, internal phloem-associated parenchyma, laticifers and idioblasts) and five intracellular compartments (chloroplast, vacuole, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol) have been implicated with this biosynthetic mechanism. Accordingly, the research in this area is primarily advancing today to address and resolve six major issues namely: precise localization and expression of pathway enzymes using modern in situ RNA hybridization tools, mechanisms of intra- and intercellular trafficking of pathway intermediates, cloning and functional validation of genes coding for known or hitherto unknown pathway enzymes, mechanism of global regulation of the pathway by transcription factors, control of relative diversion of metabolite flux at crucial branch points and finally, strategising the metabolic engineering approaches to improve the productivity of the desired TIAs in plant or corresponding cultured

  11. Synthesis and characterization of palladium nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus leaf extract and its application in the photo-catalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvi, Aasaithambi; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Ramalingam, C.; Elango, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The potential effect of Catharanthus roseus leaf extract for the formation of palladium nanoparticles and its application on dye degradation was discussed. The efficiency of C.roseus leaves are used as a bio-material for the first time as reducing agent. Synthesized palladium nanoparticles were supported by UV-vis spectrometry, XRD, FT-IR and TEM analysis. The secondary metabolites which are responsible for the formation of nanoparticles were identified by GC-MS. The results showed that effect of time was directly related to synthesized nanoparticles and functional groups has a critical role in reducing the metal ions and stabilizing the palladium nanoparticles in an eco-friendly process.

  12. Effects of tip-pruning treatment on source-sink regulation of Catharanthus roseus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; ZHANG Xue-ke; GUO Xiao-rui; SUN Yan-fei; ZU Yuang-gang

    2006-01-01

    Fifty cultivated Catharanthus roseus seedlings were selected for tip-pruning treatment and the effects of tip-pruning on seedling growth and source-sink regulation were investigated for revealing physiological mechanisms of plants. The results showed that tip-pruning treatment resulted in obvious inhibition of apical dominance and enhancement of branching numbers. The contents of soluble sugars, acid sucrose invertase activity (AI) had a great change in differently positional leaves of the seedling. The sink strength in tip leaves of seedlings dramatically declined after tip-pruning treatment, while that in the leaves at the middle and bottom of seedlings had no obvious changes. The inhibition of apical dominance of tip leaves of seedlings was caused by the diminished sink strength due to tip-pruning treatment,

  13. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma hispanicum', a novel taxon associated with Mexican periwinkle virescence disease of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Harrison, Nigel A; Zhao, Yan; Wei, Wei; Dally, Ellen L

    2016-09-01

    Mexican periwinkle virescence (MPV) phytoplasma was originally discovered in diseased plants of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) in Yucatán, Mexico. On the basis of results from RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MPV was previously classified as the first known member of phytoplasma group 16SrXIII, and a new subgroup (16SrXIII-A) was established to accommodate MPV phytoplasma. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MPV represents a lineage distinct from previously described 'CandidatusPhytoplasma' species. Nucleotide sequence alignments revealed that strain MPV shared less than 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with all previously described 'Ca.Phytoplasma' species. Based on unique properties of the DNA, we propose recognition of Mexican periwinkle virescence phytoplasma strain MPV as representative of a novel taxon, 'CandidatusPhytoplasma hispanicum'.

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus root extract and its larvicidal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Jemimah, Irudayaraj Anto Amal; Ponmanickam, Ponnirul; Ayyanar, Muniappan

    2015-11-01

    Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, cost-effectiveness and being a novel method has an eco-friendly approach. Biological activity of root extracts as well as synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus were evaluated against larvae of Aedes aegyptiand Culex quinquefasciatus. The structure and proportion of the synthesized nanoparticles was defined by exploitation ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. Reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with aqueous root extract at 60°C. Synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were confirmed by analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using UV-vis spectrophotometer at 423 nm. FTIR showed aliphatic amines and alkanes corresponding peaks to be presence of responsible compounds to produced nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. Spherical shaped and crystalline nature of particles was recorded under XRD analysis. Presence of silver metal and 35-55nm sized particles were recorded using EDAX and SEM respectively. Larvicidal activitywas observed after24 hrs of exposure to root extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles. The highest larval mortality was observed in synthesized silver nanopartiucles against Aedes aegypti (LC50= 2.01 ± 0.34; LC90= 5.29 ± 0.07 at 5.0 mg(-1) concentration) and Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50= 1.18 ± 0.15; LC90= 2.55 ± 0.76 at 3.5 to 5.0 mgl(-1) concentration) respectively. The present study provides evidence that synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus offer potential source for larvicidal activity againstthe larvae of both dengue and filariasis vectors.

  15. Alkaloid Accumulation in Catharanthus roseus Increases with Addition of Seawater Salts to the Nutrient Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-Yan; LIU Zhao-Pu

    2010-01-01

    A sand culture experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different seawater (5% and 10%) treatments on plant growth,inorganic ions,indole alkaloid concentrations and yields of Catharanthus roseus,in an effort to increase the alkaloid yield by artificial cultivation.The total fresh and dry weights and tissue K+ concentrations decreased,but Na+ concentrations increased in the plant roots,stems and leaves of C.roseus under seawater stress as compared to the control.The concentrations and yields of vindoline,catharanthine,vinblastine and vincristine increased under seawater stress.The concentrations and yields of these alkaloids were higher in 5% seawater-treated plants than those in the 10% seawater-treated plants.Considering the industrial production,5% seawater treatments could reduce the cost of producing alkaloid.In the control plants,the highest alkaloid concentrations reached a peak at 100 days after planting,suggesting that plant harvest must be optimized in terms of growth duration.

  16. Construction of genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarika Gupta; Sashi Pandey-Rai; Suchi Srivastava; Subhas Chandra Naithani; Manoj Prasad; Sushil Kumar

    2007-12-01

    An integrated genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus, based on different types of molecular and morphological markers was constructed, using a F2 population of 144 plants. The map defines 14 linkage groups (LGs) and consists of 131 marker loci, including 125 molecular DNA markers (76 RAPD, 3 RAPD combinations; 7 ISSR; 2 EST-SSR from Medicago truncatula and 37 other PCR based DNA markers), selected from a total of 472 primers or primer pairs, and six morphological markers (stem pigmentation, leaf lamina pigmentation and shape, leaf petiole and pod size, and petal colour). The total map length is 1131.9 cM (centiMorgans), giving an average map length and distance between two markers equal to 80.9 cM and 8.6 cM, respectively. The morphological markers/genes were found linked with nearest molecular or morphological markers at distances varying from 0.7 to 11.4 cM. Linkage was observed between the morphological markers concerned with lamina shape and petiole size of leaf on LG1 and leaf, stem and petiole pigmentation and pod size on LG8. This is the first genetic linkage map of C. roseus.

  17. CathaCyc, a metabolic pathway database built from Catharanthus roseus RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moerkercke, Alex; Fabris, Michele; Pollier, Jacob; Baart, Gino J E; Rombauts, Stephane; Hasnain, Ghulam; Rischer, Heiko; Memelink, Johan; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Goossens, Alain

    2013-05-01

    The medicinal plant Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) synthesizes numerous terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. The TIA pathway operates in a complex metabolic network that steers plant growth and survival. Pathway databases and metabolic networks reconstructed from 'omics' sequence data can help to discover missing enzymes, study metabolic pathway evolution and, ultimately, engineer metabolic pathways. To date, such databases have mainly been built for model plant species with sequenced genomes. Although genome sequence data are not available for most medicinal plant species, next-generation sequencing is now extensively employed to create comprehensive medicinal plant transcriptome sequence resources. Here we report on the construction of CathaCyc, a detailed metabolic pathway database, from C. roseus RNA-Seq data sets. CathaCyc (version 1.0) contains 390 pathways with 1,347 assigned enzymes and spans primary and secondary metabolism. Curation of the pathways linked with the synthesis of TIAs and triterpenoids, their primary metabolic precursors, and their elicitors, the jasmonate hormones, demonstrated that RNA-Seq resources are suitable for the construction of pathway databases. CathaCyc is accessible online (http://www.cathacyc.org) and offers a range of tools for the visualization and analysis of metabolic networks and 'omics' data. Overlay with expression data from publicly available RNA-Seq resources demonstrated that two well-characterized C. roseus terpenoid pathways, those of TIAs and triterpenoids, are subject to distinct regulation by both developmental and environmental cues. We anticipate that databases such as CathaCyc will become key to the study and exploitation of the metabolism of medicinal plants.

  18. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARTHIKEYAN B.; JALEEL C.A.; GOPI R.; DEIVEEKASUNDARAM M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters.There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

  19. Influence of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrition and phytochemical constituents of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendran Srinivasan; Chinnavenkataraman Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the isolation, identification, mass production and the effect of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) on growth parameters of the Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus).Methods:Acaulospora marrowae, Glomus aggregatum (G. aggregatum), Glomus fasciculatum, Glomusgeosporum, Gigaspora margarita, Gigaspora nigra, Scutellospora heterogama and Scutellospora pellucida were isolated and identified from the root zone soil of C. roseus.Results:A total of nine different AM fungi species such as Acaulospora scrobiculata, The phytochemical analyses showed high concentration of chlorophyll a (0.152±0.0140 µg/g), chlorophyll b (0.081±0.006 µg/g), total chlorophyll (0.233±0.020 µg/g), soluble sugar (0.051±0.004 µg/g), reducing sugar (0.060±0,007 µg/g), phenols (0.293±0.032 µg/g), ortho-dihydroxy phenols (0.275±0.022 µg/g), lipids (0.300±0.025 µg/g), proteins (0.063±0.003 µg/g) and amino acids (1.042±0.056 µg/g) in G. aggregatum inoculated C. roseus. G. aggregatum was found to perform better on growth when compared to others and phytochemical constituents of C. roseus.Conclusions:fasciculatum can be used as a potential growth promoters for the C. roseus for better yielding in the agricultural sectors. It is concluded from the present findings that the G. aggregatum and Glomus fasciculatum can be used as a potential growth promoters for the C. roseus for better yielding in the agricultural sectors.

  20. Indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus: new enzyme activities and identification of cytochrome P450 CYP72A1 as secologanin synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmler, S; Schröder, G; St-Pierre, B; Crouch, N P; Hotze, M; Schmidt, J; Strack, D; Matern, U; Schröder, J

    2000-12-01

    The molecular characterization of CYP72A1 from Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) was described nearly a decade ago, but the enzyme function remained unknown. We now show by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry that the expression in immature leaves is epidermis-specific. It thus follows the pattern previously established for early enzymes in the pathway to indole alkaloids, suggesting that CYP72A1 may be involved in their biosynthesis. The early reactions in that pathway, i.e. from geraniol to strictosidine, contain several candidates for P450 activities. We investigated in this work two reactions, the conversion of 7-deoxyloganin to loganin (deoxyloganin 7-hydroxylase, DL7H) and the oxidative ring cleavage converting loganin into secologanin (secologanin synthase, SLS). The action of DL7H has not been demonstrated in vitro previously, and SLS has only recently been identified as P450 activity in one other plant. We show for the first time that both enzyme activities are present in microsomes from C. roseus cell cultures. We then tested whether CYP72A1 expressed in E. coli as a translational fusion with the C. roseus P450 reductase (P450Red) has one or both of these activities. The results show that CYP72A1 converts loganin into secologanin.

  1. Colonization of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), by endophytes encoding gfp marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Cursino, Luciana; de Barros Rossetto, Priscilla; Mondin, Mateus; Hungria, Mariangela; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2013-07-01

    This study reports the introduction of gfp marker in two endophytic bacterial strains (Pantoea agglomerans C33.1, isolated from cocoa, and Enterobacter cloacae PR2/7, isolated from citrus) to monitor the colonization in Madagascar perinwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Stability of the plasmid encoding gfp was confirmed in vitro for at least 72 h of bacterial growth and after the colonization of tissues, under non-selective conditions. The colonization was observed using fluorescence microscopy and enumeration of culturable endophytes in inoculated perinwinkle plants that grew for 10 and 20 days. Gfp-expressing strains were re-isolated from the inner tissues of surface-sterilized roots and stems of inoculated plants, and the survival of the P. agglomerans C33:1gfp in plants 20 days after inoculation, even in the absence of selective pressure, suggests that is good colonizer. These results indicated that both gfp-tagged strains, especially P. agglomerans C33.1, may be useful tools to deliver enzymes or other proteins in plant.

  2. Influence of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrition and phytochemical constituents of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the isolation, identification, mass production and the effect of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi on growth parameters of the Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus. Methods: A total of nine different AM fungi species such as Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora marrowae, Glomus aggregatum (G. aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus geosporum, Gigaspora margarita, Gigaspora nigra, Scutellospora heterogama and Scutellospora pellucida were isolated and identified from the root zone soil of C. roseus. Results: The phytochemical analyses showed high concentration of chlorophyll a (0.152±0.0140 µg/g, chlorophyll b (0.081±0.006 µg/g, total chlorophyll (0.233±0.020 µg/g, soluble sugar (0.051±0.004 µg/g, reducing sugar (0.060±0,007 µg/g, phenols (0.293±0.032 µg/g, ortho-dihydroxy phenols (0.275±0.022 µg/g, lipids (0.300±0.025 µg/g, proteins (0.063±0.003 µg/g and amino acids (1.042±0.056 µg/g in G. aggregatum inoculated C. roseus. G. aggregatum was found to perform better on growth when compared to others and phytochemical constituents of C. roseus. Conclusions: It is concluded from the present findings that the G. aggregatum and Glomus fasciculatum can be used as a potential growth promoters for the C. roseus for better yielding in the agricultural sectors.

  3. Evaluation of the Nutritive and Organoleptic Values of Food Products Developed by Incorporated Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar Fresh Leaves Explore Their Hypoglycemic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Bisla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes becomes a real problem of public health in developing countries, where its prevalence is increasing steadily. Diabetes mellitus can be found in almost every population in the world. Since the Ayurvedic practice started in India, plants are being used in the cure of diseases. Although the Catharanthus roseus have been used for their alleged health benefits and avail their hypoglycemic effect, used as medicine by diabetics. Medicinal plants have rarely been incorporated in food preparations. To fill these lacunae, food products were prepared by using Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar fresh leaves with hypoglycemic properties. Commonly consumed recipes in India are prepared for diabetic patients and were developed at different levels at 3 g, 4 g, and 6 g per serving. Food product development and their acceptability appraisal through organoleptic evaluation were carried out by semitrained panel comprising 15 trained panelists from the department of Food Science and Nutrition, Banasthali University. Seven products were developed by incorporating Catharanthus roseus fresh leaves. Nine point hedonic scale was used as a medium to know about the product acceptability at various variances. All products are moderately acceptable at different concentrations except product fare “6 g” which was more acceptable than the standard. Among the three variations of incorporating the Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar Leaves, 3 g variation is more acceptable than other variations.

  4. Identification of Flavonoids (Quercetin, Gallic acid and Rutin from Catharanthus roseus Plant Parts using Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Nisar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green technology is the most important topic in the pharmaceutical field because it reduces the cost of medicines and minimizes the environmental impact of the field and is better for human health and safety. Green chemistry emphasizes that the solvent should be nontoxic, safe, cheap, green, readily available, recyclable, and biodegradable. Deep eutectic solvents, a new type of green solvent, have some renowned properties—for instance, high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, low cost, biodegradability, and high viscosity. In this study, deep eutectic solvents made up of choline chloride-glycerol (1:2 were used for the extraction and isolation of flavonoid (rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin from Catharanthus roseus plant parts, flower petal, leaves, stem, and root. The amounts of rutin and quercetin in flower petal are 29.46 and 6.51%, respectively, whereas, rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin amounts in leaves are 25.16, 8.57, and 10.47%, respectively. In stem the amounts of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin are 13.02, 5.89, and 7.47%, respectively. In root, only quercetin has been obtained that is 13.49%. The HPLC is an analytical method, which was found to be an excellent technique for determination of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin using deep eutectic solvent extraction from plant parts of Catharanthus roseus.

  5. Induction and Flow Cytometry Identification of Tetraploids from Seed-Derived Explants through Colchicine Treatments in Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hai Xing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tetraploid plants of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don was obtained by colchicine induction from seeds explants, and the ploidy of the plants was identified by flow cytometry. The optimal treatment is 0.2% colchicine solution treated for 24 hours, and the induction rate reaches up to 30%. Comparing with morphological characteristics and growth habits between tetraploids and the control, we found that tetraploids of C. roseus had larger stoma and more branches and leaves. HPLC analysis showed tetraploidization could increase the contents of terpenoid indole alkaloids in C. roseus. Thus, tetraploidization could be used to produce higher alkaloids lines for commercial use. QRT-PCR results showed that the expression of enzymes involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids biosynthesis pathway had increased in the tetraploid plants. To our knowledge, this was the first paper to explore the secondary metabolism in autotetraploid C. roseus induced by colchicine.

  6. Impact of cadmium and lead on Catharanthus roseus--a phytoremediation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S; Gupta, K; Mukherjee, A K

    2007-07-01

    The Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (a valued medicinal plant) was exposed to different concentrations ofheavymetals like, CdCl, and PbCl, with a view to observe their bioaccumulation efficiency. Germination was inhibited by both the heavy metals in the seeds previously imbibed in GA, and KNO, for 24 hr. EC50 (the effective concentration which inhibits root length by 50%) was recorded as 180 microM for CdCl2, and 50 microM for PbCl2. Both alpha-amylase and protease activity were reduced substantially on treatment of seeds with increasing concentrations of CdCl2, and PbCl2. Malondialdehyde (MDA) a product of lipoxigenase (LOX) activity also increased due to the treatment of both CdCl, and PbCl2. When two-months-old plants grown in normal soil were transferred to soils containing increasing amounts of these two heavy metals, senescence of lower leaves and extensive chlorosis were noticed after four days of transfer However, plants gradually acclimatized and after 20 days the chlorophyll content was almost comparable to normal. Plants receiving CdCl2 treatment (250 microg g(-1) and less) became acclimatized after two weeks and started normal growth. But PbCl2 of 432 microg g(-1) and less could not affect the plant growth throughout, after a preliminary shock was erased. In case of CdCl2 treatment, a stunted growth with reduced leaf area, reduced biomass and sterility were recorded after six months, while plants show normal growth and flowering in case of PbCl2 treatment. Total alkaloid was also found to be decreased in the roots of CdCl2 treated plants. No change was observed in case of PbCl2. GA3 treatments to the CdCl2 treated plants show internode elongation and increase in leaf area with relatively elongated leaves and thinning of stem diameter AAS analyses of leaves of treated plants exhibited 5-10% accumulation of cadmium, but there was no accumulation of lead at all.

  7. Screening and kinetic studies of catharanthine and ajmalicine accumulation and their correlation with growth biomass in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyammi, Roukia; Paris, Cédric; Khelifi-Slaoui, Majda; Zaoui, Djamila; Belabbassi, Ouarda; Bakiri, Nouara; Meriem Aci, Myassa; Harfi, Boualem; Malik, Sonia; Makhzoum, Abdullah; Desobry, Stéphane; Khelifi, Lakhdar

    2016-10-01

    Context Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae) is still one of the most important sources of terpene indole alkaloids including anticancer and hypertensive drugs as vincristine and vinblastine. These final compounds have complex pathway and many enzymes are involved in their biosynthesis. Indeed, ajmalicine and catharanthine are important precursors their increase can lead to enhance levels of molecules of interest. Objective This study aims at selecting the highest yield of hairy root line(s) and at identifying best times for further treatments. We study kinetics growth and alkaloids (ajmalicine and catharanthine) accumulation of three selected hairy root lines during the culture cycle in order to determine the relationship between biomass production and alkaloids accumulation. Materials and methods Comparative analysis has been carried out on three selected lines of Catharanthus roseus hairy roots (LP10, LP21 and L54) for their kinetics of growth and the accumulation of ajamalicine and catharanthine, throughout a 35-day culture cycle. The methanolic extract for each line in different times during culture cycle is analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results Maximum accumulation of the alkaloids is recorded for LP10 line in which the peak of ajmalicine and catharanthine accumulation reached to 3.8 and 4.3 mg/g dry weight (DW), respectively. This increase coincides with an exponential growth phase. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the evolution of accumulation of ajmalicine and catharanthine are positively correlated with the development of the biomass growth. Significantly, for LP10 line the most promising line to continue optimizing the production of TIAs. Additionally, the end of exponential phase remains the best period for elicitor stimuli.

  8. Identification and quantification of active alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinhua; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Jing; Chen, Zilin

    2013-08-15

    Catharanthus roseus is an important dicotyledonous medicinal plant that produces anticancer compounds. The active alkaloids vinblastine, vindoline, ajmalicine, catharanthine, and vinleurosine were identified by direct-injection ion trap-mass spectrometry (IT-MS) for collecting MS(1-2) spectra. The determinations of five alkaloids were accomplished by liquid chromatography (LC) with UV and MS detections. The analytes provided good signals corresponding to the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+) and product ions. The precursor ions and product ions for quantification of vinblastine, vindoline, ajmalicine, catharanthine, and vinleurosine were m/z 825→807, 457→397, 353→144, 337→144 and 809→748 by LC-IT-MS, respectively. Two methods were used to evaluate a number of validation characteristics (repeatability, LOD, calibration range, and recovery). MS provided a high selectivity and sensitivity for determination of five alkaloids in positive mode. After optimisation of the methods, separation, identification and quantification of the five components in C. roseus were comprehensively accomplished by HPLC with UV and MS detection.

  9. Silencing the Transcriptional Repressor, ZCT1, Illustrates the Tight Regulation of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus Hairy Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Noreen F; Weaver, Jessica D; Cram, Erin J; Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T

    2016-01-01

    The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs) are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs) with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ), while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1. To silence ZCT1, we developed transgenic hairy root cultures of C. roseus that expressed an estrogen-inducible Zct1 hairpin for activating RNA interference. The presence of 17β-estradiol (5μM) effectively depleted Zct1 in hairy root cultures elicited with MJ dosages that either optimize or inhibit TIA production (250 or 1000μM). However, silencing Zct1 was not sufficient to increase TIA production or the expression of the TIA biosynthetic genes (G10h, Tdc, and Str), illustrating the tight regulation of TIA biosynthesis. The repression of the TIA biosynthetic genes at the inhibitory MJ dosage does not appear to be solely regulated by ZCT1. For instance, while Zct1 and Zct2 levels decreased through activating the Zct1 hairpin, Zct3 levels remained elevated. Since ZCT repressors have redundant yet distinct functions, silencing all three ZCTs may be necessary to relieve their repression of alkaloid biosynthesis.

  10. 土壤条件对长春花生物碱含量的影响%Effects of Different Soil on Alkaloid Content of Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何际婵; 董志超; 王建荣; 晏小霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To studied three kinds of Alkaloid contents of Catharanthus roseus ( L.) G. Don ( bright - eyes, rose periwinkle, Madagascar periwinkle) in different soil. Methods: Rp - Hplc method was used to determine the contents of vinblastine, catharanthus and vindohne from C. roseus. Results: Contents were the highest under sandy soil, with the values being 0. 0058,0. 0317 ,0. 0823mg/mL respectively. Conclusion: C. roseus growing in coastal saline soil can improve the contents of vinblastine, catharanthus and vindoline.%目的:研究不同土壤条件对长春花体内3种生物碱含量的影响.方法:采用反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)法测定不同土壤下长春花中长春碱、长春质碱、文多灵含量.结果:沙质壤土中长春碱、长春质碱、文多灵含量最高,分别为0.0058、0.0317、0.0823mg/mL.结论:以沙质壤土种植长春花可提高其植株体内长春碱、长春质碱、文多灵的含量.

  11. Cytosine hypomethylation at CHG and CHH sites in the pleiotropic mutants of Mendelian inheritance in Catharanthus roseus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Kumari; Gitanjali Yadav; Vishakha Sharma; Vinay Sharma; Sushil Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The 5S and 18S rDNA sequences of Catharanthus roseus cv ‘Nirmal’ (wild type) and its leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill) single mutants and lli egd, lli ill and egd ill double mutants were characterized. The lli, egd and ill mutants of Mendelian inheritance bore the names after their most conspicuous morphological feature(s). They had been chemically induced and isolated for their salt tolerance. The double mutants were isolated as morphological segregants from crosses between single mutants. The morphological features of the two parents accompanied salt tolerance in the double mutants. All the six mutants were hypomethylated at repeat sequences, upregulated and downregulated for many genes and carried pleiotropic alterations for several traits. Here the 5S and 18S rDNAs of C. roseus were found to be relatively low in cytosine content. Cytosines were preponderantly in CG context (53%) and almost all of them were methylated (97%). The cytosines in CHH and CHG (where H = A, T or C) contexts were largely demethylated (92%) in mutants. The demethylation was attributable to reduced expression of RDR2 and DRM2 led RNA dependant DNA methylation and CMT3 led maintenance methylation pathways. Mutants had gained some cytosines by substitution of C at T sites. These perhaps arose on account of errors in DNA replication, mediated by widespread cytosine demethylation at CHG and CHH sites. It was concluded that the regulation of cytosine methylation mechanisms was disturbed in the mutants. ILL, EGD and LLI genes were identified as the positive regulators of other genes mediating the RdDM and CMT3 pathways, for establishment and maintenance of cytosine methylation in C. roseus.

  12. 长春花(Catharanthus roseus)中吲哚类生物碱含量的比较%Comparative Study on the Contents of Indole Alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 祖元刚; 牛卉颖; 张颜滨; 孙志强

    2008-01-01

    建立了反相高效液相法测定长春花中吲哚类生物碱文多灵、长春质碱和阿玛碱含量的方法,色谱柱为HiQ sil C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相为1%二乙胺水溶液(磷酸调pH=7.2)-甲醇-乙腈/2:1:1(V/V);流速为1 mL·min-1;检测波长为215 nm;柱温为40℃.并采用此方法对长春花根、茎、叶、花和种子以及不同产地的长春花中的这3种生物碱进行了检测,结果表明文多灵和长春质碱主要存在于在根、茎、叶、花中,阿玛碱主要存在于种子中;并且随着地理位置的北移,长春花中的文多灵和长春质碱的含量逐渐降低,温室中人为控制长春花中的栽培条件能提高二者的含量.%A RP-HPLC quantification method was established to determine the contents of three indole alkaloids-vindoline, catharanthine and ajmalicine in Catharanthus roseus. HiQ sil C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) was used. The mobile phase was 1% diethylamine(pH=7.2)-methanol-acetonitrile/2:1:1(V/V). The detection wavelength was 215 nm. The flow rate was 1 mL·min-1. The column temperature was 40℃. Different parts of C. roseus were determined and the results showed that vindoline and catharanthine mainly existed in roots, stems, leaves and flowers, while ajmalicine mainly existed in seeds. C. roseus from different habitats were also determined by this method and the results showed that the contents of vindoline and catharanthine in south habitats samples were higher than those in north habitats. For the cultured C. roseus in greenhouse, both vindoline and catharanthine contents were enhanced greatly.

  13. Assessing the limitations to terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures through gene expression profiling and precursor feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goklany, Sheba; Loring, Ralph H; Glick, James; Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T

    2009-01-01

    The production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) from Catharanthus roseus is partly regulated at the transcriptional level. In this study, limitations in TIA biosynthesis from C. roseus hairy root cultures were assessed through gene expression profiling and precursor feeding. The transcript levels of key TIA pathway genes (G10h, Tdc, Str, and Sgd) and metabolite levels associated with the TIA pathway (tryptamine, loganin, secologanin, strictosidine, ajmalicine, serpentine, and tabersonine) were monitored using quantitative RT-PCR and HPLC, respectively. In cultures elicited with methyl jasmonate (250 microM MeJA on day 21), G10h, Tdc, Str, and Sgd expression increased by 9.1, 3.1, 6.7, and 8.3-fold, respectively, after 24 h. Up-regulation of gene expression was followed by a 160, 440, and 420% increase in strictosidine, ajmalicine, and tabersonine levels, respectively, after 5 days. Precursors loganin, tryptamine, or their combination were fed to noninduced and MeJA-induced cultures to complement the above studies. TIA production was not significantly enhanced in either noninduced or MeJA-induced cultures with precursor feeding. In noninduced cells, steps downstream of loganin and tryptamine were limiting (SLS, STR, or SGD) because either loganin or tryptamine accumulated in the cells with precursor feeding. These bottlenecks were partly overcome in MeJA-induced cultures as the expression of Str and Sgd genes and TIA production increased. However, secologanin accumulated in MeJA-induced cultures with precursor feeding, suggesting that STR was likely limiting under MeJA-induced conditions.

  14. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Kumari; Vishakha Sharma; Vinay Sharma; Sushil Kumar

    2013-12-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants ofMendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein-coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. The mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). The Southern-blot analysis of MspI digested DNAs of mutants probed with centromeric and 5S and 18S rDNA probes indicated that, in comparison to wild type, the mutants were extensively demethylated at cytosine sites. Among the 126 genes investigated for transcriptional expression, 85 were upregulated and 41 were downregulated in mutants. All of the five genes known to be stress responsive had increased expression in mutants. Several miRNA genes showed either increased or decreased expression in mutants. The C. roseus counterparts of CMT3, DRM2 and RDR2 were downregulated in mutants. Among the cell, organ and plant size, photosynthesis and metabolism related traits studied, 28 traits were similarly affected in mutants as compared to wild type. Each of the mutants also expressed some traits distinctively. The egd mutant possessed superior photosynthesis and water retention abilities. Biomass was hyperaccumulated in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the lli mutant. The ill mutant was richest in the pharmaceutical alkaloids catharanthine, vindoline, vincristine and vinblastine. The nature of mutations, origins of mutant phenotypes and evolutionary importance of these mutants are discussed.

  15. Larvicidal efficacy of Catharanthus roseus Linn. (Family:Apocynaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticideBacillus thuringiensis againstAnopheles stephensi Liston

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Kadarkarai Murugan; Kalimuthu Kovendan; Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar; Sekar Ponarulselvam; Duraisamy Amerasan; Jayapal Subramaniam; Jiang-Shiou Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the larvicidal activity ofCatharanthus roseus(C. roseus) leaf extract and Bacillus thuringiensis(B. thuringiensis) against the malarial vectorAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi), when being used alone or together.Methods:The larvicidal activity was assayed at various concentrations under the laboratory and field conditions.TheLC50 andLC90 values of theC. roseus leaf extract were determined by probit analysis.Results:The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after24 h of exposure;however, the highest larval mortality was found in the petroleum ether extract ofC. roseus against the first to fourth instars larvae withLC50=3.34,4.48, 5.90 and8.17 g/L, respectively;B. thuringiensis against the first to fourth instars larvae with LC50=1.72,1.93,2.17 and2.42 g/L, respectively; and the combined treatment withLC50=2.18,2.41, 2.76 and3.22 g/L, respectively.No mortality was observed in the control.Conclusions:The petroleum ether extract ofC. roseus extract andB. thuringiensis have potential to be used as ideal eco-friendly agents for the control ofAn. stephensi in vector control programs.The combined treatment with this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin has better larvicidal efficacy against An. stephensi.

  16. Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Han

    Full Text Available In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS, a new (type I DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR, respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms, DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.

  17. Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Heppel, Simon C; Su, Tao; Bogs, Jochen; Zu, Yuangang; An, Zhigang; Rausch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), a new (type I) DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS) and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR)), respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms), DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS) were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.

  18. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers for the application of selective clean-up vinblastine from Catharanthus roseus extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic tailor-made polymers with high selectivity towards a particular substance (template).An MIP using vinblastine (VLB) as the template molecule was synthesized and characterized.The presence of monomer-template complexes in a non-covalent way was confirmed by UV-vis spectrometry analysis.The polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer,ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linking agent,and toluene as the porogenic solvent by a thermo-polymerization method.The characterization of the obtained MIP was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis.It was observed that the morphology of the MIP was more porous and rough,and the surface area had a significant increase compared with that of the non-imprinted polymer (NIP).This MIP was used as the sorbents of solid-phase extraction (SPE) to assess the selectivity of the MIP after optimization of the SPE protocol.VLB was specifically adsorbed on the MIP cartridge,while to vincristine (VCR),the chemical analog of VLB,almost no selective binding appeared.On the basis of the results,Catharanthus roseus extract was applied to the MIP cartridge for investigating its capability to extract VLB from the plant extract,and the capacity of the MIP cartridge was also evaluated.It was shown that the MIP could effectively enrich VLB from C.roseus extract and the recovery amounted to 93.8%.The solvents dissolving the samples had significant influence on the capacity of the MIP cartridge;it was 750 μg/g in toluene,625 μg/g in chloroform,and 250 μg/g in methanol.

  19. Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The elemental composition in both leaves and flowers of C. roseus were found to be different. Therefore, different parts of this medicinal plant are enriched in some micro and macro nutrients like Fe, Ca, Na, K, Zn, which are very important for biological metabolic system as well as human health.

  20. Alkaloid variations in Catharanthus roseus seedlings treated by different temperatures in short term and long term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-rui; YANG Lei; YU Jing-hua; TANG Zhong-hua; ZU Yuan-gang

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of high temperature on variations of alkaloid metabolism in C. Roseus seedlings in Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Northeast Forestry University, Heilongiang, China. 60-day-old C. Roseus seedlings with 3-4 pairs of leaves were incubated in chambers with temperature of 30℃ and 40℃ for short-term heat shock experiment and 20℃, 25℃ and 35℃ for long-term experiment. The contents ofvindoline, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine in C. Roseus leaves and root were checked at different temperatures in short term (1-6 h) and long term (1-16 d). Results showed that under short-term heat shock, the contents of vindoline,catharanthine and vinblastine in leaves of the seedlings were higher at 40℃ than at 30℃, but after 6 h treatment, the contents of vindoline and catharanthine under the two temperatures came to the same level. Catharanthine was exclusively distributed in C. Roseus roots and its content was increased by 40% after two hours incubation at 40℃, while increased slowly at 30℃ incubation and reached the highest value at 6 h. In the Long-term experiment, concentrations of monomeric alkaloids catharanthine and vindoline were higher at 20℃ than at 25℃ and had a sharp increase under the condition of 35℃. While for dimeric alkaloid, it showed that the higher the temperature, the earlier the peak value of vinblastine content appears. Vincristine had a continuous enhancement and attained 0.027 mg·g-1 at 16th day under 35℃ condition which was higher than those in the other conditions. It was concluded that high temperature could promote the accumulation of different alkaloids in C roseus and the accumulation characteristic is highly related to treatment time.

  1. Salicylic acid restrains nickel toxicity, improves antioxidant defence system and enhances the production of anticancer alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2013-05-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to ameliorate various stresses in plants. In order to explore the role of SA under nickel (Ni) stress, thirty-days old plants of periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) were supplied with eight treatments comprising basal application of Ni (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg kg(-1)) and foliar application of SA (0 and 10(-5)M) under net house conditions. Ni application significantly reduced the growth attributes including plant height, leaf-area index and fresh and dry weights of shoot and root. Increasing Ni concentration led to a gradual decrease in photosynthetic parameters and activities of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase. The plants, undergoing Ni stress, exhibited a significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase together with an increase in electrolyte leakage and proline content. Total alkaloid content was also declined in Ni-treated plants. Foliar application of SA (10(-5)M) reduced the deleterious effects of Ni on plant growth, accelerating the restoration of growth processes. SA also improved the total alkaloid content under normal as well as adverse conditions. Foliar spray of SA significantly improved the content of anticancer alkaloids vincristine (by 22.2%) and vinblastine (by 50.0%) in plants treated with 150 mg kg(-1) of Ni.

  2. Ornamental exterior versus therapeutic interior of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus): the two faces of a versatile herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Valdiani, Alireza; Cahill, David; Tan, Yee-How; Maziah, Mahmood; Abiri, Rambod

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) known as Madagascar periwinkle (MP) is a legendary medicinal plant mostly because of possessing two invaluable antitumor terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), vincristine and vinblastine. The plant has also high aesthetic value as an evergreen ornamental that yields prolific blooms of splendid colors. The plant possesses yet another unique characteristic as an amiable experimental host for the maintenance of the smallest bacteria found on earth, the phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas, and serves as a model for their study. Botanical information with respect to synonyms, vernacular names, cultivars, floral morphology, and reproduction adds to understanding of the plant while the geography and ecology of periwinkle illustrate the organism's ubiquity. Good agronomic practices ensure generous propagation of healthy plants that serve as a source of bioactive compounds and multitudinous horticultural applications. The correlation between genetic diversity, variants, and TIA production exists. MP is afflicted with a whole range of diseases that have to be properly managed. The ethnobotanical significance of MP is exemplified by its international usage as a traditional remedy for abundant ailments and not only for cancer. TIAs are present only in micro quantities in the plant and are highly poisonous per se rendering a challenge for researchers to increase yield and reduce toxicity.

  3. Direct regeneration of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus via node explants culture and different combinations of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Talebi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L., Apocynaceae contains more than 130 different terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, of which two dimeric alkaloids, Vinblastine and Vincristine, have antineoplastic activity and are useful in treatment of various cancers. Specific production of some alkaloids in differentiated tissues such as leaf and stem led to use direct regeneration of explants in order to increase the production of these important alkaloids in the plant. In this research, 30 combinations of plant growth regulators and activated charcoal were used in MS media for direct regeneration of node explants. Application of BAP in media containing 1 g/l activated charcoal showed the best direct regeneration of node explants and shoot proliferation. Although application of activated charcoal is necessary for periwinkle growth in media due to many phenolic compounds, but it has negative effects on adsorption of plant growth regulators and consequently reduce shoot proliferation. Therefore, it seems that 1 g/l activated charcoal is an appropriate concentration for preparing shoot proliferation media. In addition, transporting regenerated shoots to culture media containing NAA resulted in increasing shoot length. Proliferated shoots rooted in media without PGR and with 2 g/l activated charcoal and acclimated with environmental conditions after transferring to the soil.

  4. Volatile composition of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pinho, P Guedes; Gonçalves, Rui F; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, David M; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B; Sottomayor, Mariana

    2009-04-05

    A total of 88 volatile and semi-volatile components were formally or tentatively identified in flowers, leaves and stems of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (cv. Little Bright Eye), by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and by dichloromethane extraction, combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These include some diterpenic compounds (manool and manoyl oxides), a sesquiterpen (alpha-bisabolol), and some pyridine, pyrazine, indol and carotenoid derivatives. Applying multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchic cluster analysis) to the HS-SPME-GC-MS data, it was possible to characterize each part of the vegetal material using a relative small number of compounds. Hence, flowers were richer in terpenic molecules (including limonene), alpha-bisabolol, methyljasmonate, cis-jasmone, 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, trans-2-octenal, benzylic alcohol and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine. Leaves can be characterized by the methyl and propyl esters of fatty acids, mono- and disaturated, trans-phytol, carotenoid derivative compounds, hydrofarnesylacetone, methylanthranilate, manool and epi-manool oxide, while stems have high levels of volatile aldehydes, such as hexanal, octanal, cis-2-nonenal, cis-2-decenal, cis, trans-2,6-nonadienal, trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and cis, trans-2,4-decadienal. Dichloromethane extraction allowed also the identification of some alkaloid-like compounds that were not detected by HS-SPME.

  5. Ornamental Exterior versus Therapeutic Interior of Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus: The Two Faces of a Versatile Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Nejat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. known as Madagascar periwinkle (MP is a legendary medicinal plant mostly because of possessing two invaluable antitumor terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, vincristine and vinblastine. The plant has also high aesthetic value as an evergreen ornamental that yields prolific blooms of splendid colors. The plant possesses yet another unique characteristic as an amiable experimental host for the maintenance of the smallest bacteria found on earth, the phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas, and serves as a model for their study. Botanical information with respect to synonyms, vernacular names, cultivars, floral morphology, and reproduction adds to understanding of the plant while the geography and ecology of periwinkle illustrate the organism’s ubiquity. Good agronomic practices ensure generous propagation of healthy plants that serve as a source of bioactive compounds and multitudinous horticultural applications. The correlation between genetic diversity, variants, and TIA production exists. MP is afflicted with a whole range of diseases that have to be properly managed. The ethnobotanical significance of MP is exemplified by its international usage as a traditional remedy for abundant ailments and not only for cancer. TIAs are present only in micro quantities in the plant and are highly poisonous per se rendering a challenge for researchers to increase yield and reduce toxicity.

  6. 长春花生物碱提取技术的研究进展%Research Progress on the Extraction Technology of Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓宁; 赵海福; 刘文博

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid is a kind of nitrogen-containing organic compounds that widely existed in the nature,which is of special medicinal value. The extraction, separation and content determination methods of alkaloid from natural medicinal herb Catharanthus roseus were summarized, so as to provide certain reference for the industrial production and scientific research of alkaloid in C. roseus.%生物碱广泛存在于自然界的动植物中,是一类含氮有机化合物,具有特殊药用价值。通过对天然药用植物长春花中生物碱的提取、分离和含量测定方法的总结,从而达到为长春花生物碱的工业生产和科学研究提供一定借鉴的目的。

  7. Sombreamento de plantas de Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don 'Pacifica White' por malhas coloridas: desenvolvimento vegetativo Shading of 'Pacifica White' Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don plants with colored nets: vegetative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Adriano Martins Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As malhas coloridas têm sido utilizadas para manipular o desenvolvimento vegetativo, melhorando a utilização da radiação solar por plantas ornamentais. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho estudar o efeito da redução de 50% da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa sobre o crescimento vegetativo de plantas de Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don, por meio de malhas azul e vermelha e malha preta, em comparação com plantas crescidas na ausência de sombreamento (pleno sol. As plantas foram obtidas a partir de sementes e tratadas por 180 dias. Foram avaliados o ganho de biomassa e a distribuição de matéria seca nas plantas, o conteúdo de pigmentos foliares (clorofilas e carotenóides e de nitrogênio foliar. A malha vermelha provocou um aumento de matéria seca total e de área foliar das plantas em comparação com as malhas azul, preta e ao tratamento a pleno sol, porém, exceto em relação a esse tratamento, a malha vermelha causou menor conteúdo de nitrogênio e pigmentos foliares. A maior relação raiz/parte aérea e relação clorofila a/b, menores razões de área foliar e de massa foliar das plantas crescidas a pleno sol em relação às plantas sombreadas indicam um efeito mais proeminente da irradiância mais alta do que da alteração do espectro de luz. O sombreamento altera significativamente a distribuição de matéria seca e o uso de malhas de diferentes cores modifica o conteúdo de pigmentos fotossintéticos dessa espécie.Colored shade nets have been used to manipulate the vegetative development, improving the utilization of solar radiation by ornamental plants. This work aimed to study the effect of 50% reduction of PAR on vegetative growth of plants of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don, using blue and red nets, and black net, in comparison to plants growing under full sunlight (lack of shading. The plants were obtained from seeds and treated for 180 days. Biomass increment and distribution, pigment content (chlorophylls and

  8. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of Catharanthus roseus hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase gene promoter from the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Olivia; Courdavault, Vincent; Melin, Céline; Lanoue, Arnaud; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Courtois, Martine; Oudin, Audrey

    2012-05-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle produces monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) of high interest due to their therapeutical values. The terpenoid moiety of MIA is derived from the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) and seco-iridoid pathways. These pathways are regarded as the limiting branch for MIA biosynthesis in C. roseus cell and tissue cultures. In previous studies, we demonstrated a coordinated regulation at the transcriptional and spatial levels of genes from both pathways. We report here on the isolation of the 5'-flanking region (1,049 bp) of the hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene from the MEP pathway. To investigate promoter transcriptional activities, the HDS promoter was fused to GUS reporter gene. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of young tobacco leaves revealed that the cloned HDS promoter displays a tissue-specific GUS staining restricted to the vascular region of the leaves and limited to a part of the vein that encompasses the phloem in agreement with the previous localization of HDS transcripts in C. roseus aerial organs. Further functional characterizations in stably or transiently transformed C. roseus cells allowed us to identify the region that can be consider as the minimal promoter and to demonstrate the induction of HDS promoter by several hormonal signals (auxin, cytokinin, methyljasmonate and ethylene) leading to MIA production. These results, and the bioinformatic analysis of the HDS 5'-region, suggest that the HDS promoter harbours a number of cis-elements binding specific transcription factors that would regulate the flux of terpenoid precursors involved in MIA biosynthesis.

  9. The Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don: Plastid Genome Evolution, Molecular Marker Identification, and Phylogenetic Implications in Asterids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chuan; Chung, Wan-Chia; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-01-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthusroseus in the family Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant and is the source of several widely marketed chemotherapeutic drugs. It is also commonly grown for its ornamental values and, due to ease of infection and distinctiveness of symptoms, is often used as the host for studies on phytoplasmas, an important group of uncultivated plant pathogens. To gain insights into the characteristics of apocynaceous plastid genomes (plastomes), we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete plastome of C. roseus, which could be applied to other C. roseus-related studies. The C. roseus plastome is the second completely sequenced plastome in the asterid order Gentianales. We performed comparative analyses with two other representative sequences in the same order, including the complete plastome of Coffeaarabica (from the basal Gentianales family Rubiaceae) and the nearly complete plastome of Asclepiassyriaca (Apocynaceae). The results demonstrated considerable variations in gene content and plastome organization within Apocynaceae, including the presence/absence of three essential genes (i.e., accD, clpP, and ycf1) and large size changes in non-coding regions (e.g., rps2-rpoC2 and IRb-ndhF). To find plastome markers of potential utility for Catharanthus breeding and phylogenetic analyses, we identified 41 C. roseus-specific simple sequence repeats. Furthermore, five intergenic regions with high divergence between C. roseus and three other euasterids I taxa were identified as candidate markers. To resolve the euasterids I interordinal relationships, 82 plastome genes were used for phylogenetic inference. With the addition of representatives from Apocynaceae and sampling of most other asterid orders, a sister relationship between Gentianales and Solanales is supported.

  10. The Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don: Plastid Genome Evolution, Molecular Marker Identification, and Phylogenetic Implications in Asterids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    Full Text Available The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthusroseus in the family Apocynaceae is an important medicinal plant and is the source of several widely marketed chemotherapeutic drugs. It is also commonly grown for its ornamental values and, due to ease of infection and distinctiveness of symptoms, is often used as the host for studies on phytoplasmas, an important group of uncultivated plant pathogens. To gain insights into the characteristics of apocynaceous plastid genomes (plastomes, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete plastome of C. roseus, which could be applied to other C. roseus-related studies. The C. roseus plastome is the second completely sequenced plastome in the asterid order Gentianales. We performed comparative analyses with two other representative sequences in the same order, including the complete plastome of Coffeaarabica (from the basal Gentianales family Rubiaceae and the nearly complete plastome of Asclepiassyriaca (Apocynaceae. The results demonstrated considerable variations in gene content and plastome organization within Apocynaceae, including the presence/absence of three essential genes (i.e., accD, clpP, and ycf1 and large size changes in non-coding regions (e.g., rps2-rpoC2 and IRb-ndhF. To find plastome markers of potential utility for Catharanthus breeding and phylogenetic analyses, we identified 41 C. roseus-specific simple sequence repeats. Furthermore, five intergenic regions with high divergence between C. roseus and three other euasterids I taxa were identified as candidate markers. To resolve the euasterids I interordinal relationships, 82 plastome genes were used for phylogenetic inference. With the addition of representatives from Apocynaceae and sampling of most other asterid orders, a sister relationship between Gentianales and Solanales is supported.

  11. Efficacy of larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Catharanthus roseus aqueous and solvent extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selladurai Subarani; Selvi Sabhanayakam; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango; Mohamed Abdul Kadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activities of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) against malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of C. roseus leaf extracts were tested against the fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). The mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h post the treatment. The data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) at which 50%and 90%of the treated larvae or pupae of the tested species were killed. Results:The larval and pupal mortality were observed after 24 and 48 h of exposure of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. roseus; no mortality was observed in the control group. The LC50 values against the fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were 68.62 and 72.04 mg/mL for the aqueous extract, 82.47 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract, and 78.80 and 86.64 mg/mL for the methanol extract, while the aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 85.21, 76.84 and 94.20 mg/mL against the fourth-instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 118.08, 182.47 and 143.80 mg/mL against the pupae of An. stephensi and 146.20, 226.84 and 156.62 mg/mL against the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Conclusions: The aqueous and methanol extracts of C. roseus leaves had an excellent potential to control the malarial vector An. stephensi and filariasis vector Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  12. Isolation of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don Nuclei and Measurement of Rate of Tryptophan decarboxylase Gene Transcription Using Nuclear Run-On Transcription Assay.

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    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available An accurate assessment of transcription 'rate' is often desired to describe the promoter activity. In plants, isolation of transcriptionally active nuclei and their subsequent use in nuclear run-on assays has been challenging and therefore limit an accurate measurement of gene transcription 'rate'. Catharanthus roseus has emerged as a model medicinal plant as it exhibits an unsurpassed spectrum of chemodiversity, producing over 130 alkaloids through the terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA pathway and therefore serves as a 'molecular hub' to understand gene expression profiles.The protocols presented here streamline, adapt and optimize the existing methods of nuclear run-on assay for use in C. roseus. Here, we fully describe all the steps to isolate transcriptionally active nuclei from C. roseus leaves and utilize them to perform nuclear run-on transcription assay. Nuclei isolated by this method transcribed at a level consistent with their response to external stimuli, as transcription rate of TDC gene was found to be higher in response to external stimuli i.e. when seedlings were subjected to UV-B light or to methyl jasmonate (MeJA. However, the relative transcript abundance measured parallel through qRT-PCR was found to be inconsistent with the synthesis rate indicating that some post transcriptional events might have a role in transcript stability in response to stimuli.Our study provides an optimized, efficient and inexpensive method of isolation of intact nuclei and nuclear 'run-on' transcription assay to carry out in-situ measurement of gene transcription rate in Catharanthus roseus. This would be valuable in investigating the transcriptional and post transcriptional response of other TIA pathway genes in C. roseus. Isolated nuclei may also provide a resource that could be used for performing the chip assay as well as serve as the source of nuclear proteins for in-vitro EMSA studies. Moreover, nascent nuclear run-on transcript could be further

  13. Effects of terpenoid precursor feeding on Catharanthus roseus hairy roots over-expressing the alpha or the alpha and beta subunits of anthranilate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Christie A M; Hong, Seung-Beom; Gibson, Susan I; Shanks, Jacqueline V; San, Ka-Yiu

    2006-02-20

    Among the pharmacologically important terpenoid indole alkaloids produced by Catharanthus roseus are the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. These two drugs are produced in small yields within the plant, which makes them expensive to produce commercially. Metabolic engineering has focused on increasing flux through this pathway by various means such as elicitation, precursor feeding, and introduction of genes encoding specific metabolic enzymes into the plant. Recently in our lab, a feedback-resistant anthranilate synthase alpha subunit was over-expressed in C. roseus hairy roots under the control of a glucocorticoid inducible promoter system. Upon induction we observed a large increase in the indole precursors, tryptophan, and tryptamine. The current work explores the effects of over-expressing the anthranilate synthase alpha or alpha and beta subunits in combination with feeding with the terpenoid precursors 1-deoxy-D-xylulose, loganin, and secologanin. In feeding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose to the hairy root line expressing the anthranilate synthase alpha subunit, we observed an increase of 125% in hörhammericine levels in the induced samples, while loganin feeding increased catharanthine by 45% in the induced samples. Loganin feeding to the hairy root line expressing anthranilate synthase alpha and beta subunits increases catharanthine by 26%, ajmalicine by 84%, lochnericine by 119%, and tabersonine by 225% in the induced samples. These results suggest that the terpenoid precursors to the terpenoid indole alkaloids are important factors in terpenoid indole alkaloid production.

  14. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves.

  15. Effects of co-administration of methanol leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin and glibenclamide in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ohadoma SC; Michael HU

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interacting effects of co-administration of methanol leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin as well as glibenclamide using experimental rats. Methods: Phytochemical analysis as well as acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) test were carried out on its methanol leaf extract. The alloxan model for experimental induction of diabetes in rats was employed. Six groups comprising five rats each were used. GroupsⅡ,ⅢandⅣreceived 250 mg/kg of extract, 100 mg/kg of metformin and 1 mg/kg of glibenclamide respectively, whileⅤandⅥwere administered metformin-extract and glibenclamide-extract combinations respectively at doses as above. GroupⅠserved as negative control and received only distilled water. All administration was done once daily for seven days. Fasting blood glucose was determined at 2, 12, 24, 72 and 168 h using a glucometer. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests was used to assess for significant difference due to administration of drug alone and with co-administration of drug and extract. Results:The LD50 was 2 121.32 mg/kg. The phytochemical studies indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phlotatannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, reducing sugars, anthraquinones and glycosides. All medicaments significantly reduced blood glucose levels when compared with control alone (P<0.05) with the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose (64.86%) exhibited by metformin-extract combination. Conclusions:The leaf extract of C. roseus significantly increases the hypoglycemic effect of metformin.

  16. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS Analysis of Indole Alkaloids Isolated from Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don Cultivated Conventionally and Derived from In vitro Cultures

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    Aneta WESOŁOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle is a medicinal plant commonly known for its wide biological activity. In many countries different parts of this plant are used for the treatment of diabetes, hypertension and for menstrual regulation. Due to the ability of production of alkaloids, which can be applied in cancer therapy, is still extensively investigated. Two, the most valuable alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine are present in C. roseus in very low concentrations. Micropropagation is promising technique used to enhance the level of important secondary metabolites. The main objective of present study was alkaloids extraction from plants cultivated conventionally and derived from in vitro cultures. In this order the aerial parts of periwinkle were extracted with 96% ethanol at room temperature (method I and heated with 96% ethanol at 55 °C for 90 minutes (method II. The obtained mixtures of different indole alkaloids were analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Analysis revealed the presence of 15 alkaloids, among which vindoline, vindorosine, isovindolinine and ajmalicine were the most abundant. The obtained results indicated that the propagation method had a significant effect on the percentage content of alkaloids in C. roseus herb. Plants derived from in vitro cultures were richer in vindorosine and vindoline, while conventionally cultivated – in tetrahydroalstonine and ajmalicine. Moreover, in case of isovindolinine, vindolinine and ajmalicine, extraction at 55 °C was more effective, while for pericyclivine – maceration at room temperature. Interestingly, the pericyclivine was not detected in the mixture of alkaloids obtained from periwinkle herb by the extraction at 55 °C.

  17. Aislamiento de consorcios de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares de plantas medicinales y su efecto en el crecimiento de vinca (Catharanthus roseus Isolation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi consortia from medicinal plants and their effectiveness on growth of vinca (Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA DE LA ROSA-MERA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consistió en propagar e identificar hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA recolectados de plantas medicinales (PM de áreas naturales de bosques mixtos, y seleccionar consorcios micorrícicos con base en la promoción del crecimiento de vinca Catharanthus roseus (L G. Don, planta medicinal cuyos alcaloides tienen propiedades antineoplásicas. En la primera fase experimental se recolectaron raíces y suelo rizosférico de 13 PM establecidas en campo para evaluar el porcentaje de colonización total (PCT y cuantificar el número de esporas; además, se tomó una parte del suelo para establecer plantas trampa en invernadero durante 10 meses, y posteriormente evaluar el PCT e identificar los principales géneros de HMA. Todas las PM en su condición natural presentaron colonización micorrícica, observándose cuatro géneros de HMA (Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora y Scutellospora, de los cuales Acaulospora y Glomus fueron los predominantes. En la segunda fase experimental se seleccionaron ocho consorcios con base en el PCT (> 40 % obtenido en las plantas trampa, que correspondieron a las muestras recolectadas de Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Castilleja tenuiflora Benth., Erigeron karvinskianus DC., Pimpinella anisum L., Plantago major L., Ricinus communis L., Rubus fruticosus L. y Rumex mexicanus Meisn. Estos consorcios fueron inoculados en plántulas de C. roseus para evaluar su capacidad de estimular el crecimiento de esta especie en condiciones de invernadero. Después de 70 días, a pesar de presentar un solo género predominante (Glomus, el consorcio aislado de R. mexicanus promovió de manera más consistente el crecimiento de C. roseus (número de hojas, área foliar y peso seco foliar en comparación con el resto de los consorcios micorrícicos.This study consisted on propagating and identifying arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF collected from medicinal plants (MP of natural areas of mixed forest (Estado de Mexico, and

  18. Molecular characterization of recombinant T1, a non-allergenic periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) protein, with sequence similarity to the Bet v 1 plant allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffer, Sylvia; Hamdi, Said; Lupinek, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Grote, Monika; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Scheiner, Otto; Kraft, Dietrich; Rideau, Marc; Valenta, Rudolf

    2003-07-01

    More than 25% of the population suffer from Type I allergy, an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease. Allergens with homology to the major birch ( Betula verrucosa ) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, belong to the most potent elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. T1, a cytokinin-inducible cytoplasmic periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ) protein, with significant sequence similarity to members of the Bet v 1 plant allergen family, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant T1 (rT1) did not react with IgE antibodies from allergic patients, and failed to induce basophil histamine release and immediate-type skin reactions in Bet v 1-allergic patients. Antibodies raised against purified rT1 could be used for in situ localization of natural T1 by immunogold electron microscopy, but did not cross-react with most of the Bet v 1-related allergens. CD analysis showed significant differences regarding secondary structure and thermal denaturation behaviour between rT1 and recombinant Bet v 1, suggesting that these structural differences are responsible for the different allergenicity of the proteins. T1 represents a non-allergenic member of the Bet v 1 family that may be used to study structural requirements of allergenicity and to engineer hypo-allergenic plants by replacing Bet v 1-related allergens for primary prevention of allergy.

  19. Indirect regeneration from in vitro leaf tissue of periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. in response to different treatments of plant growth regulators

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    B.E. Sayed-Tabatabaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. belongs to the Apocynaceae family and accumulates more than 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, of which two dimeric alkaloids Vinblastine and Vincristine have antineoplastic activity and are useful for treatment of various cancers. Therefore, the production of these drugs has been emphasized in plant tissue culture. In this research, 25 treatments of plant growth regulators to produce callus from leaf explants and seven treatments for regeneration of calli were considered. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of different hormonal treatments in the production of callus from leaf explants is significant (P<0.01. Application of 0.1 mg/L BAP and 5 mg/L NAA in nutrient media produced a lot of calli and roots. In addition, nutrient media containing activated charcoal and without it were found to be suitable for production of callus and regeneration, respectively. In conclusion, the results showed that indirect regeneration of leaf explants is not a suitable method for micropropagation of periwinkle due to difficult regeneration of callus, probability of mutation and lower number of produced branches. But this method can be utilized for production of secondary metabolites.

  20. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  1. Identification of a human ABCC10 orthologue in Catharanthus roseus reveals a U12-type intron determinant for the N-terminal domain feature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taissir El-Guizani; Clotilde Guibert; Saïda Triki; Benoit St-Pierre; Eric Ducos

    2014-04-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are members of a large superfamily of proteins that utilize ATP hydrolysis to translocate a wide range of substrates across biological membranes. In general, members of C subfamily (ABCC) are structurally characterized by an additional (N-terminal) transmembrane domain (TMD0). Phylogenetic analysis of plant ABCCs separates their protein sequences into three distinct clusters: I and II are plant specific whereas cluster III contains both human and plant ABCCs. Screening of the Plant Medicinal Genomics Resource database allowed us to identify 16 ABCCs partial sequences in Catharanthus roseus; two of which belong to the unique CrABCC1 transcript that we identified in cluster III. Genomic organization of CrABCC1 TMD0 coding sequence displays an AT-AC U12-type intron that is conserved in higher plant orthologues. We showed that CrABCC1, like its human orthologue ABCC10, produces alternative transcripts that encode protein sequences with a truncated form of TMD0 without the first transmembrane span (TM1). Subcellular localization of CrABCC1 TMD0 variants using yellow fluorescent protein fusions reveals that the TM1 is required for a correct routing of the TMD0 to the tonoplast. Finally, the specific repartition of CrABCC1 orthologues in some species suggests that this gene was lost several times during evolution and that its physiological function may, rely on a common feature of multicellular eukaryotes.

  2. Characterization of variation and quantitative trait loci related to terpenoid indole alkaloid yield in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of Catharanthus roseus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Suchi Srivastava; Richa Pandey; Sushil Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Improved Catharanthus roseus cultivars are required for high yields of vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine and/or serpentine and ajmalicine, the pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloids. An approach to derive them is to map QTL for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields, identify DNA markers tightly linked to the QTL and apply marker assisted selection. Towards the end, 197 recombinant inbred lines from a cross were grown over two seasons to characterize variability for seven biomass and 23 terpenoid indole alkaloids content-traits and yield-traits. The recombinant inbred lines were genotyped for 178 DNA markers which formed a framework genetic map of eight linkage groups (LG), spanning 1786.5 cM, with 10.0 cM average intermarker distance. Estimates of correlations between traits allowed selection of seven relatively more important traits for terpenoid indole alkaloids yields. QTL analysis was performed on them using single marker (regression) analysis, simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping procedures. A total of 20 QTL were detected on five of eight LG, 10 for five traits on LG1, five for four traits on LG2, three for one trait on LG3 and one each for different traits on LG three and four. QTL for the same or different traits were found clustered on three LG. Co-location of two QTL for biomass traits was in accord of correlation between them. The QTL were validated for use in marker assisted selection by the recombinant inbred line which transgressively expressed 16 traits contributory to the yield vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine from leaves and roots that possessed favourable alleles of 13 relevant QTL.

  3. Molecular Biology and Metabolic Engineering of the Indole Pathway In Catharanthus roseus( L.) G.Don%长春花萜类吲哚生物碱的分子生物学与代谢工程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢衍; 常凯; 郑月; 许宏宣; 杨春贤

    2012-01-01

    长春花不仅是重要抗癌药物,也是长春碱与长春新碱的唯一来源,并且还包含有其他多种药用成分.近年来,长春花次生代谢得到了广泛的研究,但仍有许多不明之处.该研究对长春花的研究进展进行了综述,详细阐述了长春花萜类吲哚生物碱合成的2大途径(莽草酸途径和萜类途径),介绍了该途径中已克隆的部分基因及相关酶,总结了近年来长春花TIAs研究中的代谢工程策略,以期为长春花萜类吲哚生物碱的后续研究提供参考依据.%Catharanthus roseus is the only source for the powerful antitumor drugs of vinblastine and vincristine, it also contains some other pharmaceutical compounds, Althrough C. roseus has been studied extensively, many details of its alkaloid pathway are still unknown. In this paper, the research advances in C. roseus were reviewed, the indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathways of C. roseus, including shikimic acid pathway and lerpenoid pathway, were expounded in details, the enzymes and genes involved in the indole alkaloid biosynthesis were intro-duced. Finally, the recent research progress of periwinkle TIAs combined with metabolic engineering strategy was summarized. The study aims to offer reference for the follow-up studies on the terpenoids indoles alkaloid of C. roseus.

  4. Analysis of iridoids content and expression studies of genes encoding early enzymes in the indol terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Catharanthus roseus Análisis de iridoides y expresión de genes que codifican enzimas tempranas en la síntesis de alcaloides indol terpenoicos en Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leech Mark

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA are of pharmaceutical importance, however the industrial use of these compouds is very limited because its accumulation is very low in plant tissues. TIA are derived f rom the shikimate and terpenoid pathways, which supply secologanin and tryptamine, the indole and iridoid moieties, respectively. Secololganin is a terpenoid which is belived to be synthesised the MEP pathway rather than by the acetate/mevalonic acid pathway. Secologanin is thought to be a limiting molecule in the biosynthesis of TIAs. Levels of loganic acid, loganin and secologanin were measured by HPLC using tissue derived from different parts of Catharanthus roseus plants. Higher levels of secologanin were found in second pair of leaves. Transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in the early steps of the iridoid pathway were also monitored by northern blots of RNA f rom C. roseus plants. The effect of the elicitor molecule methyl jasmonate in the transcription of genes was also studied. The results obtained in the present work suggest that in young aerial tissues of the plant, the MEP pathway could be more active than the acetate/mevalonic acid pathway. Moreover, there is a clear effect of MeJA in the transcription of the genes studied. Key words: Secondary metabolism, terpenoid indol alcaloids, methyl jasmonate, mevalonate pathway, secologanin.Los alcaloides indol terpenoicos (TIA son metabolitos secundarios de importancia medicinal por sus propiedades como agentes anticancerígenos, entre otras. Sin embargo, su explotación en la industria farmacéutica se ha visto limitada, ya que la acumulación de estos compuestos en las plantas que los producen es mínima. Dichos alcaloides son biosintetizados por la vía del shikimato y de los terpenoides, los cuales proveen los precursores: secologanina y triptamina, respectivamente. La secologanina es sintetizada vía terpenoides, y estudios preliminares sugieren que es sintetizada vía del

  5. Optimization of Extraction Method of Vinblastine Catharanthine and Vindoline from Fresh Catharanthus Roseus%从新鲜长春花中提取长春碱、长春质碱和文多林的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何际婵; 董志超; 王建荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the optimal procedure of extracting vinblastine,catharanthine and vindoline from fresh Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don (bright-eyes,rose periwinkle,Madagascar periwinkle).Methods:The extraction method was optimized with orthogonal experimental design and RP-HPLC method was used to determine the contents of vinblastine,catharanthine and vindoline from fresh C.roseus.Results:The orthogonal experimental result showed that the optimal condition was as follows:ratio of fresh C.roseus (g) and solvent (mL) was 1:10,extracting time of 14 hours and pH value was 0.5.Conclusion:It can increase the extraction yield of effective components from fresh C.roseus.The optimal method is simple and useful for the large-scale production.%目的:研究从新鲜长春花提取长春碱、长春质碱和文多林的最佳工艺.方法:采用L.(34)正交设计进行新鲜长春花浸提工艺筛选,同时采用RP-HPLC法测定长春碱、长春质碱和文多林的含量.结果:最佳新鲜长春花浸提工艺为液料比1∶10,浸提时间为14 h,浸提液的pH值为0.5.结论:从新鲜长春花中提取长春碱、长春质碱和文多林具有较高的提取率,且该提取方法简单,适合工业生产.

  6. Effects of Low Light Stress on the Biomass Distribution and Secondary Metabolism of Catharanthus roseus%弱光胁迫对大田长春花生物量分配及次生代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟璐; 张宝友; 唐中华; 郭晓瑞; 贾雪莹; 于景华

    2011-01-01

    以长春花(Catharanthus rosetts(L.)Don.)为材料,研究了田间栽培长春花在全光和20%透光率下,经过-个生长季后生物量配置、抗氧化次生代谢产物和文朵灵、长春质碱、长春碱等目的活性物质含量的变化.研究结果表明,弱光条件显著抑制了长春花植株总生物量增长,特别是抑制了有性生殖的投入;弱光组叶片总酚和总黄酮含量显著降低,干重含量分别为对照组的62.50%和50.00%,原花青素含量则略有升高,但与全光组的差异不显著;弱光组叶片文朵灵和长春质碱含量显著高于对照组,长春碱含量略有上升但差异不显著,受生物量降低影响,3种生物碱的产量均显著下降.上述结果表明,长春花能够调控生理代谢以适应低光强环境,特别是文朵灵和长春质碱含量提升显著,林下低光强环境种植长春花可以满足土地资源充分利用和文朵灵、长春质碱优质原料的需求.%Under full exposure and 20% exposure to light, the field-cultivated Catharanthus roseus ( L. ) Don. was used to investigate the changes of biomass distribution, antioxidative secondary metabolites and contents of objective active products such as vindohn, catharanthine and vinblastine after a growing season. The results indicated that the total biomass of C. roseus was extremely restrained by the low light intensity, especially the investment of generative propagation; the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in leaves under low light intensity decreased distinctly, and the contents of dry weight were 62.50% and 50.00% of the control, respectively, while the content of proanthocyanidins increased slightly, but not remarkably as compared to the full exposure group; vindolin and catharanthine contents under low light intensity were much higher than that of control while vinblastine content increased slightly; the contents of three alkaloids all reduced, which was affected by the reduction of biomass

  7. An Efficient Transgenic System of Catharanthus roseus Mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogens%发根农杆菌介导的长春花高效转基因体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨致荣; 王兴春; 薛金爱; 李润植

    2012-01-01

    以长春花幼叶为外植体建立了发根农杆菌介导的长春花高效遗传转化体系,主要技术环节为:用携带有基因表达载体的发根农杆菌R1000侵染幼嫩叶片,侵染的叶片外植体与发根农杆菌共培养2d,外植体移至除菌培养基除菌培养2~3周,切取外植体上诱导长出的毛状根置于筛选培养基上培养1~2周,最后对筛选出的阳性毛状根无性系进行扩繁.筛选出的阳性毛状根经GUS染色和PCR分子鉴定表明,该方法的发根诱导率和阳性转化率分别为82%±2.49%和100%.该转化方法所获得的毛状根系数量大、质量高、遗传稳定且所需时间短,明显优于现有的长春花遗传转化技术,是长春花遗传转化的高效便捷体系.%In this study, an efficient genetic transformation system of Catharanthus roseus with Agrobacterium rhizogenes was developed. The main steps of the system include infecting young leaf explants from the steriled seedlings of C. roseus with A. rhizogenes R1000 harboring an expression vector, and then co-culturing the infected leaf explants with the bacteria for two days, followed by disinfecting culture of the infected explants in the disinfected medium for two to three weeks. Putative transformed hairy roots were excised from the explants and further selected in the selection medium containing antibiotics. The positive hairy root lines were used for propagation in liquid medium. The GUS histochemical stain and PCR amplification of the genes in Ri plasmid and expression vector revealed that the induction rate of hairy root and positive transformation rate were 82%.49% and 100%, respectively. The hairy roots obtained by this protocol are high quality, vast growth and genetic stability, and are much better than those obtained by other methods. This transgenic protocol provides a valuable and efficient method for C. roseus transformation.

  8. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factors in medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus%药用植物长春花WRKY转录因子的鉴定及表达谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨致荣; 王兴春; 薛金爱; 孟令芝; 李润植

    2013-01-01

    WRKY是调控植物生长发育和逆境胁迫反应等生命活动的一个转录因子大家族.然而,有关药用植物长春花CrWRKY转录因子的种类和功能却知之甚少.从26 009个长春花蛋白中鉴定出47个CrWRKY转录因子.依据WRKY结构域和系统进化,将CrWRKY分为G1、G2和G3三大类群.表达谱数据分析表明,长春花CrWRKY基因的表达具有器官特异性.47个CrWRKY基因的表达谱可分为3种表达模式:第1类型主要在花、甲基茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)或酵母提取物(YE)处理的原生质体中高表达;第2类型主要在茎和毛状根中高表达;第3类型在根、茎、叶、幼苗和MeJA处理的毛状根中高表达.进一步用实时定量PCR检测了16个代表性CrWRKY基因在不同器官、MeJA处理原生质体和毛状根中的表达模式,检测结果与上述数字基因表达谱数据基本一致.约1/3以上CrWRKY基因的表达受MeJA和YE的调控,暗示它们可能参与萜类吲哚生物碱的合成和逆境胁迫反应.为进一步解析长春花WRKY转录因子的功能和萜类吲哚生物碱合成调控的网络奠定了基础.%WRKY transcription factors,one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants,involve in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as stress responses.However,little is known about the types and functions of WRKY transcription factors in Catharanthus roseus,an important medicinal plant.In this study,we identified 47 CrWRKY transcriptional factors from 26 009 proteins in Catharanthus roseus,and classified them into three distinct groups (G1,G2 and G3) according to the structure of WRKY domain and evolution of the protein family.The expression profiling showed that these CrWRKY genes expressed in a tissue/organ specific manner.The 47 CrWRKY genes were clustered into three types of expression patterns.The first type includes the CrWRKYs highly expressed in flowers and the protoplast treated with methy jasmonate

  9. Regulación transcripcional de genes involucrados en la producción de alcaloides indol-terpenoides en plántulas de Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Pedro J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Cathmnthus roseus es una planta medicinal productora de varios alcaloides indol terpenoides (AIT con actividad farmacológica. Empleando plantas y cultivos celulares de C. roseus la ruta biosintética de AIT ha sido determinada, además, un considerable número de sus enzimas ha sido caracterizado y sus respectivos genes clonados. La producción de AIT en plantas y cultivos celulares de C. roseus está altamente regulada a nivel transcripcional, es dependiente de los estados de desarrollo y puede ser alterada, entre otros factores, por sometimiento a estrés luminoso y tratamiento con elicitores bióticos y abióticos. Estudios sobre la regulación de los genes involucrados en la biosíntesis de AIT han sido llevados a cabo en cultivos celulares, sin embargo poco se conoce acerca de la regulación de los mismos en plantas. En los experimentos reportados aqui, se presenta un examen cualitativo de los niveles de expresión de los genes idcr strl, d4h y dat que codifican enzimas importantes en la biosíntesis de AIT en plántulas de C. roseus en una serie de desarrollo que comprende O a 18 días. Además, se analiza el efecto del estrés hídrico, luminoso y de la elicitación con metil jasmonato (Meja y ácido acetil salicílico (ASA. La comparación entre la evidencia experimental obtenida con plántulas en el presente artículo y los datos reportados en estudios con suspensiones celulares sugiere que la regulación transcripcional de algunos genes difiere de manera considerable. 

  10. 硝普钠对NaCI胁迫下长春花幼苗光合及生物碱的影响%EFFECTS OF SNP ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ALKALOID CONTENT OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS SEEDLINGS UNDER NaCl STRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凡波; 隆小华; 刘玲; 刘兆普

    2011-01-01

    A sand culture experiment was conducted in greenhouse to study the effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor(SNP) on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and alkaloids contents of Catharanthus roseus seedlings under 50 mmol L"1 NaCl stress. The results show: ( 1 ) 0. 1 mmol L~' SNP was the highest in effect of alleviating the stress caused by 50 mmol L "' NaCl, and significantly increased fresh weight, dry weight, Pn, Gs, Tr and POD activity by 18. 8% , 13. 9% , 20. 7% , 19. 1% , 8. 5% and 32. 6% respectively, but decreased Ci by 10. 3% as against Treatment Sj (50 mmol L" NaCl). (2) In Treatment S4 , where the concentration of SNP increased to 0. 5 mmol L"1, the TDC activity, total indole alkaloids, Vinblastine, Catharanthine, Vincristine and Vindolin contents of the Catharanthus roseus were the highest, compared with Treatment S, , they increased 33.4%, 26.9%, 32. 3% , 27. 4% , 68. 8% and 50. 2% respectively. To sum up, 0. 1 mmol L~'SNP is the best at increasing photosynthesis , promoting growth and raising biomass, however 0. 5 mmol L "' SNP is the best at improving synthesis of total indole alkaloids and four main kinds of alkaloids.%在温室沙培条件下,研究了不同浓度外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)对50 mmol L-1NaC1胁迫下长春花幼苗生长、光合特性和生物碱的影响.结果表明:(1)在用0.05~2.0 mmol L-1 SNP缓解50 mmol L-1NaCl胁迫中,0.lmmol L-1 SNP缓解效果最好,长春花幼苗的鲜重、干重、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性分别较S1(50 mmol L - 1NaCl)处理显著增加18.8%、13.9%、20.7%、19.1%、8.5%和32.6%,而细胞间隙CO2浓度(Ci)较S1处理显著降低10.3%.(2)当SNP浓度增加到0.5mmol L-1时,色氨酸脱羧酶(TDC)活性、吲哚总碱、长春碱、长春质碱、长春新碱和文多灵含量均达到最高,分别较S1显著增加33.4%、26.9%、32.3%、27.4%、68.8%和50.2%.综上所述:在50 mmol L-1 NaCl胁迫下,0

  11. Retrobiosynthetic study of salicylic acid in Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustafa, Natali Rianika

    2007-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal compound in systemic acquired resistance in plants. The level of this C6C1 compound in plants increases after a pathogenic attack. There are two biosynthetic pathways of SA, the phenylalanine pathway, which is thought to occur in plants, and the isochorisma

  12. Study on the vindoline content change in Catharanthus roseus during one year%广州产长春花中文多灵生物碱的年内变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周高丽; 曾令杰; 赖宇清

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨广州长春花中文多灵生物碱在一年内的变化规律,为长春花GAP种植提供依据.方法 采用Yilite C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,10 μm),流动相为甲醇-水(62∶38,二乙胺调pH11),流速1 mL·min-1,检测波长254 nm.结果 采用HPLC测定了广州长春花不同样品中文多灵生物碱的含量.结论 一年的生长时期中,广州长春花中文多灵生物碱的含量差异较大.茎中文多灵的含量在10~2月处于上升阶段,2~9月总体处于下降阶段.叶中文多灵的含量则在10 ~3月与4~9月,分别呈现上升与下降的趋势.花与果中文多灵生物碱的含量动态变化与茎、叶相比,较为复杂.茎、叶、花、果中文多灵的含量分别在2月、3月、6月及4月达到最大值.%OBJECTIVE To study the change regularity of vindoline contents in periwinkle Catharanthus roseus Don. of Guangzhou during one year, and provide the basis for the GAP planting. METHODS Yilite C18 column was used with methanol -water (62:38) ( adjusted to pHll with diethylamine) serving as the mobile phase at flow rate oflmL. min~' , and detected at 254 nm. RESULTS The vindoline contents in periwinkle samples of Guangzhou were successfully determined with the method established. CONCLUSION The vindoline content in periwinkle samples of Guangzhou varied greatly in one year. The vindoline content in stem was raised from October to February and fell from February to September. In leaf, the vindoline content was up from October to March and down from April to September. The vindoline content in flower and fruit were more complex compared to stem and leaf. The maximum vindoline contents in stem, leaf, flower and fruit were in February, March,June and April,respectively.

  13. 共转orca3/g10h双基因长春花毛状根生物碱量及转录差异研究%Study on content of terpenoid indole alkaloids and transcriptional differences for covalent orca3/g10h in double-gene transgenic hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺璇; 朱帅旗; 龚一富; 刘林; 王小飞; 王何瑜

    2016-01-01

    Objective In order to improve the content of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs),orca3/g10h genes were introduced to the hairy roots in Catharanthus roseus.Methods Bivalent expression vector CAMBIA1304+ +orca3 + g10h was constructed and introduced into Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain and transformed into C.roseus to obtain transgenic hairy roots.RT-qPCR was used to study the transcriptional differences of relative genes referred to the biosynthesis pathway of TIAs.Then HPLC was used to study TIAs content in the transgenic hairy roots of C.roseus,including vinblastine,vincristine,and ajmalicine.Results The transcriptional level of genes that linked to biosynthesis of TIAs in the transgenic hairy roots ofC.roseus,asα,ggpps,g10h,str,tdc,cpr,sgd,and dat,were all expressed higher than those of the nontransgenic roots.HPLC results showed that modified hairy root of C.roseus owned more total TIAs production,58.23 mg/g,the number was larger than that of common roots in C.roseus as many as 27.5 times.On the other hand,the average content of vinblastine and vincristine was also more than the common roots in C.roseus.Among them,vinblastine content was the most.The number of production got 51.30 mg/g,which was as many as 197.3 times of the common root of C.roseus.Conclusion Orca3/g10h double-gene transgenic hairy root of C.roseus can increase TIAs content efficiently.%目的 共转orca3/g1 0h双基因于长春花毛状根,提高抗癌生物碱量.方法 通过构建pCAMBIA 1304++ orca3 +g10h表达载体,利用发根农杆菌介导获得双转orca3/g1 0h基因长春花毛状根.利用RT-qPCR研究共转orca3/g1oh基因长春花毛状根萜类吲哚生物碱(TIAs)生物合成途径中相关基因的转录差异.采用HPLC研究共转orca3/g1 0h基因长春花毛状根TIAs(包括长春碱、长春新碱和阿吗碱)量.结果 转基因长春花毛状根中与TIAs生物合成相关基因asα、ggpps、g10h、str、tdc、cpr、sgd和dat转录水平均较非转基因长春花普通

  14. 外源氮对盐胁迫条件下长春花生长和氮代谢途径的影响1)%Effects of Exogenously Supplied Nitrogen on Growth and Nitrogen Metabolism of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (l.) g.Don) under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 郭晓瑞

    2015-01-01

    With the periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don), we studied the growth characteristics and nitrogen metabolismof plant under exogenous nitrogen in different forms of exogenous nitrogen under salt stress.The effect of nitrogensource in different forms on the periwinkle plants upon non-salt stress was not significant.But nitrate reductase (NR) andsynthetase (GS) activity and total free amino acid amount were significantly higher when nitrate nitrogen and ammoniumnitrogen were mixed to be supplied.Under salt stress, the leaf biomass accumulation was significantly increased in mixtureof nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen.NR activity was improved significantly .Overall, when the nitrogen source wasmixed to be supplied, plant damage of salt stress was reduced on periwinkle.The key enzyme activity increased was relatedto ammonium metabolism enzymes in nitrogen metabolism.The right amount of ammonium ion can save the energy of thenitrate nitrogen from plant metabolism.%以药用植物长春花( Catharanthus roseus ( L.) G.Don)为对象,研究不同形态外源氮供应条件下,长春花生长发育与体内氮代谢响应盐胁迫的变化特点。结果表明,无盐胁迫条件下,不同形态氮源供应对长春花生长影响不显著,但硝态氮与氨态氮混合供应的情况下,硝酸还原酶( NR)和谷氨酰胺合成酶( GS)的活性及游离氨基酸总质量分数显著高于其他氮源条件下的;在盐胁迫条件下,硝态氮和氨态氮混合供应显著增加了叶片生物量积累,同时,NR活性也显著提高。总体上,混合氮源供应可以减少盐胁迫对长春花的伤害。这种作用可能与氮代谢过程中关键酶活性的增加有关,特别是与氨代谢有关的酶有关,适量的氨离子可以节省植物代谢硝态氮的能量。

  15. Effects of Nutrition and Environmental Factors on Growth and Alkaloid Production of Catharanthus Roseus Hairy-Roots%营养及环境因子对农杆菌诱导的长春花发根生长和生物碱生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红蕾; 张玉臻; 陶文沂

    2003-01-01

    将A4发根农杆菌感染长春花(Catharanthus roseus(L.)G.Don)后所长出的发根(hairy-root)进行培养,比较不同营养成分、碳源及初始糖浓度、外源激素以及温度和摇床转速对发根生长及产碱的影响.结果表明,当培养基为1/2B5培养基时发根生长良好;一定范围内初始糖浓度增加,有利于发根生长和生物碱生成;加入500mg/L的L-色氨酸利于发根的生长和产碱;将发根在28℃、75r/min的条件下悬浮培养10d可获得较高产量的生物碱.

  16. Endophytic bacterial community analysis of Catharanthus roseus and its association with huanglongbing pathogen%长春花内生细菌多样性与柑橘黄龙病菌的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 王中康; 谢攀; 吴东; 殷幼平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析感柑橘黄龙病长春花植株与健康长春花植株不同部位内生细菌菌群结构变化,为柑橘黄龙病菌与长春花内生细菌的相关性研究提供理论基础.[方法]本研究利用兼性厌氧可培养技术、16S rDNA 限制性片段长度多态性分析(Restriction fragment length polymorphism,RFLP)以及16S rDNA序列分析相结合的方法.[结果]分别从感病和健康长春花叶、茎、根的组织中分离获得67株内生细菌,与GenBank中29种细菌的相似性达到97% - 100%.其中短小杆菌属(Curtobacterium sp.)、欧文氏菌属(Erwinia sp.)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)为感病长春花内生细菌的优势菌群,鞘胺醇单胞菌属(Brevundimonas sp.)、芽胞杆菌属(Bacillus sp.)为健康长春花内生细菌的优势菌群;马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum)为两者的共同优势菌群.通过RFLP方法分析,感病株得到16个、健株得到23个操作分类单元(Operational Taxonomic Units,OTUs),感病植株中除柑橘黄龙病菌Candidatus Liberibacter asiatieus外,还有丰富的Candidatus Liberibacter sp.存在.[结论]感病与健康长春花植株中均含有丰富的内生细菌,黄龙病菌的存在改变了长春花原有内生细菌的菌群结构,且菌群多样性下降.可见长春花内生细菌在一定程度上受到柑橘黄龙病菌的抑制.%[Objective]To analyze the microbial diversity in heaithy and HLB-affected Catkaranthus roseus under manual-grafting conditions and to find the association between the endophytic bacteria and the HLB pathogen. [Methods] The endophytic bacterial communities were delineated by using the traditional culturable approach and cultivation-independent techniques based on 36S rRIVA gene. The endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized C. Roseus midribs of leaves and phloem of stems and roots by plating and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP). [ Results ] By anaerobic culture, we obtained 67

  17. Catharanthus roseus:a natural source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukunthan KS; Elumalai EK; Trupti N Patel; V Ramachandra Murty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple rapid procedure for bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus). Methods: Characterization were determined by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results: SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 67 nm to 48 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic geometry. Conclusions: C. roseus demonstrates strong potential for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0). This study provides evidence for developing large scale commercial production of value-added products for biomedical/nanotechnology-based industries.

  18. The seco-iridoid pathway from Catharanthus roseus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miettinen, K.; Dong, L.; Navrot, N.; Burlat, V.; Schneider, T.; Pollier, J.; Woittiez, L.S.; Krol, van der A.R.; Lugan, R.; Llc, T.; Verpoorte, R.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M.; Martinoia, E.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The (seco)iridoids and their derivatives, the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), form two large families of plant-derived bioactive compounds with a wide spectrum of high-value pharmacological and insect-repellent activities. Vinblastine and vincristine, MIAs used as anticancer drugs, are produc

  19. Elucidation of the secoiridoid pathway in Catharanthus roseus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miettinen, Karel

    2013-01-01

    The (seco)iridoids and their derivatives, the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), form two large families of plant-derived bioactive compounds with a wide spectrum of high-value pharmacological and insect-repellent activities. Vinblastine and vincristine, MIAs used as anti-cancer drugs, are produ

  20. Effect of composites based nickel foam anode in microbial fuel cell using Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter roseus as a biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Krishnaraj, Navanietha; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung; Lee, Patrick K H; Leung, Michael K H; Berchmans, Sheela

    2016-10-01

    This study explores the use of materials such as chitosan (chit), polyaniline (PANI) and titanium carbide (TC) as anode materials for microbial fuel cells. Nickel foam (NF) was used as the base anode substrate. Four different types of anodes (NF, NF/PANI, NF/PANI/TC, NF/PANI/TC/Chit) are thus prepared and used in batch type microbial fuel cells operated with a mixed consortium of Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter roseus as the biocatalysts and bad wine as a feedstock. A maximum power density of 18.8Wm(-3) (≈2.3 times higher than NF) was obtained in the case of the anode modified with a composite of PANI/TC/Chit. The MFCs running under a constant external resistance of (50Ω) yielded 14.7% coulombic efficiency with a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 87-93%. The overall results suggest that the catalytic materials embedded in the chitosan matrix show the best performance and have potentials for further development.

  1. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuangang Zu; Xiaorui Guo; Yujie Fu; Meng Luo; Wei Wang; Liuqing Yang; Fansong Mu

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL), catharanthine (CTR), vincristine (VCR) and vinblastine (VLB) from Catharanthus roseus leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of ...

  2. ZCT1 and ZCT2 transcription factors repress the activity of a gene promoter from the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway in Madagascar periwinkle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Mouadh; Ginis, Olivia; Courdavault, Vincent; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Lanoue, Arnaud; Clastre, Marc; Papon, Nicolas; Gaillard, Cécile; Atanassova, Rossitza; St-Pierre, Benoit; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Courtois, Martine; Oudin, Audrey

    2014-10-15

    In Catharanthus roseus, accumulating data highlighted the existence of a coordinated transcriptional regulation of structural genes that takes place within the secoiridoid biosynthetic branch, including the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the following steps leading to secologanin. To identify transcription factors acting in these pathways, we performed a yeast one-hybrid screening using as bait a promoter region of the hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene involved in the responsiveness of C. roseus cells to hormonal signals inducing monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) production. We identified that ZCT2, one of the three members of the zinc finger Catharanthus protein (ZCT) family, can bind to a HDS promoter region involved in hormonal responsiveness. By trans-activation assays, we demonstrated that ZCT1 and ZCT2 but not ZCT3 repress the HDS promoter activity. Gene expression analyses in C. roseus cells exposed to methyljasmonate revealed a persistence of induction of ZCT2 gene expression suggesting the existence of feed-back regulatory events acting on HDS gene expression in correlation with the MIA production.

  3. Crescimento, alocação de biomassa e abordagem fitoquímica de plantas de Catharanthus roseus (l.)g.don em função da adubação orgânica e época de colheita

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Manuela Martins

    2014-01-01

    O gênero Catharanthus pertence à família Apocynaceae e é composto por 8 espécies. Sob o aspecto medicinal, são atribuidas propriedades anticancerígenas, sendo os alcatóides as substâncias associadas a esse efeito. Os estudos sobre influências ambientais, como adubação e época de colheita, que interferem nas condições de cultivo de espécies medicinais, são associados às alterações morfofisiológicas e, consequentemente, à síntese de substâncias derivadas do metabolismo secundário. Nesse context...

  4. Studies on the Enhancing Accumulation of Indole Alkaloids in Crown Gall Cells of Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)%提高长春花冠瘿细胞中吲哚生物碱含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 王宁宁; 王勇; 田俊英

    1999-01-01

    研究了长春花冠瘿细胞接种物年龄与接种量对悬浮培养细胞生物产量的影响,探讨了以大丽花轮枝孢菌的匀浆物为外源刺激物处理冠瘿细胞,对细胞生长和吲哚生物碱积累的作用.确立了外源刺激物产生效应的最适条件.

  5. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum', a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Davis, Robert E; Harrison, Nigel A; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Dickinson, Matthew; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Zhao, Yan

    2013-02-01

    This study addressed the taxonomic position and group classification of a phytoplasma responsible for virescence and phyllody symptoms in naturally diseased Madagascar periwinkle plants in western Malaysia. Unique regions in the 16S rRNA gene from the Malaysian periwinkle virescence (MaPV) phytoplasma distinguished the phytoplasma from all previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Pairwise sequence similarity scores, calculated through alignment of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that the MaPV phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene shared 96.5 % or less sequence similarity with that of previously described 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species, justifying the recognition of the MaPV phytoplasma as a reference strain of a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum'. The 16S rRNA gene F2nR2 fragment from the MaPV phytoplasma exhibited a distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profile and the pattern similarity coefficient values were lower than 0.85 with representative phytoplasmas classified in any of the 31 previously delineated 16Sr groups; therefore, the MaPV phytoplasma was designated a member of a new 16Sr group, 16SrXXXII. Phytoplasmas affiliated with this novel taxon and the new group included diverse strains infecting periwinkle, coconut palm and oil palm in Malaysia. Three phytoplasmas were characterized as representatives of three distinct subgroups, 16SrXXXII-A, 16SrXXXII-B and 16SrXXXII-C, respectively.

  6. Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum, a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed the taxonomic position and group classification of a phytoplasma responsible for virescence and phyllody symptoms in naturally diseased Madagascar periwinkle plants in western Malaysia. Unique regions in the 16S rRNA gene from the Malaysian periwinkle virescence (MaPV) phytopla...

  7. Alkaloids of Vinca rosea L. (Catharanthus roseus G. Don). 38. 4'-Dehydrated derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J C; Gutowski, G E; Poore, G A; Boder, G B

    1977-03-01

    A series of 4'-dehydrated derivatives of various dimeric Vinca alkaloids has been synthesized to further define the structure-activity relationships of Vinca alkaloids with onolytic potency. The concentrated sulfuric acid dehydration in most cases gave mixtures of the 3',4'-and two isomeric 4',20'-alkenes, which were isolated and characterized primarily by proton and 13C NMR. Compound tested for antitumor activity include the three dehydro isomers of 4'-deacetylvinblastine, 4-deacetylvincristine, and 4-deacetylvinblastine-23-amide and some4'-dehydrated derivatives epimeric at C-18'. Generally, the decrease in toxicity imparted by the new double bond was accompained by a decrease in potency. An exception was 3',4'-dehydro-4-deacetylvincristine, which showed a decrease in toxicity and increase in potency against at least one tumor in which vincristine itself has little effect.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation with plant cells of new fosmidomycin analogues containing a benzoxazolone or oxazolopyridinone ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Martine; Mincheva, Zoia; Andreu, Françoise; Rideau, Marc; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude

    2004-12-01

    Fosmidomycin, 3-(N-formyl-N-hydroxyamido) propylphosphonic acid sodium salt, is an efficient inhibitor of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DOXP) reductoisomerase, the second enzyme of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway notably present in Plasmodium species. We have synthesized a new series of analogues of fosmidomycin, containing a benzoxazolone, benzoxazolethione or oxazolopyridinone ring. As the MEP pathway is involved in the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, accumulation of ajmalicine in Catharanthus roseus cells was chosen as a marker of monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) production. None of the twelve studied phosphonic esters 3 and phosphonic acids 4 affected periwinkle cell growth, but some of them (3c, 3e, 3g and 3h) showed a significant inhibition of ajmalicine accumulation: 45-85% at 125 microM. Surprisingly, this effect disappeared by conversion of 3c and 3g into the corresponding acids 4c and 4g, respectively.

  9. Down-regulation of the CrHPT1 histidine phosphotransfer protein prevents cytokinin-mediated up-regulation of CrDXR, and CrG10H transcript levels in periwinkle cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Aniça; Andreu, Françoise; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Rideau, Marc; Crèche, Joël

    2012-08-01

    In Catharanthus roseus cell cultures, cytokinins (CK) improve monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) accumulation. This metabolite production is correlated with an increase of transcripts corresponding to genes encoding both elements of the CK-signaling pathway and enzymes implicated in MIAs biosynthesis. However, it has not been demonstrated that the CK signal, leading to MIAs accumulation, comes through components identified as belonging to the CK-signaling pathway. In this work, we addressed this question, by transgenesis, using an inducible RNAi system targeting element of CK-signaling. In transgenic lines, the up-regulation by CK of two genes involved in MIA biosynthesis was abolished. These results demonstrate a relationship between the CK-signaling and the MIAs biosynthetic pathways.

  10. Phytoremediation of TNT: C. roseus hairy roots as a model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, J.R.; Hughes, J.B.; Shanks, J.V. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Widespread contamination by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) of Soil exists at former munitions production and handling facilities. Phytoremediation may be an effective alternative to existing methods of TNT remediation: incineration is highly expensive and recalcitrant reduction products are formed in composting. Recently, the intrinsic ability of plants to transform TNT has been demonstrated using hairy root cultures of Catharanthus roseus as a model system. Kinetic studies were performed at concentrations of 30 and 50 mg/L TNT in growth medium. The pseudo-first order rate constants for disappearance ranged from 0.0103 to 0.0161 (L/g-day); TNT disappears completely within seven to ten days of exposure. The fate of the TNT molecule in plants is also currently under study, mass balance studies were performed with 1-{sup 14}C TNT. After a seven day exposure period, 72% of the label was associated with the roots and 30% was associated with the medium. However, HPLC analysis shows that less than 5% (wt%) of the TNT added is recoverable from both the plants and the media in the form of reduction products. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Flamingonun (Phoenicopterus roseus Beslenme Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYVAZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding biology of the Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus was investigated between May 2010 and May 2011 in Burdur Lake. Individuals of the species preferred to feed on walking on locations separated locations from other species. We observed that small , moderate and large and resting to by creating groups of individuals fed a dip in the central part of the lake and the shore on foot in the morning , noon and evening . In May-September 2010 period, we defined that individuals fed about 11 hours in day. While the distance between individuals was 1 meter when feeding normally, this distance was reduced during cold winter months. However, feeding on the banks of the muddy fields of the distance between individuals had expanded. While standing or walking in a certain place beak were muddy surface show an average of 24 seconds

  12. The use sewage sludge as a substrate component in the cultivation of (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don)

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Giovanna Caputo dos Anjos; CESUMAR; Fanhani, Jamile Corina; CESUMAR; D'Oliveira, Pérsio Sandir; CESUMAR

    2007-01-01

    The final destination of sewage sludge has high cost to treatment stations, and the recycling of this residue would be an interesting alternative. This work had the objective to develop an alternative to the use of sludge as a substrate for ornamental plants. The sludge was collected at a SANEPAR sewage treatment station in the sity of maringá and submited to a thermal process for the destrution of pathogens. Six different types of combinations were used: T1 - 50% vegetal soil and 50% of carb...

  13. Expression patterns of genes involved in the defense and stress response of Spiroplasma citri infected Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Dickinson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. The response of plants to S. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the expression levels of four selected genes involved in defense and stress responses in naturally and experimentally Spiroplasma citri infected periwinkles. Strictosidine β-glucosidase involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthesis pathway showed significant upregulation in experimentally and naturally infected periwinkles. The transcript level of extensin increased in leaves of periwinkles experimentally infected by S. citri in comparison to healthy ones. A similar level of heat shock protein 90 and metallothionein expression was observed in healthy, naturally and experimentally spiroplasma-diseased periwinkles. Overexpression of Strictosidine β-glucosidase demonstrates the potential utility of this gene as a host biomarker to increase the fidelity of S. citri detection and can also be used in breeding programs to develop stable disease-resistance varieties.

  14. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in the Defense and Stress Response of Spiroplasma citri Infected Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Nejat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. The response of plants to S. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR was used to investigate the expression levels of four selected genes involved in defense and stress responses in naturally and experimentally Spiroplasma citri infected periwinkles. Strictosidine β-glucosidase involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs biosynthesis pathway showed significant upregulation in experimentally and naturally infected periwinkles. The transcript level of extensin increased in leaves of periwinkles experimentally infected by S. citri in comparison to healthy ones. A similar level of heat shock protein 90 and metallothionein expression was observed in healthy, naturally and experimentally spiroplasma-diseased periwinkles. Overexpression of Strictosidine β-glucosidase demonstrates the potential utility of this gene as a host biomarker to increase the fidelity of S. citri detection and can also be used in breeding programs to develop stable disease-resistance varieties.

  15. Area Expansivity Moduli of Regenerating Plant Protoplast Cell Walls Exposed to Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuu; Iino, Masaaki; Watanabe, Ugai

    2005-05-01

    To control the elasticity of the plant cell wall, protoplasts isolated from cultured Catharanthus roseus cells were regenerated in shear flows of 115 s-1 (high shear) and 19.2 s-1 (low shear, as a control). The surface area expansivity modulus and the surface breaking strength of these regenerating protoplasts were measured by a micropipette aspiration technique. Cell wall synthesis was also measured using a cell wall-specific fluorescent dye. High shear exposure for 3 h doubled both the surface area modulus and breaking strength observed under low shear, significantly decreased cell wall synthesis, and roughly quadrupled the moduli of the cell wall. Based on the cell wall synthesis data, we estimated the three-dimensional modulus of the cell wall to be 4.1± 1.2 GPa for the high shear, and 0.35± 0.2 GPa for the low shear condition, using the surface area expansivity modulus divided by the cell wall thickness, which is identical with the Young’s modulus divided by 2(1-σ), where σ is Poisson's ratio. We concluded that high shear exposure considerably strengthens the newly synthesized cell wall.

  16. Bioreactor production of secondary metabolites from cell cultures of periwinkle and sandalwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Jagan V

    2009-01-01

    A bench-top bioreactor allowing continuous extraction of secondary metabolites is designed for Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don (periwinkle) and Santalum album L. (sandalwood) plant cell suspensions. Periwinkle cell cultures are exposed to biotic elicitors (Aspergillus niger, crude chitin) and abiotic elicitors (mannitol, methyl jasmonate) to induce alkaloid production. Whereas most of the biotic elicitors are effective when added on day 15 of culture, the abiotic elicitors are effective when added on day 20. The use of trans-cinnamic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, results in significant increase in the alkaloid production of periwinkle cell cultures. Exposure of the cells to mannitol-induced osmotic stress produced marked increment in the total alkaloid production. When biotic and abiotic stress treatments are applied sequentially, an additive effect in alkaloid accumulation is observed. Although no essential oils are detected, secondary metabolites in the form of phenolics are produced by the sandalwood cell cultures in the bioreactor environment. The use of morphologic modification such as organ cultures and transformed cultures is believed to be required for both production and storage of essential oil constituents in sandalwood. The present chapter demonstrates that periwinkle and sandalwood cell suspensions could be developed and successfully cultured in a modified air-lift bioreactor. The exploitation of variant cell strains and biotransformation of added precursors can certainly improve the use of periwinkle and sandalwood cell cultures for the bioproduction of desired compounds.

  17. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL, catharanthine (CTR, vincristine (VCR and vinblastine (VLB from Catharanthus roseus leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of extraction and three extraction cycles. Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of VDL, CTR, VCR and VLB are 0.5783, 0.2843, 0.018 and 0.126 mg/g DW, respectively. These extraction yields are equivalent to those from the well-known ultrasonic extraction method and higher than the yields from maceration extraction and heating reflux extraction. Our results suggest that NPCE-RP-HPLC represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and quantification of vinca alkaloids for pilot- and industrial-scale applications.

  18. Cytotoxic effect of Erythroxylum suberosum combined with radiotherapy in head and neck cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Taysa B.C.; Torres, Hianne M.; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Silva, Maria Alves G. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia; Elias, Silvia T.; Silveira, Damaris; Magalhaes, Perola O.; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana; Guerra, Eliete N.S., E-mail: elieteneves@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude

    2016-01-15

    The mouth and oropharynx cancer is the 6{sup th} most common type of cancer in the world. The treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. More than 50% of drugs against cancer were isolated from natural sources, such as Catharanthus roseus and epipodophyllotoxin, isolated from Podophyllum. The biggest challenge is to maximize the control of the disease, while minimizing morbidity and toxicity to the surrounding normal tissues. The Erythroxylum suberosum is a common plant in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and is popularly known as 'cabelo-de-negro'. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Erythroxylum suberosum plant extracts of the Brazilian Cerrado biome associated with radiotherapy in human cell lines of oral and hypopharynx carcinomas. Cells were treated with aqueous, ethanolic and hexanic extracts of Erythroxylum suberosum and irradiated at 4 Gy, 6 Gy and 8 Gy. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the absorbance was measured at 570 nm in a Beckman Counter reader. Cisplatin, standard chemotherapy, was used as positive control. The use of Erythroxylum suberosum extracts showed a possible radiosensitizing effect in vitro for head and neck cancer. The cytotoxicity effect in the cell lines was not selective and it is very similar to the effect of standard chemotherapy. The aqueous extract of Erythroxylum suberosum, combined with radiotherapy was the most cytotoxic extract to oral and hypopharynx carcinomas. (author)

  19. Conserved roles of CrRLK1L receptor-like kinases in cell expansion and reproduction from algae to angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galindo Trigo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are regulators of plant development through allowing cells to sense their extracellular environment. They facilitate detection of local endogenous signals, in addition to external biotic and abiotic stimuli. The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L protein kinase subfamily, which contains FERONIA, plays a central role in regulating fertilization and in cell expansion mechanisms such as cell elongation and tip growth, as well as having indirect links to plant-pathogen interactions. Several components of CrRLK1L signaling pathways have been identified, including an extracellular ligand, coreceptors and downstream signaling elements. The presence and abundance of the CrRLK1L proteins in the plant kingdom suggest an origin within the Streptophyta lineage, with a notable increase in prevalence in the seeded land plants. Given the function of the sole CrRLK1L protein in a charophycean alga, the possibility of a conserved role in detection and/or regulation of cell wall integrity throughout the Strephtophytes is discussed. Orthologs of signaling pathway components are also present in extant representatives of non-vascular land plants and early vascular land plants including the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Deciphering the roles in development of the CrRLK1L protein kinases in early diverging land plants will provide insights into their ancestral function, furthering our understanding of this diversified subfamily of receptors in higher plants.

  20. Conserved Roles of CrRLK1L Receptor-Like Kinases in Cell Expansion and Reproduction from Algae to Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Trigo, Sergio; Gray, Julie E.; Smith, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are regulators of plant development through allowing cells to sense their extracellular environment. They facilitate detection of local endogenous signals, in addition to external biotic and abiotic stimuli. The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L) protein kinase subfamily, which contains FERONIA, plays a central role in regulating fertilization and in cell expansion mechanisms such as cell elongation and tip growth, as well as having indirect links to plant–pathogen interactions. Several components of CrRLK1L signaling pathways have been identified, including an extracellular ligand, coreceptors, and downstream signaling elements. The presence and abundance of the CrRLK1L proteins in the plant kingdom suggest an origin within the Streptophyta lineage, with a notable increase in prevalence in the seeded land plants. Given the function of the sole CrRLK1L protein in a charophycean alga, the possibility of a conserved role in detection and/or regulation of cell wall integrity throughout the Strephtophytes is discussed. Orthologs of signaling pathway components are also present in extant representatives of non-vascular land plants and early vascular land plants including the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Deciphering the roles in development of the CrRLK1L protein kinases in early diverging land plants will provide insights into their ancestral function, furthering our understanding of this diversified subfamily of receptors in higher plants. PMID:27621737

  1. Acquisition of dwarf male "harems" by recently settled females of Osedax roseus n. sp. (Siboglinidae; Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouse, G W; Worsaae, K; Johnson, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    in Osedax. Of the previously described species in this genus, Osedax roseus n. sp. is most similar to O. rubiplumus, but it has several anatomical differences, as well as much smaller females, dwarf males, and eggs. Osedax roseus n. sp. is markedly divergent (minimally 16.6%) for mitochondrial cytochrome...

  2. Ekstrak Air Tapak Dara Menurunkan Kadar Gula dan Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Beta Pankreas Kelinci Hiperglikemia (THE WATER EXTRACT OF TAPAK DARA DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASES INSULIN PRODUCTION BY PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS ON HYPERGLYCEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikayati Widyastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of tapak dara (Catharanthus roseus onblood glucose level and insulin profile in hyperglicemic rabbits. Fifeteen local male rabbits were used forthis study. The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1 (K-, a control negative group;group 2 (K+, a control positive hipergliccemia; group 3 (KT1 and group 4 (KT2, were groups hiperglicemiaand treated with water extract of tapak dara doses 1 and 2 g/kg bw, respectively; and group 5 (KO, a grouphiperglicemia that treated with glibenclamide 2 mg/kg bw. The result showed water extract of tapak daradose 1 g/kgbw could not decrease the blood glucose level in hyperglycemic rabbits, while dose 2 g/kg bwcould decline blood glucose level in rabbits. This decline had no significantly difference compared withglibenclamide treatment (P> 0.05. Immunohistchemistry result indicated that water extract of tapakdara could stimulate beta cells pancreas to produce insulin.

  3. Phytoplasma-induced floral abnormalities in Catharanthus roseus are associated with phytoplasma accumulation and transcript repression of floral organ identity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jen-Chih; Lin, Chan-Pin

    2011-12-01

    Floral symptoms caused by phytoplasma largely resemble floral reversion in other plants. Periwinkle leaf yellowing (PLY) phytoplasma and peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma caused different degrees of floral abnormalities on infected periwinkle plants. The PLY phytoplasma-infected plants exhibited floral discoloration, virescence, small flowers, and only occasionally full floral reversion. In contrast, PnWB phytoplasma frequently induced complete floral reversion and resulted in a witches'-broom symptom from the floral reversion. Although different degrees of floral symptoms were induced by these two phytoplasmas, the morphological disorders were similar to those of other plants carrying SEPALLATA mutations or gene silencing. Here, we compared expression levels of organ-identity-related genes and pigmentation genes during floral symptom development. Accumulation of phytoplasmas in malformed flowers and their closely surrounding leaves was also compared. In infected plants, transcript abundance of all examined organ identity genes and pigmentation genes was suppressed. Indeed, CrSEP3, a SEPALLALA3 ortholog, showed the greatest suppression among genes examined. Of the pigmentation genes, transcript reduction of chalcone synthase was most highly correlated with the loss in floral pigmentation. Floral symptom severities were associated with the accumulation of either phytoplasmas. Interestingly, both phytoplasmas accumulated to higher levels in malformed flowers than in their surrounding leaves. Many plant pathogens manipulate host plant development to their advantage. It is intriguing to see whether phytoplasmas alter floral development to increase their population.

  4. Screening molecules for control of citrus huanglongbing using an optimized regeneration system for 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muqing; Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Turechek, William W; Stover, Ed; Powell, Charles A

    2010-03-01

    Citrus huanglongbing is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter', of which 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is the most widely distributed. An optimized system using 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected periwinkle cuttings was developed to screen chemical compounds effective for controlling the bacterial population while simultaneously assessing their phytotoxicity. The optimal regeneration conditions were determined to be the use of vermiculite as a growth medium for the cuttings, and a fertilization routine using half-strength Murashige and Tucker medium supplemented with both naphthalene acetic acid (4 microg/ml) and indole-3-butyric acid (4 microg/ml). This system allowed a plant regeneration rate of 60.6% for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected cuttings in contrast to the periwinkle regeneration system. When treated with penicillin G sodium at 50 microg/ml, all plants regenerated from 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected cuttings were 'Ca. L. asiaticus' negative as determined by both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, DBNPA was also able to significantly reduce the percentage of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-positive plants and the titer of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium at 200 microl/liter.

  5. Accumulation of Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids in Periwinkle Seedlings ("Catharanthus roseus") as a Model for the Study of Plant-Environment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ham, Maria de Lourdes; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Alkaloids are part of the chemical arsenal designed to protect plants against an adverse environment. Therefore, their synthesis and accumulation are frequently induced in response to certain environmental conditions and are mediated by chemical signals, which are formed as the first responses to the external stimulus. A set of experiments using…

  6. Metabolic Engineering of the Moss Physcomitrella patens as a Green Cell Factory to Produce Terpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Xin

    )-β-santalol in P. patens, five different well-characterized cytochromes P450 from GenBank, CYP71A5 (geraniol-10-hydroxylase) from Nepeta racemosa, CYP76B6 (geraniol-8-oxidase) from Catharanthus roseus, CYP76C4 (geraniol 8-, 9-hydroxylase) from Arabidopsis thaliana, CYP71D20 (5-epi-aristolochene-1, 3-dihydroxylase......) from Nicotiana tabacum and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) from Lactuca sativa, were also tested, but they showed no catalytic activity towards β-santalene based on the preliminary HS-SPME-GCMS analysis and further investigations such as liquid extraction by ethyl acetate are needed to draw a solid...

  7. (phoenicopterus roseus por intoxicación aguda por plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Romero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de plomo en el medio ambiente es un hecho indiscutible. Ello es objeto de gran interés sanitario pues repercute tanto en la salud de los animales como en la del ser humano. El plumbismo es una intoxicación que puede afectar a cualquier especie animal. En el ámbito de la fauna silvestre se asocia principalmente a la actividad cinegética en los humedales y a la ingestión de plomo metálico por parte de las aves que frecuentan estos ecosistemas. En España cada año mueren decenas de miles de aves acuáticas como consecuencia de la ingesta de perdigones de plomo. En los individuos capturados enfermos se pueden observar signos clínicos, mientras que a partir de muestras de cadáveres se obtienen datos sobre niveles tisulares de plomo. Sin embargo la evaluación de lesiones anatomopatológicas en animales de vida silvestre es difícil de realizar por la dificultad de encontrar animales recién muertos o afectados de un cuadro agudo mortal. La reproducción de esta patología en animales de experimentación se suele realizar en cisnes, palomas o patos, pero no en flamencos, por lo que no es usual disponer de datos histológicos en esta especie. En este trabajo presentamos la clínica, analítica y estudio microscópico de diferentes tejidos de un flamenco común (Phoenicopterus roseus muerto por plumbismo.

  8. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity : a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S; Biebach, H; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding

  9. Some biological activities of pigments extracted from Micrococcus roseus (PTCC 1411) and Rhodotorula glutinis (PTCC 5257).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Hossein; Hamedi, Hassan; Yolmeh, Mahmoud

    2016-12-01

    The importance of replacing synthetic pigments with natural types is increasing day by day in the food industry due to the harmful effects of some synthetic pigments. Microorganisms are a major source of natural pigments, which nowadays have attracted the attention of researchers. In this study, carotenoid pigments were produced by Micrococcus roseus and Rhodotorula glutinis, and some of their biological properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated. Given the results, bacteria, especially gram-positive bacteria, had higher sensitivity to the pigments extracted from M. roseus (PEM) and R. glutinis (PER) compared to molds so that Bacillus cereus and Alternaria citri had the highest and the lowest sensitivity, respectively. PER showed a higher antioxidant activity compared with PEM in the various methods of measuring antioxidant activity. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor-promoting activities of PER were measured significantly more than PEM (P pigment extracts remarkably inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation, so that ID50 (50% inhibitory dose) of PEM and PER were 0.22 and 0.09 mg/ear, respectively.

  10. Pengaruh manipulasi media terhadap kandungan alkaloid ninkristina kalus daun Cathasranthus roseus L Gdon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Sri Wulan Manuhara

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the manipulation of the media on the vincristine alkaloid content in the callus of Cantaranthus roseus (L G.Don were studied. This work was done as an effort for gaining the the vincristine alkaloid through tissue culture which was expected to obtain a large amount of the alkaloid. Tissue culture of C. roseus was initiated from leaf explants on growth medium (MS supplmtented with I mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l BAp. After seven weeks incubation, with only once subculturing on the some mediun, the proliferating calli were subcultured on a production medium (Ms supplemented with 1 mb/l IAA and 1 mg.l BAP which were containing different additional concentration of sucrose, BAP, tryptophan, and concentration of 50% basic medium of MS from the standard. Eleen week=old calli were harvested from each treatment and dried for chemical analysed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel GF 254 using chloroform-aceton-thiethylamine as mobile phase. Rf value and UV spectra were used to identify vincristine, and concentration of vincristine alkaloid was determine by preparative thin layer chromatography with methanol solvent and measured by UN-Vis spectrophotometer at 233 nm. The maximum content of vincristine alkaloid was obtained from the callus, which was grown on the MS standard with addition og 50 g/l sucrose or 4 mg/l BAP or also 50% of the MS standard medium. Tryptophan addition as precursor could not induce the alkaloid vincristine forming.

  11. Crenalkalicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from alkaline hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hong; Duan, Yan-Yan; Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Li, Shuai; Zhou, En-Min; Huang, Jian-Rong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Two closely related thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 78023T and YIM 78058, were isolated from samples collected from two alkaline hot springs in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The novel isolates were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic ovoid- to coccoid-shaped and non-spore-forming. Strain YIM 78023T grew at 20-60 ºC and pH 6.0-9.0 with optimal growth observed at 40-50 ºC and pH 8.0, while strain YIM 78058 grew at 25-60 ºC and pH 6.0-10.0 with optimal growth at 45-50 ºC and pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated these two isolates within the family Acetobacteraceae with high sequence similarities to members of the genera Roseomonas and Belnapia (all sequence similarities <94.5 %). In addition to the above two genera, these strains also clustered with the genera Craurococcus and Paracraurococcus (having sequence similarities <93.3 %) in the phylogenetic tree, but with a distinct lineage within the family Acetobacteraceae. The major ubiquinone was Q-10 and the major fatty acids observed were C18:1ω7c, summed feature 4 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C contents observed for strains YIM 78023T and YIM 78058 were 74.3 and 74.0 mol%, respectively. Morphological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results suggest that strains YIM 78023T and YIM 78058 are representatives of a novel species of a new genus within the family Acetobacteraceae, for which the name Crenalkalicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Crenalkalicoccus roseus is YIM 78023T (=JCM 19657T=KACC 17825T).

  12. 柑橘黄龙病寄主长春花内生细菌的分离及功能鉴定%Isolation, identification and basic function analysis of plant associated bacteria from huanglongbing's host plant-Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 殷幼平; 郑莉萍; 孙梦黎; 向晟; 郑月慧; 王中康

    2014-01-01

    [目的]感柑橘黄龙病长春花植株与健康长春花植株不同部位内生细菌菌群结构及功能对柑橘黄龙病菌与长春花内生细菌的相关性研究提供理论基础.[方法]利用兼性厌氧可培养技术以及植物内生菌功能特性分析相结合的方法.[结果]分别从感病和健康长春花叶、茎、根的组织中分离获得67株内生细菌,与GenBank中29种细菌的相似性达到97%-100%.其中短小杆菌属(Curtobacterium sp.)、欧文氏菌属(Erwinia sp.)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)为感病长春花内生细菌的优势菌群,鞘胺醇单胞菌属(Brevundimonas sp.)、芽胞杆菌属(Bacillussp.)为健康长春花内生细菌的优势菌群;马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum)为两者的共同优势菌群.29种内生细菌进行功能分析,其中6株内生细菌至少具有4种功能特性,分属于马胃葡萄球菌、苏云金芽孢杆菌、巨大芽孢杆菌、短小杆菌属、摩氏摩根菌(Morganella morganii)及溶杆菌属(Lysobacter sp.)5个属.[结论]感病与健康长春花植株中均含有丰富的内生细菌且差异较大,黄龙病菌的存在改变了长春花原有内生细菌的菌群结构.通过分析菌群的差异,有望找到与柑橘黄龙病菌生长相关的菌种.

  13. Kõige tõsisem taim vähktõve vastu : [roosa lõunahali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Roosa lõunahali (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Sünonüümid: Ammocallis rosea (L.) Small, Lochnera rosea (L.) Rchb., Vinca rosea L. Kasutamisest rahvameditsiinis ja farmakoteraapias (ravimpreparaadid vinblastiin, vinkristiin)

  14. The subcellular localization of periwinkle farnesyl diphosphate synthase provides insight into the role of peroxisome in isoprenoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Insaf; Guirimand, Grégory; Courdavault, Vincent; Papon, Nicolas; Godet, Stéphanie; Dutilleul, Christelle; Bouzid, Sadok; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Clastre, Marc; Simkin, Andrew J

    2011-11-15

    Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (FPS: EC.2.5.1.1, EC.2.5.1.10) catalyzes the formation of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via two successive condensation reactions. A cDNA designated CrFPS, encoding a protein showing high similarities with trans-type short FPS isoforms, was isolated from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). This cDNA was shown to functionally complement the lethal FPS deletion mutant in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At the subcellular level, while short FPS isoforms are usually described as cytosolic proteins, we showed, using transient transformations of C. roseus cells with yellow fluorescent protein-fused constructs, that CrFPS is targeted to peroxisomes. This finding is discussed in relation to the subcellular distribution of FPS isoforms in plants and animals and opens new perspectives towards the understanding of isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  15. Phytochemical genomics of the Madagascar periwinkle: Unravelling the last twists of the alkaloid engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Clastre, Marc; Besseau, Sébastien; Oudin, Audrey; Burlat, Vincent; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Lanoue, Arnaud; Papon, Nicolas; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Courdavault, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle produces a large palette of Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs), a class of complex alkaloids including some of the most valuable plant natural products with precious therapeutical values. Evolutionary pressure on one of the hotspots of biodiversity has obviously turned this endemic Malagasy plant into an innovative alkaloid engine. Catharanthus is a unique taxon producing vinblastine and vincristine, heterodimeric MIAs with complex stereochemistry, and also manufactures more than 100 different MIAs, some shared with the Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae and Rubiaceae members. For over 60 years, the quest for these powerful anticancer drugs has inspired biologists, chemists, and pharmacists to unravel the chemistry, biochemistry, therapeutic activity, cell and molecular biology of Catharanthus roseus. Recently, the "omics" technologies have fuelled rapid progress in deciphering the last secret of strictosidine biosynthesis, the central precursor opening biosynthetic routes to several thousand MIA compounds. Dedicated C. roseus transcriptome, proteome and metabolome databases, comprising organ-, tissue- and cell-specific libraries, and other phytogenomic resources, were developed for instance by PhytoMetaSyn, Medicinal Plant Genomic Resources and SmartCell consortium. Tissue specific library screening, orthology comparison in species with or without MIA-biochemical engines, clustering of gene expression profiles together with various functional validation strategies, largely contributed to enrich the toolbox for plant synthetic biology and metabolic engineering of MIA biosynthesis.

  16. High quality draft genome sequence and analysis of Pontibacter roseus type strain SRC-1(T) (DSM 17521(T)) isolated from muddy waters of a drainage system in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Lapidus, Alla; Shapiro, Nicole; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, James; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Tindall, Brian J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Pati, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Pontibacter roseus is a member of genus Pontibacter family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. While the type species of the genus Pontibacter actiniarum was isolated in 2005 from a marine environment, subsequent species of the same genus have been found in different types of habitats ranging from seawater, sediment, desert soil, rhizosphere, contaminated sites, solar saltern and muddy water. Here we describe the features of Pontibacter roseus strain SRC-1(T) along with its complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 17521(T). The 4,581,480 bp long draft genome consists of 12 scaffolds with 4,003 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains: KMG-I project.

  17. High quality draft genome sequence and analysis of Pontibacter roseus type strain SRC-1T (DSM 17521T) isolated from muddy waters of a drainage system in Chandigarh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Lapidus, Alla; Shapiro, Nicole; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, James; Reddy, TBK; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Tindall, Brian J.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Pati, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Pontibacter roseus Suresh et al 2006 is a member of genus Pontibacter family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. While the type species of the genus Pontibacter actiniarum was isolated in 2005 from a marine environment, subsequent species of the same genus have been found in different types of habitats ranging from seawater, sediment, desert soil, rhizosphere, contaminated sites, solar saltern and muddy water. Here we describe the features of Pontibacter roseus strain SRC-1T along with its complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 17521T. The 4,581,480 bp long draft genome consists of 12 scaffolds with 4,003 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project.

  18. High quality draft genome sequence and analysis of Pontibacter roseus type strain SRC-1T (DSM 17521T) isolated from muddy waters of a drainage system in Chandigarh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Lapidus, Alla; Shapiro, Nicole; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, James; Reddy, T. B.K.; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Spring, Stefan; G& #246; ker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Tindall, Brian J.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Pati, Amrita

    2014-11-26

    Pontibacter roseus Suresh et al 2006 is a member of genus Pontibacter family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. While the type species of the genus Pontibacter actiniarum was isolated in 2005 from a marine environment, subsequent species of the same genus have been found in different types of habitats ranging from seawater, sediment, desert soil, rhizosphere, contaminated sites, solar saltern and muddy water. Here we describe the features of Pontibacter roseus strain SRC-1T along with its complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 17521T. The 4,581,480 bp long draft genome consists of 12 scaffolds with 4,003 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project.

  19. Effect of Combined Stresses of Drought and Light on Expression of CesA and Pine Genes in Catharanthus roseus Leaves%干旱和光联合胁迫对长春花CesA基因和Pme基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜扬; 祖元刚; 刘英; 杨玉焕; 林健

    2008-01-01

    以长春花叶片为材料,通过同源序列扩增法,获得与细胞壁合成相关的纤维素合成酶(Cellulose syn-thase,CesA)基因和与细胞壁重要组成部分果胶的变化密切相关的果胶酯酶(Pectin methylesterase,Pme)基因,利用定量的RT-PCR,对干旱和光联合胁迫下CesA基因和Pme基因的表达情况进行了研究.结果表明:干旱胁迫条件下,CesA基因表达稍有减弱,Pme基因表达稍有增强.光胁迫条件下,CesA基因表达明显弱于正常光条件,呈逐渐减弱趋势,CesA基因表达与光胁迫的关系为负调控;而Pme基因表达则明显强于正常光条件,呈现增强趋势,Pme基因表达与光胁迫的关系为正调控.说明光胁迫是CesA基因和Pme基因表达变化的主要影响因素.在干旱和光联合胁迫下,CesA基因表达整体减弱,Pme基因表达整体较强.

  20. Characterization of the plastidial geraniol synthase from Madagascar periwinkle which initiates the monoterpenoid branch of the alkaloid pathway in internal phloem associated parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Andrew J; Miettinen, Karel; Claudel, Patricia; Burlat, Vincent; Guirimand, Grégory; Courdavault, Vincent; Papon, Nicolas; Meyer, Sophie; Godet, Stéphanie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Fischer, Marc J C; Memelink, Johan; Clastre, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus [L.] G. Don, Apocynaceae) produces monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), secondary metabolites of high interest due to their therapeutic value. A key step in the biosynthesis is the generation of geraniol from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) in the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA pathway. Here we report on the cloning and functional characterization of C. roseus geraniol synthase (CrGES). The full-length CrGES was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein catalyzed the conversion of GPP into geraniol with a K(m) value of 58.5 μM for GPP. In vivo CrGES activity was evaluated by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain mutated in the farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene. Analysis of culture extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed the excretion of geraniol into the growth medium. Transient transformation of C. roseus cells with a Yellow Fluorescent Protein-fusion construct revealed that CrGES is localized in plastid stroma and stromules. In aerial plant organs, RNA in situ hybridization showed specific labeling of CrGES transcripts in the internal phloem associated parenchyma as observed for other characterized genes involved in the early steps of MIA biosynthesis. Finally, when cultures of Catharanthus cells were treated with the alkaloid-inducing hormone methyl jasmonate, an increase in CrGES transcript levels was observed. This observation coupled with the tissue-specific expression and the subcellular compartmentalization support the idea that CrGES initiates the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA biosynthetic pathway.

  1. Transfer of Teichococcus ludipueritiae and Muricoccus roseus to the genus Roseomonas, as Roseomonas ludipueritiae comb. nov. and Roseomonas rosea comb. nov., respectively, and emended description of the genus Roseomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Gallego, Virginia; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Kämpfer, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that Teichococcus ludipueritiae and Muricoccus roseus are closely related to the species of the genus Roseomonas. The type strain of Teichococcus ludipueritiae, 170/96(T), exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity levels of 96.4 % to Roseomonas cervicalis ATCC 49957(T), 95.0 % to Roseomonas aquatica TR53(T), 94.5 % to Muricoccus roseus 173/96(T), 93.4 % to Roseomonas mucosa ATCC BAA-692(T) and 93.5 % to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii ATCC 49956(T), while Muricoccus roseus 173/96(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 95.7 % to R. mucosa ATCC BAA-692(T), 95.7 % to R. aquatica TR53(T) and 95.3 % to R. gilardii subsp. gilardii ATCC 49956(T) and R. gilardii subsp. rosea ATCC BAA-691(T). Different phylogenetic analysis methods (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony) confirmed that both species are within the Roseomonas branch. Neither polyamine patterns (spermidine predominant) nor major characteristics in the polar lipid profiles distinguished the two species from representatives of the genus Roseomonas. The fatty acid composition of the two species exhibited alphaproteobacterial characteristics but, like Roseomonas species, they also showed considerable amounts of the rarely encountered C(18 : 1) 2-OH. On the other hand, they showed some phenotypic differences, but their features are compatible with the transfer of these two species to the genus Roseomonas. We propose the reclassification of Teichococcus ludipueritiae and Muricoccus roseus as Roseomonas ludipueritiae comb. nov. (type strain 170/96(T) =CIP 107418(T) =DSM 14915(T)) and Roseomonas rosea comb. nov. (type strain 173/96(T) =CIP 107419(T) =DSM 14916(T)), respectively. Emended descriptions of the genus Roseomonas and the species Roseomonas gilardii (and its subspecies Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii and Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea), Roseomonas aquatica, Roseomonas cervicalis, Roseomonas mucosa

  2. Genetic polymorphism in dopamine receptor D4 is associated with early body condition in a large population of greater flamingos, Phoenicopterus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Mark A F; Bechet, Arnaud; Geraci, Julia; Wattier, Remi; Dubreuil, Christine; Cezilly, Frank

    2012-08-01

    Body condition is an important determinant of fitness in many natural populations. However, as for many fitness traits, the underlying genes that regulate body condition remain elusive. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a promising candidate as dopamine is known to play an important role in the regulation of food intake and the metabolism of both glucose and lipids in vertebrates. In this study, we take advantage of a large data set of greater flamingos, Phoenicopterus roseus, to test whether DRD4 polymorphism predicts early body condition (EBC) while controlling for whole-genome effects of inbreeding and outbreeding using microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity (MLH). We typed 670 of these individuals for exon 3 of the homologue of the human DRD4 gene and 10 microsatellite markers. When controlling for the effects of yearly environmental variations and differences between sexes, we found strong evidence of an association between exon 3 DRD4 polymorphisms and EBC, with 2.2-2.3% of the variation being explained by DRD4 polymorphism, whereas there was only weak evidence that MLH predicts EBC. Because EBC is most likely a polygenic trait, this is a considerable amount of variation explained by a single gene. This is to our knowledge, the first study to show an association between exon 3 DRD4 polymorphism and body condition in non-human animals. We anticipate that the DRD4 gene as well as other genes coding for neurotransmitters and their receptors may play an important role in explaining variation in traits that affect fitness.

  3. Drug: D08679 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gif Catharanthus roseus (Vinca rosea) [TAX:4058] Antineoplastic, antimitotic Same as: C07204 ATC code: L01CA02 Vinca alkaloid...aloids and analogues L01CA02 Vincristine D08679 Vincristine (INN) Target-based clas... ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01C PLANT ALKALOIDS AND OTHER NATURAL PRODUCTS L01CA Vinca alk

  4. Seed transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in periwinkle and dodder resulted in low bacterial titer and very mild disease in periwinkle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the most widely-distributed of three species of Liberibacter that are associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus worldwide. In addition to citrus, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) and dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) are two experime...

  5. An NPF transporter exports a central monoterpene indole alkaloid intermediate from the vacuole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Richard; Xu, Deyang; Foureau, Emilien

    2017-01-01

    /peptide family (NPF) transporter from Catharanthus roseus, CrNPF2.9, that exports strictosidine, the central intermediate of this pathway, into the cytosol from the vacuole. This discovery highlights the role that intracellular localization plays in specialized metabolism, and sets the stage for understanding...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066744 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01 NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4) {Catharanthus roseus}, similar to NADPH-dependent FMN and FAD containing oxido...reductase [Homo sapiens] GI:6694369; contains Pfam profiles PF00258: flavodoxin, PF00667: FAD binding domain, PF00175: Oxidoreductase NAD-binding domain 0.0 ...

  7. Vinca alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Maryam; Go, Rusea; Yien, Christina Yong Seok; Nazre, Mohd

    2013-11-01

    Vinca alkaloids are a subset of drugs obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle plant. They are naturally extracted from the pink periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus G. Don and have a hypoglycemic as well as cytotoxic effects. They have been used to treat diabetes, high blood pressure and have been used as disinfectants. The vinca alkaloids are also important for being cancer fighters. There are four major vinca alkaloids in clinical use: Vinblastine (VBL), vinorelbine (VRL), vincristine (VCR) and vindesine (VDS). VCR, VBL and VRL have been approved for use in the United States. Vinflunine is also a new synthetic vinca alkaloid, which has been approved in Europe for the treatment of second-line transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium is being developed for other malignancies. Vinca alkaloids are the second-most-used class of cancer drugs and will stay among the original cancer therapies. Different researches and studies for new vinca alkaloid applications will be carried out in this regard.

  8. Current Population Status and Activity Pattern of Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor and Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park (ASLNP, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Kumssa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the population status, habitat preference, and activity pattern of nonbreeding flamingos was carried out in Lakes Abijata, Shalla, and Chitu, part of the Great Rift Valley, Ethiopia, from 2011 to 2013. The current population status and habitat preference of flamingos in the area are still poorly known. Likewise, data on diurnal and seasonal activity pattern of the species are scarce and this leads to the misunderstanding of how Flamingos use local wetlands throughout the different seasons. Data regarding population size and activity pattern were gathered during the wet and dry seasons. Point-count method was used to estimate the population size. Behaviors were recorded using scan sampling techniques. A total of 53671 individuals representing two species of flamingo were counted during both wet and dry seasons from the three lakes. There were more flamingos during the dry season than the wet season in Lake Abijata contrary to Lakes Shalla and Chitu during the wet season. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor were the most abundant species comprising 95.39%, while Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus accounted for 4.61% of the total population. Lake Abijata is the major stronghold of Lesser Flamingos in the area. There was significant variation in the mean number of both species during the wet and dry season in the different study sites of the lake, respectively. The species were known to use varied habitats within the lakes. The Lesser Flamingo mainly preferred the shoreline and mudflat areas of the lakes. However, Greater Flamingo on several occasions showed preference to offshore area of the lakes. Seasonal average flock sizes were not similar between the species. There was a strong relationship between time allocated to each activity and time of day. Feeding activity varied among daylight hours and was higher in the evening (76.5% and late morning (74.56% and least during midday (54%. Some variations in activity breakdown were

  9. Vinca drug components accumulate exclusively in leaf exudates of Madagascar periwinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Jonathan; Salim, Vonny; Wu, Maggie; Thamm, Antje M K; Murata, Jun; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2010-08-24

    The monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) continue to be the most important source of natural drugs in chemotherapy treatments for a range of human cancers. These anticancer drugs are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline to yield powerful dimeric MIAs that prevent cell division. However the precise mechanisms for their assembly within plants remain obscure. Here we report that the complex development-, environment-, organ-, and cell-specific controls involved in expression of MIA pathways are coupled to secretory mechanisms that keep catharanthine and vindoline separated from each other in living plants. Although the entire production of catharanthine and vindoline occurs in young developing leaves, catharanthine accumulates in leaf wax exudates of leaves, whereas vindoline is found within leaf cells. The spatial separation of these two MIAs provides a biological explanation for the low levels of dimeric anticancer drugs found in the plant that result in their high cost of commercial production. The ability of catharanthine to inhibit the growth of fungal zoospores at physiological concentrations found on the leaf surface of Catharanthus leaves, as well as its insect toxicity, provide an additional biological role for its secretion. We anticipate that this discovery will trigger a broad search for plants that secrete alkaloids, the biological mechanisms involved in their secretion to the plant surface, and the ecological roles played by them.

  10. Evaluación del uso de señales visuales y de localización por el colibrí cola-ancha (Selasphorus platycercus al visitar flores de Penstemon roseus Evaluation of the use of visual and location cues by the Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercusforaging in flowers of Penstemon roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los colibríes la memoria espacial desempeña un papel importante durante el forrajeo. Éste se basa en el uso de señales específicas (visuales o en señales espaciales (localización de flores y plantas con néctar. Sin embargo, el uso de estas señales por los colibríes puede variar de acuerdo con la escala espacial que enfrentan cuando visitan flores de una o más plantas durante el forrajeo; ésto se puso a prueba con individuos del colibrí cola-ancha Selasphorus platycercus. Por otro lado, para evaluar la posible variación en el uso de las señales, se llevaron a cabo experimentos en condiciones semi-naturales utilizando flores de la planta Penstemon roseus, nativa del sitio de estudio. A través de la manipulación de la presencia/ausencia de una recompensa (néctar y señales visuales, evaluamos el uso de la memoria espacial durante el forrajeo entre 2 plantas (experimento 1 y dentro de una sola planta (experimento 2. Los resultados demostraron que los colibríes utilizaron la memoria de localización de la planta de cuyas flores obtuvieron recompensa, independientemente de la presencia de señales visuales. Por el contrario, en flores individuales de una sola planta, después de un corto periodo de aprendizaje los colibríes pueden utilizar las señales visuales para guiar su forrajeo y discriminar las flores sin recompensa. Asimismo, en ausencia de señales visuales los individuos basaron su forrajeo en la memoria de localización de la flor con recompensa visitada previamente. Estos resultados sugieren plasticidad en el comportamiento de forrajeo de los colibríes influenciada por la escala espacial y por la información adquirida en visitas previas.In hummingbirds spatial memory plays an important role during foraging. It is based in use of specific cues (visual or spatial cues (location of flowers and plants with nectar. However, use of these cues by hummingbirds may change according to the spatial scale they face when visit

  11. Morphological characteristics and submerged culture medium screening of Pseudogymnoascus roseus%Pseudogymnoascus roseus的生物学特性及液体发酵培养基的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苏琴; 金秀琳; 罗进仓; 王春明

    2011-01-01

    分离自冬虫夏草子座的予囊茵,产生大量具网状包被的子囊果.其代表菌株Pseu-F经形态学及分子鉴定,确定为Pseudogymnoascus roseus.该菌株的适宜生长温度为17.5℃-20.0℃:用正交试验法对该菌株进行了液体发酵培养基筛选试验,试验因素包括马铃薯、黄豆、蔗糖+葡萄糖、蛋白胨、酵母膏、矿物盐、维生素等,筛选出的优化液体发酵培养基为(g/L):蔗糖20+葡萄糖10,蛋白胨10,酵母膏5,黄豆50,马铃薯100.%Isolates from the stroma of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, produced generously ascocarps with reticuloperidium. Morphological characteristics and molecular identification indicated that the representative strain Pseu-F was Pseudogymnoascus roseus Raillo. The optimum temperatures for mycelial growing were 17.5 °C-20.0 °C. Submerged culture media were screened by means of orthogonal design experiments. Test factors included sucrose, glucose, peptone, yeast extract, potato, soybean, mineral salt and Vitamins. Based on the results of tests, the optimized combinations of culture medium are sucrose 20 g, glucose 10 g, peptone 10 g, yeast extract 5 g, soybean 50 g, potato 100 g, in 1 L liquid medium.

  12. Molecular interaction of selected phytochemicals under the charged environment of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumya K; Khedkar, Vijay M; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A; George, Linz-Buoy; Highland, Hyacinth N; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and Tylophora indica have been known for their inhibition of malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), a widely used antimalarial drug, is due to the CQ resistance transporter (CRT) system. The present study deals with computational modeling of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein and development of charged environment to mimic a condition of resistance. The model of PfCRT was developed using Protein homology/analogy engine (PHYRE ver 0.2) and was validated based on the results obtained using PSI-PRED. Subsequently, molecular interactions of selected phytochemicals extracted from C. roseus Linn. and T. indica were studied using multiple-iterated genetic algorithm-based docking protocol in order to investigate the translocation of these legends across the PfCRT protein. Further, molecular dynamics studies exhibiting interaction energy estimates of these compounds within the active site of the protein showed that compounds are more selective toward PfCRT. Clusters of conformations with the free energy of binding were estimated which clearly demonstrated the potential channel and by this means the translocation across the PfCRT is anticipated.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Liquid Film Resistance in Oxygen Transport to Microbial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, John D.; Johnson, Marvin J.

    1967-01-01

    A membrane probe was used to monitor the dissolved oxygen concentrations in continuous cultures of Candida utilis and Micrococcus roseus growing at low dissolved oxygen concentrations and various agitation levels. For the yeast fermentations, increasing the agitation level within the range of 0.1 to 0.3 w per liter lowered steady-state dissolved oxygen concentrations in the fermentor. The steady-state dissolved oxygen concentration in the fermentor was not influenced by the agitation level within the range of 0.3 to 1.8 w per liter. With M. roseus, no effect of agitation on steady-state dissolved oxygen concentrations in the fermentor was observed within the range of 0.1 to 1.8 w per liter. It was concluded that, under the conditions used, a measurable transfer barrier from the liquid to the yeast cells existed at agitation levels below 0.3 w per liter and that this barrier did not exist at agitation levels above 0.3 w per liter. The transfer barrier from the liquid to the yeast surface could be represented by a stagnant film of liquid 0.6 × 10-4 cm thick surrounding the cell at an agitation level of 0.10 w per liter. This film represented an oxygen concentration drop of 1.3 × 10-7 M from the bulk of the medium to the cells under the experimental conditions. PMID:16349771

  14. Structural determinants of reductive terpene cyclization in iridoid biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kries, Hajo; Caputi, Lorenzo; Stevenson, Clare E M;

    2016-01-01

    The carbon skeleton of ecologically and pharmacologically important iridoid monoterpenes is formed in a reductive cyclization reaction unrelated to canonical terpene cyclization. Here we report the crystal structure of the recently discovered iridoid cyclase (from Catharanthus roseus) bound to a ...... to a mechanism-inspired inhibitor that illuminates substrate binding and catalytic function of the enzyme. Key features that distinguish iridoid synthase from its close homolog progesterone 5β-reductase are highlighted....

  15. Main: CACGTGMOTIF [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CACGTGMOTIF S000042 06-January-2006 (last modified) kehi CACGTG motif; G-box; Bindi...omato Pti4 (ERF) regulates defense-related gene expression via GCC box and non-GCC box cis-element (Myb1 (GTTAGTT) and G-box (CAC...napdragon (Antirrhinum majus); wheat (Triticum aestivum); parsley: maize (Zea mays); periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus); Brassica napus; bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); CACGTG ...

  16. Industrial case study on alkaloids purification by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotland, Alexis; Chollet, Sébastien; Diard, Catherine; Autret, Jean-Marie; Meucci, Jeremy; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Marchal, Luc

    2016-11-25

    The industrial potential of pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography has been evaluated by studying the purification of pharmaceutical ingredients at the pilot scale. For the first time, a scale up methodology based on both column capacity and mass transfer efficiency as invariants was developed. The purification of catharanthine and vindoline from an industrial crude extract of aerial parts of Catharanthus roseus, was used as a case of study. Toluene/CH3CN/water (4/1/5, v/v/v) was selected as biphasic solvent system, triethylamine as retainer in the organic stationary phase and sulphuric acid as displacer in the aqueous mobile phase. The separation intensification was performed on a 36mL CPC column equipped with 832 partition twin-cells. The combined effects of four parameters (displacer and retainer concentrations for intensive parameters, flow rate and rotational speed for extensive parameters) were studied by design of experiment in order to maximize both recoveries and productivities. Then, scale change was done on two larger columns (305mL and 1950mL of capacity) equipped with only 231 and 238 partition cells. For this step, it has been shown that the global mass transfer coefficient k0a (the efficiency of a column design) and the stationary phase retention (the capacity of the column) were relevant and useful scale up invariants. A CPC model based on acid-base equilibriums and interfacial mass transfer in continuously stirred tank reactors in series was used to predict fully separations on larger CPC column at the optimized operating conditions and to guide the CPC user in its scale-up strategy. The experimental validation on pilot CPC column, by injecting up to 150g of Catharanthus roseus crude extract on the 1950mL column highlighted the preservation of the separation quality, the non-linear character of the scale up in centrifugal partition chromatography and that a productivity of about 4kg of processed crude extract per day can be reached

  17. Development of transcriptomic resources for interrogating the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in medicinal plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Góngora-Castillo

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs, includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine, malaria (quinine, and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine. Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource

  18. A 7-deoxyloganetic acid glucosyltransferase contributes a key step in secologanin biosynthesis in Madagascar periwinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Keisuke; Salim, Vonny; Masada-Atsumi, Sayaka; Edmunds, Elizabeth; Nagatoshi, Mai; Terasaka, Kazuyoshi; Mizukami, Hajime; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    Iridoids form a broad and versatile class of biologically active molecules found in thousands of plant species. In addition to the many hundreds of iridoids occurring in plants, some iridoids, such as secologanin, serve as key building blocks in the biosynthesis of thousands of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) and many quinoline alkaloids. This study describes the molecular cloning and functional characterization of three iridoid glucosyltransfeases (UDP-sugar glycosyltransferase6 [UGT6], UGT7, and UGT8) from Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) with remarkably different catalytic efficiencies. Biochemical analyses reveal that UGT8 possessed a high catalytic efficiency toward its exclusive iridoid substrate, 7-deoxyloganetic acid, making it better suited for the biosynthesis of iridoids in periwinkle than the other two iridoid glucosyltransfeases. The role of UGT8 in the fourth to last step in secologanin biosynthesis was confirmed by virus-induced gene silencing in periwinkle plants, which reduced expression of this gene and resulted in a large decline in secologanin and MIA accumulation within silenced plants. Localization studies of UGT8 using a carborundum abrasion method for RNA extraction show that its expression occurs preferentially within periwinkle leaves rather than in epidermal cells, and in situ hybridization studies confirm that UGT8 is preferentially expressed in internal phloem associated parenchyma cells of periwinkle species.

  19. Processing methods for differential analysis of LC/MS profile data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orešič Matej

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS has been widely used in proteomics and metabolomics research. In this context, the technology has been increasingly used for differential profiling, i.e. broad screening of biomolecular components across multiple samples in order to elucidate the observed phenotypes and discover biomarkers. One of the major challenges in this domain remains development of better solutions for processing of LC/MS data. Results We present a software package MZmine that enables differential LC/MS analysis of metabolomics data. This software is a toolbox containing methods for all data processing stages preceding differential analysis: spectral filtering, peak detection, alignment and normalization. Specifically, we developed and implemented a new recursive peak search algorithm and a secondary peak picking method for improving already aligned results, as well as a normalization tool that uses multiple internal standards. Visualization tools enable comparative viewing of data across multiple samples. Peak lists can be exported into other data analysis programs. The toolbox has already been utilized in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate its utility on an example of metabolic profiling of Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. Conclusion The software is freely available under the GNU General Public License and it can be obtained from the project web page at: http://mzmine.sourceforge.net/.

  20. Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

    2013-05-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ∼100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology.

  1. Vinca Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinca alkaloids are a subset of drugs obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle plant. They are naturally extracted from the pink periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus G. Don and have a hypoglycemic as well as cytotoxic effects. They have been used to treat diabetes, high blood pressure and have been used as disinfectants. The vinca alkaloids are also important for being cancer fighters. There are four major vinca alkaloids in clinical use: Vinblastine (VBL, vinorelbine (VRL, vincristine (VCR and vindesine (VDS. VCR, VBL and VRL have been approved for use in the United States. Vinflunine is also a new synthetic vinca alkaloid, which has been approved in Europe for the treatment of second-line transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium is being developed for other malignancies. Vinca alkaloids are the second-most-used class of cancer drugs and will stay among the original cancer therapies. Different researches and studies for new vinca alkaloid applications will be carried out in this regard.

  2. An important developmental role for oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkers, J; Semino, C E; Stroband, H; Kijne, J W; Robbins, P W; Spaink, H P

    1997-07-22

    Derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides have been shown to play a role in plant organogenesis at nanomolar concentrations. Here we present data which indicate that chitin oligosaccharides are important for embryogenesis in vertebrates. We characterize chitin oligosaccharides synthesized in vitro by zebrafish and carp embryos in the late gastrulation stage by incorporation of radiolabeled N-acetyl-D-[U14C]glucosamine and by HPLC in combination with enzymatic conversion using the Bradyrhizobium NodZ alpha-1, 6-fucosyltransferase and chitinases. A rapid and sensitive bioassay for chitin oligosaccharides was also used employing suspension-cultured plant cells of Catharanthus roseus. We show that chitin oligosaccharide synthase activity is apparent only during late gastrulation and can be inhibited by antiserum raised against the Xenopus DG42 protein. The DG42 protein, a glycosyltransferase, is transiently expressed between midblastula and neurulation in Xenopus and zebrafish embryogenesis. Microinjection of the DG42 antiserum or the Bradyrhizobium NodZ enzyme in fertilized eggs of zebrafish led to severe defects in trunk and tail development.

  3. Review of the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter, emendation of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato, proposal to reclassify selected species of the genus Arthrobacter in the novel genera Glutamicibacter gen. nov., Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov., Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov., Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov., and emended description of Arthrobacter roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter is discussed, from its first description in 1947 to the present state. Emphasis is given to intrageneric phylogeny and chemotaxonomic characteristics, concentrating on quinone systems, peptidoglycan compositions and polar lipid profiles. Internal groups within the genus Arthrobacter indicated from homogeneous chemotaxonomic traits and corresponding to phylogenetic grouping and/or high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities are highlighted. Furthermore, polar lipid profiles and quinone systems of selected species are shown, filling some gaps concerning these chemotaxonomic traits. Based on phylogenetic groupings, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and homogeneity in peptidoglycan types, quinone systems and polar lipid profiles, a description of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and an emended description of Arthrobacter roseus are provided. Furthermore, reclassifications of selected species of the genus Arthrobacter into novel genera are proposed, namely Glutamicibacter gen. nov. (nine species), Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov. (six species), Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov. (two species), Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. (six species) and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov. (ten species).

  4. Towards the engineering of the monoterpene secoiridoid pathway in transgenic tobacco plants

    OpenAIRE

    Miralpeix i Anglada, Bruna

    2013-01-01

    La biosíntesis de monoterpenos secoiridoides aporta el compuesto terpeno de los terpenos índole alcaloides producidos por la planta medicinal Catharanthus roseus. La tesis se centra en el desarrollo de los conocimientos fundamentales i la metodología para reconstruir la ruta metabólica de los monoterpenos secoiridoides en plantas de tabaco mediante ingeniería metabólica. La idea central de la tesis enfoca en los retos pendientes de la ingeniería de rutas metabólicas complejas en plantas....

  5. 一株耐冷玫红假裸囊菌HD1031的鉴定及其所产纤维素酶的研究%Identification of a psychrotroph Pseudogymnoascus roseus HD1031 and the properties of its producing cellulase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩龙; 石家骥; 石磊; 王有智; 钞亚鹏; 杨敬; 张国青; 钱世钧

    2013-01-01

    [目的]以纤维素为唯一碳源,从四川省阿坝自治州黄龙沟的高山低温环境中分离筛选产纤维素酶的耐冷菌,并研究菌株的产酶特征.[方法]根据菌株的ITS序列分析及形态特征,对菌株进行鉴定.利用DNS法测定纤维素酶酶活性.[结果]从四川省阿坝自治州黄龙沟的高山腐殖土中筛选出一株产纤维素酶的耐冷菌HD1031,经鉴定该菌为玫红假裸囊菌(Pseudogymnoascus roseus).该菌可在4℃-25℃生长,最适生长温度为16℃-17℃.该菌在以微晶纤维素和玉米芯粉为碳源、硫酸铵和Tryptone为氮源的培养基中,17℃、160 r/min摇瓶发酵8d后产生纤维素酶,其中内切葡聚糖酶酶活为366.67 U/mL,滤纸酶酶活87.6 U/mL,β-葡萄糖苷酶酶活90.8 U/mL,酶最适反应pH为6.0,最适反应温度为50℃.[结论]筛选获得一株产纤维素酶的耐冷菌HD1031,此菌株所产纤维素酶在20℃-40℃下活性较高,对热敏感,具有低温纤维素酶的特点.%[Objective] To screen a psychrotolerant cellulase-producing strain from the decayed soil of Huanglong Mountain,Sichuan,China,and determine the properties of the cellulase.[Methods] The strain was identified by the morphology and ITS sequence analysis.The DNS method was used to determine the activity of cellulases.[Results] A psychrotolerant cellulase-producing strain HD1031 was screened from the decayed soil of Huanglong Mountain.It was identified as Pseudogymnoascus roseus by the morphology and ITS sequence analysis.The strain could grow between 4 ℃ and 25 ℃ and its optimum growth temperature is 16 ℃-17 ℃.In the medium containing Avicel,corn cob powder,(NH4)2SO4 and Tryptone,the strain HD1031 produced cellulases.After cultivating under the conditions of 17 ℃ and 160 r/min for 8 days,the cellulases activities in the fermentation broth were CMCase activity 366.67 U/mL,FPA 87.6 U/mL and the β-glucosidase activity 90.8 U/mL.The optimum pH value and temperature of the CMCase was pH 6

  6. Insecticidal and biological effects of three plant extracts tested against the dengue vector, Stegomyia agyptii (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kokila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of resistant in vectors especially vector mosquitoes are becoming a challenge for the scientific community for management and control mosquito population. Vector mosquitoes are likely to withstand toxicity and develop resistant mechanism to single active compound hence, combining medicinal plants with rich active compounds stops resistant development and proliferation of mosquitoes. In this study we put effort to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Tagetes patula, Clerodentron phillomedis, and Catharanthus roseus in individual and in combination against the dengue vector, Stegomyia agyptii. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 were calculated to find out the effect of the test plants in individual and in combination. T. patula extract showed vaguely higher mortality rate when compared to C. phillomedis, and C. roseus but there was no significant variation among the three test plants. The median LC of combined treatment showed a significant difference between the combined (2.25 µg/mL/3rd instar and individual treatment (6.41 µg/mL/3rd instar for T. patula, 6.85 µg/mL/3rd instar for C. phillomedis and 6.59 µg/mL/3rd instar for C. roseus. The combined efficacy of three test plants was also effective in controlling vector mosquitoes at fields with different agro-climatic conditions. The study proves that the combination of T. patula, C. phillomedis, and C. roseus is effective in different field conditions at lower concentrations.

  7. Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Kuin Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC, total phenolic content (TPC, and radical scavenging activity (RSA using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin-Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, respectively. Results: Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation.

  8. Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs are postulated to play critical roles in cancer development, including metastasis and recurrence, CSC imaging would provide valuable information for cancer treatment and lead to CSC-targeted therapy. To assess the possibility of in vivo CSC targeting, we conducted basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of cancer cells positive for CD133, a CSC marker recognized in various cancers. Antibodies against CD133 were labeled with 125I, and their in vitro cell binding properties were tested. Using the same isotype IgG as a control, in vivo biodistribution of the labeled antibody retaining immunoreactivity was examined in mice bearing an HCT116 xenograft in which a population of the cancer cells expressed CD133. Intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody was examined and compared to the CD133 expression pattern. The 125I-labeled anti-CD133 antibody showed a modest but significantly higher accumulation in the HCT116 xenograft compared to the control IgG. The intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody mostly overlapped with the CD133 expression, whereas the control IgG was found in the area close to the necrotic tumor center. Our results indicate that noninvasive in vivo targeting of CSCs could be possible with radiolabeled antibodies against cell membrane markers.

  9. IMPORTANT FINDINGS ON PLANTS HAVING ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY: A REVIEW

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    Purkayastha Sanhita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have certain biologically active molecules and many of the present drug discoveries are based on these molecules found in the plants used in traditional system of medicine. In this review paper 20 plants (Emblica officinalis Linn., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.Nees, Curcuma domestica Valet, Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn., Camellia sinensis assamica (Masters Kitomura, Centella asiatica (L.Urban, Mangifera indica Linn., Hypericum perforatum L., Cymbopogon citratus(DCStaf, Vitex negundo Linn., Hemidesmus indicus R.Br., Catharanthus roseus(Linn.G.Don, Euphorbia hirta Linn., Prunus persica (Linn.Stokes, Oxalis corniculata Linn., Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms, Amaranthus spinosus L.,Alternanthera sessilis (L. R. Br. ex. DC., Garcinia cowa Roxb. are viewed which have antioxidant property. Studies on these plants may throw light on various therapeutic potential and uses of these herbs and plants.

  10. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeff, Michael Christiaan; Roux, Milena Edna; Mundy, John;

    2012-01-01

    domain defines ligand specificity, and RLK families are sub-classed according to this domain. The most studied of these subfamilies include those with (1) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, (2) LysM domains (LYM), and (3) the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L) domain. These proteins recognize...... distinct ligands of microbial origin or ligands derived from intracellular protein/carbohydrate signals. For example, the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) AtFLS2 recognizes flg22 from flagellin, and the PRR AtEFR recognizes elf18 from elongation factor (EF-Tu). Upon binding of their cognate ligands...... these receptors form protein complexes to exert their function....

  11. Alternariol 9-O-methyl ether

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    Brett A. Neilan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (AME; systematic name: 3,7-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-1-methyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one, C15H12O5, was isolated from an endophytic fungi Alternaria sp., from Catharanthus roseus (common name: Madagascar periwinkle. There is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond in the essentially planar molecule (r.m.s. deviation 0.02 Å. In the crystal, the molecule forms an O—H...O hydrogen bond with its centrosymmetric counterpart with four bridging interactions (two O—H...O and two C—H...O. The almost planar sheets of the dimeric units thus formed are stacked along b axis via C—H...π and π–π contacts [with C...C short contacts between aromatic moieties of 3.324 (3, 3.296 (3 and 3.374 (3 Å].

  12. Response of mycorrhizal periwinkle plants to aster yellows phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Maria; Klamkowski, Krzysztof; Berniak, Hanna; Sowik, Iwona

    2010-03-01

    The objective of our research was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization can modify the effect of infection by two aster yellows phytoplasma strains (AY1, AYSim) in Catharanthus roseus plants. Both phytoplasma strains had a negative effect on the root fresh weight, but they differed in symptoms appearance and in their influence on photosynthetic and transpiration rates of the periwinkle plants. AM plants showed significantly reduced shoot fresh weight, while the transpiration rate was significantly increased. AM fungal colonization significantly affected shoot height and fresh weight of the plants infected by each phytoplasma strains as well as the root system of plants infected with the more aggressive AYSim phytoplasma strain. Double inoculation did not reduce the negative effects induced with phytoplasma alone on the photosynthetic activity of phytoplasma-infected plants.

  13. Effect of Leaf Structure on the Formaldehyde-resistance Capacity in Five Ornamental Plants%几种花卉叶片的组织结构对其抗甲醛能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸葆; 陈段芬; 果秀敏; 鲁媛; 张成合

    2007-01-01

    以绿萝(Scindapsus aureus)、亮丝草(Aglaonema moclestum)、花烛(Anthurium andreanum)、长寿花(Catharanthus roseus)和非洲菊(Gerbera jamesonii)为试材,浓度为5.0 mg/mL的甲醛处理24 h后,观察其受害状况,并对其叶片进行解剖观察.结果表明:叶片表皮的气孔密度、栅栏组织和海绵组织的细胞排列方式等对植物抗甲醛能力有明显影响,未发现处理前后气孔开度变化与植物抗甲醛能力之间存在明显的正相关.

  14. An NPF transporter exports a central monoterpene indole alkaloid intermediate from the vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard M E; Xu, Deyang; Foureau, Emilien; Teto Carqueijeiro, Marta Ines Soares; Oudin, Audrey; Bernonville, Thomas Dugé de; Novak, Vlastimil; Burow, Meike; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Jones, D Marc; Tatsis, Evangelos C; Pendle, Ali; Ann Halkier, Barbara; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Courdavault, Vincent; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2017-01-13

    Plants sequester intermediates of metabolic pathways into different cellular compartments, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are transported remain poorly understood. Monoterpene indole alkaloids, a class of specialized metabolites that includes the anticancer agent vincristine, antimalarial quinine and neurotoxin strychnine, are synthesized in several different cellular locations. However, the transporters that control the movement of these biosynthetic intermediates within cellular compartments have not been discovered. Here we present the discovery of a tonoplast localized nitrate/peptide family (NPF) transporter from Catharanthus roseus, CrNPF2.9, that exports strictosidine, the central intermediate of this pathway, into the cytosol from the vacuole. This discovery highlights the role that intracellular localization plays in specialized metabolism, and sets the stage for understanding and controlling the central branch point of this pharmacologically important group of compounds.

  15. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morabad, R.B. [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Kerur, B.R. [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of {sup 241}Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32 keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy.

  16. Functional analysis of related CrRLK1L receptor-like kinases in pollen tube reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sharon A; Lindner, Heike; Jones, Daniel S; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    The Catharanthus roseus Receptor-Like Kinase 1-like (CrRLK1L) family of 17 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) has been implicated in a variety of signaling pathways in Arabidopsis, ranging from pollen tube (PT) reception and tip growth to hormonal responses. The extracellular domains of these RLKs have malectin-like domains predicted to bind carbohydrate moieties. Domain swap analysis showed that the extracellular domains of the three members analyzed (FER, ANX1, HERK1) are not interchangeable, suggesting distinct upstream components, such as ligands and/or co-factors. In contrast, their intercellular domains are functionally equivalent for PT reception, indicating that they have common downstream targets in their signaling pathways. The kinase domain is necessary for FER function, but kinase activity itself is not, indicating that other kinases may be involved in signal transduction during PT reception.

  17. Micropropagation and maintenance of phytoplasmas in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaccini, Assunta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Martini, Marta; Tedeschi, Mara; Contaldo, Nicoletta

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of phytoplasma strains in tissue culture is achievable for all strains transmitted to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), and also for other naturally infected plant host species. Shoots of 1-3 cm length are grown in a solid medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) micro- and macroelements and 0.12 mg/L benzylaminopurine. The continued presence of phytoplasmas in infected shoots of periwinkle that have been maintained in micropropagation for up to 20 years can be shown by diagnostic methods such as nested PCR tests using the 16S rDNA gene (see Chapters 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,and 26 for phytoplasma diagnostic methods).

  18. In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, M K

    1996-01-01

    A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%).

  19. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  20. Nuclear factors GT-1 and 3AF1 interact with multiple sequences within the promoter of the Tdc gene from Madagascar periwinkle: GT-1 is involved in UV light-induced expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, P B; Trimborn, T O; Hilliou, F; Memelink, J

    1999-06-01

    Plant secondary metabolites of the terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) class comprise several compounds with pharmaceutical applications. A key step in the TIA biosynthetic pathway is catalysed by the enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), which channels the primary metabolite tryptophan into TIA metabolism. In Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), the Tdc gene is expressed throughout plant development. Moreover, Tdc gene expression is induced by external stress signals, such as fungal elicitor and UV light. In a previous study of Tdc promoter architecture in transgenic tobacco it was shown that the -538 to -112 region is a quantitative determinant for the expression level in different plant organs. Within this sequence one particular region (-160 to -99) was identified as the major contributor to basal expression and another region (-99 to -37) was shown to be required for induction by fungal elicitor. Here, the in vitro binding of nuclear factors to the -572 to -37 region is described. In extracts from tobacco and C. roseus, two binding activities were detected that could be identified as the previously described nuclear factors GT-1 and 3AF1, based on their mobility and binding characteristics. Both factors appeared to interact with multiple regions in the Tdc promoter. Mutagenesis of GT-1 binding sites in the Tdc promoter did not affect the basal or elicitor-induced expression levels. However, induction of the Tdc promoter constructs by UV light was significantly lower, thereby demonstrating a functional role for GT-1 in the induction of Tdc expression by UV light.

  1. A New Disease of Cherry Plum Tree with Yellow Leaf Symptoms Associated with a Novel Phytoplasma in the Aster Yellows Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-nan; ZHANG Lei; TAO Ye; CHI Ming; XIANG Yu; WU Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    A novel phytoplasma was detected in a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) tree that mainly showed yellow leaf symptom. The tree was growing in an orchard located in Yangling District, Shaanxi Province, China. The leaves started as chlorotic and yellowing along leaf minor veins and leaf tips. Chlorosis rapidly developed to inter-veinal areas with the whole leaf becoming pale yellow in about 1-4 wk. Large numbers of phytoplasma-like bodies (PLBs) were seen under transmission electron microscopy. The majority of the PLBs was spherical or elliptical vesicles, with diameters in range of 0.1-0.6 µm, and distributed in the phloem cells of the infected tissues. A 1 246-bp 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment was ampliifed from DNA samples extracted from the yellow leaf tissues using two phytoplasma universal primer pairs R16mF2/R16mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that the phytoplasma associated with the yellow leaf symptoms belongs to a novel subclade in the aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI group). Virtual and actual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the phytoplasma was distinguishable from all existing 19 subgroups in the AY group (16SrI) by four restriction sites, Hinf I, Mse I, Sau3A I and Taq I. The similarity coefifcients of comparing the RFLP pattern of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of this phytoplasma to each of the 19 reported subgroups ranged from 0.73 to 0.87, which indicates the phytoplasma associated with the cherry plum yellow leaf (CPYL) symptoms is probably a distinct and novel subgroup lineage in the AY group (16SrI). In addition, the novel phytoplasma was experimentally transmitted to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants from the tree with CPYL symptoms and then back to a healthy 1-yr-old cherry plum tree via dodder (Cuscuta odorata) connections.

  2. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  3. Dendritic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Söker

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells, a member of family of antigen presenting cells, are most effective cells in the primary immune response. Dendritic cells originated from dendron, in mean of tree in the Greek, because of their long and elaborate cytoplasmic branching processes. Dendritic cells constitute approximately 0.1 to 1 percent of the blood’s mononuclear cell. Dendritic cells are widely distributed, and specialized for antigen capture and T cell stimulation. In this article, structures and functions of...

  4. Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic phototrophic Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine aquaculture biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foesel, Bärbel U.; Gößner, Anita S.; Drake, Harold L.;

    2007-01-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, diplococcoid bacterium (strain D2-3T) was isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture system. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3T indicated that the new organism occupied a novel lineage within the α-1 subclass...

  5. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  6. Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  7. Cell Biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  8. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirimand Grégory

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first two enzymatic steps of monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA biosynthetic pathway are catalysed by strictosidine synthase (STR that condensates tryptamine and secologanin to form strictosidine and by strictosidine β-D-glucosidase (SGD that subsequently hydrolyses the glucose moiety of strictosidine. The resulting unstable aglycon is rapidly converted into a highly reactive dialdehyde, from which more than 2,000 MIAs are derived. Many studies were conducted to elucidate the biosynthesis and regulation of pharmacologically valuable MIAs such as vinblastine and vincristine in Catharanthus roseus or ajmaline in Rauvolfia serpentina. However, very few reports focused on the MIA physiological functions. Results In this study we showed that a strictosidine pool existed in planta and that the strictosidine deglucosylation product(s was (were specifically responsible for in vitro protein cross-linking and precipitation suggesting a potential role for strictosidine activation in plant defence. The spatial feasibility of such an activation process was evaluated in planta. On the one hand, in situ hybridisation studies showed that CrSTR and CrSGD were coexpressed in the epidermal first barrier of C. roseus aerial organs. However, a combination of GFP-imaging, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and electromobility shift-zymogram experiments revealed that STR from both C. roseus and R. serpentina were localised to the vacuole whereas SGD from both species were shown to accumulate as highly stable supramolecular aggregates within the nucleus. Deletion and fusion studies allowed us to identify and to demonstrate the functionality of CrSTR and CrSGD targeting sequences. Conclusions A spatial model was drawn to explain the role of the subcellular sequestration of STR and SGD to control the MIA metabolic flux under normal physiological conditions. The model also illustrates the possible mechanism of massive activation of the

  9. Stem cells in cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, Agneta; English, Denis; Sanberg, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    This commentary documents the increased number of stem cell-related research reports recently published in the cell transplantation field in the journal Cell Transplantation. The journal covers a wide range of issues in cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine and is attracting clinical and preclinical articles from around the world. It thereby complements and extends the basic coverage of stem cell physiology reported in Stem Cells and Development. Sections in Cell Transplantation cover neuroscience, diabetes, hepatocytes, bone, muscle, cartilage, skin, vessels, and other tissues, as well as tissue engineering that employs novel methods with stem cells. Clearly, the continued use of biomedical engineering will depend heavily on stem cells, and these two journals are well positioned to provide comprehensive coverage of these developments.

  10. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  11. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  12. Engineering of a Nepetalactol-Producing Platform Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the Production of Plant Seco-Iridoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alex; Bauchart, Philippe; Gold, Nicholas D; Zhu, Yun; De Luca, Vincenzo; Martin, Vincent J J

    2016-05-20

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) are a valuable family of chemicals that include the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. These compounds are of global significance-appearing on the World Health Organization's list of model essential medicines-but remain exorbitantly priced due to low in planta levels. Chemical synthesis and genetic manipulation of MIA producing plants such as Catharanthus roseus have so far failed to find a solution to this problem. Synthetic biology holds a potential answer, by building the pathway into more tractable organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recent work has taken the first steps in this direction by producing small amounts of the intermediate strictosidine in yeast. In order to help improve on these titers, we aimed to optimize the early biosynthetic steps of the MIA pathway to the metabolite nepetalactol. We combined a number of strategies to create a base strain producing 11.4 mg/L of the precursor geraniol. We also show production of the critical intermediate 10-hydroxygeraniol and demonstrate nepetalactol production in vitro. Lastly we demonstrate that activity of the iridoid synthase toward the intermediates geraniol and 10-hydroxygeraniol results in the synthesis of the nonproductive intermediates citronellol and 10-hydroxycitronellol. This discovery has serious implications for the reconstruction of the MIA in heterologous organisms.

  13. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  14. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi De Masi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus. We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis, available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus.

  15. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan eGreeff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are surface localized, transmembrane receptors comprising a large family of well-studied kinases. RLKs signal through their transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains with the aid of various interacting partners and downstream components. The N-terminal extracellular domain defines ligand specificity, and RLK families are sub-classed according to this domain. The most studied of these subfamilies include those with 1 leucine rich repeat (LRR domains, 2 LysM domains (LYM and 3 the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L domain. These proteins recognize distinct ligands of microbial origin or ligands derived from intracellular protein/carbohydrate signals. For example, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR AtFLS2 recognizes flg22 from flagellin, and the PRR AtEFR recognizes elf18 from elongation factor (EF-Tu. Upon binding of their cognate ligands, the aforementioned RLKs activate generic immune responses termed pattern triggered immunity (PTI. RLKs can form complexes with other family members and engage a variety of intracellular signaling components and regulatory pathways upon stimulation. This review focuses on interesting new data about how these receptors form protein complexes to exert their function.

  16. Gene expression profiling of phytoplasma-infected Madagascar periwinkle leaves using differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, V; Capasso, C; Capasso, A; Pastore, M; Carginale, V

    2011-06-01

    Phytoplasmas are small (0.2-0.8 μm), wall-less, pleiomorphic prokaryotes responsible of numerous economically important plant diseases. They are characterized by a very small genome and are obligate parasites of phloem tissues and some insects that act as vectors of infection. To investigate molecular mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, the differential display technique was here applied to identify plant genes whose transcription was significantly altered in leaves of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don) infected by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri'. We detected, reamplified, cloned, and sequenced 16 putative differentially expressed cDNA fragments. Northern blot analysis revealed that seven of the 16 genes identified were up-regulated following phytoplasma infection, while three genes were down-regulated. The remaining six genes did not show significant changes in the level of expression. Identified genes are mainly involved in plant defence/stress responses, protein metabolism and transport, transcriptional regulation, vesicle trafficking, and carbohydrate metabolism. The possible role played by these genes in the phytoplasma infection is discussed.

  17. Growth inhibitory activity of fatty acid methyl esters in the whole seed oil of madagascar periwinkle (Apocyanaceae) against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyan, R S; Malarvannan, S; Eganathan, P; Rajalakshmi, S; Parida, Ajay

    2009-06-01

    Crude hexane and water extracts of Catharanthus roseus Linn. (Syn: Vinca rosea) (Apocyanaceae) stem, leaf, and seed exhibited pesticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera Noctuidae). The extracts differed significantly in their efficacy, with the crude hexane extract of whole seed being the most effective in curtailing pupal survivorship to 18% followed by the hexane extracts of leaf (21%) and stem (24%). Average pupal weight (68.2 mg) and length (1.5 cm) in the whole seed treatment were drastically reduced, compared with the controls (415.2 mg and 2.72 cm), subsequently reducing adult emergence to 15.7%. SiO2 column purification yielded eight fractions of which fraction 1 exhibited 90% larval mortality, with severe reduction of the larvae weight (12.7 mg) and length (1.5 cm). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of fraction 1 suggested the presence of 16 compounds, among which oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and margaric acids were detected as major constituents. Presence of the alkane hydrocarbons triacontane, tetracosane, and heptacosane also was noted.

  18. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Flatt, P R; Gould, B J; Bailey, C J

    1989-02-01

    Twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern Europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. The plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (Arctium lappa), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), elder (Sambucus nigra), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), guayusa (Ilex guayusa), hop (Humulus lupulus), nettle (Urtica dioica), cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), sage (Salvia officinale), and wild carrot (Daucus carrota) did not affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis examined in normal mice (basal plasma glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and glycated haemoglobin). After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg) burdock and nettle aggravated the diabetic condition, while cashew, dandelion, elder, fenugreek, hop, periwinkle, sage and wild carrot did not significantly affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis studied (basal glucose and insulin, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and pancreatic insulin concentration). Guayusa and mushroom retarded the development of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin diabetes and reduced the hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, and glycated haemoglobin. Mushroom also countered the initial reduction in plasma insulin and the reduction in pancreatic insulin concentration, and improved the hypoglycaemic effect of exogenous insulin. These studies suggest the presence of potentially useful antidiabetic agents in guayusa and mushroom.

  19. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S.; Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cel...

  1. PRODUCTION OF ENRICHED BIOMASS BY RED YEASTS OF SPOROBOLOMYCES SP. GROWN ON WASTE SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Breierova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and ergosterol are industrially significant metabolites probably involved in yeast stress response mechanisms. Thus, controlled physiological and nutrition stress including use of waste substrates can be used for their enhanced production. In this work two red yeast strains of the genus Sporobolomyces (Sporobolomyces roseus, Sporobolomyces shibatanus were studied. To increase the yield of metabolites at improved biomass production, several types of exogenous as well as nutrition stress were tested. Each strain was cultivated at optimal growth conditions and in medium with modified carbon and nitrogen sources. Synthetic media with addition of complex substrates (e.g. yeast extract and vitamin mixtures as well as some waste materials (whey, apple fibre, wheat, crushed pasta were used as nutrient sources. Peroxide and salt stress were applied too, cells were exposed to oxidative stress (2-10 mM H2O2 and osmotic stress (2-10 % NaCl. During the experiment, growth characteristics and the production of biomass, carotenoids and ergosterol were evaluated. In optimal conditions tested strains substantially differed in biomass as well as metabolite production. S.roseus produced about 50 % of biomass produced by S.shibatanus (8 g/L. Oppositely, production of pigments and ergosterol by S.roseus was 3-4 times higher than in S.shibatanus. S.roseus was able to use most of waste substrates, the best production of ergosterol (8.9 mg/g d.w. and beta-carotene (4.33 mg/g d.w. was obtained in medium with crushed pasta hydrolyzed by mixed enzyme from Phanerochaetae chrysosporium. Regardless very high production of carotenes and ergosterol, S.roseus is probably not suitable for industrial use because of relatively low biomass production.

  2. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  3. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  4. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  5. Stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Monti, Manuela; Merico, Valeria; Neri, Tui; Zanoni, Mario; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The application of stem cells to regenerative medicine is one of the actual hot topics in biomedicine. This research could help the cure of a number of diseases that are affecting a large share of the population. Some good results in cell replacement have already been obtained (infarcted heart, diabetes, Parkinson disease), apart from those of more traditional applications like severe burns and blood tumors. We are now facing crucial questions in stem cell biology. One of the key questions is how a cell begins to proliferate or differentiate. Genome reprogramming, both following nuclear transfer and cytoplast action, will likely highlight some of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. In turn, these clues should be useful to the production of populations of reprogrammed cells that could develop into tissues or, in the future, into proper organs. We will overview what stem cells are, what roles they play in normal developmental processes and how stem cells could have the potential to treat diseases.

  6. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  7. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  8. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease Images Red blood cells, sickle cell Red blood cells, normal Red blood ... multiple sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ... Heeney MM, Ware RE. Sickle cell disease. In: Orkin SH, Fisher DE, Ginsburg D, Look ...

  9. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  10. Cell, cell, cell: fuel cell applications moving ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2001-11-01

    Developments in fuel cell technology within the last decade, such as the targeting by major automakers of non-polluting fuel cells as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, are reviewed. For example, Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver is the exclusive supplier to both DaimlerCrysler and the Ford Motor Company of the fuel cell stacks that produce the power in fuel cell systems. Ballard plans the commercial launch of transit bus engines in 2002 and automotive products between 2003 and 2005. The company also sees huge opportunities for fuel cells in stationary and portable power applications. At the same time, the Calgary-based fuel cell division of Energy Ventures Inc. is developing a direct methanol fuel cell that eliminates the intermediate step of 'reforming' methanol into hydrogen that is required in the Ballard process. Energy Ventures targets small niche markets such as small utility vehicles for its direct methanol fuel cell. A completely self-contained fuel cell of this type is expected to be ready in 2002. Solid oxide fuel cells for off-grid remote power units as well as for home heat and power is yet another field of development that will be particularly attractive to operations in remote areas where reliable grid electricity is expensive and hard to obtain. A prototype 2.3 kW residential power system using natural gas was made available by Global Thermoelectric Inc in June 2001; field testing is planned for 2002, with commercial production in late 2003 or 2004. The Calgary-based Snow Leopard Resources Inc plans to use pure hydrogen sulphide obtained from sour natural gas as a hydrogen source. The prime focus of Snow Leopard is on gas plants looking for ways to increase their efficiency, obtain carbon dioxide credits and generate electricity on site. This type of fuel cell also could be of interest to companies with shut-in sour gas since these companies could use the stationary fuel cell system to generate electricity.

  11. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  12. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  13. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  14. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...

  15. CellTracks cell analysis system for rare cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagan, Michael T.; Trainer, Michael N.; Bendele, Teresa; Rao, Chandra; Horton, Allen; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The CellTracks system is a Compact Disk-based cell analyzer that, similar to flow cytometry, differentiates cells that are aligned while passing through focused laser beams. In CellTracks, only immuno-magnetically labeled cells are aligned and remain in position for further analysis. This feature is

  16. Structures of Iridoid Synthase from Cantharanthus roseus with Bound NAD(+) , NADPH, or NAD(+) /10-Oxogeranial: Reaction Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yumei; Liu, Weidong; Malwal, Satish R; Zheng, Yingying; Feng, Xinxin; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chun-Chi; Xu, Zhongxia; Liu, Meixia; Han, Xu; Gao, Jian; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2015-12-14

    Structures of the iridoid synthase nepetalactol synthase in the presence of NAD(+) , NADPH or NAD(+) /10-oxogeranial were solved. The 10-oxogeranial substrate binds in a transoid-O1-C3 conformation and can be reduced by hydride addition to form the byproduct S-10-oxo-citronellal. Tyr178 Oζ is positioned 2.5 Å from the substrate O1 and provides the second proton required for reaction. Nepetalactol product formation requires rotation about C1-C2 to form the cisoid isomer, leading to formation of the cis-enolate, together with rotation about C4-C5, which enables cyclization and lactol production. The structure is similar to that of progesterone-5β-reductase, with almost identical positioning of NADP, Lys146(147), Tyr178(179), and F342(343), but only Tyr178 and Phe342 appear to be essential for activity. The transoid 10-oxogeranial structure also serves as a model for β-face hydride attack in progesterone 5β-reductases and is of general interest in the context of asymmetric synthesis.

  17. Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells ... red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood vessels, blocking blood ...

  18. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease?Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... disease, hemoglobin SS disease, hemoglobin synthesis, hemoglobinopathies, ... cell anemia, sickle cell crisis, vaso-occlusive crisis Family Health, ...

  19. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone, cartilage, stromal cells that support blood formation, fat, and fibrous tissue. Cell-based therapies —Treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or ...

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  1. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0

  2. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  3. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  4. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  5. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  6. [Inflammatory dendritic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Elodie; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells are a rare and heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells. Several murine dendritic cell subpopulations have been identified that differ in their phenotype and functional properties. In the steady state, committed dendritic cell precursors differentiate into lymphoid organ-resident dendritic cells and migratory tissue dendritic cells. During inflammation appears an additional dendritic cell subpopulation that has been termed « inflammatory dendritic cells ». Inflammatory dendritic cells differentiate in situ from monocytes recruited to the site of inflammation. Here, we discuss how mouse inflammatory dendritic cells differ from macrophages and from other dendritic cell populations. Finally, we review recent work on human inflammatory dendritic cells.

  7. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  8. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  9. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    OpenAIRE

    Stachelscheid, H.; Seltmann, S.; Lekschas, F.; Fontaine, J.F.; Mah, N.; Neves, M.; Andrade-Navarro, M.A.; Leser, U; Kurtz, A.

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue t...

  10. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as bi...

  11. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  13. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  15. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J

    2013-06-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.

  16. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell-cell Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-Huai

    2004-01-01

    Cell-cell recognition is the key for multicellular organisms to survive. This recognition critically depends on protein-protein interactions from opposing cell surfaces. Recent structural investigations reveal unique features of these cell surface receptors and how they interact. These interactions are specific, but usually relatively weak, with more hydrophilic forces involved in binding. The receptors appear to have specialized ways to present their key interacting elements for ligand-binding from the cell surface. Cell-cell contacts are multivalent. A large group of cell surface molecules are engaged in interactions. Characteristic weak interactions make possible for each individual molecule pair within the group to constantly associate-dissociate-reassociate, such that the cell-cell recognition becomes a dynamic process. The immunological synapse is a good example for immune receptors to be orchestrated in performing immunological function in a collective fashion.

  18. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  19. Photoelectrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

    1983-06-14

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  20. nduced pluripotent stem cells and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo. They hold a huge promise for cell therapy with their self-renewing ability and pluripotency, which is known as the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from three embryonic germ layers. However, their unique pluripotent feature could not be utilised for therapeutic purposes due to the ethical and legal problems during derivation. Recently, it was shown that the cells from adult tissues could be reverted into embryonic state, thereby restoring their pluripotent feature. This has strenghtened the possiblity of directed differentition of the reprogrammed somatic cells into the desired cell types in vitro and their use in regenerative medicine. Although these cells were termed as induced pluripotent cells, the mechanism of pluripotency has yet to be understood. Still, induced pluripotent stem cell technology is considered to be significant by proposing novel approaches in disease modelling, drug screening and cell therapy. Besides their self-renewing ability and their potential to differentiate into all cell types in a human body, they arouse a great interest in scientific world by being far from the ethical concerns regarding their embryonic counterparts and their unique feature of being patient-specific in prospective cell therapies. In this review, induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its role in cell-based therapies from past to present will be discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 550-561

  1. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S.; Wang, Y; Wang, X-N.

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ‘entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  2. 烟草5-磷酸脱氧木酮糖还原异构酶基因(dxr)的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerases Gene (dxr) in Nicotina tabacum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓宇; 王景; 赵二卫; 姚姗姗; 崔红

    2011-01-01

    以烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)栽培品种K326为材料,采用RT-PCR技术,克隆了萜类代谢关键酶烟草5-磷酸脱氧木酮糖还原异构酶(dxr)的cDNA片段.该基因编码区长1422 bp,编码473个氨基酸残基.利用Clustal W(1.82)和Bioedit软件,对烟草与番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)、长春花(Catharanthus roseus)、金鱼草(A ntirrhinum majus)、薄荷(Mentha piperita)、玉米(Zea mays)、拟南芥(A rabidopsis thaliana)、念珠藻(Nostoc sp.)等物种dar基因的同源性进行分析,其氨基酸同源性分别达到93.6%、87.9%、86.3%、84.6%、84.2%、82.9%和53.5%.原核表达结果证明,该基因编码蛋白的分子量约为50 kD,与氨基酸序列估算相符合.组织表达特异性分析表明,dxr基因在烟草组织中的表达强弱为花>叶>茎>腺毛>种子>根,在花和叶片中的表达量占优势.该结果对烟草萜类代谢的分子调控和品质改良具有重要的参考价值.%Isoprenoid biosynthesis via mvalonate-independent pathway is very important to tobacco resistance and leaf quality. 1-deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerases (dxr) is a key enzyme in biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, which is the precusor for monoterpenoid, diterpenoid and tetratepenoid compounds. To regulate the terpenoid metabolism pathway for tobacco improvement, some important genes such as dxr should be studied firstly. In this paper, dxr gene was cloned successfully from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar K326 leaf by RT-PCR. The cDNA code region was 1 422 bp long and encoding 437 amino acids. Sequence analysis by Clustal W declared that this fragment was highly homologous to dxr gene of other species. It shared 93.6% amino acid homologous to Lycopersicon esculentum, 87.9% to Catharanthus roseus, 86.3% to Antirrhinum majus,84.6% to Mentha piperita, 84.2% to Zea mays, 82.9% to Arabidopsis thaliana, and 53.5% to Nostoc sp.PCC7120. The expression vector pET21b-dxr was constructed and expressed in

  3. Tumor cell "dead or alive": caspase and survivin regulate cell death, cell cycle and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Shiraki, K

    2001-04-01

    Cell death and cell cycle progression are two sides of the same coin, and these two different phenomenons are regulated moderately to maintain the cellular homeostasis. Tumor is one of the disease states produced as a result of the disintegrated regulation and is characterized as cells showing an irreversible progression of cell cycle and a resistance to cell death signaling. Several investigations have been performed for the understanding of cell death or cell cycle, and cell death research has remarkably progressed in these 10 years. Caspase is a nomenclature referring to ICE/CED-3 cysteine proteinase family and plays a central role during cell death. Recently, several investigations raised some possible hypotheses that caspase is also involved in cell cycle regulation. In this issue, therefore, we review the molecular basis of cell death and cell cycle regulated by caspase in tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  4. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengjuan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bergen, Werner G. [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Hausman, Gary J. [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States); Zan, Linsen, E-mail: zanls@yahoo.com.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Dodson, Michael V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  5. Electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuts, J.J.F.G.; Willems, J.J.G.S.A.

    1987-10-13

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising a negative electrode. The electrochemically active material of which consists of an intermetallic compound forming a hydride with hydrogen, which compound has the CaCu/sub 5/-structure and the compositional formula AB/sub m/C/sub n/, where m+n is between 4.8 and 5.4, where n is between 0.05 and 0.6, in which A consists of Misch-metal or of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Y, Ti, Hf, Zr, Ca, Th, La and the remaining rare earth metals, in which the total atomic quantities of the elements Y, Ti, Hf and Zr may not be more than 40% of A. B consists of two or more elements selected from the group formed by Ni, Co, Cu, Fe and Mn, where the maximum atomic quantity per gram atom of A is for Ni: 3.5, for Co:3.5, for Cu:3.5, for Fe:2.0 and for Mn:1.0, and C consists of one or more elements selected from the group formed by Al, Cr and Si in the indicated atomic quantities: Al:0.05-0.6, Cr:0.05-0.5 and Si:0.05-0.5, characterized in that the electrochemically active material additionally comprises one or more metals selected from the group formed by Pd, Pt, Ir and Rh, the atomic quantity per gram atom of A being from 0.001 to 0.5.

  6. CELL RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    REVIEWSInducible resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in B cells…………………………………ROTHSTEIN Thomas L (245)Executionary pathway for apoptosis: lessons from mutant mice………………………………………WOO Minna, Razqallah Hakem, Tak W Mak (267)The SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase: Signaling mechanisms and biological functions…………………………………QU Cheng Kui (279)REGULAR ARTICLESTemperature dependent expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis…………………………KONG Wei Hua, Zheng GU, Jining LU, Jiake TSO (289)Transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity…………………………………MA Ying Hua, Jia Hua HU, Xiao Gang ZHOU, Ruo Wang ZENG, Zhen Tong MEI, Jian FEI, Li He GUO (303)Genetic aberration in primary hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation between p53 gene mutation and loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 16q21-q23 and 9p21-p23………………………………………WANG Gang, Chang Hui HUANG, Yan ZHAO, Ling CAI, Ying WANG, Shi Jin XIU, Zheng Wen JIANG, Shuang YANG, Xin Tai ZHAO, Wei HUANG, Jian Ren GU (311)Identification and genetic mapping of four novel genes that regulate leaf deve- lopment in Arabidopsis………………………………………………SUN Yue, Wei ZHANG, Feng Ling LI, Ying Li GUO, Tian Lei LIU, Hai HUANG (325)NOTICE FOR CONTRIBUTORS…………………………………(337)CONTENTS of Vol. 10, 2000…………………………………………………(338)

  7. From herkogamy to cleistogamy--development of cleistogamy in periwinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra N; Baskaran, Kuppusamy

    2013-01-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus [L.] G. Don), an important medicinal plant, is an allogamous species in which the stigma is below the anthers. The receptive portion is at the base of the stigmatic head and thus automatic intra-flower self-pollination is excluded. The structure of the flower is of typical reverse herkogamy and pollination occurs through nectar-seeking insects. A few self-pollinating strains are also reported in which self-pollination is brought about by an increase in length of the style or of the ovary. Self-pollination is governed by allelic duplicate genes recessive to allogamy. An induced monogenic recessive mutant (EMS 17-1) with caducous closed corolla (corolla abscising before anthesis), isolated from variety, Dhawal, was crossed with two self-pollinating strains to study the possibility of obtaining cleistogamous recombinants combining closed corolla and self-pollination traits. Cleistogamous plants were obtained in which development of fruits and seeds occurred without opening of the corolla. Closed corolla and self-pollination were found to be independently inherited. A dominant gene in the parent in which self-pollination occurred due to an increase in length of the ovary, appeared to completely or partially inhibit expression of the gene for closed corolla in homozygous or heterozygous condition, respectively. The genetic basis of development of cleistogamy is described. Cleistogamy in periwinkle would facilitate in ensuring genetic purity, pollen containment, and seed production even in the absence of pollinators. This appears to be the first report on the development of cleistogamous plants in an allogamous species.

  8. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Azam, Md Nur Kabidul; Khatun, Zubaida; Seraj, Syeda; Islam, Farhana; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Jahan, Sharmin; Aziz, Md Shah

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. This results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. It is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. Around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicine as the drugs used do not restore normal glucose homeostasis and moreover have side-effects. On the other hand, traditional medicinal practitioners of various countries claim to cure diabetes or at least alleviate the major symptoms and progression of this disease through administration of medicinal plants. The Garos are an indigenous community of Bangladesh, who still follow their traditional medicinal practices. Their traditional medicinal formulations contain a number of plants, which they claim to be active antidiabetic agents. Since observation of indigenous practices have led to discovery of many modern drugs, it was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among the Marakh sect of the Garos residing in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to find out the medicinal plants that they use for treatment of diabetes. It was found that the tribal practitioners of the Marakh sect of the Garos use twelve medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes. These plants were Lannea coromandelica, Alstonia scholaris, Catharanthus roseus, Enhydra fluctuans, Terminalia chebula, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Cuscuta reflexa, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aqueum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Clerodendrum viscosum. A review of the scientific literature demonstrated that almost all the plants used by the Garo tribal practitioners have reported antidiabetic and/or antioxidant properties and have enormous potential for possible development of

  9. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  10. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G; Hausman, Gary J; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-04-12

    Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  11. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  12. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michael D; Petit, Valérie; Alasdair Russell, I; Giraddi, Rajshekhar R; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A; Stingl, John

    2014-10-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt actin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using two independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage-tracing approach we follow the progeny of myoepithelial cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy.

  13. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  14. Cell sheet engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Yamato

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed ‘cell sheet engineering’ in order to avoid the limitations of tissue reconstruction using biodegradable scaffolds or single cell suspension injection. Our concept is tissue reconstruction, not from single cells, but from cell sheets. Cell sheets are prepared using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Temperature-responsive polymers are covalently grafted onto the dishes, allowing various types of cells to adhere and proliferate at 37°C. The cells spontaneously detach when the temperature is reduced below 32°C without the need for proteolytic enzymes. The confluent cells are noninvasively harvested as single, contiguous cell sheets with intact cell-cell junctions and deposited extracellular matrix (ECM. We have used these harvested cell sheets for various tissue reconstructions, including ocular surfaces, periodontal ligaments, cardiac patches, and bladder augmentation.

  15. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  16. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  17. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  18. CellFinder: a cell data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder's data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder's web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians.

  19. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  20. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  1. Cell control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This extensive report provides an essential overview of cells and their use as factory automation building blocks. The following issues are discussed in depth: Cell integration Cell software and standards Future technologies applied to cells Plus Cell control applications including: - rotary parts manufacturing - diesel engine component development - general cell control development at the General Electric Corporation - a vendor list.

  2. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  3. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  4. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K.; Sun, Sean X.

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  6. T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts T-Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma ... develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). T-cell lymphomas account for ...

  7. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  8. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  9. Ganglion cell like cells, diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Shankar Ammanagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous swelling found on the left anterior axillary fold of a 41-year-old man. Gross examination of specimen excised from the dermis showed a well-circumscribed nodule histologically composed of spindle cells with interspersed ganglion cell like cells. On hematoxylin and eosine (H and E staining it was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, fully differentiated tumors that contain mature schwann cells, ganglion cells, fibrous tissue, and nerve fibers. They are commonly found along the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and sometimes in the adrenal medulla. However primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare tumor. Immunohistochemical workup revealed a fibroblastic origin and hence the case was diagnosed as fibromatosis with ganglion cell like fibroblasts. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of ganglioneuromas can occur in other cutaneous lesions and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be offered only on the basis of H and E.

  10. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  11. B cell helper assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrignani, Sergio; Tonti, Elena; Casorati, Giulia; Dellabona, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells requires engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) coupled to T-cell help (1, 2). T cells deliver help in cognate fashion when they are activated upon recognition of specific MHC-peptide complexes presented by B cells. T cells can also deliver help in a non-cognate or bystander fashion, when they do not find specific MHC-peptide complexes on B cells and are activated by alternative mechanisms. T-cell dependent activation of B cells can be studied in vitro by experimental models called "B cell helper assays" that are based on the co-culture of B cells with activated T cells. These assays allow to decipher the molecular bases for productive T-dependent B cell responses. We show here examples of B cell helper assays in vitro, which can be reproduced with any subset of T lymphocytes that displays the appropriate helper signals.

  12. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  13. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoli-stromal cell tumor; Arrhenoblastoma; Androblastoma; Ovarian cancer - Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor ... The Sertoli cells are normally located in the male reproductive glands (the testes). They feed sperm cells. The Leydig cells, also ...

  14. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis.

  15. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  16. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  17. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  18. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  19. Stem cells in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  20. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  1. Cell shape recognition by colloidal cell imprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borovička, Josef; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The results presented in this study are aimed at the theoretical estimate of the interactions between a spherical microbial cell and the colloidal cell imprints in terms of the Derjaguin, Landau, Vervey, and Overbeek (DLVO) surface forces. We adapted the Derjaguin approximation to take into accou

  2. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitu

  3. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities. Pre-cl

  4. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  5. Regulatory T cells and B cells: implication on autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although most studies are focusing on the role of Treg cells in T cells and T cells-mediated diseases, these cells also directly affect B cells and other non-T cells. This manuscript updates the role of Treg cells on the B cells and B cell-mediated diseases. In addition, the mechanisms whereby Treg cells suppress B cell responses have been discussed.

  6. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  7. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  8. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  9. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  10. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003666.htm Sickle cell test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sickle cell test looks for the abnormal hemoglobin in the ...

  11. Sickle Cell Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Sickle Cell Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Sickle cell tests are used to identify the presence of ...

  12. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Disease Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... 1. True or False: Only African Americans get sickle cell disease. A True B False 2. True or ...

  13. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... pass the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  14. Sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called sickle cell anemia, or drepanocytosis. In this thesis is described the history of the disease, pathophysiology, laboratory features, various clinical features, diferencial diagnosis, quality of life in sickle cell anemia and therapy.

  15. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  16. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  17. Sickle Cell Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom Search Sickle Cell Anemia News -- ScienceDaily January 18, 1970 Read articles summarizing medical research on sickle-cell anemia. NYT, Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom ...

  18. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Advancements in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement ...

  19. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  20. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  1. Mast cell proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Elin; Melo, Fabio R; Pejler, Gunnar

    2012-12-01

    Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed.

  2. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  3. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  4. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  5. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  6. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  7. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  8. Storage of cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katharine A

    2011-01-01

    The successful storage of cell lines depends upon many factors, including the condition of the cells to be frozen and the experience of the operator. Attempting to freeze down unhealthy, contaminated or poorly labelled cells can have huge implications for a research laboratory. This chapter outlines the importance of good record keeping, vigilant monitoring, aseptic technique, and high-quality reagents in the successful storage and downstream propagation of cell lines.

  9. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  10. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  11. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  12. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  13. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  14. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  15. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human embryo

  16. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  17. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  18. SYNOVIAL CELL SARCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten cases of synovial cell sarcoma are reported. The youngest patient was a 2'A years old boy with synovial cell sarcoma of the knee and the oldest one was a man with synovial cell sarcoma of the elbow.

  19. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  20. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  1. Battery cell module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shambaugh, J.S.

    1981-11-23

    A modular lithium battery having a plurality of cells, having electrical connecting means connecting the cells to output terminals, and venting means for releasing discharge byproducts to a chemical scrubber is disclosed. Stainless steel cell casings are potted in an aluminum modular case with syntactic foam and epoxy. The wall thickness resulting is about 0.5 inches.

  2. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to real

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1 polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2 cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation.

  5. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  6. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  7. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  8. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors.......Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...

  9. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  10. Internalization of NK cells into tumor cells requires ezrin and leads to programmed cell-in-cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Zhen Guo; Peng Xia; Tingting Liu; Jufang Wang; Shan Li; Lihua Sun; Jianxin Lu; Qian Wen; Mingqian Zhou; Li Ma; Xia Ding; Xiaoning Wang; Xuebiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key players in the orchestration of immune response and elimination of defective cells. We have previously reported that natural killer (NK) cells enter target tumor cells, leading to either target cell death or self-destruction within tumor cells. However, it has remained elusive as to the fate of NK cells after internaliza-tion and whether the heterotypic cell-in-cell process is different from that of the homotypic cell-in-cell event recently named entosis. Here, we show that NK cells undergo a cell-in-cell process with the ultimate fate of apoptosis within tumor cells and reveal that the internalization process requires the actin cytoskeletal regulator, ezrin. To visualize how NK cells enter into tumor cells, we carried out real-time dual color imaging analyses of NK cell internalization into tumor cells. Surprisingly, most NK cells commit to programmed cell death after their entry into tumor cells, which is distinctively different from entosis observed in the homotypic cell-in-cell process. The apoptotic cell death of the internalized NK cells was evident by activation of caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, NK cell death after internalization is attenuated by the caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, confirming apoptosis as the mode of NK cell death within tumor cells. To determine protein factors essential for the entry of NK cells into tumor cells, we car-ried out siRNA-based knockdown analysis and discovered a critical role of ezrin in NK cell internalization. Impor-tantly, PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin promotes the NK cell internalization process. Our findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism by which ezrin governs NK cell internalization into tumor cells.

  11. Islet cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Anabel; Khoo, Adrian; Tejedo, Juan R; Bedoya, Francisco J; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, there has been great success in driving stem cells toward insulin-expressing cells. However, the protocols developed to date have some limitations, such as low reliability and low insulin production. The most successful protocols used for generation of insulin-producing cells from stem cells mimic in vitro pancreatic organogenesis by directing the stem cells through stages that resemble several pancreatic developmental stages. Islet cell fate is coordinated by a complex network of inductive signals and regulatory transcription factors that, in a combinatorial way, determine pancreatic organ specification, differentiation, growth, and lineage. Together, these signals and factors direct the progression from multipotent progenitor cells to mature pancreatic cells. Later in development and adult life, several of these factors also contribute to maintain the differentiated phenotype of islet cells. A detailed understanding of the processes that operate in the pancreas during embryogenesis will help us to develop a suitable source of cells for diabetes therapy. In this chapter, we will discuss the main transcription factors involved in pancreas specification and beta-cell formation.

  12. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  13. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  14. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  15. Cell Factory Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-03-22

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories.

  16. Peripheral giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padam Narayan Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma or the so-called "giant cell epulis" is the most common oral giant cell lesion. It normally presents as a soft tissue purplish-red nodule consisting of multinucleated giant cells in a background of mononuclear stromal cells and extravasated red blood cells. This lesion probably does not represent a true neoplasm, but rather may be reactive in nature, believed to be stimulated by local irritation or trauma, but the cause is not certainly known. This article reports a case of peripheral giant cell granuloma arising at the maxillary anterior region in a 22-year-old female patient. The lesion was completely excised to the periosteum level and there is no residual or recurrent swelling or bony defect apparent in the area of biopsy after a follow-up period of 6 months.

  17. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  18. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  19. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  20. Cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Dosal, F L; Estrada, J A; Piérard, G E

    1991-04-01

    We report an unusual cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells characterized by the presence of intraepidermal cells resembling Toker's cells of the nipple. These cells were EMA positive and could be related to the histogenesis of some Paget's disease.

  1. Sickle Cell Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sickle Cell Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Sickle Cell Disease Print ... healthy, and productive lives. A Closer Look at Sickle Cell Disease The different types of sickle cell disease ...

  2. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  3. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  4. PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS (REVIEW ARTICLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Deniz Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. There are different types of solar cells but this report mainly focuses on a type of new generation solar cell that has the name organo-metal halide perovskite, shortly perovskite solar cells. In this respect, the efficiency of power conversion is taken into account to replace the dominancy of traditional and second generation solar cell fields by perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell including a...

  5. Cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of a diverse group of microalgae based on the Extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek (XDLVO) approach using the previously reported physico-chemical surface properties. The microalgae included 10 different species of green algae and diatoms from both freshwater and saltwater environments while the substrata included glass, indium-tin oxide (ITO), stainless steel, polycarbonate, polyethylene, and polystryrene. The results indicated that acid-base interactions were the dominating mechanism of interaction for microalgae. For green algae, if at least one of the interacting surfaces was hydrophobic, adhesion at primary minimum was predicted without any energy barrier. However, most diatom systems featured energy barriers for adhesion due to repulsive van der Waals interactions. The results reported in this study are expected to provide useful data and insight into the interaction mechanisms of microalgae cells with each other and with substrata for a number of practical applications including prevention of biofouling of photobioreactors and other man-made surfaces, promotion of biofilm formation in algal biofilm photobioreactors, and developing bioflocculation strategies for energy efficient harvesting of algal biomass. Particularly, Botryococcus braunii and Cerithiopsis fusiformis were identified as promising species for biofloccuation and biofilm formation in freshwater and saltwater aquatic systems, respectively. Finally, based on the observed trends in this study, use of hydrophilic algae and hydrophilic coatings over surfaces are recommended for minimizing biofouling in aquatic systems.

  6. Biology of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate.

  7. Embryonic stem cell-somatic cell fusion and postfusion enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Huseyin; Verma, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are able to reprogram somatic cells following cell fusion. The resulting cell hybrids have been shown to have similar properties to pluripotent cells. It has also been shown that transcriptional changes can occur in a heterokaryon, without nuclear hybridization. However it is unclear whether these changes can be sustained following removal of the dominant ES nucleus. In this chapter, methods are described for the cell fusion of mouse tetraploid ES cells with somatic cells and enrichment of the resulting heterokaryons. We next describe the conditions for the differential removal of the ES cell nucleus, allowing for the recovery of somatic cells.

  8. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS).

  9. Cell-Substrate Adhesion by Amoeboid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Panta, Krishna

    Amoeboid migration is a rapid (10 μm min-1) mode of migration that some tumor cells exhibit. To permit such rapid movement, the adhesive contacts between the cell and the substrate must be relatively short-lived and weak. In this study, we investigate the basic adhesive character of amoeboid cells (D. discoideum) in contact with silanized glass substrates. We observe the initiation and spreading of the adhesive contacts that these cells establish as they settle under gravity onto the substrate and relax towards mechanical equilibrium. The use of interference reflection microscopy and cellular tethering measurements have allowed us to determine the basic adhesive properties of the cell: the membrane-medium interfacial energy; the bending modulus; the equilibrium contact angle; and the work of adhesion. We find the time scale on which settling occurs to be longer than expected. Implications of these results on adhesion and migration will be discussed. The authors are grateful for support from NSF (CBET-1451903) and NIH (1R21EY026392).

  10. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge; Garcia-Martinez; Bjorn; Bakker; Klaske; M; Schukken; Judith; E; Simon; Floris; Foijer

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells(IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However,as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities,including aneuploidies throughout their lives,the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect blueprint for the tissue to be generated,or worse,become at risk of adopting a malignant fate. In this review,we discuss the contribution of aneuploidy to healthy tissues and how aneuploidy can lead to disease. Furthermore,we review the differences between how somatic cells and stem cells respond to aneuploidy.

  11. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  12. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely...... focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies...... in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta...

  13. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  14. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  15. Trafficking and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Florian; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2009-07-01

    The migration of single cells and epithelial sheets is of great importance for gastrulation and organ formation in developing embryos and, if misregulated, can have dire consequences e.g. during cancer metastasis. A keystone of cell migration is the regulation of adhesive contacts, which are dynamically assembled and disassembled via endocytosis. Here, we discuss some of the basic concepts about the function of endocytic trafficking during cell migration: transport of integrins from the cell rear to the leading edge in fibroblasts; confinement of signalling to the front of single cells by endocytic transport of growth factors; regulation of movement coherence in multicellular sheets by cadherin turnover; and shaping of extracellular chemokine gradients. Taken together, endocytosis enables migrating cells and tissues to dynamically modulate their adhesion and signalling, allowing them to efficiently migrate through their extracellular environment.

  16. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar B Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is a tumor-like lesion that manifests primarily in the lungs. But it may occur in various other anatomic locations like orbit, head and neck, liver and rarely in the oral cavity. We here report an exceedingly rare case of gingival plasma cell granuloma in a 58 year old woman who presented with upper gingival polypoidal growth. The histopathological examination revealed a mass composed of proliferation of benign spindle mesenchymal cells in a loose myxoid and fibrocollagenous stroma along with dense infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells predominantly containing plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  17. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnaik Mangesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma is a rare reactive lesion composed of polyclonal plasma cells. It manifests primarily in the lungs, but may occur in various other anatomic locations like the oral cavity. Intraoral plasma cell granulomas involving the tongue, lip, oral mucosa and gingiva have been reported in the past. This case presents a 54-year-old female with chronic periodontitis and mandibular anterior gingival overgrowth treated by Phase I therapy (scaling and root planing and excisional biopsy. Histological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltrate containing sheets of plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma. This case highlights the need to biopsy for unusual lesions to rule out potential neoplasms.

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  19. Myoepithelial cells in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, N; Masthan, K M K; Babu, N Aravindha; Anbazhagan, V

    2015-04-01

    Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of Cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. They play a vital role during expulsion of saliva and regulates the electrolytic exchange. They also perform as tumor suppressors and are considered to play a very important role in differentiation of various salivary gland tumors and help in the diagnosis of tumors. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take numerous forms including epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle and clear cell variant, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis.

  20. Myoepithelial cells in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Balachander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of Cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. They play a vital role during expulsion of saliva and regulates the electrolytic exchange. They also perform as tumor suppressors and are considered to play a very important role in differentiation of various salivary gland tumors and help in the diagnosis of tumors. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take numerous forms including epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle and clear cell variant, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis.

  1. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sec...

  2. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  3. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  4. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  5. Lymphomas of large cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, W G; Gétaz, E P

    1977-09-03

    Historial aspects of the classification of large-cell lymphomas are described. Immunological characterization of the lymphomas has been made possible by identification of T and B lymphocytes according to their cell membrane surface characteristics. The pathogenesis of lymphomas has been clarified by the germinal (follicular) centre cell concepts of Lennert and Lukes and Collins. The various classifications are presented and compared. Whether these subdivisions will have any relevance in the clinical context remains to be seen.

  6. Immobilized Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    beads, the plasmid is twice as stable as in cells In a process where immobilized cells produce material grown in continuous culture over 200...carrageenan) or chemically cross-linked, or- Penicillium chrysogenum than in washed freely suspended ganic polymer (Ca-alginate, polyacrylamide, and mycelium ...these materials are formed into the freely suspended cells stopped after 6 days. If the beads of several millimeters in diameter by allowing the

  7. Cell Wall Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  8. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  9. Origins of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, B A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, S M

    2011-08-01

    Different types of pluripotent stem cells can be identified and cultured in vitro. Here an overview is presented of the various pluripotent stem cells types. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that have been cultured in vitro provided the groundwork for future pluripotent cell cultures. Conditions established for these cells such as culture on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the importance of fetal calf serum were initially also used for the culture of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocysts were found to require different conditions and are cultured in the presence of activin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Recently pluripotent stem cells have also been derived from mouse peri-implantation epiblasts. Since these epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) require the same conditions as the human ES cells it has been suggested that human ES cells are more similar to mouse EpiSCs than to mouse ES cells. Pluripotent cell lines have also been derived from migratory primordial germ cells and spermatogonial stem cells. The creation of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells by the introduction of reprogramming transcription factors, so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allowed the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need of creation of a human blastocyst after cloning by somatic cells nuclear transfer. Recently it has become clear however that iPS cells may be quite different to ES cells in terms of epigenetics.

  10. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  11. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  12. Cell sorting in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krens, S F Gabby; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2011-01-01

    During the development of multicellular organisms, cell fate specification is followed by the sorting of different cell types into distinct domains from where the different tissues and organs are formed. Cell sorting involves both the segregation of a mixed population of cells with different fates and properties into distinct domains, and the active maintenance of their segregated state. Because of its biological importance and apparent resemblance to fluid segregation in physics, cell sorting was extensively studied by both biologists and physicists over the last decades. Different theories were developed that try to explain cell sorting on the basis of the physical properties of the constituent cells. However, only recently the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control the physical properties driving cell sorting, have begun to be unraveled. In this review, we will provide an overview of different cell-sorting processes in development and discuss how these processes can be explained by the different sorting theories, and how these theories in turn can be connected to the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving these processes.

  13. Red cell enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniker, N V

    1975-03-01

    As compared to other cells of the body, the mammalian red cell has one of the simplest structural organizations. As a result, this cell has been extensively used in studies involving the structure, function, and integrity of cell membranes as well as cytoplasmic events. Additionally, the metabolic activities of the red blood cell are also relatively simple. During the past quarter century or so, an ocean of knowledge has been gathered on various aspects of red cell metabolism and function. The fields of enzymes, hemoglobin, membrane, and metabolic products comprise the major portion of this knowledge. These advances have made valuable contributions to biochemistry and medicine. Despite these favorable aspects of this simple, anucleated cell, it must be conceded that our knowledge about the red cell is far from complete. We are still in the dark concerning the mechanism involved in several aspects of its membrane, hemoglobin, enzymes, and a large number of other constituents. For example, a large number of enzymes with known catalytic activity but with unknown function have eluded investigators despite active pursuit. This review will be a consolidation of our present knowledge of human red cell enzymes, with particular reference to their usefulness in the diagnosis and therapy of disease. Owing to the multitude of publications by prominent investigators on each of the approximately 50 enzymes discussed in this review, it was impossible to cite a majority of them.

  14. Littoral Cells 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Littoral cells along the California Coast. Originally digitized by Melanie Coyne from the Assessment and Atlas of Shoreline Erosion Along the California Coast...

  15. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  16. Analysing immune cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  17. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  18. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  19. Assessment of cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon; Nguyen, Vy; Coder, David

    2013-01-01

    Cell viability may be judged by morphological changes or by changes in membrane permeability and/or physiological state inferred from the exclusion of certain dyes or the uptake and retention of others. This unit presents methods based on dye exclusion, esterase activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as protocols for determining the pre-fixation viability of fixed cells either before or after fixation with amine-reactive dyes suitable for a range of excitation wavelengths. Membrane-impermeable dead cell and live cell dyes as well as dye-exclusion procedures for microscopy are also included.

  20. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J.; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G.; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, ...

  1. A focus on parietal cells as a renewing cell population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif; M; Karam

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the acidsecreting parietal cells undergo continuous renewal has been ignored by many gastroenterologists and cell biologists. In the past, it was thought that these cells were static. However, by using 3Hthymidine radioautography in combination with electron microscopy, it was possible to demonstrate that parietal cells belong to a continuously renewing epithelial cell lineage. In the gastric glands, stem cells anchored in the isthmus region are responsible for the production of parietal cells...

  2. Regulation of B Cell to Plasma Cell Transition within the Follicular B Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nera, K-P; Kyläniemi, M K; Lassila, O

    2015-09-01

    Persistent humoral immunity depends on the follicular B cell response and on the generation of somatically mutated high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Upon activation by an antigen, cognately activated follicular B cells and follicular T helper (TFH ) cells initiate germinal centre (GC) reaction during which high-affinity effector cells are generated. The differentiation of activated follicular B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells is guided by complex selection events, both at the cellular and molecular level. The transition of B cell into a plasma cell during the GC response involves alterations in the microenvironment and developmental state of the cell, which are guided by cell-extrinsic signals. The developmental cell fate decisions in response to these signals are coordinated by cell-intrinsic gene regulatory network functioning at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  3. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  4. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  5. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  6. Molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are originated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. They can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated state (self-renewal), and differentiate into any cell type (pluripotency). ES cells have an unusual cell cycle structure, consists mainly of S phase cells, a short G1 phase and absence of G1/S checkpoint. Cell division and cell cycle progression are controlled by mechanisms ensuring the accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Therefore, control of cell cycle is a complicated process, involving several signaling pathways. Although great progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ES cell cycle, many regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell cycle of ES cells and describes the relationship existing between cell cycle progression and the self-renewal.

  7. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  8. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells): Potential stem cells of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review.

  9. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  10. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  11. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazaretian, S.P.; Schenberg, M.E.; Simpson, I.; Slootweg, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour and dentinogenic ghost cell tumour. This is the case of a middle-aged male who presented with a slow-growing maxillary tumour. He was asymptomatic until pain symptoms developed prior to initi

  12. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  13. Ghrelin and cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geyang Xu; Yin Li; Wenjiao An; Weizhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a gastric hormone that has been found to have a wide variety of biological functions. This review summarizes our current understanding of the effects of ghrelin on cell differentiation and tissue development, with an emphasis on the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells.

  14. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  15. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  16. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  17. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  18. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  19. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  20. Tetraspanins in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKöberle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are key mediators of the immune system, most prominently known for their role in eliciting harmful allergic reactions. Mast cell mediator release (e. g. by degranulation is triggered by Fc{epsilon}RI recognition of antigen – IgE complexes. Until today no therapeutic targeting of this and other mast cell activation pathways is established. Among possible new candidates there are tetraspanins that have been described on mast cells already several years ago.Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins acting as scaffolds, mediating local clustering of their interaction partners and thus amplify their activities. More recently, tetraspanins were also found to exert intrinsic receptor functions. Tetraspanins have been found to be crucial components of fundamental biological processes like cell motility and adhesion. In immune cells, they not only boost the effectiveness of antigen presentation by clustering MHC molecules, they are also key players in all kinds of degranulation events and immune receptor clustering. This review focuses on the contribution of tetraspanins clustered with Fc{epsilon}RI or residing in granule membranes to classical mast cells functions but also undertakes an outlook on the possible contribution of tetraspanins to newly described mast cell functions and discusses possible drugging strategies.

  1. Tumor cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  2. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  3. Stem cells in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.

  4. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  5. T-cell costimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    The CD40L molecule expressed by CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes is known to deliver signals that activate B cells and macrophages. It now appears that CD40L regulates T cells themselves, during both their development and their participation in adaptive immune responses....

  6. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  7. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nadia Aparecida; Netto, Jose Fillus

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  8. NCAM regulates cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Kawa, Anna; Walmod, Peter S; Belman, Vadym; Gallagher, Helen C; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Nina

    2002-01-15

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine inhibitor of NCAM-negative cell locomotion through a heterophilic interaction with a cell-surface receptor. As we showed that the two N-terminal immunoglobulin modules of NCAM, which are known to bind to heparin, were responsible for this inhibition, we presume that this receptor is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. A model for the inhibitory effect of NCAM is proposed, which involves competition between NCAM and extracellular components for the binding to membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

  9. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  10. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tai-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chien, Ke-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone) and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells). The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  11. Transition of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous. A fraction of these cells constitute multipotent cells that can self-renew and mainly give rise to mesodermal lineage cells such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cell

  12. Induction of embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to get hematopoietic cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells and to study development mechanisms of hematopoietic cells, the method of inducing embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells was explored by differenciating mouse ES cells and human embryonic cells in three stages. The differentiated cells were identified by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and Wright's staining. The results showed that embryoid bodies (EBs) could form when ES cells were cultured in the medium with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). However, cytokines, such as stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (TPO), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythropoietin (EPO) and granular colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), were not helpful for forming EBs. SCF, TPO and embryonic cell conditional medium were useful for the differentiation of mouse EBs to hematopoietic progenitors. Eighty-six percent of these cells were CD34+ after 6-d culture. Hematopoietic progenitors differentiated to B lymphocytes when they were cocultured with primary bone marrow stroma cells in the DMEM medium with SCF and IL-6. 14 d later, most of the cells were CD34-CD38+. Wright's staining and immunohistochemistry showed that 80% of these cells were plasma-like morphologically and immunoglubolin positive. The study of hematopoietic cells from human embryonic cells showed that human embryonic cell differentiation was very similar to that of mouse ES cells. They could form EBs in the first stage and the CD34 positive cells account for about 48.5% in the second stage.

  13. Screening molecules for control of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) using an optimized regeneration system for 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infected periwinkle (Catharunthus roseus) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) ( also known as citrus greening) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of Candidatus Liberibacter, of which, ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las) is the most widely-distributed. An improved system using HLB-...

  14. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  15. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  16. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  17. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process....... It facilitates the understanding of the task and structure of cell controllers and uses this knowledge directly in the implementation of the system. By applying generic models CCE facilitates reuse of software components and maintenance of applications. In many enterprises, software makes up an increasing part...

  18. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal...... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....

  19. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  20. Mast cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Dubreuil, Patrice; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Hermine, Olivier; Damaj, Gandhi

    2013-02-21

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of aggressive systemic mastocytosis accounting for mast cell activation-involvement of the liver, spleen, peritoneum, bones, and marrow-are frequent. Diagnosis is based on the presence of ≥ 20% atypical mast cells in the marrow or ≥ 10% in the blood; however, an aleukemic variant is frequently encountered in which the number of circulating mast cells is < 10%. The common phenotypic features of pathologic mast cells encountered in most forms of mastocytosis are unreliable in MCL. Unexpectedly, non-KIT D816V mutations are frequent and therefore, complete gene sequencing is necessary. Therapy usually fails and the median survival time is < 6 months. The role of combination therapies and bone marrow transplantation needs further investigation.

  1. Dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  2. Physics of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2013-07-01

    One of the most unique physical features of cell adhesion to external surfaces is the active generation of mechanical force at the cell-material interface. This includes pulling forces generated by contractile polymer bundles and networks, and pushing forces generated by the polymerization of polymer networks. These forces are transmitted to the substrate mainly by focal adhesions, which are large, yet highly dynamic adhesion clusters. Tissue cells use these forces to sense the physical properties of their environment and to communicate with each other. The effect of forces is intricately linked to the material properties of cells and their physical environment. Here a review is given of recent progress in our understanding of the role of forces in cell adhesion from the viewpoint of theoretical soft matter physics and in close relation to the relevant experiments.

  3. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎向锋; 李雅芹; 蔡军; 张德远

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  4. Mast cells and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Laurent; Hermine, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    The prominent role for mast cells in the inflammatory response has been increasingly well documented in recent years. Mast cells not only contribute to maintain homeostasis via degranulation and to generate IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but also sit at a major crossroads for both innate and adaptive immune responses. The part played by mast cells in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis identifies mast cells as a valuable treatment target in these diseases. Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors targeting the c-Kit mast cell receptor have been found effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. When used in combination with other available drugs, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors may improve the therapeutic management of these diseases.

  5. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  6. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  7. Cell cycle regulation in human embryonic stem cells: links to adaptation to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Tomas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Holubcova, Zuzana; Hampl, Ales

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle represents not only a tightly orchestrated mechanism of cell replication and cell division but it also plays an important role in regulation of cell fate decision. Particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cells or multipotent progenitor cells, regulation of cell fate decision is of paramount importance. It has been shown that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as short doubling time due to abbreviated G1 phase; these properties change with the onset of differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of cell cycle regulation in hESCs. We discuss cell cycle properties as well as regulatory machinery governing cell cycle progression of undifferentiated hESCs. Additionally, we provide evidence that long-term culture of hESCs is accompanied by changes in cell cycle properties as well as configuration of several cell cycle regulatory molecules.

  8. Advances in stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In 1998, biologists Thomson and Gearhart successfully derived stem cells from human embryos. One year later, several researchers discovered that adult stem cells still retain the ability to be differentiated into unrelated types of cells. Advances in stem cell research open a promising direction for applied medical science. Moreover, it may also force scientists to reconsider the fundamental theory about how cells grow up. Stem cell research was considered by Science as the top of the ten breakthroughs of science of the year[1]. This paper gives a survey of recent advances in stem cell research. 1 Overview In the 1980s, embryonic stem cell and/or embryonic germ cell line (ES cell line, EG cell line) of multifarious mammalian animals, especially those of non-human pri-mates, had been established. In 1998, Thomson and Shamblott obtained ES, EG cell lines from human blasto-cysts and gonad ridges of early human embryos, respec-tively. Their research brought up an ethical debate about whether human embryos can be used as experimental materials. It was not appeased until 1999 when research-ers discovered that stem cells from adults still retain the ability to become different kinds of tissue cells. For in-stance, brain cells can become blood cells[2], and cells from bone marrow can become cells in liver. Scientists believe, for a long time, that cells can only be developed from early pluripotent embryo cells; the differentiation potential of stem cells from mature tissues is restricted to only one of the cell types of the tissue where stem cells are obtained. Recent stem cell researches, however, sub-verted the traditional view of stem cells. These discoveries made scientists speed ahead with the work on adult stem cells, hoping to discover whether their promise will rival that of ES cells.

  9. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  10. From Adult Bone Marrow Cells to Other Cell Lineages:Transdifferentiation or Cells Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation or local injection of bone marrow cells can induce unexpected changes of their fate. The results of these experiments showed that after transplantation or injecton, some of tissue specific somatic cells such as hepatocytes, skeleton, cardiac muscle cells and brain cells expressed the donor cell-specific genes, such as Y chromosome. There are two hypotheses that can explain this phenomenon. One is bone marrow stem cell transdifferentiation and the other is spontaneous cell fusion.

  11. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  12. Many facets of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research area on stem cells is one of frontiers in biology.The collection of five research articles in this issue aims to cover timely developments in stem cell biology, ranging from generating and identifying stem cell line to manipulating stem cells, and from basic mechanism analysis to applied medical potential.These papers reflect the various research tasks in stem cell biology.

  13. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinic...

  14. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  15. CellNet: network biology applied to stem cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Morris, Samantha A; Lummertz da Rocha, Edroaldo; Daley, George Q; Collins, James J

    2014-08-14

    Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering.

  16. Embryonic stem cells: testing the germ-cell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2011-10-25

    The exact cellular origin of embryonic stem cells remains elusive. Now a new study provides compelling evidence that embryonic stem cells, established under conventional culture conditions, originate from a transient germ-cell state.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  18. Immunology of Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yang

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of pluri-potent stem cells to repair the tissues in which stem cells reside holds great promise in development of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating chronic and degenerative diseases. However,numerous reports show that stem cell therapy, even in an autologous setting, triggers lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important question to be answered is how the host immune system responds to engrafted autologous stem cells or allogeneous stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the progress in several related areas in this field, including some of our data, in four sections: (1) immunogenicity of stem cells; (2)strategies to inhibit immune rejection to allograft stem cells; (3) immune responses to cancer stem cells; and (4)mesenchymal stem cells in immune regulation. Improvement of our understanding on these and other aspects of immune system-stem cell interplay would greatly facilitate the development of stem cell-based therapeutics for regenerative purposes.

  19. Cell density monitoring and control of microencapsulated CHO cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Harriet Emma

    2015-01-01

    Though mammalian cells play a key role in the manufacturing of recombinant glycosylated proteins, cell cultures and productivity are limited by the lack of suitable systems to enable stable perfusion culture. Microencapsulation, or entrapping cells within a semi-permeable membrane, offers the potential to generate high cell density cultures and improve the productivity by mimicking the cells natural environment. However, the cells being secluded by the microcapsules membrane are difficult to ...

  20. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell su...

  1. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer-Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    al., 2010). In addition, there were a significant number of cell cycle and mitosis associated transcripts in the highly expressed gene set including...red blood cell lysis with 10 volumes of 16 PharmLyse (BD Biosciences) for 15 minutes at room temperature . Remaining cells were pelleted at 4uC for 15...processes (23%, GO:0008152) or the cell cycle (10%, GO:0007049), consistent with mitotically active cells (Fig. 4C). Cell cycle and mitosis associated

  2. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    progenitor cells (NPCs) by expressing an activated form of Notch1 (N1ICD) or oncogenic PIK3CA (PIK3CA*) in the developing mouse cerebellum, using cell...resistance, pediatric cancer, brain tumor, Notch1, PIK3CA, cell of origin, molecular subtypes, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, tumor initiation...neural progenitor cells, tumor initiation. 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Major goals of the project: The stated goals of this project are to: 1) test the

  3. Plasma cells negatively regulate the follicular helper T cell program

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    B lymphocytes differentiate into antibody-secreting cells under the antigen-specific control of follicular helper T (TFH) cells. Here, we demonstrate that isotype-switched plasma cells expressed MHCII, CD80 and CD86 and intracellular machinery required for antigen presentation. Antigen-specific plasma cells could access, process and present sufficient antigen in vivo to induce multiple TH cell functions. Importantly, antigen-primed plasma cells failed to induce interleukin 21 or Bcl-6 in naïv...

  4. Mesothelial cell differentiation into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sally M Lansley; Searles, Richelle G.; Hoi, Aina; Thomas, Carla; Moneta, Helena; Herrick, Sarah E; Thompson, Philip J; Mark, Newman; Sterrett, Gregory F; Prêle, Cecilia M; Mutsaers, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Serosal pathologies including malignant mesothelioma (MM) can show features of osseous and/or cartilaginous differentiation although the mechanism for its formation is unknown. Mesothelial cells have the capacity to differentiate into cells with myofibroblast, smooth muscle and endothelial cell characteristics. Whether they can differentiate into other cell types is unclear. This study tests the hypothesis that mesothelial cells can differentiate into cell lineages of the embryonic mesoderm i...

  5. A novel cell subset:Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports introduce a novel cell subset of DCs with antigenic phenotypes shared by both NK cells and B cells, but without surface markers of pDCs and T cells, appearing to be a chimera of NK cells and DCs, namely interferon-producing killer dendritic cells(IKDCs).IKDCs not only secret type I and type II interferons to recognize and kill tumor cells effectively, but also express MHC-II molecules to present antigens.Thus, IKDCs are considered as important immunosurveilance cells for tumors, providing a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  6. Cell therapy for diabetes mellitus: an opportunity for stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, B; Bedoya, F J; Tejedo, J R; Hmadcha, A; Ruiz-Salmerón, R; Lim, S; Martin, F

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a deficit in beta cell mass and a failure of glucose homeostasis. Both circumstances result in a variety of severe complications and an overall shortened life expectancy. Thus, diabetes represents an attractive candidate for cell therapy. Reversal of diabetes can be achieved through pancreas and islet transplantation, but shortage of donor organs has prompted an intensive search for alternative sources of beta cells. This achievement has stimulated the search for appropriate stem cell sources. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have been used to generate surrogate beta cells or otherwise restore beta cell functioning. In this regard, several studies have reported the generation of insulin-secreting cells from embryonic and adult stem cells that normalized blood glucose values when transplanted into diabetic animal models. Due to beta cell complexity, insulin-producing cells generated from stem cells do not possess all beta cell attributes. This indicates the need for further development of methods for differentiation and selection of completely functional beta cells. While these problems are overcome, diabetic patients may benefit from therapeutic strategies based on autologous stem cell therapies addressing late diabetic complications. In this article, we discuss the recent progress in the generation of insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, together with the challenges for the clinical use of diabetes stem cell therapy.

  7. Stem cell biology and cell transplantation therapy in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Masayo

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocyst stage embryos, have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body and to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. During development, cells undergo progressive and irreversible differentiation into specialized adult cell types. Remarkably, in spite of this restriction in potential, adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed and returned to the naive state of pluripotency found in the early embryo simply by forcing expression of a defined set of transcription factors. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are molecularly and functionally equivalent to ES cells and provide powerful in vitro models for development, disease, and drug screening, as well as material for cell replacement therapy. Since functional impairment results from cell loss in most central nervous system (CNS) diseases, recovery of lost cells is an important treatment strategy. Although adult neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions, the CNS has poor potential for regeneration to compensate for cell loss. Thus, cell transplantation into damaged or diseased CNS tissues is a promising approach to treating various neurodegenerative disorders. Transplantation of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from human ES cells can restore some visual function. Patient-specific iPS cells may lead to customized cell therapy. However, regeneration of retinal function will require a detailed understanding of eye development, visual system circuitry, and retinal degeneration pathology. Here, we review the current progress in retinal regeneration, focusing on the therapeutic potential of pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Embryonic stem cells: prospects for developmental biology and cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Anna M; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2005-04-01

    Stem cells represent natural units of embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, in particular, possess a nearly unlimited self-renewal capacity and developmental potential to differentiate into virtually any cell type of an organism. Mouse ES cells, which are established as permanent cell lines from early embryos, can be regarded as a versatile biological system that has led to major advances in cell and developmental biology. Human ES cell lines, which have recently been derived, may additionally serve as an unlimited source of cells for regenerative medicine. Before therapeutic applications can be realized, important problems must be resolved. Ethical issues surround the derivation of human ES cells from in vitro fertilized blastocysts. Current techniques for directed differentiation into somatic cell populations remain inefficient and yield heterogeneous cell populations. Transplanted ES cell progeny may not function normally in organs, might retain tumorigenic potential, and could be rejected immunologically. The number of human ES cell lines available for research may also be insufficient to adequately determine their therapeutic potential. Recent molecular and cellular advances with mouse ES cells, however, portend the successful use of these cells in therapeutics. This review therefore focuses both on mouse and human ES cells with respect to in vitro propagation and differentiation as well as their use in basic cell and developmental biology and toxicology and presents prospects for human ES cells in tissue regeneration and transplantation.

  9. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  10. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  11. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  12. Cell Growth Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Exogene Corporation uses advanced technologies to enhance production of bio-processed substances like proteins, antibiotics and amino acids. Among them are genetic modification and a genetic switch. They originated in research for Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Extensive experiments in cell growth through production of hemoglobin to improve oxygen supply to cells were performed. By improving efficiency of oxygen use by cells, major operational expenses can be reduced. Greater product yields result in decreased raw material costs and more efficient use of equipment. A broad range of applications is cited.

  13. Congenital granular cell epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

    2014-01-01

    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  14. Giant Cell Fibroma

    OpenAIRE

    Tahere Nosratzehi; Lale Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell fibroma is a fibrous tumor which represents about 2 to 5% of all oral fibrotic proliferations. Compared to traumatic fibroma, giant (traumatic fibroma or irritation fibroma) cell fibroma occurs at a younger age. In about 60% of the cases the lesion is diagnosed within the first three decades of life and is slightly more in women. 50% of the cases is observed in the gum and will appear as a nodule with a papillary surface [1]. The giant cell fibroma is treated by conservative excisi...

  15. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  16. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  17. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-09

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  18. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive wh

  19. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  20. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  1. What is Sickle Cell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Español The term sickle cell disease (SCD) ... other common forms of SCD. Some Forms of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin SS Hemoglobin SC Hemoglobin Sβ 0 thalassemia ...

  2. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease? Abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S , causes sickle cell ... way that hemoglobin works. ( See Overview. ) How Is Sickle Cell Disease Inherited? When the hemoglobin S gene is inherited ...

  3. Learning about Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Sickle Cell Disease What do we know about heredity and ... Information What do we know about heredity and sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease is the most common ...

  4. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); M. Corselli (Mirko); W.C. Chen (William); B. Péault (Bruno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We an

  5. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  6. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  7. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  8. Dazl Promotes Germ Cell Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Yu; Ping Ji; Jinping Cao; Shu Zhu; Yao Li; Lin Zheng; Xuejin Chen; Lixin Feng

    2009-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that through the formation of embryoid bodies (Ebs) germ cells can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we describe a transgene expression approach to derive germ cells directly from ES cells in vitro without EB formation. Through the ectopic expression of Deleted in Azoospermia-Like (Dazl), a germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein,both motile tailed-sperm and oocytes were induced from mouse ES (mES) cells in culture. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Dazl led to suppression of Nanog but induced germ cell nuclear antigen in mES cells. Dazl knockdown resulted in reduction in the expression of germ cell markers including Stella, MVH and Prdm1. Our study indicates that Dazl is a master gene controlling germ cell differentiation and that ectopic expression of Dazl promotes the dynamic differentiation of mouse ES cells into gametes in vitro.

  9. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  10. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... anthocyanins. Yeast cell factories present a platform to circumvent the problem of low yields of interesting molecular structures in plant tissues, as hand-picking of desired enzyme activities allows for specific biosynthesis of the precise pigment of interest, as well as choosing more stable structures...... for heterologous biosynthesis is possible. In cell factories, great improvements in yields can be achieved through molecular engineering of flux from endogenous yeast precursors, e.g. by elimination of by-product formation, and by genetic optimization of pathway components, such as fine-tuning of expression levels...

  11. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...... responses to regulate processes including branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation. Malignant transformation of the breast is also associated with significant matrix remodeling and a progressive stiffening of the stroma that can enhance mammary epithelial cell growth, perturb breast tissue...

  12. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  13. The Giant Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  14. Cell Centred Database (CCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Cell Centered Database (CCDB) is a web accessible database for high resolution 2D, 3D and 4D data from light and electron microscopy, including correlated imaging.

  15. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  16. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  17. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  18. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  19. Whole cell entrapment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  20. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...