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Sample records for catfish pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  1. Improving sustainability of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam through recirculation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to document improvements in sustainability indicators of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) production through the application of recirculation and waste treatment techniques. To be able to document improvements in sustainability, in each system s

  2. Experimental challenge studies in Vietnamese catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage), exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumlish, M; Thanh, P C; Koesling, J; Tung, V T; Gravningen, K

    2010-09-01

    The two main diseases in the pangasius catfish industry are bacillary necrosis of Pangasianodon (BNP) and motile aeromonas septicaemia (MAS), where the aetiological agents have been identified as Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, respectively. In this study, apparently healthy Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were exposed to E. ictaluri, A. hydrophila or both bacterial species by intraperitoneal injection or immersion. There were 20 fish per treatment group, and the bacterial isolates used for the study were recovered from natural infections of BNP or MAS in farmed Vietnamese P. hypophthalmus. The results of the experimental infections mimicked the natural disease outbreaks reported from these pathogens in P. hypophthalmus. Furthermore, it was clearly demonstrated that E. ictaluri was only recovered from the fish exposed to the bacterium and not recovered from the animals receiving A. hydrophila.

  3. STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) (SAUVAGE, 1878) MOVEMENT AND GROWTH IN GAJAH MUNGKUR RESERVOIR, CENTRAL JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nurul Aida; Agus Djoko Utomo

    2015-01-01

    Movement is an essential mechanism by which mobile animals acquire the resources necessary for the successful completion of their life-cycles. Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) contributed about 384 tonnes or approximately 40,04% to the total fish production in Gajah Mungkur reservoir. Diversion of Keduang River, one of Gajah Mungkur important inlets, could affect the the movement of this fish. The objective of this research were to analyze data related to the movement patterns an...

  4. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species...... and hypoxia was investigated in P. hypophthalmus. In addition the capacity for aquatic breathing was studied through measurements of oxygen consumption when access to air was denied, both in normoxia and hypoxia, and the critical oxygen tension, Pcrit, was also determined during these experiments. Finally......, gill ventilation and air-breathing frequency were measured in a separate experiment with pressure measurements from the buccal cavity. The data showed that P. hypophthalmus is able to maintain standard metabolic rate (SMR) through aquatic breathing alone in normoxia, but that air-breathing is important...

  5. STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (SAUVAGE, 1878 MOVEMENT AND GROWTH IN GAJAH MUNGKUR RESERVOIR, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurul Aida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement is an essential mechanism by which mobile animals acquire the resources necessary for the successful completion of their life-cycles. Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus contributed about 384 tonnes or approximately 40,04% to the total fish production in Gajah Mungkur reservoir. Diversion of Keduang River, one of Gajah Mungkur important inlets, could affect the the movement of this fish. The objective of this research were to analyze data related to the movement patterns and growth of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Field works were conducted from March to December 2011 by tagging experiment of large fish with the PDS-Tags and the T Bar-Tags for the small ones. Fish samples used for the experiment were collected from fisherment catch in Gajah Mungkur reservoir. The tag numbers, the release time, and the fish size were noted before releasing the tagged fish were released. Fishermen who caught the tagged fish were advised to report the fish tag number, time of catching, and fish size. The results showed that the Pangasianodon hypophthalmus could moved as far as 200 m to 15 km in 3- 176 days. In the rainy season most of the catfish moved far into the inlet wiroko and Keduang, and some to the inlet Wuryantoro. Pangasianodon hypophthalmusin Gajah Mungkur Reservoir had growth equation of Lt= 99(1-e 0.762(t-0.15, with the growth coeficient (K= 0.762/year, t0=0.15 year, infinity length (L”= 99 cm. Water diversion of Keduang river, one of Gajah Mungkur inlets, did not fully dried the River during dry season and affected striped catfish movement and growth.

  6. The effect of environmental hypercapnia and size on nitrite toxicity in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Malthe; Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger...... in the initial phase of acid-base compensation. Overall, longer term environmental hypercapnia does not protect against nitrite uptake in P. hypophthalmus, but instead enhances it. In addition, we observed a significant size effect in nitrite accumulation, where large fish attained plasma [nitrite] above...... the ambient concentration, while small fish did not. Small P. hypophthalmus instead had significantly higher plasma [nitrate], and haemoglobin concentrations, revealing greater capacity for detoxifying nitrite by oxidising it to nitrate....

  7. First identification of Flavobacterium columnare infection in farmed freshwater striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Nguyen Thi; Dung, Tu Thanh; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Crumlish, Mags

    2012-08-13

    The bacterium Flavobacterium columnare was recovered and identified as the aetiological agent causing freshwater columnaris infection in farmed striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage) fingerlings that had suffered high mortality rates within commercial hatchery ponds in Vietnam. The gross clinical signs were typical of columnaris-infected fish. Histological examination found numerous Gram-negative, filamentous bacteria present on the skin, muscle and gill tissues of affected fish. The yellow-pigmented bacteria were isolated and identified as F. columnare using primary, biochemical and PCR methods. An experimental immersion-challenge study with 2 strains was also performed. It fulfilled Koch's postulates and showed a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.27 × 105 and 1.66 × 106 cfu ml-1 for the F. columnare strains FC-HN and FC-CT, respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of freshwater columnaris infection in P. hypophthalmus.

  8. Quality of antimicrobial products used in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Minh Phu; Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Marie-Louise Scippo; Anders Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatog...

  9. Biochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory attributes of gutted and ungutted sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) stored in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Viji, P.; Tanuja, S.; Ninan, George; Lalitha, K.V.; Zynudheen, A. A.; Binsi, P. K.; Srinivasagopal, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (sutchi catfish) is a fresh water catfish extensively being cultured in the South East Asian countries in the recent years. The present study provides the first report on the effects of gutting on the quality characteristics of aquacultured sutchi catfish stored in ice. pH of whole ungutted and gutted catfish didn’t show significant difference (p > 0.05) during ice storage period. Total Volatile Base Nitrogen (TVB-N), Alpha Amino Nitrogen (AAN), Free Fatty Acids (F...

  10. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species as it appears to possess both well-developed gills and a modified swim bladder that functions as an air-breathing organ indicating a high capacity for both aquatic and aerial respiration. Using newly developed bimodal intermittent-closed respirometry, the partitioning of oxygen consumption in normoxia and hypoxia was investigated in P. hypophthalmus. In addition the capacity for aquatic breathing was studied through measurements of oxygen consumption when access to air was denied, both in normoxia and hypoxia, and the critical oxygen tension, Pcrit, was also determined during these experiments. Finally, gill ventilation and air-breathing frequency were measured in a separate experiment with pressure measurements from the buccal cavity. The data showed that P. hypophthalmus is able to maintain standard metabolic rate (SMR) through aquatic breathing alone in normoxia, but that air-breathing is important during hypoxia. Gill ventilation was reduced during air-breathing, which occurred at oxygen levels below 8 kPa, coinciding with the measured Pcrit of 7.7 kPa. The findings in this study indicate that the introduction of aeration into the aquaculture of P. hypophthalmus could potentially reduce the need to air-breathe. The possibility of reducing air-breathing frequency may be energetically beneficial for the fish, leaving more of the aerobic scope for growth and other activities, due to the proposed energetic costs of surfacing behavior.

  11. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  12. Growth hormone from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus): genomic organization, recombinant expression and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poen, Sinothai; Pornbanlualap, Somchai

    2013-04-15

    Growth hormone is an essential polypeptide required for normal growth and development of vertebrates. In this report, striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) growth hormone gene and cDNA were isolated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The striped catfish growth hormone (scGH) encoding gene contains 5 exons and 4 introns. The cDNA sequence of the scGH gene contains a 603bp open reading frame and encodes for a 200-aa protein consisting of a putative 22-aa signal peptide and the mature 178-aa protein. The recombinant histidine-tagged scGH protein which expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies was unfolded, refolded and purified to near-homogeneity by Ni(2+)-NTA chromatography. Analysis of the secondary structure content by CD spectroscopy showed that the α-helical content of the refolded scGH is 55%. Elucidation of the folding pathway of scGH by fluorescence spectroscopy showed that denaturation transition of scGH is coincident and cooperative, consistent with the two-state denaturation mechanism. The purified scGH was biologically active and exhibited growth-promoting activity in striped catfish, but not tilapia.

  13. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  14. Optimizing de novo transcriptome assembly and extending genomic resources for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Njaci, Isaac; Yoon, Byoung-Ha; Chand, Vincent; Tuan, Nguyen Viet; Thu, Vo Thi Minh; Mather, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a commercially important freshwater fish used in inland aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The culture industry is facing a significant challenge however from saltwater intrusion into many low topographical coastal provinces across the Mekong Delta as a result of predicted climate change impacts. Developing genomic resources for this species can facilitate the production of improved culture lines that can withstand raised salinity conditions, and so we have applied high-throughput Ion Torrent sequencing of transcriptome libraries from six target osmoregulatory organs from striped catfish as a genomic resource for use in future selection strategies. We obtained 12,177,770 reads after trimming and processing with an average length of 97bp. De novo assemblies were generated using CLC Genomic Workbench, Trinity and Velvet/Oases with the best overall contig performance resulting from the CLC assembly. De novo assembly using CLC yielded 66,451 contigs with an average length of 478bp and N50 length of 506bp. A total of 37,969 contigs (57%) possessed significant similarity with proteins in the non-redundant database. Comparative analyses revealed that a significant number of contigs matched sequences reported in other teleost fishes, ranging in similarity from 45.2% with Atlantic cod to 52% with zebrafish. In addition, 28,879 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 55,721 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the striped catfish transcriptome. The sequence collection generated in the current study represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for P. hypophthalmus available to date. Our results illustrate the utility of next-generation sequencing as an efficient tool for constructing a large genomic database for marker development in non-model species.

  15. The effect of environmental hypercapnia and size on nitrite toxicity in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, Malthe; Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Jensen, Frank B; Bayley, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl(-) for uptake at the branchial HCO3(-)/Cl(-) exchanger, causing a drastic reduction in the blood oxygen carrying capacity through the formation of methaemoglobin and nitrosylhaemoglobin. Environmental hypercapnia induces a respiratory acidosis where the branchial HCO3(-)/Cl(-) exchange activity is reduced in order to retain HCO3(-) for pH recovery, which should lead to a reduced nitrite uptake. To assess the effect of hypercapnia on nitrite uptake, fish were cannulated in the dorsal aorta, allowing repeated blood sampling for measurements of haemoglobin derivatives, plasma ions and acid-base status during exposure to 0.9mM nitrite alone and in combination with acute and 48h acclimated hypercapnia over a period of 72h. Nitrite uptake was initially reduced during the hypercapnia-induced acidosis, but after pH recovery the situation was reversed, resulting in higher plasma nitrite concentrations and lower functional haemoglobin levels that eventually caused mortality. This suggests that branchial HCO3(-)/Cl(-) exchange activity is reduced only during the initial acid-base compensation, but subsequently increases with the greater availability of internal HCO3(-) counter-ions as pH is compensated. The data further suggest that branchial Na(+)/H(+) exchange plays a significant role in the initial phase of acid-base compensation. Overall, longer term environmental hypercapnia does not protect against nitrite uptake in P. hypophthalmus, but instead enhances it. In addition, we observed a significant size effect in nitrite accumulation, where large fish attained plasma [nitrite] above the ambient concentration, while small fish did not. Small P. hypophthalmus instead had significantly higher plasma [nitrate], and haemoglobin

  16. Gill remodelling and growth rate of striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus under impacts of hypoxia and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Bayley, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27°C and future 33°C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate the respiratory lamellae surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses, and gill component volumes. Gill respiratory surface area (SA) and harmonic mean water - blood barrier thicknesses (HM) of the fish were strongly affected by both environmental temperature and oxygen level. Thus initial values for 27°C normoxic fish (12.4±0.8g) were 211.8±21.6mm(2)g(-1) and 1.67±0.12μm for SA and HM respectively. After 5weeks in same conditions or in the combinations of 33°C and/or PO2 of 55mmHg, this initial surface area scaled allometrically with size for the 33°C hypoxic group, whereas branchial SA was almost eliminated in the 27°C normoxic group, with other groups intermediate. In addition, elevated temperature had an astounding effect on growth with the 33°C group growing nearly 8-fold faster than the 27°C fish.

  17. An evaluation of fish health-management practices and occupational health hazards associated with Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Tu Thanh; Hai, Dao Minh; Son, Vo Nam; Rico Artero, Andreu; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murray, Francis; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the current status on the use of probiotics, disinfectants and antimicrobials in hatcheries, nurseries and grow-out farms producing Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 aquacult

  18. An evaluation of fish health-management practices and occupational health hazards associated with Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phu, TranMinh; Nguyen Thanh, Phuong; Dung, Tu Thanh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the current status on the use of probiotics, disinfectants and antimicrobials in hatcheries, nurseries and grow-out farms producing Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83...

  19. Adverse effects of enrofloxacin when associated with environmental stress in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Neil; Nkejabega, Noemie; Hien, Nguyen-Ngoc; Huynh, Thi-Tu; Silvestre, Frederic; Phuong, Nguyen-Thanh; Danyi, Sophie; Widart, Joëlle; Douny, Caroline; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Kestemont, Patrick; Huong, Do-Thi-Thanh

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the adverse effects of enrofloxacin (EF) on Tra catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, in relation with density stress. Fish were held at 40, 80 or 120 fish m(-3) and fed with pellets containing either 1 g kg(-1) EF or no EF. Antibiotic exposure lasted 7d and all fish were fed without EF for another 7-d recovery period. Fish were sampled at 3, 7, 8, 10 and 14 d after the beginning of EF exposure. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activities were assessed in gill, brain, liver and muscle. At day 7, LPO levels in gills of EF-fish reared at low or high density were significantly more than 5-fold higher than their respective control. On the contrary, LPO in gills of EF-fish reared at medium density was significantly 3-fold lower than the control fish. Similarly, CAT activities in gills of EF-fish reared under low or high density were higher than in their control groups, while this activity was lower in EF-fish of the medium density group. AChE activities in muscles of EF-fish reared at low or high density were lower than controls at days 3 and 7, respectively. These results suggest that EF exposure may lead to disorders like lipid peroxidation and neural dysfunction in fish. However, when reared under lower stress condition (medium density), they may cope better with EF-induced stress than chronically stressed fish (low or high density).

  20. Combined immersion and oral vaccination of Vietnamese catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) confers protection against mortality caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinh, N H; Kuo, T Y; Hung, L T; Loc, T H; Chen, S C; Evensen, O; Schuurman, H J

    2009-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri septicemia occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the catfish industry especially in Vietnam and the USA. To control Edwardsiella septicemia farmers extensively use antibiotics and various vaccination methods. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines has come with variable efficacy. In this trial the results of an approach of controlling Edwardsiella septicemia of Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in Vietnam through vaccination via mucosal surfaces are presented. The results show that a combination of primary vaccination by immersion with inactivated E. ictaluri followed by an oral boost with a formulated antigen preparation induces a statistically significant level of protection against mortality caused by experimental infection 4 weeks post-boost. Fish immunized by immersion only show significantly lower level of protection but significantly higher than the controls. Repeated boosts result in improved duration of immunity with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 47% at 90% control mortality. The immunization procedure provides an alternative for disease control through vaccination.

  1. In Vitro Characterization of a Recombinant AHL-Lactonase from Bacillus cereus Isolated from a Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Tinh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Dung, Nguyen Viet; Trung, Cao Thanh; Thuy, Van Thi

    2013-01-01

    aiiA gene encoding AHL-lactonase was isolated from Bacillus cereus strain N26.2, originating from a striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) pond in Vietnam. This gene, abbreviated as aiiA(N26.2), was cloned and expressed in a competent Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS. The resulting protein, abbreviated as AiiAN26.2, was highly active in the pH range of 6–8 and could retain 80 % of the maximum activity under storage for 5 days at 4 °C or for 3 days at 20 °C. These properties of Ai...

  2. In Vitro Characterization of a Recombinant AHL-Lactonase from Bacillus cereus Isolated from a Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Dung, Nguyen Viet; Trung, Cao Thanh; Thuy, Van Thi

    2013-12-01

    aiiA gene encoding AHL-lactonase was isolated from Bacillus cereus strain N26.2, originating from a striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) pond in Vietnam. This gene, abbreviated as aiiA(N26.2), was cloned and expressed in a competent Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS. The resulting protein, abbreviated as AiiAN26.2, was highly active in the pH range of 6-8 and could retain 80 % of the maximum activity under storage for 5 days at 4 °C or for 3 days at 20 °C. These properties of AiiAN26.2 protein confers its future application via feed supplementation, with the purpose of controlling aquaculture pathogens which regulate the virulence via a quorum sensing system.

  3. Effect of DNA damage caused by cryopreservation of spermatozoa using a modified Single cell gell electrophoresis in the freshwater catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Fowler, 1936)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppusamy Umaa Rani; Natesan Munuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect the integrity of sperm DNA in the catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus cryopreserved with Hanks balanced salt solution, 5%-30% dimethyl acetamide (DMA) using the single-cell gel electrophoresis in order to test how sperm cryopreservation affected nuclear DNA stability. Methods: Electrophoresis was conducted for 60 min at 130 mA and 15 V. The comet images were analyzed using software CometScore 1.5, and parameters such as comet length, tail length an...

  4. Biochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory attributes of gutted and ungutted sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, P; Tanuja, S; Ninan, George; Lalitha, K V; Zynudheen, A A; Binsi, P K; Srinivasagopal, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (sutchi catfish) is a fresh water catfish extensively being cultured in the South East Asian countries in the recent years. The present study provides the first report on the effects of gutting on the quality characteristics of aquacultured sutchi catfish stored in ice. pH of whole ungutted and gutted catfish didn't show significant difference (p > 0.05) during ice storage period. Total Volatile Base Nitrogen (TVB-N), Alpha Amino Nitrogen (AAN), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) and Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) were lower in gutted fish compared to whole ungutted fish at any particular day during ice storage. However, gutted fish expressed higher rate of primary lipid oxidation than ungutted fish. Textural degradation of the fish muscle as indicated by hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness was lower in gutted fish. Results of sensory evaluation revealed that gutting has significantly improved the sensory quality of the fish. However, microbiological analysis revealed higher Total Plate Count (TPC) and Enterobactereaceae count in gutted fish. The shelf life of gutted and whole ungutted sutchi cat fish as determined by microbiological analysis was 16-18 days and 18-20 days respectively while storage in ice.

  5. Evaluation of potential candidate genes involved in salinity tolerance in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) using an RNA-Seq approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Viet; Jung, Hyungtaek; Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Hurwood, David; Mather, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Increasing salinity levels in freshwater and coastal environments caused by sea level rise linked to climate change is now recognized to be a major factor that can impact fish growth negatively, especially for freshwater teleost species. Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is an important freshwater teleost that is now widely farmed across the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam. Understanding the basis for tolerance and adaptation to raised environmental salinity conditions can assist the regional culture industry to mitigate predicted impacts of climate change across this region. Attempt of next generation sequencing using the ion proton platform results in more than 174 million raw reads from three tissue libraries (gill, kidney and intestine). Reads were filtered and de novo assembled using a variety of assemblers and then clustered together to generate a combined reference transcriptome. Downstream analysis resulted in a final reference transcriptome that contained 60,585 transcripts with an N50 of 683 bp. This resource was further annotated using a variety of bioinformatics databases, followed by differential gene expression analysis that resulted in 3062 transcripts that were differentially expressed in catfish samples raised under two experimental conditions (0 and 15 ppt). A number of transcripts with a potential role in salinity tolerance were then classified into six different functional gene categories based on their gene ontology assignments. These included; energy metabolism, ion transportation, detoxification, signal transduction, structural organization and detoxification. Finally, we combined the data on functional salinity tolerance genes into a hypothetical schematic model that attempted to describe potential relationships and interactions among target genes to explain the molecular pathways that control adaptive salinity responses in P. hypophthalmus. Our results indicate that P. hypophthalmus exhibit predictable plastic regulatory responses

  6. ABUNDANCE AND UTILIZATION OF NATURAL LIFE FEED FOR REARING OF ASIAN CATFISH (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus LARVAE IN OUTDOOR POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Ariyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In early rearing period, the larvae of Asian catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were fed with Artemia nauplii at the first 10 days. Since Artemia cyst price is quite expensive, it will be a constraint in development of the Asian catfish hatcheries. This study was conducted to evaluate the abundance of natural life food in pond and utilization of it for substitute Artemia cyst in Asian catfish larvae rearing. The Asian catfish larvae at the age of 5 days after hatching were used as the test fish. Sampling of natural life food in fertilized pond was conducted before the fish stocked. The fish larvae were stocked in pond after ten days from ponds fertilizing. At the 2nd day after larvae fish was stocked, five fish samples were collected for identify the type of food which consumed by fish. The results showed that abundance of natural life food which found in ponds ranged from 70,200 to 180,600 individual/L. Index of diversity, uniformity and dominancy for phytoplankton and zooplankton ranged from 2.407 to 2.732; from 0.032 to 0.043 and from 0.112 to 0.204, respectively. Based on the analysis of digestive tract of fish, it was found that index of selectivity and index of preponderance for natural life food ranged from 0.94 to 0.62 and from 0.17 to 67.03, respectively. This study suggested that Asian catfish larvae at the age of five days after hatching can utilize the natural life food in ponds to replace the use of Artemia cyst in indoor hatchery system.

  7. Culture of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus into India: impacts and present scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Lakra, W S

    2012-01-01

    Pangasianodon aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector of the world. Recent national production of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in India accounts for 0.7 million tonnes at present. Being influenced by trade and markets, P. hypophthalmus has been introduced to many countries including India. There has been a steady increase in the production of P. hypophthalmus by small and marginal farmers of the country. However, concern has arisen about the long-term sustainability due to diseases and its negative impacts on socio-economic aspects and biodiversity. Unregulated culture of P. hypophthalmus has been causing concern to environmental safety and warranting a very cautious and regulated approach to its culture. The standards, protocols and guidelines have been developed to address the issues of sustainability of Pangasianodon catfish production.

  8. High genetic diversity in cryptic populations of the migratory sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, N; Maes, G E; Volckaert, F A M

    2006-02-01

    The detection and conservation of spawning units is of crucial importance in highly migratory species. The sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae; Teleostei) is a common large-sized tropical fish, which migrates annually to several upstream spawning sites on the Lower Mekong River and feeds on the huge floodplain of the Lower Mekong and Tonle Sap for the other half of the year. We hypothesised that because of the relative size of the feeding and spawning habitat, genetic variability would be high and homogeneous in foraging populations, but that spawning stocks would be distinct in space and time. To test these predictions, 567 individuals from 10 geographic locations separated by up to 1230 km along the Lower Mekong River were genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. The level of genetic diversity was much higher than other freshwater fish and reached values comparable to marine species (mean H(e)=0.757). All samples collected at the potential spawning sites deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, suggesting admixture. Individual-based clustering methods revealed genetic heterogeneity and enabled the detection of three genetically distinct sympatric populations. There was no evidence of recent reduction in effective population size in any population. Contrasting with the vast extent of the feeding grounds, the shortage of spawning grounds seems to have moved sutchi catfish towards diachronous spawning. Hence the sustainable exploitation of this natural resource hinges on the conservation of the limited spawning grounds and open migration routes between the spawning and feeding grounds.

  9. Intraspecific diversity of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from diseased freshwater catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage), cultured in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartie, K L; Austin, F W; Diab, A; Dickson, C; Dung, T T; Giacomini, M; Crumlish, M

    2012-09-01

    A molecular epidemiology study was conducted on 90 Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates recovered from diseased farmed freshwater catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, cultured in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Thirteen isolates of E. ictaluri derived from diseased channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, cultured in the USA were included for comparison. All the E.ictaluri isolates tested were found to be biochemically indistinguishable. A repetitive (rep)-PCR using the single (GTG)(5) primer was shown to possess limited discriminatory power, yielding two similar DNA profiles categorized as (GTG)(5) -PCR group 1 or 2 among the Vietnam isolates and (GTG)(5) -PCR group 1 within the USA isolates. Macrorestriction analysis identified 14 and 22 unique pulsotypes by XbaI and SpeI, respectively, among a subset of 59 E. ictaluri isolates. Numerical analysis of the combined macrorestriction profiles revealed three main groups: a distinct cluster formed exclusively of the USA isolates, and a major and minor cluster with outliers contained the Vietnam isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiling supported the existence of the three groups. The results indicate that macrorestriction analysis may be regarded as a suitable typing method among the E. ictaluri species of limited intraspecific diversity. Furthermore, the findings suggest that E. ictaluri originating from Vietnam may constitute a distinct genetic group.

  10. Expression characteristics of potential biomarker genes in Tra catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, exposed to trichlorfon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vanparys, Caroline; De Boeck, Gudrun; Kestemont, Patrick; Wang, Neil; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Coen, Wim; Robbens, Johan

    2010-09-01

    Trichlorfon (TRC) is the most common organophosphorous insecticide used in aquaculture practices in Southeast Asian countries. Indiscriminate use of TRC can either damage or alter the enzymatic and hormonal activities in the living organisms. In this present study, therefore, toxicogenomic analyses using real time PCR was used to characterize expression levels of various genes in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus after exposure to three concentrations, the 96 h 1/100LC(50) (0.01 mg/L), the 96 h 110LC(50) (0.1 mg/L) and the 96 h 12LC(50) (0.5 mg/L) of TRC for 6 h, 24 h, 96 h, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 56 days respectively. The expression kinetics of stress and other cellular toxicity representative genes such as heat shock protein70 (HSP70), growth hormone, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), trypsinogen, cytochrome P4501B (CYP1B) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) were investigated in liver and gills. TRC at a level of 0.1 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L induced a time and dose-dependent increase in the expression of the HSP70, COI and CYPIB while the transcript level of AChE, growth hormone and trypsinogen were significantly down-regulated. These results could permit to develop a "molecular biomarker system" which can be applied as a first-tier method of identifying contaminant exposure before effects at population level occur.

  11. Experimental assessment of the effects of sublethal salinities on growth performance and stress in cultured tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc Trong Hong; Do, Huong Thi Thanh; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of a range of different sublethal salinities were assessed on physiological processes and growth performance in the freshwater 'tra' catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles over an 8-week experiment. Fish were distributed randomly among 6 salinity treatments [2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 g/L of salinity and a control (0 g/L)] with a subsequent 13-day period of acclimation. Low salinity conditions from 2 to 10 g/L provided optimal conditions with high survival and good growth performance, while 0 g/L and salinities >14 g/L gave poorer survival rates (p < 0.05). Salinity levels from freshwater to 10 g/L did not have any negative effects on fish weight gain, daily weight gain, or specific growth rate. Food conversion ratio, however, was lowest in the control treatment (p < 0.05) and highest at the maximum salinities tested (18 g/L treatment). Cortisol levels were elevated in the 14 and 18 g/L treatments after 6 h and reached a peak after 24-h exposure, and this also led to increases in plasma glucose concentration. After 14 days, surviving fish in all treatments appeared to have acclimated to their respective conditions with cortisol levels remaining under 5 ng/mL with glucose concentrations stable. Tra catfish do not appear to be efficient osmoregulators when salinity levels exceed 10 g/L, and at raised salinity levels, growth performance is compromised. In general, results of this study confirm that providing culture environments in the Mekong River Basin do not exceed 10 g/L salinity and that cultured tra catfish can continue to perform well.

  12. Partitioning of oxygen uptake and cost of surfacing during swimming in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Wang, Tobias; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Though air-breathing has probably evolved mainly as a response to hypoxia, it may provide an important oxygen supplement when metabolism is elevated, as for example during swimming. Due to the increased travelling distance involved when an air-breathing fish swims to and from the surface, and the increased drag when the surface is breached, it can be proposed that air-breathing results in a rise in the apparent cost of transport. In order to investigate this hypothesis, it is necessary to use a fish that is able to swim equally well with and without access to air. The striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus has been shown to have a sufficiently high capacity for aquatic oxygen uptake in normoxia, to allow for such a comparison. Here, we measured the partitioning of oxygen uptake (MO2) during swimming and recovery, and calculated the apparent cost of transport with and without access to air, under normoxic conditions. Aerial MO2 constituted 25-40 % of the total MO2 during swimming and less than 15 % during recovery. The net cost of transport was 25 % lower in fish that did not air-breathe compared to fish that did, showing that the cost of surfacing can be substantial. This is the first study to measure partitioning in an air-breathing fish during swimming at velocities close to the critical swimming speed.

  13. Two-year intervention trial to control of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) and striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in nursery ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Thien, P. C.; Nga, H. T. N.

    2015-01-01

    ponds prior to fish stocking, and various other measures in reducing FZT infection in juvenile striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy). Interventions were implemented on 5 farms for each fish species during production cycles in 2009 and 2010 while 5 similar...

  14. Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyi, S; Widart, J; Douny, C; Dang, P K; Baiwir, D; Wang, N; Tu, H T; Tung, V T; Phuong, N-T; Kestemont, P; Scippo, M-L

    2011-04-01

    Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 34, 142-152. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin (EF) and ciprofloxacin (CF) residues were investigated in the edible tissues of two important Asian aquacultured species such as Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Fish and prawn were treated with medicated feed with multiple doses of EF, in field conditions. A validation study of the analytical method was realized in terms of linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), recovery and decision limit (CCα). The time needed before the antibiotic disappears from animal tissues or reach the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100μg/kg) was assessed. The concentration values of EF detected in Tra catfish tissue were between the MRL and 2×MRL concentrations, according to the fish density, 7days following the end of the enrofloxacin treatment (20mg/kg body weight per day, for seven consecutive days). The concentration value of ER in prawn tissue was lower than the MRL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 14μg/kg) 5 and 7days after the stop of the EF treatment (50mg/kg body weight per day, for five consecutive days), respectively. The mean detected levels of CF was much lower in comparison with that of EF, indicating that only a small part of EF is metabolized into CF (<5%) in both Tra catfish and prawn.

  15. Serum carbohydrate-binding IgM are present in Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) but not in North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Duong Thi Huong; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Beeckmans, Sonia

    2012-02-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus serum was fractionated by affinity chromatography on 12 different Sepharose-carbohydrate columns and proteins eluted by the corresponding sugar. Binding to the affinity matrices is dependent on Ca(2+) ions. Upon gel filtration using Superose-12, essentially one fraction was obtained, eluting as a protein with a molecular mass of about 900 kDa. SDS-PAGE in reducing conditions revealed the presence of large (72 kDa) subunits (H-chains) and one up to three small (24, 26 and/or 28-29 kDa) subunits (L-chains). The isolated proteins were shown to be IgM since they bind monoclonal anti-P. hypophthalmus IgM antibodies. Rabbit polyclonal anti-galactose-binding IgM only cross-react with some sugar-binding IgM. The H-chains of the anti-carbohydrate IgM are glycosylated. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the IgMs have an "all-β" type of structure, and that Ca(2+) ions, though essential for carbohydrate-binding activity, are not required for the structural integrity of the molecules. In non-reducing SDS-PAGE, only monomers and halfmers were obtained, showing that there are no disulfide bonds linking the monomers, and that a disulfide bond connecting both H-chains within one monomer is only present in 45% of the molecules. Both the monomers and the halfmers display molecular mass heterogeneity which is indicative for redox forms at the level of the intradomain disulfide bonds. The native carbohydrate-binding IgMs agglutinate erythrocytes from different animals, as well as fish pathogenic bacteria. Similar proteins could not be isolated from another catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

  16. Effect of oligochitosan and oligo-β-glucan supplementation on growth, innate immunity, and disease resistance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Van Dang, Phu; Le, Anh Quoc; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lan; Pham, Duy Hai; Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2016-06-01

    Oligochitosan (COS) and oligo-β-glucan (βOG) were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation of chitosan/H2 O2 and β-glucan/H2 O2 solutions. The striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was fed diets containing 0-200 mg COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG per kg feed for 45 days, and then challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri bacterium. The effects of supplemented COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG on immune stimulation and growth performance in striped catfish were investigated. The results indicated that when striped catfish fed with 100-200 mg COS or βOG/kg feed the growth performance was significantly improved and the mortality was considerably decreased. Furthermore, striped catfish fed with supplementation of 50 mg COS + 50 mg βOG/kg feed was the best for increasing weight gain (∼26%) and for decreasing mortality (∼38%) compared with the control group. Moreover, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity of fish were enhanced by feeding diet-supplemented COS and/or βOG. Thus, COS and/or βOG can be potentially utilized as the immunostimulants and growth promoters for aquaculture.

  17. Osmoregulatory and immunological status of the pond-raised striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus S.) as affected by seasonal runoff and salinity changes in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Mélodie; Baekelandt, Sébastien; Tran Thi, Lam Khoa; Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N M; Douxfils, Jessica; Nguyen, Thinh Quoc; Do Thi Thanh, Huong; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    In Vietnam, the production of striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus S. reached more than 1.2 millions of tons in 2014 and is mainly gathered in the Mekong Delta (South Vietnam). A survey was carried out during the dry season 2013 (March-April) and rainy season 2014 (July-August) in 12 fish farms of the lower (Tra Vinh Province) and higher (Can Tho Province) Mekong River Delta. This study allowed drawing up current key osmoregulatory and innate immune parameters of striped catfish in aquaculture depending on the geographical location, particularly the proximity to the River Mekong Estuary and the seasonal surface runoff. In the dry season, plasma osmolality was positively correlated with salinity. Gill Na(+)K(+) ATPase dropped in the rainy season, while kidney Na(+)K(+) ATPase remained stable. Abundance of immune blood cells, especially thrombocytes and monocytes, tended to increase in farms located in tidal area. Production of reactive oxygen species in the spleen, kidney lysozyme activity and plasma complement activity did not vary whatever the season or the proximity to the estuary. Plasma lysozyme activity was 50-fold higher than in kidney and increased in the rainy season as well as in tidal sites. Kidney complement activity decreased in the dry season, especially in tidal sites. In conclusion, regarding key osmoregulatory and immune factors, striped catfish farms located in the Mekong Delta may be affected by seasonal and regional salinity and runoff fluctuations.

  18. Can immunostimulants efficiently replace antibiotic in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) against bacterial infection by Edwardsiella ictaluri?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich Hang, Bui Thi; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the efficacy of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and levamisole on immune response and disease resistance in striped catfish and to compare their respective efficiency with the one of an antibiotic treatment after infection of fish by the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri. Fish were divided into 3 groups and each group was injected with LPS (3 mg/kg fish), levamisole (5 mg/kg fish) or phosphate buffer saline as control. At day 21st post immunostimulant injection, fish were bled for assaying immunological variables and then challenged with E. ictaluri. Three days after bacterial infection, an antibiotic treatment was applied into fish subgroups and mortality was compared daily between antibiotic treated and untreated fish until 2 weeks post-challenge. LPS and levamisole significantly enhanced non-specific immune responses such as respiratory burst, lysozyme and complement activity in fish compared with control (p < 0.05). Respiratory burst and complement activity significantly increased in levamisole groups when compared with LPS groups while lysozyme activity did not differ significantly between immunostimulant treatments. Total immunoglobulins significantly increased in levamisole treatment compared with control. After challenge test, accumulated mortality was reduced significantly in both non-antibiotic and antibiotic subgroups of LPS and levamisole compared with control. Moreover, no differences of mortality were observed between fish treated with levamisole or LPS without antibiotics and control fish treated with antibiotics. These results support the possible replacement of antibiotics in striped catfish farming by immunostimulants such as levamisole and LPS.

  19. In vivo effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on regulation of immune response and protein expression in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Bui Thi Bich; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lipolysaccharide (LPS), a component of outer membrane protein of gram-negative bacteria, reportedly stimulates fish immune system. However, mechanisms driving this immunomodulatory effect are yet unknown. To determine effects of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on regulation of immune response and protein expression of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), juvenile fish (20-25 g) were injected with 3, 15 or 45 mg E.coli LPS/kg and challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri. Plasma cortisol and glucose were rather low and did not differ (p<0.05) among treatments. All LPS treatments differed regarding blood cell count and immune variables such as plasma and spleen lysozyme, complement activity and antibody titer, 3mg LPS/kg yielding best results; red blood cell count was not affected by LPS treatment. Accumulated mortalities after bacterial challenge were 23.4, 32.8, 37.7 and 52.5% for treatment 3, 15, 45 mg LPS/kg fish and control respectively. Proteomic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) confirmed that LPS induced differentially over-expressed immune proteins such as complement component C3 and lysozyme C2 precursor. Regulation of other proteins such as Wap65, alpha-2 macroglobulin-3 and transferrin precursor was also demonstrated. Striped catfish injected with E.coli LPS enhanced innate immune responses.

  20. A transcriptomic analysis of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in response to salinity adaptation: De novo assembly, gene annotation and marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Chand, Vincent; Tuan, Nguyen Viet; Thu, Vo Thi Minh; Mather, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) culture industry in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam has developed rapidly over the past decade. The culture industry now however, faces some significant challenges, especially related to climate change impacts notably from predicted extensive saltwater intrusion into many low topographical coastal provinces across the Mekong Delta. This problem highlights a need for development of culture stocks that can tolerate more saline culture environments as a response to expansion of saline water-intruded land. While a traditional artificial selection program can potentially address this need, understanding the genomic basis of salinity tolerance can assist development of more productive culture lines. The current study applied a transcriptomic approach using Ion PGM technology to generate expressed sequence tag (EST) resources from the intestine and swim bladder from striped catfish reared at a salinity level of 9ppt which showed best growth performance. Total sequence data generated was 467.8Mbp, consisting of 4,116,424 reads with an average length of 112bp. De novo assembly was employed that generated 51,188 contigs, and allowed identification of 16,116 putative genes based on the GenBank non-redundant database. GO annotation, KEGG pathway mapping, and functional annotation of the EST sequences recovered with a wide diversity of biological functions and processes. In addition, more than 11,600 simple sequence repeats were also detected. This is the first comprehensive analysis of a striped catfish transcriptome, and provides a valuable genomic resource for future selective breeding programs and functional or evolutionary studies of genes that influence salinity tolerance in this important culture species.

  1. Effect of DNA damage caused by cryopreservation of spermatozoa using a modified Single cell gell electrophoresis in the freshwater catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Fowler, 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Umaa Rani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the integrity of sperm DNA in the catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus cryopreserved with Hanks balanced salt solution, 5%-30% dimethyl acetamide (DMA using the single-cell gel electrophoresis in order to test how sperm cryopreservation affected nuclear DNA stability. Methods: Electrophoresis was conducted for 60 min at 130 mA and 15 V. The comet images were analyzed using software CometScore 1.5, and parameters such as comet length, tail length and percentage DNA in the tail were obtained. Then the comet rate and damage coefficient were calculated. Results: There were no significant differences in motility, comet rate and damage coefficient between fresh sperm and cryopreserved sperm stored in 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% DMA, while the sperm cryopreserved with 25% and 30% DMA had lower motility, higher comet length and damage coefficients than those of fresh sperm. Conclusions: There was a positive correlation between comet rate of cryopreserved sperm and the concentration of DMA. The toxicity of cryoprotectant is the main factor for DNA damage in cryopreserved sperm.

  2. Effect of DNA damage caused by cryopreservation of spermatozoa using a modified Single cell gell electrophoresis in the freshwater catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Fowler, 1936)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuppusamy Umaa Rani; Natesan Munuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect the integrity of sperm DNA in the catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus scirnygolper-ecseelrlv egedl weliethc tHroapnhkosr ebsaisl ainnc oerdd esra ltto stoelsutt ihoonw, 5s%pe-r3m0% c rdyiomperethseyrlv aactieotna mafifdeec t(eDdM nAu) culseianrg D tNhAe stability. Methods: Electrophoresis was conducted for 60 min at 130 mA and 15 V. The comet images awnedre p aenrcaelynzteadge u DsiNnAg isno ftthwea rtaei lC womereet Socbotraein 1e.d5,. aTnhde np tahrea mceotmerest rsautceh a ansd cdoammeatg lee ncgotehf,f ictaieiln lte wngetrhe calculated. Results: There were no significant differences in motility, comet rate and damage coefficient sbpeetwrmee cnr yforepsrhe sseprveermd wainthd 2c5r%yo apnreds 3e0r%ve dD MsAp ehramd sltoowreerd mino t5il%it,y 1, 0h%ig, h1e5r% c oamnde t2 l0e%n gDthM Aa,n dw hdialme athgee coefficients than those of fresh sperm. Conclusions: There was a positive correlation between comet rate of cryopreserved sperm and the concentration of DMA.The toxicity of cryoprotectant is the main factor for DNA damage in cryopreserved sperm.

  3. Rigor index, fillet yield and proximate composition of cultured striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus for its suitability in processing industries in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Noor-E Islami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigor-index in market-size striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, locally called Thai-Pangas was determined to assess fillet yield for production of value-added products. In whole fish, rigor started within 1 hr after death under both iced and room temperature conditions while rigor-index reached a maximum of 72.23% within 8 hr and 85.5% within 5 hr at room temperature and iced condition, respectively, which was fully relaxed after 22 hr under both storage conditions. Post-mortem muscle pH decreased to 6.8 after 2 hr, 6.2 after 8 hr and sharp increase to 6.9 after 9 hr. There was a positive correlation between rigor progress and pH shift in fish fillets. Hand filleting was done post-rigor and fillet yield experiment showed 50.4±2.1% fillet, 8.0±0.2% viscera, 8.0±1.3% skin and 32.0±3.2% carcass could be obtained from Thai-Pangas. Proximate composition analysis of four regions of Thai-Pangas viz., head region, middle region, tail region and viscera revealed moisture 78.36%, 81.14%, 81.45% and 57.33%; protein 15.83%, 15.97%, 16.14% and 17.20%; lipid 4.61%, 1.82%, 1.32% and 24.31% and ash 1.09%, 0.96%, 0.95% and 0.86%, respectively indicating suitability of Thai-Pangas for production of value-added products such as fish fillets.

  4. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Current Farming Locations of Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.A.; Dang, V.H.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Leemans, R.; Silva, De S.S.

    2014-01-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these i

  5. Simulated impacts of climate change on current farming locations of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh L; Dang, Vinh H; Bosma, Roel H; Verreth, Johan A J; Leemans, Rik; De Silva, Sena S

    2014-12-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these influences. In this study, water level rise and salt water intrusion for three sea level rise (SLR) scenarios (i.e., +30, +50, and +75 cm) were simulated. The results showed that at SLR +50, the 3-m-flood level would spread downstream and threaten farms located in AnGiang, DongThap and CanTho provinces. Rising salinity levels for SLR +75 would reduce the window appropriate for the culture in SocTrang and BenTre provinces, and in TienGiang's coastal districts. Next to increasing dikes to reduce the impacts, the most tenable and least disruptive option to the farming community would be to shift to a salinity tolerant strain of catfish.

  6. Optimisation and standardisation of functional immune assays for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) to compare their immune response to live and heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila as models of infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirimanapong, Wanna; Thompson, Kim D; Kledmanee, Kan; Thaijongrak, Prawporn; Collet, Bertrand; Ooi, Ei Lin; Adams, Alexandra

    2014-10-01

    Aquaculture production of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is growing rapidly in South East Asia, especially in Vietnam. As it is a relatively new aquaculture species there are few reports evaluating its immune response to pathogens. Thus, functional assays for P. hypophthalmus were optimised to evaluate both innate and adaptive immune responses, and were then used to examine immune response following stimulation with live and heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila. These were used as models of infection and vaccination, respectively. Four treatment groups were used, including a control group, a group injected intraperitonally (IP) with adjuvant only, a group injected with heat-killed A. hydrophila (1 × 10(9) cfu ml(-1) mixed with adjuvant), and a group injected with a subclinical dose of live A. hydrophila. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-injection (d.p.i.) to assess their immune response. The results indicated that challenge with live or dead bacteria stimulated the immune response in P. hypophthalmus significantly above the levels observed in control groups with respect to specific antibody titre, plasma lysozyme and peroxidase activity, and phagocytosis by head kidney macrophages at 7 or/and 14 d.p.i. At 21 d.p.i., total and specific antibody (IgM) levels and plasma lysozyme activity in fish injected with either live or dead A. hydrophila were significantly different to the control groups. Differential immune responses were observed between fish injected with either live or dead bacteria, with live A. hydrophila significantly stimulating an increase in WBC counts and plasma peroxidase activity at 3 d.p.i., with the greatest increase in WBC counts noted at 21 d.p.i. and in phagocytosis at 14 d.p.i. By 21 d.p.i. only the macrophages from fish injected with dead A. hydrophila showed significantly stimulation in their respiratory burst activity. This study provides basic information on the immune response in pangasius catfish that can be useful in

  7. Effects of the dietary supplementation of mixed probiotic spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 54A, and Bacillus pumilus 47B on growth, innate immunity and stress responses of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong Thy, Ho Thi; Tri, Nguyen Nhu; Quy, Ong Moc; Fotedar, Ravi; Kannika, Korntip; Unajak, Sasimanas; Areechon, Nontawith

    2017-01-01

    The study used the mixed probiotics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 54A and B. pumilus 47B isolated from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) intestine aiming to stimulate growth performance, innate immunity, stress tolerance of striped catfish. The average weight gain (AWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were analyzed after fish were fed the mixture of probiotics (B. amyloliquefaciens 54A and B. pumilus 47B) at concentrations of 1 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8), and 5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) feed for 90 days. Immunity parameters, survival rate of fish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri and ammonia tolerance were also investigated. The amounts of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus were counted and identified by specific primer pairs of Ba1-F/Ba1-R, and 16-F/Bpu-R to confirm the presence of probiotics in fish intestine. The AWG (476.6 ± 7.81 g fish(-1)) of fish fed probiotics at 5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) was significant higher than the control (390 ± 25.7 g fish(-1)) after 90 days of feeding, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) effect of probiotics on FCR and SGR. Fish fed diet containing probiotics at 5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) also expressed resistance to E. ictaluri infection and higher immune parameters such as phagocytic activity, respiratory bursts, and lysozyme activity than the control. Stress response with ammonia showed significantly lower mortality rate (25%, 20% and 27%) of fish fed probiotics at all three levels of 1, 3 and 5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) than the fish fed control diet (75%). The study also demonstrated that the probiotics survived in the intestine of striped catfish after 90 days of feeding. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of a mixture of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus at 5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) can be used to improve the health and growth rate of striped catfish.

  8. Two-year intervention trial to control of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) and striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in nursery ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, H; Thien, P C; Nga, H T N; Clausen, J H; Dalsgaard, A; Murrell, K D

    2015-12-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) pose a food safety and public health problem in Vietnam. The transmission cycle is complex as domestic animals, especially dogs, cats, fish-eating birds and pigs together with humans serve as reservoir hosts and contribute to FZT egg contamination of aquaculture ponds and the environment. This intervention trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of various on-farm interventions, including reduction in FZT egg contamination through treatment of infected people and domestic animals, reduction in snail density through mud removal from aquaculture ponds prior to fish stocking, and various other measures in reducing FZT infection in juvenile striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy). Interventions were implemented on 5 farms for each fish species during production cycles in 2009 and 2010 while 5 similar farms for each species served as control. For both fish species, both prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ significantly between intervention and non-intervention farms prior to the interventions. The interventions significantly reduced both prevalence and intensity of FZT infection in the juvenile fish compared to control ponds. For giant gourami, odds of infection in intervention ponds was 0.13 (95% CL: 0.09-0.20; p<0.001) of that in non-intervention ponds after the 2009 trial and 0.07 (0.03-0.14; p<0.001) after the 2010 trial. For striped catfish, these figures were 0.17 (0.08-0.35; p<0.001) after the 2009 trial while after the 2010 trial all ponds with interventions were free from infection. Metacercariae intensity (no. of metacercariae/fish) in giant gourami from intervention ponds was 0.16 (0.11-0.23; p<0.001) of that in fish from non-intervention ponds after the 2009 trial and 0.07 (0.04-0.15; p<0.001) after the 2010 trial; for striped catfish these figures were 0.18 (0.09-0.36; p<0.001) and 0.00 (confidence limits not estimated), respectively. The

  9. A Decision Tree Analysis to Support Potential Climate Change Adaptations of Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage) Farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Leemans, H.B.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Silva, De S.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the decision tree framework to analyse possible climate change impact adaptation options for pangasius (Pangasianodon hypopthalmus Sauvage) farming in the Mekong Delta. Here we present the risks for impacts and the farmers' autonomous and planned public adaptation by using primary an

  10. Chronic hyperosmotic stress inhibits renal Toll-Like Receptors expression in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage) exposed or not to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Mélodie; Baekelandt, Sébastien; Bequet, Sandrine; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-03-24

    Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) are the first innate receptors in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In fish, upregulation of toll-like receptors during infection has been largely demonstrated while the effects of abiotic stressors on their expression remain poorly investigated. In this study, striped catfish were submitted during 20 days to three salinity profiles (freshwater, low saline water, saline water), followed by injection of a bacterial strain of Edwardsiella ictaluri. The expression of TLRs 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 19, 21, and 22 was measured in kidney at different time points in non infected and infected striped catfish. Infection induced overexpression of TLRs 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 21 and 22. With elevated salinity, the expression of all TLRs, except TLR5, was severely decreased, particularly after bacterial infection. The TLRs responsiveness of striped catfish facing bacterial disease and salinity stress and possible consequences on striped catfish immune response's efficiency are discussed.

  11. Chronic hyperosmotic stress interferes with immune homeostasis in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, S.) and leads to excessive inflammatory response during bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Mélodie; Douxfils, Jessica; Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N M; Morana, Cédric; Baekelandt, Sébastien; Kestemont, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Hyperosmotic stress has often been investigated from osmoregulation perspectives while the effects of such stress on the immune capacity remain largely unexplored. In this study, striped catfish were submitted to three salinity profiles (freshwater, low saline water, saline water) during 20 days, followed by infection with a virulent bacteria, Edwardsiella ictaluri, responsible for the enteric septicaemia of catfish. Osmoregulatory (plasma osmolality, gill Na(+)K(+)ATPase), immune (blood cells, lysozyme activity, complement activity, respiratory burst) parameters and mortality rate were investigated. In addition, abundances of heat shock protein 70 and high mobility group box 1 were explored. With elevated salinity, plasma osmolality severely increased while gill Na(+)K(+)ATPase slightly increased. Salinity alone stimulated the number of granulocytes, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst but depleted the number of thrombocytes. Salinity in combination with infection stimulated the number of monocytes and ACH50. On the contrary, erythrocytes, hematocrit, heat shock protein 70 and high mobility group box 1 did not significantly vary with salinity profiles. Then, salinity induced earlier onset on mortalities after E. ictaluri inoculation whereas cumulative mortality reach 79.2%, 67.0% and 91.7% respectively in freshwater, low saline water and saline water. In conclusion, salinity stimulates several immune functions in striped catfish but prolonged exposure to excessive hyperosmotic condition may lead to excessive inflammatory response and death.

  12. Anoxia and Acidosis Tolerance of the Heart in an Air-Breathing Fish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Gesser, Hans; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Air breathing has evolved repeatedly in fishes and may protect the heart during stress. We investigated myocardial performance in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a species that can withstand prolonged exposure to severe hypoxia and acidosis. Isometric ventricular preparations were exposed to anoxia, lactic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis, and combinations of these treatments. Ventricular preparations were remarkably tolerant to anoxia, exhibiting an inotropic reduction of only 40%, which fully recovered during reoxygenation. Myocardial anoxia tolerance was unaffected by physiologically relevant elevations of bicarbonate concentration, in contrast to previous results in other fishes. Both lactic acidosis (5 mM; pH 7.10) and hypercapnic acidosis (10% CO2; pH 6.70) elicited a biphasic response, with an initial and transient decrease in force followed by overcompensation above control values. Spongy myocardial preparations were significantly more tolerant to hypercapnic acidosis than compact myocardial preparations. While ventricular preparations were tolerant to the isolated effects of anoxia and acidosis, their combination severely impaired myocardial performance and contraction kinetics. This suggests that air breathing may be a particularly important myocardial oxygen source during combined anoxia and acidosis, which may occur during exercise or environmental stress.

  13. Ventilatory and Cardiovascular Regulation in the Air-Breathing Fish Pangasianodon Hypophthalmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    The air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is abundant in the Mekong river system where it is also intensively cultured. In contrast to most other air-breathing fishes it has well developed gills as well as a highly traberculated swim bladder with a large surface area used for air......-breathing. Its native waters have been shown to be periodically strongly hypoxic and hypercarbic, forcing P. hypophthalmus to switch from exclusively branchial ventilation to air-breathing to maintain its aerobic metabolism. This ability to switch respiratory media demands that the oxygen- and CO¬2 sensory....... hypophthalmus to be unaffected by aquatic CO2 from 0 to 5%, whereas moderate hypoxia stimulated branchial ventilation while initiating air-breathing at low frequencies. P. hypophthalmus switched to almost exclusive air-breathing with minimal branchial ventilation in severe hypoxia. We observed a hypoxic...

  14. POLA EKSPRESI GEN ENHANCED GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN PADA EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    OpenAIRE

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi; Alimuddin Alimuddin; Agus Oman Sudrajat; Komar Sumantadinata; Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ekspresi sementara (transient expression) dari transgen secara in vivo menggunakan gen reporter berguna untuk mendesain konstruksi gen yang akan digunakan pada penelitian transgenesis. Gen reporter yang umum digunakan dalam penelitian ekspresi sementara transgen adalah gen GFP (green fluorescent protein). Pengamatan gen EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) pada embrio dan larva ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) ditujukan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kema...

  15. BIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE ARTIFICIAL HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN Pangasius djambal BLEEKER, 1846 AND Pangasianodon hypophthalmus SAUVAGE, 1878

    OpenAIRE

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2016-01-01

    It is really important, since the possible use of these pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture faces the problem of potential impact on wild population. Therefore, it is urgently needed to provide quick identification tools in the field. This study investigated morphological characters of Pangasius djambal and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus and their hybrids. A detailed morphological analysis using 32 morphometric measurements and five meristic counts was done on the hybridization of P. djambal and P....

  16. The effects of feeding β-glucan to Pangasianodon hypophthalmus on immune gene expression and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirimanapong, Wanna; Thompson, Kim D; Ooi, Ei Lin; Bekaert, Michaël; Collet, Bertrand; Taggart, John B; Bron, James E; Green, Darren M; Shinn, Andrew P; Adams, Alexandra; Leaver, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (striped catfish) is an important aquaculture species and intensification of farming has increased disease problems, particularly Edwardsiella ictaluri. The effects of feeding β-glucans on immune gene expression and resistance to E. ictaluri in P. hypophthalmus were explored. Fish were fed 0.1% fungal-derived β-glucan or 0.1% commercial yeast-derived β-glucan or a basal control diet without glucan. After 14 days of feeding, the mRNA expression of immune genes (transferrin, C-reactive protein, precerebellin-like protein, Complement C3 and factor B, 2a MHC class II and interleukin-1 beta) in liver, kidney and spleen were determined. Following this fish from each of the three diet treatment groups were infected with E. ictaluri and further gene expression measured 24 h post-infection (h.p.i.), while the remaining fish were monitored over 2 weeks for mortalities. Cumulative percentage mortality at 14 days post-infection (d.p.i.) was less in β-glucan fed fish compared to controls. There was no difference in gene expression between dietary groups after feeding for 14 days, but there was a clear difference between infected and uninfected fish at 24 h.p.i., and based on principal component analysis β-glucans stimulated the overall expression of immune genes in the liver, kidney and spleen at 24 h.p.i.

  17. BIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE ARTIFICIAL HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN Pangasius djambal BLEEKER, 1846 AND Pangasianodon hypophthalmus SAUVAGE, 1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is really important, since the possible use of these pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture faces the problem of potential impact on wild population. Therefore, it is urgently needed to provide quick identification tools in the field. This study investigated morphological characters of Pangasius djambal and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus and their hybrids. A detailed morphological analysis using 32 morphometric measurements and five meristic counts was done on the hybridization of P. djambal and P. hypophthalmus. Morphometric analysis and meristic counts showed that the reciprocal hybrids have intermediate characters except for gill raker number in which lower than that of parental species. In general, the hybrids have tendency to be like P. hypophthalmus rather than P. djambal. The only typical character of P. djambal appeared on hybrids is teeth shape, both vomerine and palatine. It is clearly defined that the true hybrids have seven pelvic fin rays.

  18. Cloning and characterization of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus growth hormone gene and its heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Megarajan; Singh, Shiva Dhar; Gupta, Subodh

    2014-07-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is one of the fast-growing catfish of freshwater origin, and its growth is attributed by the action of growth hormone (GH). In this study, the growth hormone gene (PhGH) of 3.0 kb was characterized, and it is composed of five exons and four introns and having characteristics of an upstream region that contains TATA, CAAT boxes, and binding sites of important transcription factors like Pit-1a, CRE, CREB, CREBP, Ap-1, SP1, and TBP. The full-length cDNA sequence of 1,069 bp was isolated using RACE technique, and it is composed of untranslated regions of 60 and 403 bp at 5' and 3', respectively, with an open reading frame of 603 bp that encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.57 kDa. The precursor of PhGH is composed of 22 amino acid signal peptides and 178 amino acid mature peptides. Five conserved Cys residues (Cys(71), Cys(135), Cys(173), Cys(190), and Cys(198)) and two possible sites of N-glycosylation (145th and 197th) were detected on GH polypeptide. The PhGH gene showed more than 90 % sequence similarity with other catfishes, and the phylogeny constructed revealed the close proximity of Siluriformes fishes with Cypriniformes fishes. The PhGH gene was observed to be expressed predominantly in pituitary tissues while weekly expressed in extrapituitary tissues. Further, the recombinant PhGH was expressed in Escherichia coli using His-tag expression vector pET 32(a), and the recombinant protein of ~23 kDa was confirmed by western blotting. Our findings suggest that the identified functional GH gene would provide basic information in transgenic studies aiming for faster growth rate. This recombinant growth hormone (GH) may be produced in large scale to exploit its growth-promoting function in other cultured fishes.

  19. Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baska, Ferenc; Voronin, V N; Eszterbauer, Edit; Müller, Linda; Marton, Szilvia; Molnár, Kálmán

    2009-10-01

    Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia. In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules containing great numbers of a Myxobolus species were found, while in the renal glomeruli, spores and sporogonic stages of a Hoferellus species developed. The skin-infecting species described as Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. had 15.9 x 6.6-microm-sized spores with elongated polar capsules, while the renal species described as Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n. had roundish spores with a size of 6.5 x 5.0 microm and had a characteristic pillow-like structure at its posterior end. Besides morphology, histology of infection and 18S rDNA sequences were studied.

  20. Isolation and characterization of SAP and CRP, two pentraxins from Pangasianodon (Pangasius) hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong Giang, Duong Thi; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Devreese, Bart; Beeckmans, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    From the serum of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, two proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on Sepharose and phosphorylcholine-Sepharose. Their binding on the affinity matrices critically depends on the presence of Ca2+ ions. N-terminal sequencing and sequencing of internal tryptic peptides identified the proteins as pentraxins and from their binding properties they are identified as SAP (serum amyloid P component) and CRP (C-reactive protein). Per ml serum, 36 microg SAP and 56 microg CRP was purified. Upon gel filtration, both the SAP and CRP elute as trimers of respectively 24 kDa and 28 kDa subunits. Both proteins are devoid of inter-chain disulfide bonds. Both SAP and CRP are glycosylated and agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and pathogenic bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, but not Micrococcus lysodeikticus or Escherichia coli. Haemagglutination of SAP and CRP is inhibited by galactose (MIC = 1 mM) and by phosphorylcholine (MIC = 1-2 mM), respectively. Circular dichroism studies revealed that antiparallel beta-pleated sheets are dominating the secondary structure. Upon removing the Ca(2+) ions by EDTA, slight structural changes are observed by CD spectroscopy in the near-UV region. Immunodiffusion shows that P. hypophthalmus SAP and CRP do not cross-react.

  1. Early interactions of Edwardsiella ictaluri, with Pangasianodon catfish and its invasive ability in cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, T T; Chiers, K; Tuan, N A; Sorgeloos, P; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2012-06-01

    Commercial Pangasianodon catfish production is heavily impacted by Bacillary Necrosis of Pangasius (BNP) caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri. This study aimed to investigate the early bacterium-host interactions following immersion challenge and to compare the retrieved data with the invasion ability of the used isolates in fish cell lines. Firstly, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fingerlings were challenged via immersion using E. ictaluri isolate HO2 or 223. At different times post inoculation, fish were sacrificed and gill and internal organ samples were taken for bacteriological, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. The bacterial load was higher for fish inoculated with isolate HO2 compared with 223. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed multifocal necrotic areas in kidney, spleen and liver of HO2 inoculated fish at 72 h post inoculation with short rod-shaped immunoperoxidase positive bacteria clustered inside cells respectively. Bacteria especially were present in the gills and intestinal tract of HO2 inoculated fish, suggesting the gastrointestinal tract and gills act as portals of entry. Following, the ability of HO2, 223 and four additional isolates to invade a Chinook salmon embryo cell line, a fat head minnow cell line and a rainbow trout liver cell line was tested. All E. ictaluri isolates were invasive in all cell lines albeit at different degrees. Isolate HO2 was highly invasive in all cell lines with a significantly higher invasion capacity than isolate 223 in the Chinook salmon embryo cell line. A correlation between in vivo virulence and in vitro invasiveness hence is suggested although further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  2. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS IKAN PASCA PENEBARAN IKAN PATIN (PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS DI SITU PANJALU, KABUPATEN CIAMIS – JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Warsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Situ Panjalu merupakan perairan yang subur dengan luas 45 ha dan kedalaman 2–4 m terletak di Kabupaten Ciamis, Jawa Barat. Perairan ini mempunyai keanekaragaman jenis ikan yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui struktur komunitas ikan pasca penebaran ikan patin (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus di Situ Panjalu. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pemasangan jaring insang percobaan di stasiun  Cukang Padung, Wisata, Kampung Dukuh dan Banjar Waru pada Bulan Agustus dan Oktober 2009 dan Juni, Agustus dan Oktober 2010. Hasil tangkapan ikan juga diperoleh dari hasil tangkapan nelayan yang dicatat oleh enumerator. Hasil tangkapan jaring insang percobaan diperoleh 14 jenis dan yang dominan adalah oscar (Amphilophus citrinellus (26% dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus (44%. Kedua jenis ikan tersebut masuk kedalam kategori sering tertangkap (60 – 80% dan mempunyai nilai indeks relatif penting (66,81 dan 19,81%. Secara umum ikan di Situ Panjalu paling banyak tertangkap pada jaring insang dengan ukuran mata jaring 1,5 – 1,75 inci. Produksi ikan menurun dari 27,7 ton pada 2007 menjadi 14,9 ton pada tahun 2011. Hasil tangkapan persatuan upaya sebesar 2,4 kg/hari/nelayan dengan jenis ikan yang dominan tertangkap adalah oscar dan nila. Kurva rasio kelimpahan dan biomassa ikan dengan nilai W statistik sebesar -0,09 menunjukkan bahwa struktur komunitas ikan di Situ Panjalu berada dalam keadaan terganggu (disturbed condition. Nilai indeks keanekaragaman berkisar antara 0,701 – 2,309 yang menandakan adanya dominasi oleh oscar dan nila. Lake Panjalu is a eutrophic water body with a surface water area about 45 ha and 2 – 4 m depth, located at Ciamis Regency -West Java. The lake have high fish diversity. The aim of the research was to investigate community structure of fish after introduction of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the lake. The experimental gillnet sampling was done at Cukang Padung, Wisata, Kampung Dukuh and Banjar Waru in

  3. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult.

  4. POLA EKSPRESI GEN ENHANCED GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN PADA EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2016-04-01

    menggunakan gen reporter berguna untuk mendesain konstruksi gen yang akan digunakan pada penelitian transgenesis. Gen reporter yang umum digunakan dalam penelitian ekspresi sementara transgen adalah gen GFP (green fluorescent protein. Pengamatan gen EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein pada embrio dan larva ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus ditujukan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kemampuan promoter -aktin ikan mas dalam mengendalikan ekspresi gen EGFP. Gen EGFP diintroduksikan ke dalam sperma ikan patin siam menggunakan metode elektroporasi. Sperma yang telah dielektroporasi digunakan untuk membuahi sel telur ikan patin siam. Pengamatan ekspresi gen EGFP dilakukan setiap enam jam dimulai dari embrio fase 2 sel sampai larva. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, gen EGFP terekspresi pada fase embrio dan larva ikan patin siam. Puncak ekspresi gen EGFP terjadi pada fase neurula dan menurun pada fase larva. Berdasarkan penelitian ini maka ikan patin siam transgenik telah berhasil dibentuk dan promoter -aktin ikan mas terbukti aktif dalam mengarahkan ekspresi gen asing (GFP di dalam tubuh ikan patin siam.

  5. Effect of probiotic and sand filtration treatments on water quality and growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in earthen ponds of southern Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Sultan; Ali, Mohammad Lokman; Alam, Md Ariful

    2016-01-01

    Effects of water treatment by two probiotic products (PondPlus® and AquaPhoto®) and sand filtration were studied on growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) stocked at tilapia:pangas ratio of 5:3 in traditional earthen ponds in Bangladesh...

  6. High affinity and temperature sensitivity of blood oxygen binding in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus due to lack of chloride-hemoglobin allosteric interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh

    2015-01-01

    , such as high temperature, affect O2 transport in air-breathing fishes, this study assessed the effects of temperature on O2 binding of blood and Hb in the economically important air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. To determine blood O2 binding properties, blood was drawn from resting cannulated...

  7. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS DAN RELUNG MAKANAN IKAN PASCA INTRODUKSI IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus DI WADUK MALAHAYU, KABUPATEN BREBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunto Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studi tentang struktur komunitas ikan dan pembagian sumber daya pakan ikan pasca introduksi ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus di Waduk Malahayu (620 ha dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi jenis ikan, preferensi makanan, dan luas relung tiap jenis ikan. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan metode survei pada bulan Agustus sampai Nopember 2009 dan bulan Maret sampai Oktober 2010. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa struktur komunitas ikan terdiri atas 13 jenis ikan, yang didominansi oleh ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus, udang (Macrobrachium sp., dan gabus (Channa striata. Jenis-jenis sumber daya pakan yang dimanfaatkan oleh ikan adalah fitoplankton (20%, detritus (19%, zooplankton (17%, insekta (11%, tumbuhan air (9%, ikan (9%, udang (9%, dan moluska (6%. Ikan patin siam, mujair (Oreochromis mossambicus, dan beunteur (Puntius binotatus bersifat generalis karena mampu memanfaatkan semua sumber daya pakan alami yang tersedia. Ikan sili (Macrognathus aculeatus dan keting (Mystus nigriceps lebih bersifat spesialis karena hanya memanfaatkan insekta sebagai makanan utamanya. Peluang kompetisi antara ikan patin siam (diintroduksikan tahun 2009 dan ikan nila relatif kecil sebab sumber daya pakan utamanya berbeda, yaitu ikan patin siam memanfaatkan moluska sebagai makanan utamanya sedangkan ikan nila sebagian memanfaatkan fitoplankton. Hasil tangkapan ikan di waduk ini berkisar antara 34,3-1.323,1 ton/tahun dengan rata-rata 157,3 ton/tahun.   Malahayu Reservoir located in Brebes Regency, was impounded in 1930, with a surface area of 620 hectares, a mean water depth of 8 m. Its main function are flood control and irrigation. Study on fish community structure and food resource partitioning of fishes in Malahayu Reservoir were conducted from August to November 2009 and March to October 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the existing condition of fish resources, with emphasis on species composition, food preferency, and

  8. The effects of feeding immunostimulant β-glucan on the immune response of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirimanapong, Wanna; Adams, Alexandra; Ooi, Ei Lin; Green, Darren M; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Browdy, Craig L; Collet, Bertrand; Thompson, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Immunostimulants are food additives used by the aquaculture industry to enhance the immune response of fish, and although β-glucans are now commonly used for this purpose in aquaculture, little is known about their effects on the immune response of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Thus, a variety of immune parameters (e.g. phagocytosis, respiratory burst, lysozyme, complement, peroxidase, total protein, total anti-protease, total IgM, natural antibody titres, and specific IgM titres) was examined in this species after feeding fish with a basal control diet or diets supplemented with 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 g/kg fungal-derived β-glucan or 0.1% commercial yeast-derived β-glucan, as a positive control diet, for a period of four weeks. The effect of the glucans on disease resistance was then evaluated by experimentally infecting the fish with Edwardsiella ictaluri by immersion and mortalities monitored for 14 days. Samples were collected from fish for analysis at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-feeding (dpf), and also at 14 days post infection (dpi). The lowest dose of fungal-derived β-glucan (0.05%) appeared insufficient to effectively stimulate the immune response of the fish, while those fed with the two highest levels of fungal-derived β-glucan had enhanced immune responses compared to the control group. Significantly elevated levels of respiratory burst activity on all days examined (P < 0.05) and lysozyme activity on 7 dpf were found in the group fed 0.2% fungal-derived β-glucan, while plasma anti-protease activity was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) by 21 dpf, natural antibody titres by 3 dpf and complement activity by 7 dpf and also at 14 dpi in the group fed 0.1% fungal-derived β-glucan. No statistical differences was seen in the level of mortalities between the dietary groups, although the group fed with the control diet had the highest level of mortalities and the groups fed with commercial yeast-derived β-glucan and 0.2% fungal-derived β-glucan the

  9. Effect of garlic extract on physical, oxidative and microbial changes during refrigerated storage of restructured product from Thai pangas (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Ranendra K.; Saha, Apurba; Dhar, Bahni; Maurya, Pradip K.; Roy, Deepayan; Shitole, Snehal; Balange, Amjad K.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of garlic’s aqueous extract (GAE) during refrigerated storage of the restructured products from Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was evaluated. Protein and lipid oxidation, protein pattern on SDS-PAGE, TPC as well as WHC, gelling properties, texture profiles and whiteness of the surimi gel was evaluated periodically during a refrigerated storage period of 20 days. Increase of water holding capacity in GAE added gels indicated stronger protein network formation, whereas, decr...

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from natural outbreaks of bacillary necrosis of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Thanh Dung; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Baele, Margo; Decostere, Annemie

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro susceptibility of 64 Vietnamese isolates of Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causal agent of the infectious disease Bacillus Necrosis Pangasius in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, using the agar dilution technique. All isolates originated from different farms and were collected between 2002 and 2005. None of the isolates displayed acquired resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, and nitrofurantoin. Acquired resistance to streptomycin was detected in 83%, to oxytetracycline in 81%, and to trimethoprim in 71% of the isolates, as indicated by a bimodal distribution of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these antimicrobials. The MICs of enrofloxacin displayed a monomodal distribution with tailing toward the higher MIC values, possibly indicating reduced susceptibility of a minority of isolates (3 out of the 64). For the quinolone antimicrobial agents flumequin and oxolinic acid, acquired resistance was encountered in 8% and 6% of the strains, respectively. All strains were intrinsically resistant to the polypeptide antimicrobial agent colistin. Seventy-three percent of the isolates were shown to have acquired resistance to at least three antimicrobial agents. The results of this study emphasize the strict need to control both the prophylactic and curative use of antimicrobial agents in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  11. Studies on expression pattern of toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in Edwardsiella tarda infected Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramu, Poojashree Kachigere; Tripathi, Gayatri; Pavan Kumar, A; Keezhedath, Jeena; Pathan, Mujahid Khan; Kurcheti, Pani Prasad

    2017-04-01

    TLR5 is one of the important PRR (pathogen recognition receptors) and plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immune responses. It recognizes bacterial flagellin and stimulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines, through signalling via the adaptor protein MyD88. In this study, we characterized partial TLR5 (soluble form) gene from Pangasianodon hypophthalmus and analysed its expression profile upon challenge by Edwardsiella tarda. Bioinformatic analysis of gene sequence revealed a putative protein of 266 amino acids with four Leucine rich repeats. Quantitative expression analysis of TLR 5S showed its wide distribution in various organs and tissues. However, significant expression of TLR5S was observed in liver and spleen at 12 h (∼207.8 fold, p < 0.05). Significant upregulation was observed in kidney at 72 h.p.i. (50 folds, p < 0.05) indicating that the kidney provides longer protection almost till the activation of the adaptive immune system. This study enriches the knowledge of TLR5S in boosting the innate immunity against bacterial invasion in fish.

  12. Modulation of innate immune responses and induction of oxidative stress biomarkers in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus following an experimental infection with dactylogyrid monogeneans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Prasad, K Pani; Srivastava, P P; Kumar, Sanath; Rajendran, K V

    2017-04-01

    Modulation of innate immune activity and oxidative stress response of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus through experimental infection with (Thaparocleidus sp.) dactylogyrid monogenean was studied. A standard cohabitation method was used to infect healthy experimental fish. After 14 days, dactylogyrid (gill monogenean) infested fish were sampled and categorised into three different infected groups namely (T1) low (50 mean dactylogyrid per gill arch per fish) along with a control group T0 (un-infested fish). Serum and tissues (gills and liver) were collected from experimental fish and analyzed for markers of innate immune and oxidative stress, respectively. The results showed that respiratory burst activity, myeloperoxidase level, serum lysozyme, α-2 macroglobulin and total serum immunoglobulin level were significantly (p hypophthalmus by lowering albumin, total serum antiprotease and ceruloplasmin and inducing respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, α-2 macroglobulin and total immunoglobulins, but also the oxidative stress biomarkers. The baseline data obtained in the present study will be valuable in understanding the host-parasite relationship and the dynamics of innate, oxidative stress responses and susceptibility of P. hypophthalmus to different degrees of parasitosis.

  13. Sperm characteristics and motility in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) and Pangasius djambal Bleeker, 1846 (Pangasiidae, Siluriformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, Marc; Cosson, J; Subagja, J.

    2008-01-01

    A drop in osmotic pressure appeared as the main trigger for initiating spermatozoa motility in the two catfish species studied. Motility duration was particularly short in both species (20 to 30 s). Sperm preserved at 4 degrees C in a saline medium (NaCl 155-175 mM, pH 7.5-8.5) Survived longer than in any of the other media tested.

  14. Effect of garlic extract on physical, oxidative and microbial changes during refrigerated storage of restructured product from Thai pangas (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Saha, Apurba; Dhar, Bahni; Maurya, Pradip K; Roy, Deepayan; Shitole, Snehal; Balange, Amjad K

    2015-12-01

    The effect of garlic's aqueous extract (GAE) during refrigerated storage of the restructured products from Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was evaluated. Protein and lipid oxidation, protein pattern on SDS-PAGE, TPC as well as WHC, gelling properties, texture profiles and whiteness of the surimi gel was evaluated periodically during a refrigerated storage period of 20 days. Increase of water holding capacity in GAE added gels indicated stronger protein network formation, whereas, decrease of protein solubility suggested formation of protein aggregates during gelation process. Lipid oxidation decreased in treated samples but the rate of increase varied, depending upon the concentration of GAE. Protein carbonyl content increased during storage, but slow increase in treated samples. Gel strength in treated samples increased and accompanied by thickening of myofibrillar head chain. Hardness, adhesiveness and gumminess parameters affected most due to addition of GAE. Sensory analysis revealed that the RP with 1 % GAE preferred most and control was acceptable upto 12 days.

  15. Effects of different heat treatments on lipid quality of striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Domiszewski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. As a result of consumer acceptance and low price production, sales of striped catfish fillets continue to grow. Striped catfish fillets, due to their white meat and lack of fish scent, can be an alternative to fish such as cod or hake. The paper analysed the influence of four different kinds of heat treatment: boiling with and without the addition of salt, frying, microwave cooking, microwave cooking without water on the composition of fatty acids and the lipid oxidation and hydrolysis level of striped catfish fillets. Material and methods. Assays were performed on striped catfish fillets (Pangasius hypophthalmus, Sauvage 1878, which were bought from local supermarket. Fillets one year before expiration date were assayed. Quality of fish lipids was determined by an analysis of the following factors: peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AsV, TOTOX value, conjugated dienes (CD, acid value (AV, along with an analysis of the composition of fatty acid (FA via gas chromatography. Results. It was shown that conventional cooking and microwave cooking of striped catfish fillets results in an approximately 10% change in the amount of PUFA, including EPA and DHA, whereas the percentages of SFA and MUFA remain unchanged. The amount of the sum of EPA and DHA in 100 g of raw fillet was 16.5 mg, whereas after conventional cooking, microwave cooking and frying the sum of EPA and DHA was respectively: 12, 22 and 23 mg. It was observed that conventional cooking causes an average 10% loss of fat, a change not observed in case of microwave cooking. In spite of a substantial influence of heat treatment on the amount of both primary and secondary oxidation products, striped catfish lipids maintained good quality after the treatment – PV of every sample was below 3 meq O2/kg lipids, and AsV below 1.5. The addition of salt during boiling caused a 16-fold increase in the amount of peroxides and a fourfold increase in the amount of secondary oxidation

  16. Trails of river monsters: Detecting critically endangered Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas using environmental DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellemain Eva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pressures on freshwater biodiversity in Southeast Asia are accelerating, yet the status and conservation needs of many of the region’s iconic fish species are poorly known. The Mekong is highly species diverse and supports four of the six largest freshwater fish globally, three of which, including Mekong giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas, are Critically Endangered. Emerging environmental DNA (eDNA techniques have potential for monitoring threatened freshwater biodiversity, yet have not been applied in complex and biodiverse tropical ecosystems such as the Mekong. We developed species-specific primers for amplifying Mekong giant catfish DNA. In situ validation demonstrated that the DNA amplification was successful for all samples taken in reservoirs with known presence of Mekong giant catfish independent of fish density. We collected water samples from six deep pools on the Mekong, identified through Local Ecological Knowledge, in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand. DNA was extracted and amplified from these samples using the designed primers and probes. Mekong giant catfish DNA was detected from one sample from the species’ presumed spawning grounds on the Mekong mainstream, near the border between northern Thailand and Lao PDR. eDNA sampling using species-specific primers has potential for surveying and monitoring poorly known species from complex tropical aquatic environments. However accounting for false absences is likely to be required for the method to function with precision when applied to extremely rare species that are highly dispersed within a large river system. We recommend that such approach be utilised more widely by freshwater conservation practitioners for specific applications. The method is best suited for baseline biodiversity assessments or to identify and prioritise locations for more rigorous sampling. Our methods are particularly relevant for systems or species with limited baseline data or with physical characteristics

  17. EVALUATION OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN PANGASIUS DJAMBAL BLEEKER 1846 AND PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS (SAUVAGE 1878): BIOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GROWTH ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rudhy Gustiano; Anang Hari Kristanto

    2007-01-01

    Possible use of pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture might generate potential impacts on wild populations. Therefore, rapid identification tools in the field such as growth rate are urgently needed. This study examines morphological characters and growth performance of P. djambal and P. hypophthalmus and their reciprocal hybrids. A detailed morphological study analysed 32 morphometric measurements and 5 meristic counts on hybrids of Pangasius djambal and P. hypophthalmus. Morphometric analysis an...

  18. OPTIMAL ELECTROPORATION CONDITION FOR SPERM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER IN STRIPPED CATFISH (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of transgenic fish production has been achieved through eggs fertilization using electroporated sperms carrying exogenous DNA. This study was conducted in order to obtain the optimal electroporation condition for stripped catfish sperm. A plasmid containing green fluorescent protein (GFP gene driven by carp β-actin promoter was transferred into sperm using electrophoresis method towards transgenic stripped catfish (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus production. Electroporation was carried out using square wave shock with pulse length of 30 ms and pulse interval of 0.1 sec. Treatments are combination between voltage (50 V, 75 V, and 100 V and pulse number (1 and 3. Exogenous DNA concentration used was 10 μg/mL of Tris-EDTA. Results showed that increasing the voltage from 50 to 100 decreased sperm motility, while pulse number did not affect sperm motility. Voltage of 50 gave the best motility of sperm, although sperm viability relatively similar between treatments and control except at 100 V with 3 pulses number. Further, electroporation-treated sperms were able to fertilize eggs. Higher hatching rate of eggs was obtained in electroporation treatment at 50 V with pulse number of 1 and 3. The persistence of transferred GFP was detected in electroporated and incubated sperms (control. However, GFP was only detected in larvae from eggs that were fertilized by electroporated sperm. Thus, electroporation could be applied to produce transgenic stripped catfish.

  19. EVALUATION OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN PANGASIUS DJAMBAL BLEEKER 1846 AND PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS (SAUVAGE 1878: BIOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GROWTH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Possible use of pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture might generate potential impacts on wild populations. Therefore, rapid identification tools in the field such as growth rate are urgently needed. This study examines morphological characters and growth performance of P. djambal and P. hypophthalmus and their reciprocal hybrids. A detailed morphological study analysed 32 morphometric measurements and 5 meristic counts on hybrids of Pangasius djambal and P. hypophthalmus. Morphometric analysis and meristic counts showed that the reciprocal hybrids have intermediate characters except for gill rakers number which were lower than that of parental species. In general, the hybrids have tendency to be like P. hypophthalmus rather than P. djambal. The only typical character P. djambal appearing in hybrids is teeth shape, both vomerine and palatine. It was shown that the true hybrids have seven pelvic fin rays. Eight months of growth comparison in earthen ponds showed that the hybrids have a better performance for specific growth rate than the parental stock.

  20. High affinity and temperature sensitivity of blood oxygen binding in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus due to lack of chloride-hemoglobin allosteric interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Jensen, Frank B; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Air-breathing fishes represent interesting organisms in terms of understanding the physiological changes associated with the terrestrialization of vertebrates, and, further, are of great socio-economic importance for aquaculture in Southeast Asia. To understand how environmental factors, such as high temperature, affect O2 transport in air-breathing fishes, this study assessed the effects of temperature on O2 binding of blood and Hb in the economically important air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. To determine blood O2 binding properties, blood was drawn from resting cannulated fishes and O2 binding curves made at 25°C and 35°C. To determine the allosteric regulation and thermodynamics of Hb O2 binding, Hb was purified, and O2 equilibria were recorded at five temperatures in the absence and presence of ATP and Cl(-). Whole blood had a high O2 affinity (O2 tension at half saturation P50 = 4.6 mmHg at extracellular pH 7.6 and 25°C), a high temperature sensitivity of O2 binding (apparent heat of oxygenation ΔH(app) = -28.3 kcal/mol), and lacked a Root effect. Further, the data on Hb revealed weak ATP binding and a complete lack of Cl(-) binding to Hb, which, in part, explains the high O2 affinity and high temperature sensitivity of blood O2 binding. This study demonstrates how a potent mechanism for increasing O2 affinity is linked to increased temperature sensitivity of O2 transport and provides a basic framework for a better understanding of how hypoxia-adapted species will react to increasing temperatures.

  1. KERAGAAN PEMIJAHAN BUATAN ANTARA IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus BETINA DAN IKAN PATIN JAMBAL (Pangasius djambal JANTAN DAN IKAN PATIN NASUTUS (Pangasius nasutus JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upaya pengembangan budidaya ikan patin jambal (Pangasius djambal dan ikan patin nasutus (P. nasutus sebagai komoditas ekspor ikan patin daging putih sulit direalisasikan, karena kematangan induk-induk betinanya sulit dicapai pada musim kemarau dan keterbatasan fekunditasnya, sehingga produksi massal benihnya terbatas. Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas ikan patin daging putih adalah melalui program hibridisasi antara ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus betina dengan ikan patin jambal jantan (menghasilkan ikan patin hibrida siam x jambal dan atau dengan ikan patin nasutus jantan (menghasilkan ikan patin hibrida siam x nasutus. Potensi budidaya kedua ikan patin hibrida tersebut berkaitan dengan produksi massal benihnya merupakan hal yang penting untuk diketahui. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi derajat fertilisasi, derajat penetasan, dan derajat deformitas larva kedua ikan patin hibrida tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa derajat fertilisasi ikan patin hibrida siam x nasutus sama (P>0,05 dengan ikan patin siam, ikan patin hibrida siam x jambal dan ikan patin nasutus, sedangkan ikan patin jambal memiliki derajat fertilisasi yang lebih rendah tetapi tidak berbeda (P>0,05 dengan ikan patin nasutus dan ikan patin hibrida siam x jambal. Derajat penetasan ikan patin hibrida siam x nasutus adalah sama (P>0,05 dengan ikan patin siam dan ikan patin hibrida siam x jambal, dan lebih tinggi (P0,05; sedangkan pada ikan patin jambal dan ikan patin nasutus lebih tinggi (P<0,05. Hasil-hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas (produksi massal benih kedua ikan patin hibrida tersebut tinggi dan sama dengan ikan patin siam, sehingga potensial untuk dikembangkan sebagai ikan budidaya.

  2. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO₂⁻) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC₅₀ of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  3. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sjannie, E-mail: sjannie.lefevre@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Frank B. [Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Huong, Do.T.T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Phuong, Nguyen T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO{sub 2max}) and critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC{sub 50} of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO{sub 2max} and U{sub crit}. The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO{sub 2max} and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  4. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  5. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters:nuricell-aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Ariful Islam; Md Shaheed Reza; Md Alamgir; Md Khalilur Rahman; Md Kamal; Subhash Chandra Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer), Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition:β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil) and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil), using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus) as cultured species.Methods:Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g), specific growth rate, survivability (%) test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software.Results:After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day), which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day) which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer.Conclusions:These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  6. Sixteen EST-linked microsatellite markers in Günther's walking catfish, Clarias macrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkorntong, Chantapim; Panprommin, Dutrudi; Poompuang, Supawadee

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-seven new microsatellite sequences were identified by screening 2029 expressed sequence tags from Günther's walking catfish, Clarias macrocephalus. Sixteen loci were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from two to 16 per locus and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.4667 to 0.9333 and from 0.427 to 0.8819 per locus, respectively. Cross-species amplifications of all 16 primer pairs were tested in four other species of catfish including Clarias gariepinus, Pangasius hypophthalmus, Pangasius larnaudii and Pangasianodon gigas. Eleven loci were found to amplify in other species, with the number of polymorphic loci ranging from one in P. larnaudii to nine in C. gariepinus.

  7. Growth Performance, Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Backcross and Reciprocal Hybrid Catfish Reared in Net Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Panase

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the growth performance, Length-Weight Relationship (LWR and condition factor (k-value of reciprocal backcross hybrid catfish (RCBC, Pangasianodon gigas (femalexF1 hybrid (male catfish and backcross hybrid catfish (BC, P. gigas (malexF1 hybrid (female catfish. Moreover, this study also compared the above mentioned species of catfish were compared with P. gigas and F1 hybrid P. gigas (malexP. hypophthalmus (female catfish. The fish were reared in net cages for 5 months (October, 2013-March, 2014. The results showed that, Weight Gain (WG and average daily weight gain (ADG were the highest among the P. gigas (34.45 and 0.20, respectively. The Length Gain (LG, average daily length gain (ADL and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were highest among the RCBC (10.66, 0.062 and 2.34, respectively. While the survival rate (55% was highest among the BC. The Feed Conversion Rate (FCR showed high numbers in all fish except the hybrids. On the other hand, the hybrid species showed lower results in all growth indices except for the survival rate but which had as high a tendency as the RCBC. The LWR revealed “b” values for the P. gigas, RCBC, BC and F1 hybrid that were 2.94, 3.12, 2.67 and 2.03 indicating that P. gigas and RCBC displayed isometric growth while others showed allometric growth. The k-values for each month showed significant differences (p0.05. The results from this study revealed that the RCBC is suitable for the aquaculture industry and moreover, the information collected in this study on LWR and the condition factor of each fish will be useful for fishery management.

  8. Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in Pangasius catfish imported from West Bengal into the Southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A C N; Reichley, S R; Ware, C; Griffin, M J

    2016-09-05

    In response to a mortality event, seven Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) were submitted to the University of the West Indies, School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad and Tobago, for diagnostic evaluation. These fish were part of a consignment that arrived from Kolkata two weeks earlier. Fish presented with perianal haemorrhage and blister-like swellings on the skin which ruptured to leave ulcers. Edwardsiella ictaluri was consistently recovered from the brain and skin. Repetitive sequence-mediated PCR analysis revealed genetic fingerprints consistent with E. ictaluri isolates from farm-raised channel catfish in Mississippi, USA. Plasmid analysis of the case isolates identified two unique plasmids that differ slightly in conformation and content from the pEI1 and pEI2 plasmids described for E. ictaluri from other fish hosts. The case isolates were also PCR negative for several E. ictaluri virulence factors. The biological implications of these genetic differences are unclear and warrant further study. This is the first report and documentation of E. ictaluri infection in Trinidad and Tobago, suggesting the pathogen may have been introduced concurrently with the importation of fish. This report emphasizes the importance of adequate health screenings of imported lots to minimize the threat of introducing E. ictaluri to non-endemic areas.

  9. Estimation of nitrogen and phosphorus in effluent from the striped catfish farming sector in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Sena S; Ingram, Brett A; Nguyen, Phuong T; Bui, Tam M; Gooley, Geoff J; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2010-11-01

    In this study an attempt is made to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus discharged to the environment from the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming sector in the Mekong Delta (8 degrees 33'-10 degrees 55' N, 104 degrees 30'-106 degrees 50' E), South Vietnam. The sector accounted for 687,000 t production in 2007 and 1,094,879 t in 2008, with over 95% of the produce destined for export to over 100 countries. Commercial and farm-made feeds are used in catfish farming, currently the former being more predominant. Nitrogen discharge levels were similar for commercial feeds (median 46.0 kg/t fish) and farm-made feeds (median 46.8 kg/t fish); whilst, phosphorus discharge levels for commercial feeds (median 14.4 kg/t fish) were considerably lower than for farm-made feeds (median 18.4 kg/t fish). Based on the median nutrient discharge levels for commercial feeds, striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta discharged 31,602 t N and 9,893 t P, and 50,364 t N and 15,766 t P in 2007 and 2008, respectively. However, the amount of nutrients returned directly to the Mekong River may be substantially less than this as a significant proportion of the water used for catfish farming as well as the sludge is diverted to other agricultural farming systems. Striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta compared favourably with other cultured species, irrespective of the type of feed used, when the total amounts of N and P discharged in the production of a tonne of production was estimated.

  10. Cortisol and glucose responses in juvenile striped catfish subjected to a cold shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabi Adloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-shock stress happens when a fish had been adjusted to a specific water temperature or range of temperatures and is consequently exposed to a rapid drop in temperature, resulting in a cascade of physiological and behavioral responses and, in some cases, death. In the current study, the stress response of striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus was studied by evaluating serum cortisol and glucose level following an abrupt reduction in water temperature (from 28°C to 15°C at different time points (prior to, and after 1h, 12h and 24h cold treatment, respectively. Regardless of some mortality occurred in cold challenged fish, none of the physiological parameters changed during evaluation period. The results, suggesting that despite of necessity of cortisol and glucose evaluation in any of stress assessment, yet, due to their high variability in different fish species, additional complementary tests such as measurement of other stress hormones e.g. heat shock proteins as well as blood-cell counts (preferably in chronic experiments should also be included.

  11. Malachite green toxicity assessed on Asian catfish primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by a proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, Marie-Aline; Kestemont, Patrick; Delaive, Edouard; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2012-06-15

    The potential genotoxic and carcinogenic properties reported for malachite green (MG) and the frequent detection of MG residues in fish and fish products, despite the ban of MG, have recently generated great concern. Additional toxicological data are required for a better understanding of the mechanism of action and a more comprehensive risk assessment for the exposure of fish to this fungicide. To date, the use of fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has not been exploited as a tool in the assessment of the toxicity of chemicals. However, PBMCs are exposed to toxicants and can be easily collected by blood sampling. The present study aims at better understanding the effects of MG by a proteomic analysis of primary cultured PBMC from the Asian catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, exposed to MG. The two lowest concentrations of 1 and 10 ppb were selected based on the MTS (water soluble tetrazolium salts) cytotoxicity test. Using a proteomic analysis (2D-DIGE), we showed that 109 proteins displayed significant changes in abundance in PBMC exposed during 48 h to MG. Most of these proteins were successfully identified by nano LC-MS/MS and validated through the Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold™ software, but only 19 different proteins were considered corresponding to a single identification per spot. Our data suggest that low concentrations of MG could affect the mitochondrial metabolic functions, impair some signal transduction cascades and normal cell division, stimulate DNA repair and disorganize the cytoskeleton. Altogether, these results confirm that the mitochondrion is a target of MG toxicity. Further studies on the identified proteins are needed to better understand the mechanisms of MG toxicity in fish produced for human consumption.

  12. Critical oxygen tension and the effect of hypoxia on the oxygen consumption of the striped catfish, Pangasius hypophthaimos (Pangasiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, S.; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias;

    2008-01-01

    The striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) is an air-breathing teleost that uses a modified swim bladder for aerial gas exchange. Pangasius is of enormous importance for aquaculture industry in the Mekong Delta(Vietnam), but little is known about its physiology. We have initiated a series...

  13. KERAGAAN BENIH IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus YANG DITEBAR SECARA LANGSUNG DI KOLAM PADA UMUR BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Ariyanto

    2012-08-01

    keberhasilan pemijahan buatan pada tahun 1981. Pada pelaksanaannya, pembenihan ikan patin siam dilakukan secara indoor hatchery. Dalam sistem tersebut, dibutuhkan nauplii Artemia sebagai pakan awal larva ikan patin siam yang dilanjutkan dengan pemberian Moina dan Daphnia beku serta cacing darah (Tubifex sebelum pemberian pakan buatan. Hal ini mengakibatkan adanya ketergantungan usaha pembenihan ikan patin siam terhadap pasokan beberapa jenis pakan alami tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi keragaan ikan patin siam yang ditebar di kolam pendederan pada umur yang berbeda. Sasaran yang akan dicapai adalah menghilangkan ketergantungan pembenihan ikan patin siam terhadap pasokan beberapa jenis pakan larva ikan patin siam dan disubstitusi dengan pakan alami yang ada di kolam. Pada percobaan ini, larva patin siam ditebar pada umur 5, 10, dan 15 hari setelah menetas. Larva ditebar di kolam pendederan seluas 200 m2 dengan kepadatan 100 ekor/m2. Pemeliharaan dilakukan selama 2 bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa benih ikan patin siam yang ditebar di kolam pada umur 5 hari setelah menetas mempunyai laju pertumbuhan spesifik sebesar 11,12% lebih baik daripada benih ikan patin siam yang ditebar pada umur 10 dan 15 hari setelah menetas, yaitu sebesar 8,41% dan 8,65%. Namun demikian, bobot individu (9,81-12,32 g, biomassa panen (118,77-141,91 kg serta sintasan (54,53%-71,49% pada akhir percobaan tidak berbeda nyata.

  14. Effect of chitosan on shelf life of restructured fish products from pangasius (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumari A; George Ninan; Joshy C G; Parvathy U; Zynudheen A A; Lalitha K V

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, restructured products were prepared from pangasius surimi and their qualities were analysed under chilled storage. Pangasius surimi had 75.82 % moisture, 16.91 % protein, 2.76 % fat and 0.95 % ash. Restructured products were prepared in three different formulations by incorporating corn starch (10 %) and chitosan (0.75 %). Formulation containing only corn starch (10 %) was served as control. In all the formulations, mono unsaturated fatty acids were higher (45.14 %). The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) showed an increasing trend and it was found to be higher in control (4.8 mg/100 g) on 10(th) day than the chitosan incorporated sample (3.5-4.2 mg/100 g) on 17(th) day during chill storage. Similarly, peroxide value (PV) was found to higher (8.85 milliequivalent of O2/kg) in control than the chitosan incorporated sample (4.5-6.8 milliequivalent of O2/kg) on 10(th) day. All the three formulations had an acceptable level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value that ranged between 0.023-0.098 mg of malanoldehyde/kg during chilled storage. Based on the sensory and microbiological analysis, products prepared without chitosan had a shelf life of 10 day whereas, products incorporated with chitosan had an extended shelf life of 17 day.

  15. GONAD REMATURATION ON Pangasionodon hypophthalmus FEMALE THROUGH INJECTION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Tahapari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of spawning is influenced by internal and external factors. One of the factors that affect the var iabi li ty of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus female reproductive is the change of seasons that cause disrupted continuity of the seed availability, especially in the dry season. In the present study, combination of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin + HCG (hormone chorionic gonadotropin hormone injections was done to induce gonad development. The treatments in this study were without hormone injections as control (A, injection of PMSG 10 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg (B, and injection of PMSG 20 IU/kg HCG + 10 IU/kg (C. Injections were conducted at intervals of two weeks as many as six times. The results showed that gonad maturation generally occurs 2-4 weeks after estradiol-17 peak. PMSG + HCG hormone injections gave a significant effect on increasing the quantity and quality of eggs production. The fecundity in the A, B, C treatments, were 233,700±220,676; 300,305±24,581 and 488,433±142,228; respectively. Number of larvae produced from the A, B, C treatments, were 156,979±170,838; 229,997±18,081 and 362,713±101,850; respectively. Combination of PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg hormone injection gave the best result on fecundity and the number of larvae production.

  16. 76 FR 77485 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Pangasius, Pangasianodon- Hypophthalmus Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India (``Pangasius Study''), on the... marinated, of the species Pangasius Bocourti, Pangasius Hypophthalmus (also known as Pangasius), and... Pangasianodon hypothalamus. With respect to broad-market average, the FIGIS data indicate that the...

  17. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE OF Pangasionodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of growth hormone (GH gene in a target fish is the first step in the construction of “all fish genes transfer vector” to generate transgenic fish. The research was done to identify and characterize the GH gene of Pangasionodon hypophthalmus. There were several activities performed in identifying the GH gene: RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, PCR amplification, and DNA fragment isolation. The characterizations were done using the nucleotide sequencing engine ABIPRISM 3100. The results were then analyzed using BLASTN/P and GENETYX version 7 program. The full-length GH gene of P. hypophthalmus was 1151 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF of 603 bp. The 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions of the GH gene were 22 bp and 526 bp long, respectively. The GH gene of P. hypophthalmus had some common characteristics that are owned by GH genes, such as single tryptophan residue (W on the 104th amino acid, 5 cysteine residues (C on the amino acid 71, 135, 173, 190, and 198 and a motif of Asn-Xaa-Thr on C terminus which is the potential location for N-linked glycosilation. Polyadenylation signal (aataaa was on the 14 bp at the upstream of polyadenylation location. Growth hormone of P. hypophthalmus consisted of over 200 amino acids from GH cDNA deduction. The highest proportion of amino acid composition was leusin (14% while the lowest was tryptophan (0.5%.

  19. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  20. Species-specific content of As, Pb, and other elements in pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Alam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, Md. Mizanur

    2014-01-01

    Content of arsenic and lead and 10 other potentially toxic elements (Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mg,Mn, Se, Sr and Zn) was determined in tilapia and pangas from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh. Tilapia had 1.6- to 4.3-fold higher content of Mn, As, Sr, and Ba than pangas, possibly caused...... by different feeding habits of the two fish. The other elements had similar concentrations in both species. Content of As in tilapia and pangas was 0.37 and 0.11 μg g−1, respectively, while Pb made up 0.056 and 0.051 μg g−1, respectively. Water treatment during the farming period (sand filtration and probiotic...... bacteria) and final depuration in groundwater for up to 48 h had no effect on content of the elements. For As, consumption of 100 g fresh fish per day contained 1.3% (pangas) and 5% (tilapia) of the maximum tolerable daily intake according to FAO recommendations. Relative to whole tilapia froma lake near...

  1. PERTUMBUHAN DAN SIGOSITAS IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2 YANG MEMBAWA GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2015-06-01

    ikan lele transgenik F-2. Ikan lele transgenik F-2 dihasilkan dari persilangan antar ikan lele transgenik F-1. Sigositas ikan F-2 dievaluasi menggunakan uji progeni dengan menyilangkan antara ikan transgenik F-2 dan non-transgenik. Parameter digunakan untuk mengevaluasi performa ikan lele transgenik F-2 meliputi:derajat pembuahan, derajat penetasan, sintasan larva, pertumbuhan, dan efisiensi pakan. Analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji progeni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa transgen (PhGH yang ada pada ikan transgenik tidak memengaruhi derajat pembuahan dan derajat penetasan embrio, serta sintasan larva. Populasi ikan lele transgenik F-2 memiliki laju pertumbuhan 75,3% lebih tinggi dibandingkan populasi ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Efisiensi pakan ikan transgenik adalah 51,95% lebih tinggi dari ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Hasil analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dari 56 ekor yang diuji, hanya 16 ekor ikan lele membawa gen PhGH, emuanya heterozigot.

  2. Catfish production using intensive aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the last 3 years, researchers at UAPB and NWAC have been monitoring and verifying production yields in intensively aerated catfish ponds with aeration rates greater than 6 hp/acre. We now have three years of data on commercial catfish production in intensively aerated ponds. With stocking densi...

  3. 76 FR 10433 - Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... the final rule. For purposes of convenience, this proposed rule uses the term ``catfish'' to refer to... (head on), mainly to restaurants and institutions. Waste materials and byproducts from heading, gutting... 1991 NJ Restaurant Salmonella 10 6 0 1999 FL Private Home Unknown 2 0 0 1999 FL...

  4. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  5. Potency of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus (individual vs pooled) sperm to fertilize stripped channel catfish, I. punctatus eggs on the production and performance of progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the desired genotype for US farm-raised catfish industry. Induced spawning of gravid channel catfish, followed by fertilization of stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm is the only reliable means to produce hybrid catfish embryos in hatcheries. Hybrid catfish fry p...

  6. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  7. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max

    2014-01-01

    . Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price...

  8. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  9. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  10. EMBRIOGENESIS DAN PERKEMBANGAN LARVA PATIN HASIL HIBRIDISASI ANTARA BETINA IKAN PATIN SIAM ( Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage, 1878 DENGAN JANTAN IKAN PATIN JAMBAL ( Pangasius djambal Bleeker, 1846 DAN JANTAN PATIN NASUTUS ( Pangasius nasutus Bleeker, 1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan budidaya ikan patin jambal maupun ikan patin nasutus untuk memenuhi permintaan pasar ekspor patin daging putih sulit direalisasikan karena keterbatasan fekunditas dan pematangan gonad induk betinanya. Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas patin daging putih adalah melalui hibridisasi, yakni hibridisasi antara betina patin siam dengan jantan patin jambal maupun jantan patin nasutus. Hal ini dikarenakan patin siam memiliki keunggulan fekunditas yang tinggi, sedangkan patin jambal maupun patin nasutus memiliki keunggulan daging yang putih. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui karakteristik patin hibrida tersebut, termasuk pada tahap-tahap awal kehidupannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik embriogenesis dan perkembangan ontogeni morfologis larva patin hibrida tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa embriogenesis patin hibrida siam-jambal dan hibrida siam-nasutus serupa, tetapi perkembangan patin hibrida siam-nasutus sedikit lebih cepat. Pada suhu 28oC-29oC, larva patin hibrida siam-nasutus mulai menetas 20 jam setelah fertilisasi, berukuran panjang total 3,34±0,14 mm, dengan kantung kuning telur berukuran 0,71±0,28 mm3 yang terserap 50% pada umur 24 jam dan relatif habis terserap pada umur 54 jam. Larva patin hibrida siam-jambal mulai menetas 21 jam setelah fertilisasi, berukuran panjang total 3,47±0,13 mm, dengan kantung kuning telur berukuran 0,42±0,08 mm3 yang terserap 50% pada umur 30 jam dan habis terserap pada umur 60 jam. Perkembangan larva kedua patin hibrida tersebut hingga menyerupai morfologi ikan patin dewasa juga relatif serupa, tetapi patin hibrida siam-nasutus menunjukkan keragaan pertumbuhan yang lebih bagus, menghasilkan heterosis berdasarkan pertambahan panjang total selama 10 hari masa pemeliharaan sebesar 20,20%, sedangkan pada patin hibrida siam-jambal sebesar -4,15%.

  11. Reducing size variation in hybrid catfish culture through graded partial harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish (' channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) are becoming a major contributor to catfish aquaculture in the United States. Because of unique production characteristics of hybrid catfish, rapid farmer adoption of hybrids has outpaced appropriate management resea...

  12. Effects of extender type, sperm volume, cryoprotectant concentration, cryopreservation and time duration on motility, survival and fertilisation rates of Mekong giant catfish sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Mengumphan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of some basic factors, namely extender type, sperm volume, cryoprotectant concentration, cryopreservation and storage time, on the quality of Mekong giant catfish (MGC sperm. The following results are obtained from conducted experiments. The sperm kept in Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS extender consistently produced good results in terms of motility. The highest motility grade (4.0 was observed after 12 hours of examination and still a very satisfactory grade (3.3 was observed after 48 hours. The percentage of live cells of the sperm kept in HBSS was also highest (45.3%. The optimal amount of cryoprotectant (DMSO prior to cryopreservation was 8%, which gave the best motility grade (4.0 up to the first 72 hours of observation while at 120 hours the motility grade was 3.3. The fertilisation rate of MGC fresh sperm in HBSS (2 ml and 1 gram eggs was 47.1% while that of cryopreserved sperm under the same conditions was 36.2%. When crossed with P. hypophthalmus, the fertilisation rates of a 2-week- and a 1-year-cryopreserved sperm sample were 36.2% and 30.9% respectively.

  13. Towards the Ictalurid Catfish Transcriptome: Generation and Analysis of 31,215 Catfish ESTs.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham Rex; Muir William; Liu Lei; Turan Cemal; Simmons Micah; Serapion Jerry; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Nandi Samiran; Kucuktas Huseyin; Xu Peng; Baoprasertkul Puttharat; He Chongbo; Feng Jinian; Wang Shaolin; Peatman Eric

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline inf...

  14. DEET toxicity to channel catfish sac fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of open facilities, moisture, and warm weather during channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus spawning season causes mosquito-infestation problems. A common solution to mosquito problems in hatcheries is to use mosquito repellents applied to exposed skin and clothing. DEET (N,N-diethyl-...

  15. Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated factors that predisposed catfish to motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). Our results revealed that wounding on fish body surface was a prerequisite for vAh infection and disease development. A reproducible waterborne challeng...

  16. 76 FR 4292 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Bocourti, Pangasius Hypophthalmus (also known as Pangasius Pangasius), and Pangasius Micronemus. Frozen... data in the FAO Report specifically identify the whole live fish examined as Pangasianodon Hypopthalmus... subject to the Order. First, we note that Pangasius is a genus name and Pangasianodon Hypopthalmus is...

  17. Comparative susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J; Reichley, Stephen R; Khoo, Lester H; Ware, Cynthia; Greenway, Terrence E; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David J

    2014-06-01

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Research supports anecdotal reports from the industry, suggesting that the hybrid of Channel Catfish×Blue Catfish I. furcatus is less susceptible to disease agents that have been historically prohibitive to Channel Catfish production, namely the gram-negative bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, as well as the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri. This current research compared the susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to an experimental challenge by B. damnificus. Fish were exposed to 0, 100, 200, and 400 B. damnificus cercariae per fish, and the numbers of metacercariae per fish were determined 14 d postchallenge. Metacercariae were recovered from all challenged fish. There were no significant differences among fish groups challenged with the same dose, suggesting Channel and Blue Catfish and their hybrid are comparably susceptible to B. damnificus infection. As such, it is recommended that producers raising hybrid catfish remain diligent in controlling populations of the snail intermediate host to prevent production losses attributed to B. damnificus, especially when loafing pelicans have been observed at the aquaculture operation.

  18. 76 FR 55872 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Bocourti, Pangasius Hypophthalmus (also known as Pangasius Pangasius), and Pangasius Micronemus. Frozen..., dated July 15, 2011. India VASEP placed the Present Status of the Pangasius, Pangasianodon- Hypophthalmus Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India (``Pangasius Study''), on the record.\\35\\ \\35\\ See VASEP's...

  19. Hematological and gill histopathological changes in iridescent shark, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) exposed to sublethal diazinon and deltamethrin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Aliakbar; Tarkhani, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The effect of two insecticides, diazinon and deltamethrin, was investigated on hematological parameters and gill morphology in iridescent shark, Pangasius hypophthalmus. Fish were exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppm diazinon as well as 0.015 and 0.020 ppm deltamethrin over a 7-day period. Both insecticides caused leukocytosis, lymphopenia, neutrophilia as well as increases in red blood cell (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Morphological gill damages were observed in fish exposed to both pesticides. It is suggested that diazinon and deltamethrin changed immune function and induced gill damages which could be the reason of increase in RBC, Ht, Hb and MCV in iridescent shark.

  20. Production Practices of Commercial Catfish Producers in Northeast Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letlow, Richard M.; Verma, Satish

    A study determined the yields obtained and the production practices followed by Louisiana commercial catfish farmers in Catahoula, Concordia, and Franklin Parishes. This information was used by the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (LCES) faculty to develop a catfish education program. The study: (1) determined use of selected recommended…

  1. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  2. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Maria Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light andoxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidationprocess is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimentalstudy was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with thecontrol oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperatureof 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxidevalue, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin Emore stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of softgell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.Keywords: Catfish oil, vitamin E, stability, Schaal Oven Test

  3. First Season Catfish Farming. A Workbook for Beginning Pond and Cage Culture of Channel Catfish. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This workbook, comprised of both the teacher and student editions, presents guidelines useful for first-year catfish farmers in Oklahoma using pond or cage cultures to raise channel catfish. The teacher edition is a set of unit guidelines only. Contents include a list of suggested readings, important addresses with types of information available…

  4. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are t...

  5. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are...

  6. No evidence for intercohort cannibalism in mixed-size cultures of food-size and fingerling hybrid catfish (channel catfish x blue catfish) grown in ponds in winter or summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) are normally harvested by seining single-batch pond production systems in fall or winter. Ponds are typically restocked without draining. There is concern that without completely draining the pond after harvest, food...

  7. Isolation of yellow catfish β-actin promoter and generation of transgenic yellow catfish expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiachun; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Song, Wei; Bao, Jie; Liang, Dong; Li, Junbo; Li, Kui; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Muzi; Cai, Yongxiang; Yang, Jiaxin; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2012-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) is one of the most important freshwater farmed species in China. However, its small size and slow growth rate limit its commercial value. Because genetic engineering has been a powerful tool to develop and improve fish traits for aquaculture, we performed transgenic research on yellow catfish in order to increase its size and growth rate. Performing PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned a genomic fragment comprising 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the initiation codon of β-actin gene in yellow catfish. The sequence is 1,017 bp long, containing the core sequence of proximal promoter including CAAT box, CArG motif and TATA box. Microinjecting the transgene construct Tg(beta-actin:eYFP) of the proximal promoter fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene into zebrafish and yellow catfish embryos, we found the promoter could drive the reporter to express transiently in both embryos at early development. Screening the offspring of five transgenic zebrafish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry) or 19 yellow catfish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(beta-actin:eYFP), we obtained three lines of transgenic zebrafish and one transgenic yellow catfish, respectively. Analyzing the expression patterns of the reporter genes in transgenic zebrafish (Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry)nju8/+) and transgenic yellow catfish (Tg(beta-actin:eYFP)nju11/+), we found the reporters were broadly expressed in both animals. In summary, we have established a platform to make transgenic yellow catfish using the proximal promoter of its own β-actin gene. The results will help us to create transgenic yellow catfish using "all yellow catfish" transgene constructs.

  8. Determinação de idade e crescimento do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus na Amazônia Central Age and growth of mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocy Cutrim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa contribuir para a conservação e manejo do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus, um importante recurso pesqueiro de exportação do Amazonas para o qual é necessário conhecer informações essenciais de sua dinâmica de populações. Para contribuir à esta finalidade, o presente trabalho estabeleceu como objetivo identificar o par de otólito mais adequado para leitura de anéis etários, determinar os parâmetros de crescimento do mapará (H. marginatus, Amazônia Central, Amazonas - Brasil. O trabalho foi efetuado através da análise de otólitos coletados no período de dezembro de 1996 á agosto de 1997. Os otólitos escolhidos foram os asteriscus, sendo a leitura efetuada em lupa estereoscópica com monitor acoplado. As marcas de crescimento foram validadas por meio da análise do incremento marginal relativo, sendo encontrado dois anéis/ano. Os valores estimados para os parâmetros no período foram L¥ = 52,63 cm; k = 0,555 ano; to = -0,029 e M = 0,552. O ciclo hidrológico e comportamento reprodutivo estão relacionados com a marcação de anéis etários.The present work seeks to contribute for the conservation and management of the mapará(Hypophthalmus marginatus, an important export fishing resource of Amazonas for which is necessary to know essential information of its population dynamics. To contribute to this purpose, the present work established as objective to identify a structure for reading of age rings, to determine the parameters of growth of the mapará (H. marginatus, Central Amazon, Amazonas - Brazil. The work was made through the otoliths analysis collected in the period of December of 1996 to August of 1997. The otolith chosen for reading was the asteriscus, being the reading made in a stereomicroscope with coupled monitor. The mark structures were validated by means of the analysis of the relative marginal increment, being found two rings. The values estimated for the parameters in the

  9. Efficacy of Florfenicol for Control of Mortality Associated with Edwardsiella ictaluri in Three Species of Catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Patricia S; Chatakondi, Nagaraj; Gao, Dana; Endris, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Edwardsiella icatluri was studied in fingerlings of Channel Catfish Ictalurus puntatus (Delta strain), Blue Catfish I. furcatus (D&B strain), and a hybrid catfish (Delta strain Channel Catfish × D&B strain Blue Catfish). On day 0, fish were immersion challenged in 65-L aquaria. For each of the three species of catfish, 10 aquaria were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, either treated with florfenicol at 0 mg/kg of body weight (unmedicated feed) or at 10 mg/kg (medicated feed). Fish were treated for 10 consecutive days, monitored for mortality during this treatment period, and observed for 14 d afterwards. Post observation, all survivors were humanely euthanized in tricaine methanesulfonate, cultured for E. ictaluri, and examined for gross pathology. The mean cumulative percent mortality from enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) challenge among the three genotypes of catfish did not differ between Blue Catfish, hybrid, and Channel Catfish in treated or control groups. However, the florfenicol-treated fish had a significantly lower mean cumulative mortality (6%) than the controls (78%). All genotypes of catfish tested were responsive to treatment with florfenicol-medicated feed for control of mortality associated with ESC. There were no significant differences in mortality associated with hybrid catfish, blue catfish, and Channel Catfish (Delta strain).

  10. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (Pbiological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  11. Novel circovirus in European catfish (Silurus glanis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Márta; Dán, Adám; Láng, Mária; Csaba, György; Tóth, Adám György; Székely, Csaba; Cságola, Attila; Tuboly, Tamás

    2012-06-01

    Circular single-stranded DNA viral genomes had been identified worldwide in different species and in environmental samples. Among them, viruses belonging to the genus Circovirus of the family Circoviridae are present in birds and pigs, and recently, they were detected in barbels. The present study reports the identification of a new circovirus in fish. PCR amplification and sequencing were used to identify the novel circular DNA virus in European catfish (Silurus glanis). Full genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the family Circoviridae and that it was distantly related to the previously described barbel circovirus.

  12. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  13. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light and oxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidation process is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimental study was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with the control oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperature of 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin E more stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of soft gell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.

  14. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa. In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complements, lectins, cytokines, transferrin and gene expression profiling using microarrays and next generation sequencing technologies. This review will benefit the understanding of innate immune system in catfish and further efforts in studying the innate immune-related genes in fish.

  15. Trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an atlantic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Jessica R.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris is a large piscivore that is native to the Mississippi and Rio Grande river drainages but that has been widely introduced across the United States. River ecologists and fisheries managers are concerned about introduced flathead catfish populations because of the negative impacts on native fish communities or imperiled species associated with direct predation and indirect competition from this apex predator. We studied the trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an Atlantic river to further understand the effects on native fish communities. Crayfish (Astacidea) occurred most frequently in the flathead catfish diet, while sunfish Lepomis spp. comprised the greatest percentage by weight. Neither of two sympatric imperiled fish species (the federally endangered Cape Fear shiner Notropis mekistocholas and the Carolina redhorse Moxostoma sp., a federal species of concern) was found in any diet sample. An ontogenetic shift in diet was evident when flathead catfish reached about 300 mm, and length significantly explained the variation in the percent composition by weight of sunfish and darters Etheostoma and Percina spp. Flathead catfish showed positive prey selectivity for taxa that occupied similar benthic microhabitat, highlighting the importance of opportunistic feeding and prey encounter rates. Flathead catfish displayed a highly variable diel feeding chronology during July, when they had a mean stomach fullness of 0.32%, but then showed a single midday feeding peak during August (mean fullness = 0.52%). The gastric evacuation rate increased between July (0.40/h) and August (0.59/h), as did daily ration, which more than doubled between the 2 months (3.06% versus 7.37%). Our findings increase the understanding of introduced flathead catfish trophic relations and the degree of vulnerability among prey taxa, which resource managers may consider in fisheries management and conservation of native fish populations and

  16. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ran

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS, respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05. A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  17. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  18. Verification of otolith identity used by fisheries scientists for aging channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously published studies of the age estimation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus based on otoliths have reported using the sagittae, whereas it is likely they were actually using the lapilli. This confusion may have resulted because in catfishes (ostariophyseans) the lapilli are the largest of the three otoliths, whereas in nonostariophysean fish the sagittae are the largest. Based on (1) scanning electron microscope microphotographs of channel catfish otoliths, (2) X-ray computed tomography scans of a channel catfish head, (3) descriptions of techniques used to removed otoliths from channel catfish reported in the literature, and (4) a sample of channel catfish otoliths received from fisheries biologists from around the country, it is clear that lapilli are most often used for channel catfish aging studies, not sagittae, as has been previously reported. Fisheries scientists who obtain otoliths from channel catfish can use the information in this paper to correctly identify otolith age.

  19. Price Volatility Spillover in Agricultural Markets: An Examination of U.S. Catfish Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buguk, Cumhur; Hudson, Darren; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2003-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers in the U.S. catfish supply chain are analyzed based on monthly price data from 1980 through 2000 for catfish feed, its ingredients, and farm- and wholesale-level catfish. The exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) model was used to test univariate volatility spillovers for prices in the supply chain. Strong price volatility spillover from feeding material (corn, soybeans, menhaden) to catfish feed and farm- and wholesale-leve...

  20. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  1. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using waterborne challenge method and the distribution of vAh in catfish tissue...

  2. Dieta de Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae e variações de seu estoque no reservatório de Itaipu Diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829, (Osteichthyes, Hypophythalmidae and variations in its stock in Itaipu Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a dieta do mapará Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae no reservatório de Itaipu, durante o período de novembro/94 a outubro/97, e comparar os dados com a dieta dessa espécie nos primeiros anos de formação do reservatório, relacionando-os com a densidade de zooplâncton e fitoplâncton encontrados no ambiente e buscando possíveis relações com a depleção dos estoques que essa espécie vem apresentando nos últimos anos. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados pelos métodos de ocorrência e volumétrico, combinados no Índice Alimentar (IAi. A dieta do mapará no período de nov/94 a out/97 (149 estômagos mostrou um número restrito de itens alimentares, sendo composta por cladóceros, copépodos, algas e tecamebas, todos organismos planctônicos. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciaram que o mapará utiliza, em sua dieta, principalmente zooplâncton, sendo cladóceros o zooplâncton mais ingerido (aproximadamente 63%. Não foram observadas alterações marcantes entre locais, anos e classes de tamanho estudados. Entretanto, comparações entre a dieta da espécie nos primeiros anos da formação do reservatório e aquelas do período deste estudo mostraram diferenças relevantes, com uma maior participação de cladóceros de maior tamanho (Daphnia gessneri e menor de algas cianofícias. A elevada concentração de nutrientes no período que se seguiu o represamento, com o aumento na biomassa fitoplanctônica no ambiente, e seu decréscimo com o passar dos anos, explicam essas variações. Dessa maneira, é esperado que flutuações na abundância do recurso conduzam a flutuações populacionais nesta espécie.The aim of this paper is to assess the diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae, also called mapará, at Itaipú Reservoir from November 1994 to October 1997 and also to compare data to the species’ diet during the first few years of the

  3. Detection of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules in Edwardsiella ictaluri Ei-151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Han, Yin; Tinh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Hien, Nguyen Thi; Bossier, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae that causes enteric septicemia of catfish, which has become a significant problem in the aquaculture of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in Vietnam. In this study, a bacterium designated as Ei-151 was isolated from diseased striped catfish and proved to be virulent. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and phenotypic tests, the pathogenic bacterium was identified as Edw. ictaluri. The presence of quorum sensing signal molecules in Edw. ictaluri Ei-151 was detected with different biosensor strains. The results showed that Ei-151 produced at least three kinds of acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules as detected with the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, and the AHLs fingerprint was similar to that of Edw. tarda. During its entire growth, the levels of AHLs and autoinducer-2 produced by Ei-151 peaked at the stationary phase (OD600 1.8), which suggested that both of them may function at the stationary phase. No Cholerae autoinducer-1-like activity (including Edw. ictaluri LMG7860(T)) was detected.

  4. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  5. Acute toxicity of copper to sea catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Sea catfish (Arius felis) were exposed to aqueous solutions of reagent grade cupric chloride in artificial seawater (30.0 +/- 2.0 0/00, 21-23/sup 0/C) in four static bioassays. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC/sub 50/ were calculated and found to be 5.43, 4.17, 3.57 and 2.40 mg 1./sup -1/ copper, respectively. Experimental concentrations of copper producing subtle behavioral changes in this species correspond to less than 0.3% of the 72 h LC/sub 50/. Based on this comparison with literature values, a new, maximum 'safe' concentration for copper in marine waters of 0.01 mg 1./sup -1/ is proposed.

  6. Effect of type and concentration of water hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue F1 hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consistent and improved performance of channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish fingerlings in production ponds in the US farm raised catfish industry has prompted an increase in demand of hybrid catfish fingerlings even at higher prices compared to commonly raised channel catfish. Hybrid catfish fry are e...

  7. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE THREAT OF NAFTA ON U.S. CATFISH INDUSTRY USING A TRADITIONAL IMPORT DEMAND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Carel LIGEON; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jackson, John D.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of increased exports from NAFTA member countries on the U.S. domestic catfish industry were evaluated. Results showed that the quantity of catfish imported will fall if the domestic price of catfish falls relative to the import price. Past imports have no effect on present imports. The income elasticity was negative indicating that imported catfish may be an inferior good. Doubling present levels of imports from NAFTA member countries is not a threat to the U.S. catfish industry.

  9. High-density interspecific genetic linkage mapping provides insights into genomic incompatibility between channel catfish and blue catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Li, Y; Qin, Z; Geng, X; Bao, L; Kaltenboeck, L; Kucuktas, H; Dunham, R; Liu, Z

    2016-02-01

    Catfish is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. The interspecific hybrid catfish produced by mating female channel catfish with male blue catfish outperform both of their parent species in a number of traits. However, mass production of the hybrids has been difficult because of reproductive isolation. Investigations of genome structure and organization of the hybrids provide insights into the genetic basis for maintenance of species divergence in the face of gene flow, thereby helping develop strategies for introgression and efficient production of the hybrids for aquaculture. In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using the hybrid catfish system with the catfish 250K SNP array. A total of 26,238 SNPs were mapped to 29 linkage groups, with 12,776 unique marker positions. The linkage map spans approximately 3240 cM with an average intermarker distance of 0.25 cM. A fraction of markers (986 of 12,776) exhibited significant deviation from the expected Mendelian ratio of segregation, and they were clustered in major genomic blocks across 15 LGs, most notably LG9 and LG15. The distorted markers exhibited significant bias for maternal alleles among the backcross progenies, suggesting strong selection against the blue catfish alleles. The clustering of distorted markers within genomic blocks should lend insights into speciation as marked by incompatibilities between the two species. Such findings should also have profound implications for understanding the genomic evolution of closely related species as well as the introgression of hybrid production programs in aquaculture.

  10. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  11. Book review: Conservation, ecology, and management of catfish: The second international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series published by the American Fisheries Society devoted to catfish research, biology, and management, which was organized as a symposium held in St. Louis Missouri, in 2010 and builds upon the first symposium that was held in Davenport, Iowa, in 1998 (Irwin et al. 1999).  The organizations of the second symposium stated that this was to "serve as an addendum to Catfish 2000" and "to cover the four corners of catfish science: catfish biology, ecology, management, and conservation" (p. xi).  The book meets this standard easily.  With 64 pages organized into nine sections (plenary, catfishes as sport fish, non-game catfishes, nonnative catfishes, movement and habitat use, sampling and population assessment, age and growth, behavior, and future directions), this publication covers these four corners and more.

  12. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  13. A stochastic analysis of tractor overturn costs on catfish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibendahl, G A; Stephens, W B; Myers, M L

    2012-10-01

    An area of health and safety risk in agriculture that can be especially dangerous is catfish farming. One of the potential sources of injuries on catfish farms is tractor overturns that often result in crushing injuries. There is likely a higher probability of tractor overturns on a catfish farm than on a traditional crop farm due to the conditions that prevail on catfish farms. A catfish farm requires tractor movement near pond levees and water, and these levees have steep banks. Many of the activities on a catfish farm, such as mowing, feeding, and pond maintenance, require operating a tractor near a pond levee. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) on tractors can help to minimize the injuries caused by tractor overturns. ROPS do not lessen the probability of overturns, but ROPS mitigate the expected injury severity and lower the associated costs of an overturn. Despite the benefits of ROPS, not every tractor is so equipped. Some earlier work indicated that the cost to retrofit older tractors might outweigh the expected benefits. This article uses stochastic (i.e., randomly determined) analysis to determine if risk-averse farmers are more likely than risk-neutral farmers to retrofit tractors with ROPS. For this analysis, a distribution function of injury costs should an overturn occur was developed for both ROPS and non-ROPS tractors, and a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. Results indicate that many risk-averse producers would be willing to retrofit older tractors with ROPS. However producers who are risk-neutral probably will not retrofit. These results might explain why not all tractors have been retrofitted despite the long-term availability of retrofit kits.

  14. Use of vaccination against enteric septicemia of catfish and columnaris disease by the U.S. catfish industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebak, Julie; Wagner, Bruce

    2012-03-01

    Vaccination is an effective strategy used for the protection of food animals against infectious diseases. A 2010 U.S. Department of Agriculture questionnaire examined U.S. catfish industry use (in 2009) of two commercial vaccines that provide protection against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris disease, catfish producers' opinions regarding the percentage of vaccinated fish they expect to be protected, and producers' general expectations regarding survival of vaccinated fish compared with unvaccinated fish. During 2009, 9.7% of the total fingerling operations used one or both vaccines; 12.3% of the total industry fry production was vaccinated against ESC, and 17.0% was vaccinated against columnaris disease. Of the producers who grew food-sized catfish to harvest, 6.7% used vaccinated catfish. The farms that did not use vaccinated fish for grow out had a mean size of 63.4 water surface hectares (156.6 water surface acres). The operations that used vaccinated fish were larger (mean size = 206.6 water surface hectares, or 510.6 water surface acres). The producers that stocked ESC-vaccinated fish for grow out represented 19.0% of the total water surface area of food fish production; producers that stocked columnaris-vaccinated fish represented 16.6% of the total area. Of the producers that stocked ESC-vaccinated catfish, 41.9% thought that survival was better in vaccinated fish than in unvaccinated fish; of the producers that stocked columnaris-vaccinated catfish, 46.2% thought that vaccinated fish displayed better survival. However, 37.5% of producers that used the ESC vaccine and 39.7% of producers that used the columnaris vaccine did not know whether vaccination improved survival rates. When all producers were asked about their expectations regarding the percentage of vaccinated fish that would be protected from disease, 52.4% responded that they expected 100% of their fish to be protected. More producer information about reasonable expectations

  15. BOB.1 of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: not a transcriptional coactivator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Mara L Lennard; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Wilson, Melanie R; Miller, Norman W; Cunningham, Charles; Warr, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is driven by the Emu3' enhancer, whose core region contains two octamer motifs and a muE5 site. Orthologues of the Oct1 and Oct2 transcription factors have been cloned in the channel catfish and shown to bind to the octamer motifs within the core enhancer. While catfish Oct2 is an activator of transcription, catfish Oct1 failed to drive transcription and may act as a negative regulator of IGH transcription. In mammals, the Oct co-activator BOB.1 (B cell Oct-binding protein1, also known as OCA-B and OBF-1) greatly enhances the transcriptional activity of Oct factors and plays an important role in the development of the immune system. An orthologue of BOB.1 has been cloned in the catfish, and its function characterized. The POU binding domain of the catfish BOB.1 was found to be 95% identical at the amino acid level with the binding domain of human BOB.1, and all the residues directly involved in binding to the Oct-DNA complex were conserved. Despite this conservation, catfish BOB.1 failed to enhance transcriptional activation mediated by endogenous or co-transfected catfish Oct2, and failed to rescue the activity of the inactive catfish Oct1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that catfish BOB.1 was capable of binding both catfish Oct1 and Oct2 when they formed a complex with the Oct motif. Analysis of recombinant chimeric catfish and human BOB.1 proteins demonstrated that the failure to drive transcription was due to the lack of a functional activation domain within the catfish BOB.1.

  16. On Sciadeichthys (Selenaspis) Walrechti, a new South American catfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1954-01-01

    Two large specimens of a hitherto unknown species of neotropical catfish have recently been found dead and washed ashore beneath the dike along the Westerscheldt near Biezelinge, Zeeland, at a mutual distance of approximately 300 meters. Both were in excellent condition and have been presented to th

  17. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  18. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae), a revisionary study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Vari; Carl J. Ferraris Jr.; PINNA, Mário C. C. de

    2005-01-01

    The catfishes of the subfamily Cetopsinae of the Neotropical family Cetopsidae are revised. Four genera, Cetopsidium new genus, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis, and Paracetopsis Bleeker are recognized as valid. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, and Pseudocetopsis are considered synonyms of Cetopsis and Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean and Cetopsogiton synonyms of Paracetopsis. Thirty-seven species are recognized in the Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium includes six species: C. ferreirai, new species, rio Trombetas...

  19. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepin

  20. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator-Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator-prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan concentrations between 0.03 and 1.0 µg/L were used. Predation was significantly greater (p snails using fish may be affected in endosulfan-polluted aquatic systems of Southern Africa because it has been found present at concentrations that are indicated to cause lethal effects on the evaluated hybrid catfish and to inhibit the predation of snails by this hybrid catfish.

  1. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  2. 76 FR 26655 - Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Control Point (HACCP) regulations for seafood (9 CFR part 123), including catfish, and to other...(b)), known as the 2008 Farm Bill, amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) to provide that... transportation, facilities and sanitation, requirements for Sanitation Standard Operation Procedures and...

  3. Palatability of diets for channel catfish that contain amprolium or salinomycin using feed conversion ratio as criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the palatability of diets for juvenile Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus that contained the poultry anticoccidial drugs Amprolium or Salinomycin, which are candidates to control the Channel Catfish myxozoan parasite, Henneguya ictaluri. These chemothe...

  4. Fatty acid profiles in marine and freshwater fish from fish markets in northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczyńska Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid compositions were studied in eight commercially important fish from fish markets: salmon, Salmo salar L.; cod, Gadus morhua L.; common sole, Solea solea (L.; European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.; catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walb.; Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.; and pangasius, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage. The freshwater fish contained 25.69-42.18% saturated, 34.90-43.79% monounsaturated, 8.46-16.32% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 5.01-20.43% n-3 polyunsaturated acid, while marine fish contained 18.53-32.77% saturated, 17.95-49.89% monounsaturated, 3.40-11.51% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 18.74-45.42% n-3 polyunsaturated acid. Marine fish contained significantly more Ʃn-3 PUFA (29.79%, EPA (12.26%, DHA (13.20%, and a higher n-3/n-6 (6.95 ratio than freshwater fish (13.13, 2.47, 7.14, 1.29% (P≤ 0.05. There were statistically significant differences in the n-3/n-6 ratio among fish species (cod (13.40 > sole (8.47 > flounder (4.30 > rainbow trout (2.41 > catfish (1.83 ≈ salmon (1.63 > tilapia (0.57 ≈ pangasius (0.36 (P ≤0.05.

  5. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  6. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  7. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Expression analysis, lysozyme activity and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  8. Changes of serum myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide in the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is an important farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), disease. The development of a monitoring system for assessing the catfish health status in hatcheries and ponds is in great demanding. Because of the...

  9. Seasonal Differences in Steroids and Maturation-related Genes in Channel Catfish Under Normal and Accelerated Thermoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is hampered by a long generation time. Female channel catfish typically spawn when they are 3-years-old; however, a low percentage of spawning may be observed at two years of age. Mature female channel catfish can spawn once annually. Their...

  10. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  11. An evaluation of agreement between pectoral spines and otoliths for estimating ages of catfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, J.A.; Schramm, Harold; Gerard, Patrick D.; Irwin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths have been shown to provide more accurate ages than pectoral spine sections for several catfish populations; but sampling otoliths requires euthanizing the specimen, whereas spines can be sampled non-lethally. To evaluate whether, and under what conditions, spines provide the same or similar age estimates as otoliths, we examined data sets of individual fish aged from pectoral spines and otoliths for six blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations (n=420), 14 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations (n=997), and 10 flathead catfish Pylodictus olivaris populations (n=947) from lotic and lentic waters throughout the central and eastern U.S. Logistic regression determined that agreement between ages estimated from otoliths and spines was consistently related to age, but inconsistently related to growth rate. When modeled at mean growth rate, we found at least 80% probability of no difference in spine- and otolith-assigned ages up to ages 4 and 5 for blue and channel catfish, respectively. For flathead catfish, an 80% probability of agreement between spine- and otolith-assigned ages did not occur at any age due to high incidence of differences in assigned ages even for age-1 fish. Logistic regression models predicted at least 80% probability that spine and otolith ages differed by ≤1 year up to ages 13, 16, and 9 for blue, channel, and flathead catfish, respectively. Age-bias assessment found mean spine-assigned age differed by less than 1 year from otolith-assigned age up to ages 19, 9, and 17 for blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish, respectively. These results can be used to help guide decisions about which structure is most appropriate for estimating catfish ages for particular populations and management objectives.

  12. Characterization of edible film fabricated with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gelatin extract using selected pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Wang, Y; Herring, J L; Oh, J-H

    2007-11-01

    Farm-raised catfish are important to the economy of the southeastern states in the United States, and catfish processing produces about 55% of by-products for inexpensive sale. Therefore, the utilization of catfish by-products is of great interest to the catfish industry. The objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pretreatment method to extract catfish gelatin for edible film application, and to characterize physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of edible films fabricated with catfish skin gelatin. Catfish skins obtained from a local plant were treated with 6 selected pretreatment methods. The main extraction was performed with deionized water at 50 degrees C after pretreatment. The gelatin yield was calculated and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize molecular weight (MW) profile. Color, tensile strength (TS), elongation, and water barrier property were determined to characterize the fabricated catfish gelatin films. From the results of gelatin yield, color, SDS-PAGE, as well as mechanical and barrier properties of the film, the pretreatment method with 0.25 M NaOH and 0.09 M acetic acid, followed by extraction at 50 degrees C for 3 h, was determined as the optimum extraction method. The catfish gelatin exhibited higher MW fractions than commercial mammalian gelatin. The catfish gelatin extracts possessed film-forming properties determined by TS, elongation, and water vapor permeability (WVP) comparable to those of commercial mammalian gelatin. The selected formula for catfish gelatin film was determined as 1% gelatin and 20% glycerol, resulting in greatest TS and lowest WVP.

  13. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Závorka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  14. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  15. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA. This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  16. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae), a revisionary study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Vari; Carl J. Ferraris Jr.; Mário C. C. de Pinna

    2005-01-01

    The catfishes of the subfamily Cetopsinae of the Neotropical family Cetopsidae are revised. Four genera, Cetopsidium new genus, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis, and Paracetopsis Bleeker are recognized as valid. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, and Pseudocetopsis are considered synonyms of Cetopsis and Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean and Cetopsogiton synonyms of Paracetopsis. Thirty-seven species are recognized in the Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium includes six species: C. ferreirai, new species, rio Trombetas; C....

  17. Effects of lead, molybdenum, rubidium, arsenic and organochlorines on spermatogenesis in fish: monitoring at Mekong Delta area and in vitro experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Miura, Chiemi; Ito, Aki; Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Miura, Takeshi

    2007-06-05

    To estimate the influence of water contaminants on fish reproduction in the Mekong Delta area, we sampled cultivated male catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), investigated testicular development, and measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace element levels in muscle and liver, respectively. Various testes sizes were observed although sampling took place during a short period. Histological analysis revealed that all developmental stages of germ cells were observed in catfish with large testis, whereas only necrotic spermatogonia but no other germ cells were observed in catfish with small testis. In small testis, furthermore, vacuolization and hypertrophy of Sertoli cells were observed. Measurement of POPs in muscle and trace elements in liver demonstrated that there were negative correlations between GSI and the concentrations of Pb, Mo, Rb and As. To clarify possible direct effects of Pb, Mo, Rb and As on spermatogenesis in fish, we investigated the effects of these trace elements on spermatogenesis using in vitro testicular organ culture of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Treatment with each of the trace elements alone did not affect spermatogenesis. However, treatment with 10(-7)M of Pb, 10(-5) and 10(-4)M of Mo, 10(-5)-10(-3)M of Rb or 10(-5)M of As inhibited the spermatogenesis induced by 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). Furthermore, treatment with 10(-4)M of As in combination with 11KT caused necrosis of testicular fragments. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that Pb, Mo, Rb and As can exert inhibitory effects on spermatogenesis in catfish inhabiting the Mekong Delta area.

  18. Effects of lead, molybdenum, rubidium, arsenic and organochlorines on spermatogenesis in fish: Monitoring at Mekong Delta area and in vitro experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Sonoko [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Miura, Chiemi [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Ito, Aki [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Bui Cach Tuyen [Nong Lam University, Thu Duc Distr., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Miura, Takeshi [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan)]. E-mail: miutake@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-06-05

    To estimate the influence of water contaminants on fish reproduction in the Mekong Delta area, we sampled cultivated male catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), investigated testicular development, and measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace element levels in muscle and liver, respectively. Various testes sizes were observed although sampling took place during a short period. Histological analysis revealed that all developmental stages of germ cells were observed in catfish with large testis, whereas only necrotic spermatogonia but no other germ cells were observed in catfish with small testis. In small testis, furthermore, vacuolization and hypertrophy of Sertoli cells were observed. Measurement of POPs in muscle and trace elements in liver demonstrated that there were negative correlations between GSI and the concentrations of Pb, Mo, Rb and As. To clarify possible direct effects of Pb, Mo, Rb and As on spermatogenesis in fish, we investigated the effects of these trace elements on spermatogenesis using in vitro testicular organ culture of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Treatment with each of the trace elements alone did not affect spermatogenesis. However, treatment with 10{sup -7} M of Pb, 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4} M of Mo, 10{sup -5}-10{sup -3} M of Rb or 10{sup -5} M of As inhibited the spermatogenesis induced by 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). Furthermore, treatment with 10{sup -4} M of As in combination with 11KT caused necrosis of testicular fragments. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that Pb, Mo, Rb and As can exert inhibitory effects on spermatogenesis in catfish inhabiting the Mekong Delta area.

  19. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  20. Biofloc production technology promising in temperate zones – Channel catfish perform during winter months

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility to grow Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in an outdoor biofloc system during winter in a temperate zone. High biomasses of market-size channel catfish were successfully maintained through the winter with high survival and in good condition in both...

  1. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  2. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  3. Performance evaluation of intensive, pond-based culture systems for catfish production in Mississippi: year one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish farming is the leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. and has a significant economic impact in the southern states. Increased feed and energy costs, and competition from foreign imports have recently caused catfish farmers to intensify production as a means of improving efficiency and profi...

  4. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  5. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  6. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  7. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  8. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  9. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untrea

  10. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  11. Efficacy of Ichthyophthirius vaccines in channel catfish against white spot disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius (Ich) is a protozoan that causes white spot disease in many cultured fish and lead to severe losses in aquaculture. Two trials were conducted to determine the efficacy and serum antibody response of different formulation of Ich vaccines in channel catfish. In trial I, catfish were i...

  12. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  13. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  14. Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended.

  15. Genomic organisation of the channel catfish Mx1 gene and characterisation of multiple channel catfish Mx gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Karen P; Thune, Ronald L

    2008-05-01

    In order to further characterise channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Mx1, studies were initiated to amplify and clone the Mx1 promoter into a reporter vector, pGL3basic. Initially the Mx1 gene was amplified from genomic DNA and was found to have 12 exons and 11 introns, spanning a region over 6 kilobases (kb) in length. The Mx1 promoter was amplified using genome walking and during this process four additional Mx promoters were identified, suggesting the presence of five Mx genes in the channel catfish. All five promoters possess an interferon stimulated response element (ISRE) and the Mx1 promoter possessed two potential NF-kappabeta transcription sites. Following cloning each construct was transiently transfected into COS-7 and EPC cells for 24h and treated with 5 microg/ml poly I:C for 24h. An increase in expression of the reporter gene in response to poly I:C was noted in both cell lines in the pGL3Mx1 construct only. However, the reporter gene was also constitutively expressed in these cells. Constitutive expression was also observed in channel catfish ovary cells transiently transfected with pGL3Mx1 only. Treatment with 5 microg/ml poly I:C did not increase this expression, which may be due to high levels of cell death in this difficult to transfect cell line. The constitutive expression observed implies that a repressor element is missing in the 390 base pair sequence of the Mx1 promoter used in this study. These results suggest that only channel catfish Mx1 is involved in the type I interferon pathway and that the presence of an ISRE in a regulatory region is not necessarily indicative of a role in the type I interferon response.

  16. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abernathy Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 BAC end sequences and their applications for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Using these and the additional 20,000 existing BAC end sequences as a resource along with linkage mapping and existing physical map, conserved syntenic regions were identified between the catfish and zebrafish genomes. A total of 10,943 catfish BAC end sequences (17.3% had significant BLAST hits to the zebrafish genome (cutoff value ≤ e-5, of which 3,221 were unique gene hits, providing a platform for comparative mapping based on locations of these genes in catfish and zebrafish. Genetic linkage mapping of microsatellites associated with contigs allowed identification of large conserved genomic segments and construction of super scaffolds. Conclusion BAC end sequences and their associated polymorphic markers are great resources for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Highly conserved chromosomal regions were identified to exist between catfish and zebrafish. However, it appears that the level of conservation at local genomic regions are high while a high level of chromosomal shuffling and rearrangements exist between catfish and zebrafish genomes. Orthologous regions established through comparative analysis should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in catfish.

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  18. KOEFISIEN KECERNAAN FRAKSI SERAT BUNGKIL KELAPA SAWIT YANG DIHIDROLISIS DENGAN ENZIM ASAL CAIRAN RUMEN DOMBA SEBAGAI PAKAN BENIH IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai kecernaan fraksi serat bungkil kelapa sawit yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim cairan rumen domba. Koefisien kecernaan ditentukan dengan menggunakan indikator Cr2O3 yang ditambahkan dalam pakan uji. Bahan pakan yang digunakan adalah bungkil kelapa sawit (BKS yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim asal cairan rumen domba dengan volume 100 mL/kg BKS dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam (BKSe dan yang tidak dihidrolisis (BKS. Pakan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah pakan acuan (pakan komersil, pakan uji A (30% BKSe dan B (30% BKS dengan 3 ulangan. Ikan yang digunakan 10 ekor benih ikan patin siam Pangasius hypophthalmus dengan bobot rata-rata 20 g/ekor yang dipelihara dalam fiber dengan volume air 80 liter. Pemberian pakan secara at satiation dengan frekuensi pemberian 3 kali per hari. Feses dikumpulkan selama 15 hari pemeliharaan untuk dianalisis kandungan nutrisinya. Hasil analisis kecernaan menunjukkan bahwa nilai kecernaan fraksi serat menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan di mana pakan A (30% BKSe mempunyai nilai kecernaan fraksi serat lebih tinggi dibandingkan pakan B (30% BKS.

  19. Reduced cannibalistic behavior of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae under dark and dim conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yukinori; Sanudin, Noorsyarinah; Firdaus, Rian Freddie; Saad, Shahbudin

    2013-06-01

    In general, African catfish shows higher survival rates in the dark conditions than in the light conditions. In this study, larval behavior of African catfish was observed under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 lx using a CCD camera to investigate the reason why African catfish larvae show higher survival rates in dark conditions. The larvae showed significantly higher swimming activity under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx than that under 10 and 100 lx. The larvae also showed significantly increased aggressive behavior under 10 and 100 lx; the swimming larvae attacked resting individuals more frequently under 10 and 100 lx than under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx. The aggressive behavior and sharp teeth of the attacking larvae appeared to induce skin surface lesions on injured larvae. Chemical substances were then generated from the injured skin surface, and these chemical stimuli triggered cannibalistic behavior in other fish near the injured fish. The results of this study demonstrate that the higher survival rates of African catfish larvae under dark conditions are a result of inactivity and subsequent increase in chemical releasing stimuli concentrations around inactive individuals that triggers feeding behavior in nearby active catfish. Therefore, we recommend larval rearing of African catfish in dark or dim conditions, as it improves catfish survival rates.

  20. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatla, Kamalakar; Gaunt, Patricia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Hohn, Claudia; Ford, Lorelei; Hanson, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these signs and mortality after sera from affected fish is administered to sentinel catfish. The diagnosis is confirmed if the toxicity is neutralized with BoNT/E antitoxin. Because small catfish are often unavailable, the utility of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) was evaluated in BoNT/E and VTC bioassays. Channel catfish and zebrafish susceptibilities were compared using trypsin-activated BoNT/E in a 96-hr trial by intracoelomically administering 0, 1.87, 3.7, 7.5, 15, or 30 pg of toxin per gram of body weight (g-bw) of fish. All of the zebrafish died at the 7.5 pg/g-bw and higher, while the catfish died at the 15 pg/g-bw dose and higher. To test the bioassay, sera from VTC-affected fish or control sera were intracoelomically injected at a dose of 10 µl per zebrafish and 20 µl/g-bw for channel catfish. At 96 hr post-injection, 78% of the zebrafish and 50% of the catfish receiving VTC sera died, while no control fish died. When the VTC sera were preincubated with BoNT/E antitoxin, they became nontoxic to zebrafish. Histology of zebrafish injected with either VTC serum or BoNT/E demonstrated renal necrosis. Normal catfish serum was toxic to larval zebrafish in immersion exposures, abrogating their utility in VTC bioassays. The results demonstrate bioassays using adult zebrafish for detecting BoNT/E and VTC are sensitive and practical.

  1. DNA barcoding of commercially important catfishes in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilang, Jonas P; Yu, Shiny Cathlynne S

    2015-06-01

    Many species of catfish are important resources for human consumption, for sport fishing and for use in aquarium industry. In the Philippines, some species are cultivated and some are caught in the wild for food and a few introduced species have become invasive. In this study, DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was done on commercially and economically important Philippine catfishes. A total of 75 specimens belonging to 11 species and 5 families were DNA barcoded. The genetic distances were computed and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees were constructed based on the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) method. The average K2P distances within species, genus, family and order were 0.2, 8.2, 12.7 and 21.9%, respectively. COI sequences clustered according to their species designation for 7 of the 11 catfishes. DNA barcoding was not able to discriminate between Arius dispar and A. manillensis and between Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P. pardalis. The morphological characters that are used to distinguish between these species do not complement molecular identification through DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding also showed that Clarias batrachus from the Philippines is different from the species found in India and Thailand, which supports earlier suggestions based on morphology that those found in India should be designated as C. magur and those in mainland Southeast Asia as C. aff. batrachus "Indochina". This study has shown that DNA barcoding can be used for species delineation and for tagging some species for further taxonomic investigation, which has implications on proper management and conservation strategies.

  2. Perceived versus real toxicological safety of pangasius catfish: a review modifying market perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murk, Albertinka J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bush, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Mass media reports suggest that pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is ‘full of poison’ because it is able to survive in the ‘heavily polluted Mekong River’ and contains pesticides and veterinary treatment chemicals. However, most of these claims are not substantiated with scientific evidence. T

  3. Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse water pollution caused by farming and processing Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results show that 1 tonne of frozen fillets releases 740 kg BOD, 1020 kg COD, 2050 kg TSS, 106 kg nitrogen and 27 kg phosphorus, of which wastewater from fish po

  4. Move or die: change in European catfish (Silurus glanis L. behaviour caused by oxygen deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available European catfish (Silurus glanis L. is a large predatory fish native to an extensive area in Europe. It has been introduced to its western and southern parts, where it is considered an invasive species with a negative impact on native fishes. European catfish is a territorial species exhibiting site fidelity. Cold water in winter usually leads catfish to exhibit notably low activity. Nevertheless, our telemetric study on 19 juvenile individuals of S. glanis provides information on their unexpected high activity and displacement in winter. Our data reveal that these behavioural changes were caused by oxygen deficiency. Our data also indicate that oxygen deficits may induce migrations of this species.

  5. Quantitative trait loci map for growth and morphometric traits using a channel catfish x blue catfish interspecific hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, A M; Liu, Z; Kucuktas, H; Umali-Maceina, G; Su, B; Dunham, R A

    2014-05-01

    Head length, head depth, head width, body depth, body width, caudal depth, and caudal width and total length and BW were measured for 71 backcross full sibs between the interspecific backcross F1 (female channel catfish [Ictalurus punctatus] × male blue catfish [Ictalurus furcatus]) female × blue catfish male. Body measurements were corrected for both size and the relationship between relative body shape and size, which is critical but usually ignored in fish research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for construction of a QTL map with 44 linkage groups. Eleven of 44 linkage groups had at least 1 significant QTL (P ≤ 0.05) and 11 of 44 at P = 0.10. Linkage group 19 was unique as it had multiple QTL for every trait measured, except for caudal width for which no QTL was identified on any linkage group. Approximately half of the markers measured were associated with positive effects (increase in size) on the traits and half had negative effects (decrease in size). Linkage groups 5, 9, 18, 20, 39, and 40 were significant for multiple traits and always had a trait negative effect. Total length is represented on the map by the most linkage groups and the most markers. The linkage relationships found among BW, total length, and the 7 morphometric traits indicated that multiple trait marker-assisted selection to simultaneously increase BW body depth, body width, and caudal depth while decreasing the head traits with the goal to increase body weight and carcass yield would be very difficult. Multiple genetic enhancement approaches would likely be needed to simultaneously improve BW and body conformation.

  6. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Dominowski, Paul J; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (CC-Lys-g) produced in Escherichia coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme-g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Recombinant CC-Lys-g produced in E. coli expression system exhibited significant (P recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (pcDNA-Lys-g) was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-Lys-g offered significant (P DNA injection. Macrophages of fish injected with pcDNA-Lys-g produced significantly (P DNA injection. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-Lys-g could be used as a novel immunostimulant to offer immediate protection to channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  7. Soft dentin results in unique flexible teeth in scraping catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerinckx, Tom; Huysseune, Ann; Boone, Matthieu; Claeys, Myriam; Couvreur, Marjolein; De Kegel, Barbara; Mast, Peter; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Verbeken, Kim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Teeth are generally used for actions in which they experience mainly compressive forces acting toward the base. The ordered tooth enamel(oid) and dentin structures contribute to the high compressive strength but also to the minor shear and tensile strengths. Some vertebrates, however, use their teeth for scraping, with teeth experiencing forces directed mostly normal to their long axis. Some scraping suckermouth catfishes (Loricariidae) even appear to have flexible teeth, which have not been found in any other vertebrate taxon. Considering the mineralized nature of tooth tissues, the notion of flexible teeth seems paradoxical. We studied teeth of five species, testing and measuring tooth flexibility, and investigating tooth (micro)structure using transmission electron microscopy, staining, computed tomography scanning, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectrometry. We quantified the extreme bending capacity of single teeth (up to 180°) and show that reorganizations of the tooth (micro)structure and extreme hypomineralization of the dentin are adaptations preventing breaking by allowing flexibility. Tooth shape and internal structure appear to be optimized for bending in one direction, which is expected to occur frequently when feeding (scraping) under natural conditions. Not all loricariid catfishes possess flexible teeth, with the trait potentially having evolved more than once. Flexible teeth surely rank among the most extreme evolutionary novelties in known mineralized biological materials and might yield a better understanding of the processes of dentin formation and (hypo)mineralization in vertebrates, including humans.

  8. Brainstem acoustic areas in the marine catfish, Arius felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, C A

    2001-03-01

    The marine catfish Arius felis produces low frequency sounds for communication and obstacle detection. It was hypothesized that the utriculus of the inner ear might play an important role in these behaviors. In the current study, brainstem acoustic areas were studied to reveal possible neuroanatomical specializations in utricular processing areas. The first-order octaval nuclei in Arius were identical in number, anatomical characteristics, and organization of saccular, lagenar, and utricular inputs to previous reports of these features in Ictalurus, a closely related species of catfish that does not exhibit the specialized acoustic behaviors present in Arius. Similarly, injections of neural tracer in the acoustic midbrain (nucleus centralis) of Arius revealed afferent and retrograde pathways almost identical to those previously reported in Ictalurus. It is suggested that areas within the primary and higher-order octaval nuclei that utilize utricular input in acoustic processing are likely identical in Arius and Ictalurus. Two sets of higher-order connections in Arius differ from those in Ictalurus. First, Arius apparently lacks the direct input from the anterior octaval nucleus to nucleus centralis reported in Ictalurus. Second, in Arius nucleus centralis projects bilaterally to a strip of neurons positioned ventral to the ventral boundary of the torus semicircularis. This projection is apparently absent in Ictalurus and in the related species Carassius (goldfish), but has been previously reported in Porichthyes, a sound-producing species belonging to a different teleost taxon.

  9. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) and Chinese catfish (S. asotus Linnaeus): Structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q R; Xu, C; Xu, C R; Wang, R J

    2015-12-28

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) and the Chinese catfish (S. asotus), was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) method. The mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences of S. meridionalis and S. asotus were compared with those of 47 other catfish species in the same order. The total length of mitochondrial DNA for S. meridionalis and S. asotus was 16,526 and 16,525 bp, respectively, and included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. This mitochondrial gene arrangement is identical to that observed in other Siluriformes. To determine the relative phylogenetic positions of S. meridionalis and S. asotus, and to discover phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes, analyses were conducted, based on mitochondrial DNA, 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets. Phylogenetic analyses were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of the Southern catfish (family Siluridae) and the Chinese catfish (family Siluridae) to Pimelodidae than to Bagridae. We concluded that these two species are part of a molecular clade that is different from that proposed in recent studies, in which Amblycipitidae appears as a sister group. Our results showed Amblycipitidae appearing as the most basal extant, and Bagridae appearing as a sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The Siluriformes showed close phylogenetic relationship to the Characiformes.

  11. Draft genome sequences of three Aeromonas hybrophila isolates from catfish and tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacteria that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates....

  12. Glyptothorax stocki, a new sisorid catfish from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir (Siluriformes, Sisoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirza, M.R.; Nijssen, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new catfish, Glyptothorax stocki, belonging to the family Sisoridae, is described and figured. The new species from Pakistan and Azad Kashmir is compared with Glyptothorax platypogonoides from Sumatra, with which it was confused.

  13. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  14. Improved method for sectioning pectoral spines of catfish for age determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Marc A.; Hall, Glenda R.

    1990-01-01

    A modified low-speed saw provided fast and precise sectioning of catfish pectoral spines for use in aging studies. In one hour, 10–15 spines can be sectioned, the sections mounted, and the annuli counted.

  15. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

  16. Assessment, Development and Implementation of Training Materials for Food Defense/Safety, Biosecurity, and Traceability within the Catfish Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Anna F.; Williams, J. Byron; Crist, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research and subsequent training sessions was to assess food defense in the catfish industry, promote awareness and educate catfish farmers and processors on the principles of food defense, biosecurity and traceability of agricultural commodities and ingredients used in human food production. In the catfish processing chain, preliminary investigations have indicated that there are areas throughout production, processing and distribution that are susceptible to potential ...

  17. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A Potential Cause of Erosion in Disturbed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    great variation in burrow densities, both within habitats and among different habitats. Burrow density is highly correlated to the amount of silt in...which may have constrained variation in fish abundance. Lastly, sailfin catfish may be predisposed to burrow in areas already prone to moderate...Size structure, reproductive phenology , and sex ratio of an exotic armored catfish (liposarcus multiradiatus) in the Kaoping River of southern

  18. A genome-wide association study of heat stress-associated SNPs in catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Zhou, T; Geng, X; Liu, S; Chen, A; Yao, J; Jiang, C; Tan, S; Su, B; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    Heat tolerance is a complex and economically important trait for catfish genetic breeding programs. With global climate change, it is becoming an increasingly important trait. To better understand the molecular basis of heat stress, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out using the 250 K catfish SNP array with interspecific backcross progenies, which derived from crossing female channel catfish with male F1 hybrid catfish (female channel catfish × male blue catfish). Three significant associated SNPs were detected by performing an EMMAX approach for GWAS. The SNP located on linkage group 14 explained 12.1% of phenotypical variation. The other two SNPs, located on linkage group 16, explained 11.3 and 11.5% of phenotypical variation respectively. A total of 14 genes with heat stress related functions were detected within the significant associated regions. Among them, five genes-TRAF2, FBXW5, ANAPC2, UBR1 and KLHL29- have known functions in the protein degradation process through the ubiquitination pathway. Other genes related to heat stress include genes involved in protein biosynthesis (PRPF4 and SYNCRIP), protein folding (DNAJC25), molecule and iron transport (SLC25A46 and CLIC5), cytoskeletal reorganization (COL12A1) and energy metabolism (COX7A2, PLCB1 and PLCB4) processes. The results provide fundamental information about genes and pathways that is useful for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of heat stress. The associated SNPs could be promising candidates for selecting heat-tolerant catfish lines after validating their effects on larger and various catfish populations.

  19. Miocene catfishes (Ariidae,Bagridae) from Lisbon: a Nilotic (or Sudanian) type fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, M. Telles

    2010-01-01

    Miocene catfishes from Lisbon are dealt with. Two distinct sets of pectoral and dorsal pterygiophores are described. That from the Langhian V-b is referred to Arius sp. probably close to A. heudeloti. Another ser from the uppermost Burdigalian V-a may be ascribed to a bagrid, cf. Chrysichthys sp., identified for the first time in this region. The catfish and Lates association is sctrikingly similar to African, nilotic or sudanian ones as far as freshwaters are concerned. In marine, coastal...

  20. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M.; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G.; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V.; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L.; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  1. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  2. Channel catfish reovirus (CRV) inhibits replication of channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) by two distinct mechanisms: viral interference and induction of an anti-viral factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, V G; Logue, O; Antao, A; Chinchar, G D

    1998-06-19

    Catfish reovirus (CRV), a double stranded RNA virus, inhibited channel catfish herpes-virus (CCV) replication by 2 different mechanisms: (1) directly as a consequence of its own replication, and (2) indirectly due to the induction of an anti-viral factor. In the former, prior infection with CRV significantly reduced subsequent CCV protein synthesis and virus yield. CRV mediated-interference was greatest when CRV infection preceded CCV infection by 16 h, and was least when cell cultures were simultaneously infected with both viruses. in the latter case, the infection of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cultures with UV-inactivated CRV resulted in the synthesis (or release) of an anti-viral factor. Cells producing the factor were protected from CCV infection, as were cells which had been treated with spent culture medium containing anti-viral activity. Interestingly an anti-viral activity was constitutively present in long-term cultures of catfish T-cells and macrophages. Whether this factor and the one induced by UV-inactivated CRV are identical is not known, but analogy to mammalian systems suggests that the former may be similar to type II interferon, whereas the latter may be the piscine equivalent of type I interferon. These results suggest that UV-inactivated CRV may prove useful in the induction and characterization of interferon-like anti-viral proteins in the channel catfish and that long-term cultures of catfish T-cells and monocytes may serve as a ready source of additional anti-viral factors.

  3. G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish: Expression analysis and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the transcriptional profiles of G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish after infection with A. hydrophila compared to that in healthy catfish; 2) to determine whether over-expression of GPR18 in catfish gill cells will offer protec...

  4. Proteomic analysis of blood cells in fish exposed to chemotherapeutics: evidence for long term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, Marie-Aline; Kestemont, Patrick; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Tran, Minh Phu; Delaive, Edouard; Thezenas, Marie-Laëtitia; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2012-04-18

    Proteomics technology are increasingly used in ecotoxicological studies to characterize and monitor biomarkers of exposure. The present study aims at identifying long term effects of malachite green (MG) exposure on the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the Asian catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. A common (0.1 ppm) concentration for therapeutic treatment was applied twice with a 72 h interval. PBMC were collected directly at the end of the second bath of MG (T1) and after 1 month of decontamination (T2). Analytical 2D-DIGE gels were run and a total of 2551±364 spots were matched. Among them, MG induced significant changes in abundance of 116 spots with no recovery after one month of decontamination. Using LC-MS/MS and considering single identification per spot, we could identify 25 different proteins. Additionally, MG residues were measured in muscle and in blood indicating that leuco-MG has almost totally disappeared after one month of decontamination. This work highlights long term effects of MG treatment on the PBMC proteome from fish intended for human consumption.

  5. Fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparation for future monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, Marie-Aline; Roland, Kathleen; Kestemont, Patrick; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2012-07-15

    Fish species possess many specific characteristics that support their use in ecotoxicology. Widely used in clinical research, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can reasonably be exploited as relevant target cells in the assessment of environmental chemical toxicity. The current article focuses on the methods necessary to isolate, characterize, and culture fish PBMCs. These procedures were successfully applied on an endangered species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and on an economically important and worldwide exported species, the Asian catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus S.). Proteomic approaches can be useful to screen xenobiotic exposure at the protein expression level, giving the opportunity to develop early warning signals thanks to molecular signatures of toxicity. To date, a major limitation of proteomic analyses is that most protein expression profiles often reveal the same predominant and frequently differentially expressed families of proteins regardless of the experimental stressing conditions. The current study describes a methodology to get a postnuclear fraction of high quality isolated from fish PBMCs in order to perform subsequent subproteomic analyses. Applied on samples from eel, the subproteomic analysis (two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis) allowed the identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and searches in the full NCBInr (National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant) database of 66 proteins representing 36 different proteins validated through Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold software.

  6. Effects of cortisol and stress on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility and lysozyme activity following exposure to Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brian C; Bilodeau, A Lelania

    2005-05-15

    Periods of stress are often associated with disease outbreaks in cultured fish, and stress is often characterized by the secretion of cortisol. Although stress and cortisol secretion are highly correlated in fish, the role of cortisol in affecting channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility is unclear. The effects of short-term stress and exogenous cortisol administration on channel catfish susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri, the etiologic agent of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), were investigated. Channel catfish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri following a standardized 30-min low-water stress or administration of dietary cortisol (100 mg/kg feed) and compared to a pathogen-challenged control group of catfish. Pathogen susceptibility increased in stressed catfish (43.3% mortality) when compared to cortisol-fed catfish (26.7%) and controls (26.7%). A greater (Pcortisol-fed catfish (13.0%) over the course of the study, however, average levels of circulating bacteria were not different (P>0.05) among the treatments. Catfish challenged by the low-water stress event had elevated (Pcortisol 1-day post-pathogen exposure and elevated (Pcortisol-fed and control-challenged catfish. Cortisol concentrations were not correlated (P>0.05) to either lysozyme activity or bacterial levels; however, lysozyme activity was positively correlated (P=0.0197) to blood bacterial concentrations. These results implicate other stress factors or pathways, separate from or possibly in conjunction with cortisol, in the stress-associated immunosuppression of channel catfish as it relates to ESC susceptibility.

  7. Tracking wakes: the nocturnal predatory strategy of piscivorous catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, K; Grasso, F W; Breithaupt, T

    2001-06-19

    Swimming fish leave wakes containing hydrodynamic and chemical traces. These traces mark their swim paths and could guide predators. We now show that nocturnal European catfish (Silurus glanis) locate a piscine prey (guppy, Poecilia reticulata) by accurately tracking its three-dimensional swim path before an attack in the absence of visible light. Wakes that were up to 10 s old were followed over distances up to 55 prey-body lengths in our setup. These results demonstrate that prey wakes remain sufficiently identifiable to guide predators, and to extend considerably the area in which prey is detectable. Moreover, wakes elicit rear attacks, which may be more difficult to detect by prey. Wake tracking may be a common strategy among aquatic predators.

  8. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  9. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; XIE Shouqi; ZHU Xiaoming; YANG Yunxia

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Gtinther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30,and 35℃) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4),free 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum watertemperature for growth was 27.7℃. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly (P<0.05)on day 30 at temperatures above 20℃. Lysozyme activity was significantly (P<0.05) lower at 25℃ than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  10. Artificial induction of androgenetic diploid in Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; FAN Zhaoting; CHEN Weixing; FANG Jingjie

    2007-01-01

    Androgenesis was the especial zoogamy that the germ plasma of offspring was from the agnate. In this study the eggs of Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were irradiated by UV suspending in the synthetic ovarian fluid (OF), and the total dosage of UV irradiation was 220 mJ·cm-2. Diploid could be induced by heat shock (40℃, 2 min, 3 min) with different time period after fertilization (15-37 min). The result showed that heat shock with 2 min was better than 3 min; there were two apices of induction in 17-21 min and 27-31 min after fertilization. The highest hatching rate was 3.30% at 29 min after fertilization, and the difference between two apices of induction was unobvious.

  11. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  12. The estimate of world demand for pangasius catfish (Pangasiusianodon hypopthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Nielsen, Max; Roth, Eva;

    2016-01-01

    Demand System of the seven market regions. Prices in all markets are found very inflexible, with own-price flexibilities on -0.200 to -0.917, or -0.419 on average, revealing the option of expanding global production and export without inducing a substantial price reduction. Consumers in all markets......This paper aims to investigate international market potentials for pangasius catfish (Pangasiusianodon hypopthalmus). The monthly export data from Vietnam, which accounts for more than 95% of the global export value, in the period 2007 to 2014, were used to estimate a nonlinear Inverse Almost Ideal...... except Latin America evaluate pangasius as a necessary good, indicating that the pangasius industry is relative little affected by recessions and booms in the world economy. The major markets are substitutes for each other, therefore, if demand at one market region is reduced, the presence...

  13. Risk analysis of tractor overturns on catfish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Walter B; Ibendahl, Gregory A; Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2010-10-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries occur on catfish farms as a result of tractor overturns, but these injuries can be greatly mitigated when a tractor is equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS) and seatbelt. This study analyzed the proportion of tractors on catfish farms in Mississippi not equipped with ROPS and the cost of retrofitting those tractors with a ROPS and seatbelt as compared to the expected benefits gained from adding the protection. To determine if farmers have the financial incentive to retrofit older tractors, a net present value framework was used because the expected benefits occur over a number of years. The ROPS retrofit is a one-time cost that occurs immediately, and thus the present value does not need to be calculated, i.e., time period 0. According to this study adding ROPS will provide a net benefit of $22,877 in the event of an overturn. When dealing with small farms (tractor is used for approximately twice as many hours compared to an average tractor on large farms, the extra hours worked by a single tractor resulted in total benefits of retrofitting ROPS of $9.45 per year, whereas for large farms the net benefit is $4.70 (=125 acres). Given that the least expensive retrofit is $147, it would take 15.5 years of tractor use on the small farms for the expected benefits to outweigh the cost. Given the large range of costs that could occur due to an overturn, there could be a significant premium for not having ROPS protection. In other words, there likely is a smaller range of costs from an overturn with ROPS than without ROPS because ROPS reduces the more serious incidents.

  14. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  15. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  16. DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  17. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish.

  18. Apolipoprotein A1 in channel catfish: Transcriptional analysis, antimicrobial activity, and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine transcriptional profiles of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in collected channel catfish tissues after infection with A. hydrophila by bath immersion; 2) investigate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 produced in E. coli expression syst...

  19. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  20. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  1. Influence of fertilizing water pH on the hatching success of stripped channel catfish eggs on channel x blue hybrid catfish embryo production in hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable egg quality is one of the most important constrains to the development of aquaculture. The quality of eggs that are manually stripped from channel catfish are affected by variation in parental genetics, maturity, type and dose of hormone, age and pre-spawning stress of female fish. Furthe...

  2. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains, deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.

  4. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  5. Diet and population metrics of the introduced blue catfish population in the Altamaha, River, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) were first detected in the Altamaha River, Georgia, during an access creel survey in 2005 and subsequently in 2006 during annual ictalurid sampling. Introduction of this species in the Altamaha River is believed to have occurred via escape from normal upstream reservoir releases from Lake Sinclair and Lake Oconee. Relative abundance, as indexed by electrofishing catch rate (fish per hour), has increased from 2.9±1.0 SE in 2006 to 38.8±8.2 SE in 2011. The size of blue catfish captured ranged from 56 to 820 mm total length and 0.001 to 7.7 kg. Using otoliths obtained in 2010 (n=214), age of fish ranged from 0 to 6 yrs, which indicated a relatively young population. The catch-curve analysis resulted in an instantaneous mortality rate (Z) of 0.75. Despite concerns of blue catfish predation on native fishes and mussels, a diet analysis of blue catfish (n=257) obtained in 2010 revealed that diets of fish in all size groups were dominated by the introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea). This study describes a recently introduced blue catfish population in an Atlantic coastal plain river and provides insight on possible ecological effects during the early phases of establishment. These results offer an early status assessment of the invasion dynamics before the system has had time to reach a new equilibrium state.

  6. TANTANGAN BISNIS IKAN HIAS TIGER CATFISH (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum MELALUI PENGUASAAN TEKNOLOGI PEMIJAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tiger catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum merupakan salah satu ikan hias hasil introduksi yang berasal dari Sungai Amazon Amerika Latin dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang cukup tinggi terutama untuk komoditas ekspor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang pembenihan ikan tiger catfish secara buatan. Metode yang digunakan untuk pemijahan buatan ikan tiger catfish ini adalah dengan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin. Calon induk ikan hias tiger catfish dapat matang gonad dipelihara dalam kolam beton berukuran 2,5 m x 2,0 m x 0,8 m dengan ke dalaman air antara 50-60 cm dilengkapi dengan sistem sirkulasi. Perbandingan antara jantan dan betina yaitu 1:2. Bobot rata-rata induk yang siap dipijahkan sekitar 2,5 kg dan sudah berumur minimal dua tahun. Jumlah telur yang dihasilkan setiap satu induk dapat mencapai 300.000 butir dengan daya tetas rata-rata 80%. Telur akan menetas semua dalam waktu 15 19 jam pada suhu berkisar antara 26oC-30oC. Larva yang telah menetas tetap dibiarkan dalam akuarium sampai kuning telur yang menempel di tubuh habis termakan. Keberhasilan pembenihan diawali dari pengelolaan induk yang benar untuk dapat matang gonad, sehingga kualitas telur bagus dan akan menghasikan benih-benih yang berkualitas. Teknik pembenihan juga menjadi faktor yang menentukan untuk keberhasilan pembenihan. Teknologi pemijahan buatan dengan menggunakan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin ikan tiger catfish telah dikuasai dan telah berkembang di para breeder ikan hias.

  7. Chemical and Microbiology Characteristic of Smoked and Seasoned African Catfish Fillet Affected by Canning Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kalingga Murda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus many cultivated by the farmers, however if not treated quicklydamaged. One treatment that can maintain quality product african catfish is by smoked and canning. Theaim of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiological characteristics of smoked Africancatfish fillet with seasoning packaged cans during storage. Preparation of research carried out by soakingthe African catfish fillet into seasonings and liquid smoke concentration of 10% by immersion for 1minute, and then next process of curing and drying. Products that are ripe weighed 110 g and signedinto cans sized Ø 301x205. Added medium brine concentration 5% and vegetable oil as much as 100ml, a process exhausting and seaming. The last stage is performed a sterilization process (126oC for 20minutes, cooling and incubation (24oC for 2 weeks. Observations deterioration of product quality ofsmoked African catfish fillet with seasoning performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Tests conducted includechemical test which includes test TVB, pH and peroxide value and microbiological testing in the formof TPC. The results showed that the combined treatment of the fumigation and the addition of medium(saline 5% and solution of vegetable oil combined with treatment canning able to maintain productquality of smoked African catfish fillet with seasoning, based TVB, pH, peroxide value and TPC duringstorage.

  8. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  9. Effect of alcohol and formaldehyde on the ä13C and ä15N isotopic composition of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes = Efeito do alcool e formol sobre a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e de ƒÂ15N em Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Iachstel Manetta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the ƒÂ13C and ƒÂ15N isotopic composition in frozen samples (control, samples in alcohol and in formaldehyde of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus. From each individual we extracted a strip of muscle from the region above the lateral line, in the dorsal fin base, that was divided into three equal parts, each one was submitted to one type of treatment: freeze . control group (-15oC, conservation in alcohol 70%and fixation in formaldehyde 4%. Samples were kept under those treatments for 30 days, washed and submerged in distilled water for 4 hours. Afterwards, they were dried up in air oven at 60oC for 48 hours and macerated until the obtaining of a fine powder. A significant difference was found in isotopic values of carbon and nitrogen, between the control and the samples in alcohol and formaldehyde, except for ƒÂ13C from the H. edentatus samples in formaldehyde. The carbon isotopic values of samples in alcohol were mostly enriched compared to control, whereas the samples in formaldehyde presented depleted values in relation to the control. The nitrogen isotopic values for both samples preserved in alcohol and formaldehyde were enriched when compared to the values of frozen samples, independently of used preservatives. Therefore, the isotopic correction should be accomplished according to the isotope and preservative employed for species of freshwater fish.O presente estudo investiga a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e ƒÂ15N entre as amostras congeladas (controle, em alcool e em formol de Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus. De cada individuo foi extraida uma faixa de musculo localizada na regiao acima da linha lateral, na base da nadadeira dorsal, a qual foi subdividida em tres partes iguais, sendo cada uma delas submetida a um tipo de tratamento: congelamento - grupo control (-15oC, conservacao em alcool 70% e fixacao em formol 4%. As amostras foram mantidas nos

  10. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  11. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Văn Quân

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engine in area will reduce the HC, CO, SOx and NOx emission to the environment. Therefore, with a study on applying the catfish biofuel, it will reduce the climate change by the increasing of sea water level and save energy by using green energy to replace petrol oil.

  12. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  13. Behaviors of southwestern native fishes in response to introduced catfish predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Figiel, Chester R.

    2013-01-01

    Native fishes reared in hatcheries typically suffer high predation mortality when stocked into natural environments. We evaluated the behavior of juvenile bonytail Gila elegans, roundtail chub Gila robusta, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and Sonora sucker Catostomus insignis in response to introduced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris. Our laboratory tests indicate these species did not inherently recognize catfish as a threat, but they can quickly (within 12 h) change their behavior in response to a novel predator paired with the sight and scent of a dead conspecific. Chubs appear to avoid predation by swimming away from the threat, whereas suckers reduced movement. Effects of antipredator conditioning on survival of fish reared in hatcheries is unknown; however, our results suggest some native fish can be conditioned to recognize introduced predators, which could increase poststocking survival.

  14. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Benjamin H; Farmer, Bradley D; Straus, David L; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecologic and economic impacts, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to this pathogen remain unclear. While F. columnare can induce marked pathologic changes in numerous ectopic tissues, the adhesion of F. columnare to the gill in particular is strongly associated with pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F. columnare (as compared to naïve fish). Thus, in the present study we sought to further characterize and understand the RBL response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We first identified two distinct catfish families with differential susceptibilities to columnaris disease; one family was found to be completely resistant while the other was susceptible (0% mortality versus 18.3% respectively, P catfish RBL that persisted for at least 24 h (P catfish to different doses of the putative RBL ligands l-rhamnose and d-galactose, and found that these sugars, protected channel catfish against columnaris disease, likely through competition with F. columnare binding of host RBL. Finally, we examined the role of nutritional status on RBL regulation and found that RBL expression was upregulated (>120-fold; P < 0.05) in fish fasted for 7 d (as compared to fish fed to satiation daily), yet expression levels returned to those of satiated fish within 4 h after re-feeding. Collectively, these findings highlight putative roles for RBL in the context of columnaris disease and reveal new aspects linking RBL regulation to feed availability.

  15. Biological properties of Indian walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) (L.) gonadotropins in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shrabanti; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Juin, Subir Kumar; Nath, Panchanan

    2014-12-01

    The biological activities of catfish LH-like (semi-purified: s200a and purified Qa) and FSH-like (semi-purified: s200b and purified: Qb) were compared in intact and hypophysectomized female catfish, Clarias batrachus, during preparatory and the pre-spawning periods on vitellogenesis and ovarian maintenance, as well as in vitro final maturation of oocytes, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). During preparatory period, in intact catfish, semi-purified FSH-like induced complete vitellogenesis through the production of estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (Vg) accompanied by the formation of SIII yolky oocytes. On the other hand, semi-purified LH-like had induced the formation of only SII (characterized by the appearance of cortical alveoli in cytoplasm) oocytes, which indicates the initiation of vitellogenesis. In hypophysectomized female catfish, purified LH-like but not FSH-like induced the formation of SII oocytes in the ovaries. Treatment with semi-purified LH- and FSH-like at the dose level of 5 µg/fish/day for 7 days significantly maintained the yolky oocytes in gravid catfish after hypophysectomy with a significant reduction in plasma Vg, but not E2 levels, indicating some unknown GtH-induced factor doing the job. In in vitro oocytes culture, both LH- and FSH-like induced GVBD, but the response was significantly more with LH-like than FSH-like. All these findings revealed that both LH-like and FSH-like have overlapping physiological functions, but their responses differ depending on the physiological status of the catfish.

  16. Influence of Wind Vector Structure Variation of Typhoon "Catfish" Circulation on Its Pathway Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the wind vector structure variation of No.1013 strong typhoon "catfish",and its influence on typhoon pathway mutation.[Method] According to the theory that the asymmetric structure of typhoon vortex had influence on typhoon movement,the center of No.1013 super typhoon "catfish" was as the coordinate origin,and 850,500 hPa tangential rotation speeds within 300-500 km were decomposed into u and v components.The composite force movement tendency of typhoon was analyzed.T...

  17. High rates of substitution of the native catfish Clarias batrachus by Clarias gariepinus in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita D; Shinde, Rushidkumar N; Kalyankar, Amol D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The clariid catfish, Clarias batrachus commonly known as Magur, has declined drastically from natural habitats in India during the last decade. This fish is highly preferred fish by Indian consumers and has high market demand. As a result traders often substitute C. batrachus with a morphologically similar but supposedly banned exotic catfish, C. gariepinus, in India. This study uses rigorous morphological comparisons confirmed by DNA barcode analysis to examine the level of substitution of C. batracus by C. gariepinus in India. Our results indicate that up to 99% (in many cases) of the market samples sold as Magur or C. batrachus were in fact C. gariepinus.

  18. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  19. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  20. Genetic structure and phylogeography of European catfish (Silurus glanis) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidis, A; Krieg, F; Cottin, C; Abatzopoulos, T J; Triantaphyllidis, C; Guyomard, R

    2002-06-01

    The genetic structure of Silurus glanis (Europe's largest freshwater fish species) across most of its natural distribution was investigated using 10 microsatellite loci. The revealed levels of genetic diversity were much higher than previous allozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism mitochondrial DNA analyses had shown; relative levels of variability among populations were however, in good agreement with the previous studies. Populations from large basins (Volga and Danube rivers) were the most polymorphic, while samples from the smaller Greek rivers, which are more prone to genetic bottleneck, exhibited the lowest levels of genetic diversity. Microsatellite multilocus genotyping permitted the assignment of individual fish to their population of origin with a score as high as 98.3%. Despite the great genetic differentiation of S. glanis populations, no consistent pattern of geographical structuring was revealed, in contrast to previous studies of European freshwater fish species. A model of isolation by distance seems more probable and a hypothesis of recent dispersion from only one glacial refugium is proposed. The discovery of the highest levels of microsatellite and mitochondrial diversity in the Volga sample and the presence of river connections, during the Pleistocene, between this area and all major areas of the present catfish distribution, place this refugium around the Ponto-Caspian region. Combining these data with those from previous studies, a number of markers are now available to monitor wild and hatchery populations even at the individual level.

  1. Unstable and stable periodicities in thermally sensitive electroreceptors of catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Frank; Pei, Xing; Braun, Hans; Schafer, Klaus; Peters, Rob

    1997-03-01

    A statistical technique for distinguishing and counting unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) and stable limit cycles (LCs), based on their differing phase space topologies, has recently been developed(D. Pierson and F. Moss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2124 (1995)). Because the method is able to operate effectively on data files from noisy dynamical sources, it is uniquely effective when operating on data from biological sources, for example, weakly stimulated sensory neurons(X. Pei and F. Moss, Nature 379, 618 (1996)). Here we report the results of a study of bifurcations between UPOs and LCs in the electroreceptor organs of the catfish with the surface temperature of the receptors used as the bifurcation parameter. These organs have previously been shown to exhibit an internal near sub threshold oscillator which may account for the spontaneous appearance of the UPOs for certain values of the temperature. In previous experiments on different sensory systems (possibly of lower dimension) external periodic forcing was necessary for the appearance of UPOs.

  2. Ampullary organ morphology of freshwater salmontail catfish, Arius graeffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, D L; Tibbetts, I R; Daddow, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Two types of ampullary organs are present in the skin of the freshwater salmontail catfish, Arius graeffei, each consisting of a short canal (0.2-0.5 mm) oriented perpendicular to the basement membrane and ending in an ampulla. Histochemical staining techniques (Alcian blue and Lillie's allochrome) indicate that the ampullary canals contain an acidic mucopolysaccharide gel, which is uniform in its staining properties along the canals. Type II ampullary organs consist of a canal, the wall of which is lined with cuboidal epithelial cells. The canal opens into an ampulla with 50-60 receptor cells. Electron microscopy reveals that the pear-shaped receptor cells bear microvilli on their luminal surface and lie adjacent to an unmyelinated neuron. Type III ampullary organs differ from Type II in that the canal wall consists of cells that possess a protein-rich sac at the luminal apex and have a polymorphic nucleus. The canals of Type III ampullary organs open to an ampulla with 8-30 receptor cells similar in both staining properties and structure to those of the Type II organ. In both types of ampullary organs, supportive cells surround each receptor cell except at the apex of the receptor cell.

  3. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, J K; Archer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991 the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service's Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during the 2008-2010 PDPs. A subset of 202 samples was analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). The average pattern of the individual PCDD/F congener concentrations in the catfish was rather unique in that it had almost no measurable amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), but all PCDDs were present. This pattern was more dominant in the domestically produced catfish products than in the imported products (China/Taiwan). Comparison of the pattern to known sources of PCDD/Fs showed strong similarities to the pattern of PCDD/Fs found in kaolin clays which have often been used as anti-caking agents in animal feeds. To investigate whether catfish feeds may be the source of the PCDD/Fs found in the catfish, archived catfish feed data from a US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) database were examined. In 61 out of 112 feed samples, the PCDD concentrations were 50 times higher than the PCDF concentrations and resembled the pattern found in the catfish products and in clays mined in the south-eastern United States. Although the source of PCDD/Fs in domestically marketed catfish products cannot be definitively established, mined clay products used in feeds should be considered a likely source and, given the wide concentration range of PCDD/Fs that has been found in clays, a critical control point for PCDD/Fs entrance to the food supply.

  4. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma ghrelin (GHRL) and mRNAs encoding GRLN, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in channel catfish. Fish were either offered feed (Fed) or fasted (Unfed). Feeding incr...

  5. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  6. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  7. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  8. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different thorium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Pavanato, Maria A; Llesuy, Susana F; Correa, Lizelia M; Konzen Riffel, Ana P; Loro, Vania L; Mesko, Márcia F; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic thorium (Th) exposure on bioaccumulation, metabolism (through biochemical parameters of the muscle) and oxidative parameters (lipidic peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzymes in the gills and in the hepatic and muscular tissues) of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Silver catfish juveniles were exposed to different waterborne Th levels (in microg L(-1)): 0 (control), 25.3+/-3.2, 80.6+/-12.0, 242.4+/-35.6, and 747.2+/-59.1 for 30 d. The gills and skin were the organs that accumulated the highest Th levels. The increase in the waterborne Th concentration corresponded to a progressive increase in the Th levels in the gills and kidney. Chronic Th exposure causes alterations in the oxidative parameters of silver catfish gills, which are correlated with the Th accumulation in this organ. The levels of GST decreased in the gills of fish exposed to 747.2 microg L(-1) Th and SOD activity decreased in silver catfish exposed to 242.4 and 747.2 microg L(-1) Th. In addition, the increase in the LPO in the gills exposed to 242.4 and 747.2 microg L(-1) Th suggests that higher oxidative damage occurred in the gills. However, in the liver and muscle, these alterations occurred mainly in the lowest waterborne Th level. Metabolic intermediates in the muscle were altered by Th exposure, but no clear relationship was found.

  9. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  10. Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Li, Yun; Song, Lin; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-11-01

    Complement system is one of the most important defense systems of innate immunity, which plays a crucial role in disease defense responses in channel catfish. However, inappropriate and excessive complement activation could lead to potential damage to the host cells. Therefore the complement system is controlled by a set of complement regulatory proteins to allow normal defensive functions, but prevent hazardous complement activation to host tissues. In this study, we identified nine complement regulatory protein genes from the channel catfish genome. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their orthology relationships, supporting their correct annotation and potential functional inferences. The expression profiles of the complement regulatory protein genes were determined in channel catfish healthy tissues and after infection with the two main bacterial pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare. The vast majority of complement regulatory protein genes were significantly regulated after bacterial infections, but interestingly were generally up-regulated after E. ictaluri infection while mostly down-regulated after F. columnare infection, suggesting a pathogen-specific pattern of regulation. Collectively, these findings suggested that complement regulatory protein genes may play complex roles in the host immune responses to bacterial pathogens in channel catfish.

  11. Studies regarding some morphological features of one-summer old catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus,1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela O. Arteni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some representative metric characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maximum height and bodily circumference of wels catfish(Silurus glanis during their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 70 ndividuals and in the end the morphological characters were statistically processed. The experimental results showed a positive correlation between all body variables investigated.

  12. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  13. In situ assessment of two catfish species (pisces, Ariidae) to evaluate pollution in a harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Junior, Audalio Rebelo Torres; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; de Sousa de Oliveira Mota Andrade, Ticianne; Torres, Hetty Salvino; da Silva Castro, Jonatas; da Silva de Almeida, Zafira; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia

    2016-12-01

    A histopathological and biometric database for the catfish Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre from São Luís Island (Harbor area) and Caranguejos Island (reference area) in Brazil is presented. Branchial and hepatic lesions were classified into three reaction patterns: 1) circulatory or inflammatory disturbances; 2) regressive changes; 3) progressive changes. The total length (Lt), standard length (Ls), furcal length (Lf), total weight (Wt), and gonad weight (Wg) of each fish were recorded. As expected, most populations of catfish considered in this study are highly heterogeneous, with lengths and weights deviating from the reference sample. No histopathological lesions were observed in Sciades herzbergii examined at the reference site (Caranguejos Island). In contrast, 90% of the catfish S. herzbergii from sites located in the Harbor Area (São Luís Island) had one or more types of branchial and hepatic lesions. As opposed to what was observed in S. herzbergii, more than 86.33% of Bagre bagre individuals showed histopathological alterations in both areas. The utility of histopathological lesions and biometric data as sensitive indicators of the health of wild catfish populations has been demonstrated. Sciades herzbergii proved to be a better species for biomonitoring because it was able to differentiate one impacted site (Port Area/ São Luís Island) from a region relatively free of contaminants (Reference Area/ Caranguejos Island).

  14. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and phylogeny of the East Asian bagrid catfishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was sequenced from 8 bagrid catfishes in China. Aligned with cytochrome b sequences from 9 bagrid catfishes in Japan, Korea and Russia retrieved from GenBank, and selected Silurus meridionalis, Liobagrus anguillicauda, Liobagrus reini and Phenacogrammus interruptus as outgroups, we constructed a matrix of 21 DNA sequences. The Kimura's two-parameter distances were calculated and molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The results show that (i) there exist 3-bp deletions of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene compared with cypriniforms and characiforms; (ii) the molecular phylogenetic tree suggests that bagrid catfishes form a monophyletic group, and the genus Mystus is the earliest divergent in the East Asian bagrid catfishes, as well as the genus Pseudobagrus is a monophyletic group but the genus Pelteobagrus and Leiocassis are complicated; and (iii) the evolution rate of the East Asian bagrids mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is about 0.18%~0.30% sequence divergence per million years.

  15. PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in catfish from U.S. Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, egg products, and farm-raised catfish marketed in the United States. As such the USDA conducts statistical surveys to determine chemical residue concentrations in these domestic products. Little background data...

  16. Dioxins and other environmental contaminants in catfish from U.S. commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill), amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act to provide that "catfish, as defined by the Secretary," is an amenable species and therefore subject to continuous inspection by the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. Since few background data are ...

  17. Two new species of the callichthyid catfish genus Corydoras from Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper contains descriptions and figures of two new species of the neotropical callichthyid catfish genus Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, from Brazil, Corydoras pulcher from Rio Purus, north of Lábrea, Est. Amazonas, and Corydoras steindachneri from Paranaguá, Est. Paraná. The relationships of the new

  18. Expression of immune genes in skin of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited information on innate and adaptive immune gene expression in the skin of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus immunized with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich). The objective of this study was to evaluate differential expression of innate and adaptive immune genes, including immunog...

  19. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitate have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  20. Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a valid species of bagrid catfish from eastern Borneo (Teleostei: Siluriformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a species of bagrid catfish previously considered a junior synonym of B. macracanthus Bleeker, 1854, is found to be a valid species distinct from the latter. It can be differentiated from B. macracanthus in having a shorter dorsal spine, smaller eye and steeper

  1. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2013-03-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  2. SEASONAL FORAGING BY CHANNEL CATFISH ON TERRESTRIALLY BURROWING CRAYFISH IN A FLOODPLAIN-RIVER ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal use of terrestrially burrowing crayfish as a food item by channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was studied in channelized and non-channelized sections of the Yockanookany River (Mississippi, USA). During seasonal inundation of the floodplains, the crayfish occupied o...

  3. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects: Vertical Integration and Contracts in the Catfish Sector in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  4. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  5. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so

  6. Identification and characterization of TCRgamma and TCRdelta chains in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, T cell receptors (TCR) gamma and delta were identified by mining of expressed sequence tag databases and full length sequences were obtained by 5'-RACE and RT-PCR protocols. cDNAs for each of these TCR chains encode typical variable (V), (diversity; D), joining ...

  7. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  8. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus (Teleostei, Clariidae cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Fadhil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1, 8-12 cm (Tank 2 and 12-15 cm (Tank 3,respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010 by considering the waterquality during experiment, indicates that the RAS are able to provide proper conditions for growth andsurvival of catfish with a survival rate more than 92% on all tank experiments with specific growth ratefrom 0.64 to 0.89% per day and feed conversion rate of about 0.18-0.27. The existence of the impuritiesfrom the fish waste directly influences water quality, but the decline of water quality still at a decent levelfor the culture of catfish. The ANOVA test to the biological performance and water quality showed thatthe difference in the size of fish in each tank has no significant influence between each other.

  9. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  10. Impact of weather on off-flavor episodes at a Louisiana commercial catfish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catfish aquaculture industry is hampered by off-flavor events that affect timely sale and pond restocking. In this study, weather data was correlated with geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol levels in 21 commercial ponds. Samples were collected weekly for 44 weeks. The off-flavor compounds, geosmi...

  11. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  12. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  13. Humoral immune response of catfish immunized with extracellular products of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by the pathogen. Prophylactic treatment is being sought to prevent MAS. Since multiple virulence associated facto...

  14. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-04-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  15. The Case Against Using Organic Fertilizers in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Nursery Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the assumed advantages and disadvantages of organic fertilizers and presents the case that the risks outweigh the benefits for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery pond fertilization. Under certain conditions, organic fertilizers may be beneficial to provide forage for z...

  16. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  17. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  18. Variants of Microcystin in Southeastern USA Channel Catfish (Ictalurus puntctatus ralfinesque) Production Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synoptic survey of 486 channel catfish production ponds was made from the southern states (AL, AR, LA, MS) that produce over 90% of commercially grown fish. The survey assessed distribution of microcystin toxins in these ponds. A total of 12 variants of microcystin were detected. The threshold ...

  19. Generation of myostatin B knockout yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco) using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhangji; Ge, Jiachun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Dong, Xiaohua; Cao, Shasha; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-06-01

    Myostatin (Mstn), a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, plays an inhibiting role in mammalian muscle growth. Mammals like human, cattle, mouse, sheep, and dog carrying null alleles of Mstn display a double-muscle phenotype. Mstn is conserved in fish; however, little is known whether the fish with mutated mstn display a similar phenotype to mammals because of the lack of mutant fish with mstn null alleles. Previously, we knocked out one of the duplicated copies of myostatin gene (mstna) in yellow catfish using zinc-finger nucleases. In this study, we report the identification of the second myostatin gene (mstnb) and knockout of mstnb in yellow catfish. The gene comprises three exons. It is predicted to encode 373 amino acid residues. The predicted protein exhibits 59.3% identity with yellow catfish Mstna and 57.3% identity with human MSTN. Employing TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) technology, we obtained two founders (from four randomly selected founders) of yellow catfish carrying the mutated mstnb gene in their germ cells. Totally, six mutated alleles of mstnb were obtained from the founders. Among the six alleles, four are nonframeshift and two are frameshift mutation. The frameshift mutated alleles include mstnb(nju22), an 8 bp deletion, and mstnb(nju24), a complex type of mutation comprising a 7 bp deletion and a 12 bp insertion. They are predicted to encode function null Mstnb. Our results will help to understand the roles of mstn genes in fish growth.

  20. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Aeromonas hydrophila Isolates from Catfish and Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Kalindamar, Safak; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here, we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates. PMID:28104665

  2. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), characteristic of its scaleless skin and prominent barbels, is an ideal species to study osteogenesis, development of appendages, olfactory sensing, and immunological adaptation. It is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. A high quality refere...

  3. Effect of graded fingerlings on hybrid catfish food fish size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is not unusual to have both 0.5 lb and 5 lb fish harvested from a single-batch hybrid catfish production pond at the end of the growing season. When that happens, farmers may be docked for fish that are either larger or smaller than the processor’s preferred size range. This study was conducted t...

  4. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2001-09-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  5. DISTRIBUTION AND EXPRESSION OF STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasionodon hypophtalmus GROWTH HORMONE GENE (PhGH IN THE ORGAN OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIC FOUNDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faster growing African catfish can be produced by transgenesis. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and expression of growth hormone gene (PhGH in various organs of the transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus founder (F0. Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, caudal fin, gill and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, -actin gene used as internal controls. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish founder. The high level of PhGH expression was found in the liver, pituitary, intestine and brain; smaller amounts were detectable in muscle, spleen, kidneys, heart, and stomach, caudal fin, gill and eyes, range from 0.02-0.75 PhGH/-actin mRNA. The expression levels of PhGH had positive correlation with tissue and body size (P<0.05.

  6. Morphological and histomorphological structure of testes of the catfish "Clarias gariepinus" from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yasser A; Samei, Nada A Abdel; Zayed, Ahmed Z

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the normal reproductive biology of catfish is of a great importance not only for better understanding of the theory of fish development, but also to be used as a baseline for understanding the pathological changes results form exposure to harmful toxicants. Thus, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the gross anatomical and light microscopic features of the testes of the catfish "Clarias gariepinus" from Egypt. The present study was carried out on 36 mature male catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected monthly during the spawning period (April-September) throughout the Nile River, crossing Sohag city in Egypt, in the year 2011. Samples were processed for light and electron microscopy. Each testis consisted of two regions, a fringed outer lateral region and a smooth sagittal-medial region. Histological examination revealed that the testis was covered with a highly vascular connective tissue capsule sending septa dividing the testis into seminiferous lobules separated by interstitial connective tissue containing steroid secreting Leydig cells. Seminiferous lobules were made up of spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells; the spermatogenic cells located within cysts formed by the cytoplasmic projections of the Sertoli cells. According to the maturation stages, the seminiferous lobules were classified into three types. Spermatogenic seminiferous lobules were lined with different spermatogenic cells but had few or no spermatozoa. Pubertal seminiferous lobules were packed with spermatozoa with few spermatogenic cells. Spent seminiferous lobules contained remnants of spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells. In conclusion, the testis of catfish Clarias gariepinus from Egypt was similar in structure to other catfish and teleost species.

  7. Validation of daily ring deposition in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaris, P.C.; Irwin, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    We developed and validated methods for estimating the daily age of age-0 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Two clutches of channel catfish eggs were hatched in the laboratory; subsequently, one was stocked in a 186-m2 earthen nursery pond and the other in a 757-L outdoor circular tank. Before stocking, subsamples of fish were collected at swim-up and 3 d after swim-up to evaluate early ring formation. Fish were sampled from the pond and tank on eight occasions ranging from 30 to 119 d posthatch. Distinct differences in early ring formation were found between yolk sac and free-swimming larval stages. Mean ring count and known age were closely related for tank- and pond-raised fish, indicating that daily ring deposition occurred in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish up to 119 d posthatch. The accuracy of daily age estimation was similar between tank and pond samples, and daily ring counts were considerably accurate up to 60 d posthatch. Pond-raised fish were more difficult to age than tank-raised fish, which we attributed to ring compression resulting from slower growth among pond-raised fish after 30 d. The total length of tank- and pond-raised fish was positively related to otolith size; however, the slopes of the relationships between fish length and otolith radius were different between treatments. Therefore, we could not confirm that the relationship between fish length and otolith size was directly proportional for age-0 channel catfish. We encourage researchers to use this aging technique to determine how abiotic and biotic factors influence early life history characteristics and ultimately the population dynamics of catfishes (Ictaluridae). ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. cDNA sequence and protein bioinformatics analyses of MSTN in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanaworakul, Poonmanee; Sawatdichaikul, Orathai; Poompuang, Supawadee

    2016-04-01

    Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor 8, has been identified as a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The purpose of this study was to characterize and predict function of the myostatin gene of the African catfish (Cg-MSTN). Expression of Cg-MSTN was determined at three growth stages to establish the relationship between the levels of MSTN transcript and skeletal muscle growth. The partial cDNA sequence of Cg-MSTN was cloned by using published information from its congener walking catfish (Cm-MSTN). The Cg-MSTN was 1194 bp in length encoding a protein of 397 amino acids. The deduced MSTN sequence exhibited key functional sites similar to those of other members of the TGF-β superfamily, especially, the proteolytic processing site (RXXR motif) and nine conserved cysteines at the C-terminal. Expression of MSTN appeared to be correlated with muscle development and growth of African catfish. Protein bioinformatics revealed that the primary sequence of Cg-MSTN shared 98 % sequence identity with that of walking catfish Cm-MSTN with only two different residues, [Formula: see text]. and [Formula: see text]. The proposed model of Cg-MSTN revealed the key point mutation [Formula: see text] causing a 7.35 Å shorter distance between the N- and C-lobes and an approximately 11° narrow angle than those of Cm-MSTN. The substitution of a proline residue near the proteolytic processing site which altered the structure of myostatin may play a critical role in reducing proteolytic activity of this protein in African catfish.

  9. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  10. Corydoras ornatus, a new species of callichthyid catfish from the Rio Tapajós Drainage, Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A new species of the neotropical callichthyid catfish genus Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. ornatus, is described and figured. It is compared with Corydoras pulcher Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1973, a closely related species.

  11. A comparison of biomarker responses in juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, exposed to the pesticide butachlor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrati...

  12. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  13. Estradiol and testosterone (11-KT) concentrations in catfish associated with wastewater discharges into Hollis Creek and the Noxubee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report discusses the findings concerning possible water contamination and endocrine disruption in catfish associated with discharge of tertiary treated wastewater...

  14. Plant Natural Compounds with Antibacterial Activity Towards Common Pathogens of Pond-Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioas...

  15. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  16. Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of five protein arginine methyltransferase genes of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2012-08-01

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), has recently emerged as an important modification in the regulation of gene expression. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish orthologs to human PRMT 1, 3, 4 and 5, and PRMT4 like. Each PRMT nucleic acid sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) and 3'-untranslated regions. Each ORF appears to encode 361, 587 and 458 amino acid residues for PRMT1, PRMT4 and variant, respectively. The partial ORF of PRMT3 and PRMT5 encode 292 and 563 amino acids, respectively. By comparison with the human counterparts, each channel catfish PRMT also has conserved domains. For expression profile, the channel catfish PRMT1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in spleens, anterior kidneys, livers, intestines, skin and gills of fish examined. Except in liver, the PRMT3 transcript was detected in all catfish tissues examined. However, the PRMT4 cDNA was detected in livers from all three catfish and gills from two fish, but not other tissues. This information will enable us to further elucidate PRMT functions in channel catfish.

  17. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Catch of channel catfish with tandem-set hoop nets and gill nets in lentic systems of Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Lindsey K.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six Nebraska water bodies representing two ecosystem types (small standing waters and large standing waters) were surveyed during 2008 and 2009 with tandem-set hoop nets and experimental gill nets to determine if similar trends existed in catch rates and size structures of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus captured with these gears. Gear efficiency was assessed as the number of sets (nets) that would be required to capture 100 channel catfish given observed catch per unit effort (CPUE). Efficiency of gill nets was not correlated with efficiency of hoop nets for capturing channel catfish. Small sample sizes prohibited estimation of proportional size distributions in most surveys; in the four surveys for which sample size was sufficient to quantify length-frequency distributions of captured channel catfish, distributions differed between gears. The CPUE of channel catfish did not differ between small and large water bodies for either gear. While catch rates of hoop nets were lower than rates recorded in previous studies, this gear was more efficient than gill nets at capturing channel catfish. However, comparisons of size structure between gears may be problematic.

  19. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  20. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF EUROPEAN CATFISH (SILURIS GLANIS L. SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Dunaevskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study of the microscopic structure and morphometric parameters of European catfish spleen. Methodology. For the study, we used the spleen of clinically healthy age-2 European catfish (Silurus glanis L.. We determined the absolute and relative weight of the organ or the index of spleen development. For the histological studies, pieces of the material were preserved in 10-12 % cooled neutral formalin solution, with subsequent filling in paraffin. Paraffin sections were prepared using a sledge microtome, with a thickness of no more than 10 microns. To determine the cell and tissue morphology under light microscopy, we the staining of histological sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Determination of spleen linear dimensions, morphometric measurements were carried out using the "Master of Morphology". Quantitative parameters were analyzed in "Statistica 6.0". Findings. European catfish spleen corresponded to general regularities of fish spleen structure: we identified support-contractile apparatus, white and red pulp and inherent cellular composition. Peculiarities of the microscopic structure of this organ in European catfish is underdevelopment of radial trabeculae, poor development of periarterial lymphoid sheaths, absence of the differentiation to zones in lymphoid nodules. The most developed was red pulp (70.82 ± 10.76%, the least developed — support-contractile apparatus (7.04 ± 0.65%. The base of the white pulp (22.14 ± 6.61% is lymphoid nodules without propagation center. The support-contractile apparatus of the spleen, which includes capsule and trabecular system, is developed unevenly. E.g., the capsule thickness in different parts of the body is not the same, the biggest thickness is in porta, where it attains 21.85 ± 7.44 micrometers, its relative area is 3.06 ± 0.32%. Relative area of the trabecular system is 3.98 ± 2.57%, the most developed are vascular trabeculae. Originality. We found the peculiarities of spleen

  1. Histopathological evaluation of seven Amazon species of freshwater ornamental armored catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish commonly known as acaris or plecos are freshwater armored catfish economically important as a food resource and as ornamental fish. Most of these species are captured in the Amazon region. However, despite its economic importance, there is a lack of knowledge about their biological aspects. Thus, this study aimed to characterize and evaluate the histopathological aspects of important organs as gills, liver, integument and kidney of seven species of armored freshwater ornamental catfish fromGuamáRiver,Pará State,Brazil. All organs showed typical characteristics of organs of other teleosts. In some species, gills and liver showed slight histopathological changes: telangiectasis, edema and morphological changes related to the presence of parasites (Monogenea and Digenea in the gills, and changes in the arrangement of hepatocytes rows, and vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver. Thus, the knowledge of the normal structure of organs and changes found can be used as tools for environmental and health monitoring of animals.

  2. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  3. Effect of monolaurin and lactic acid on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh, E G; Marshall, D L; Oh, D H

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes.

  5. Preliminary study on the natural extenders for artificial breeding of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nor Siti-Azizah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the most suitable extender and theirrespective dilution ratios for African catfish sperm for artificial induced breeding and cryopreservationpurposes. Three natural extenders were tested i.e. coconut water, sugarcane water and soybeansolutions, at three different levels of sperm to extender dilutions of 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. While Ringersolution was used as a control Diluted sperm were fertilized with ready isolated eggs to assess thefertility and hatching rate at 0, 6 and 12 hour intervals. The results showed that the eggs hatchedapproximately 19 to 27 hours after fertilization. In general, the fertilization and hatching rates decreasedwith increasing dilution ratio. With respect to natural extenders, the coconut water showed the highestfertility and hatching rates at 1:20 dilution ratio. Therefore, coconut water at 1:20 dilution ratio was theoptimal condition for African catfish spermatozoa among the natural extenders investigated.

  6. SELECTED LIVER AND KIDNEY BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF HYBRID CATFISH EXPOSED TO JATROPHA CURCAS LEAF DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir M. Adamu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (7.50, 5.00, 2.50 and 0.00 gL (control of Jatropha curcas leaf dust on some liver and kidney biochemical profiles such as total protein, total bilirubin, total albumin and total globulin of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus (♀ and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂ after a 14-day experimental period. The result was significantly different in the mean value of determined liver total bilirubin, while total protein, albumin and globulin were insignificantly different in the exposed fish compared with the control. The kidney revealed varying levels of insignificant difference in its level of total protein, total albumin, total bilirubin and total globulin. Therefore, this investigation has revealed that sublethal concentration of Jatropha curcas has no effect on the basic function of the determined biochemical profiles of hybrid catfish and that the changes were directly proportional to J. curcas concentration.

  7. Explosive development of pectoral muscle fibres in large juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, S; Fine, M L

    2015-11-01

    As part of an effort on scaling of pectoral spines and muscles, the basis for growth was examined in six pectoral muscles in juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, the largest catfish in North America. Fibre number increases slowly in fish from 13.0 to 26.4 cm in total length, doubles by 27.0 cm and remains stable in larger individuals. Simultaneously, mean fibre diameter decreases by half, caused by the addition of new small fibres, before increasing non-linearly in larger fish. The orders of magnitude disparity between the size at hatching and the size of large adults may have selected for rapid muscle fibre addition at a threshold size.

  8. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  9. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  11. Evaluation of red seaweed Gracilaria arcuata as dietary ingredient in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Shamlol, Faozi S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried marine seaweed, Gracilaria arcuata for the first time as dietary ingredient in partial substitution of fishmeal on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group; D2; D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% G. arcuata meal respectively. One hundred and eighty African catfish weighing 9.62 ± 0.42 g, (mean ± SE) was divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fishes showed significant differences (P  0.05) were observed between the control group and fishes fed D2 for all previous parameters. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with a diet containing G. arcuata than in the control group and D2 which contains 10% of G. arcuata. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with G. arcuata included in 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and D2. However, the study recommended that C. gariepinus can accept this ingredient up to 10% in their diets. More defined experiments therefore seem to be necessary in order to determine the maximum level of this marine seaweed in diets with amino acid supplementation for African catfish.

  12. ARTIFICIAL SPAWNING OF EUROPEAN CATFISH (Silurus glanis L. USING SMALL DOSES OF CARP PITUITARY GLANDS

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    Ivan Stević

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 and 1998 in the “Ribnjak 1905”•d. d. Našice hatchery artificial spawing of European catfish (Silurus glanis L. was researched under productive conditions using small doses of carp pituitary (CP. Befiwe dosing the carp pituitary glands female catfish were marked, weighed out, grouped according-to their maturity and devided in 5 categories based on grade of their maturity (MC. We used our own criteria. In the controlled group (n=21 female catfish received a single CP shot dosed at 4.5 mg. kg -1 of the body weight (b. w., while in the experimental group (n=62 female fish were treated with single low dosed CP on three levels. It was found out that the minimal CP dosage for the artificial spawning on the 3rd MG is 2.04+-0.15, on the 4th MG 1.59+-0.16 and on the 5th MG 1.25+-0.10 mg. kg-1 of the b. m. Simultaneously, the efficiency of spawning compared to the controlled group was not reduced because it ranged between 92-100% (p<0.0.5, while relative fertility on the 3rd, 4th and 5th maturity grade totalled 9.9+-2.1, 10.4+-1.6 and 11.5+-1.3%, (p<0.05 adequately. The established minimal CP dosages for spawning of European catfish are two to three times lower than relevant data from the reference literature. It is assumed that they will have positive influence on final harmonic maturing process of the oocytes oocita, and by that on better quality of ovulated eggs.

  13. Influence of throat configuration and fish density on escapement of channel catfish from hoop nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Mark T.; Pape, Larry D.; Richters, Lindsey K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several state agencies have adopted the use of baited, tandemset hoop nets to assess lentic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations. Some level of escapement from the net is expected because an opening exists in each throat of the net, although factors influencing rates of escapement from hoop nets have not been quantified. We conducted experiments to quantify rates of escapement and to determine the influence of throat configuration and fish density within the net on escapement rates. An initial experiment to determine the rate of escapement from each net compartment utilized individually tagged channel catfish placed within the entrance (between the two throats) and cod (within the second throat) compartments of a single hoop net for overnight sets. From this experiment, the mean rate (±SE) of channel catfish escaping was 4.2% (±1.5) from the cod (cod throat was additionally restricted from the traditionally manufactured product), and 74% (±4.2) from the entrance compartments. In a subsequent experiment, channel catfish were placed only in the cod compartment with different throat configurations (restricted or unrestricted) and at two densities (low [6 fish per net] and high [60 fish per net]) for overnight sets to determine the influence of fish density and throat configuration on escapement rates. Escapement rates between throat configurations were doubled at low fish density (13.3 ± 5.4% restricted versus 26.7 ± 5.6% unrestricted) and tripled at high fish density (14.3 ± 4.9% restricted versus 51.9 ± 5.0% unrestricted). These results suggest that retention efficiency is high from cod compartments with restricted throat entrances. However, managers and researchers need to be aware that modification to the cod throats (restrictions) is needed for hoop nets ordered from manufacturers. Managers need to be consistent in their use and reporting of cod end throat configurations when using this gear.

  14. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  15. Precision of channel catfish catch estimates using hoop nets in larger Oklahoma reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Hoop nets are rapidly becoming the preferred gear type used to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and many managers have reported that hoop nets effectively sample channel catfish in small impoundments (catfish and the time involved in using 16 tandem hoop net series in larger impoundments (>200 ha). Hoop net series were fished once, set for 3 d; then we used Monte Carlo bootstrapping techniques that allowed us to estimate the number of net series required to achieve two levels of precision (relative standard errors [RSEs] of 15 and 25) at two levels of confidence (80% and 95%). Sixteen hoop net series were effective at obtaining an RSE of 25 with 80% and 95% confidence in all but one reservoir. Achieving an RSE of 15 was often less effective and required 18-96 hoop net series given the desired level of confidence. We estimated that an hour was needed, on average, to deploy and retrieve three hoop net series, which meant that 16 hoop net series per reservoir could be "set" and "retrieved" within a day, respectively. The estimated number of net series to achieve an RSE of 25 or 15 was positively associated with the coefficient of variation (CV) of the sample but not with reservoir surface area or relative abundance. Our results suggest that hoop nets are capable of providing reasonably precise estimates of channel catfish relative abundance and that the relationship with the CV of the sample reported herein can be used to determine the sampling effort for a desired level of precision.

  16. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Beletew, Moges; Mariaux, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African

  17. Ion fluxes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles exposed to different dissolved oxygen levels

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Link de Rosso; Keidi C. S. Bolner; Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2006-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen levels in the water (hypoxia) can be provoked by oxygen consumption by fish and other organisms, organic matter decomposition, phytoplankton blooms, and temperature increase. The objective of the present study was to investigate Na+, Cl-, K+, and ammonia fluxes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different dissolved oxygen levels. Juveniles (9 ± 1g) maintained at 6.0 mg.L-1 dissolved oxygen were transferred to four 40 L aquaria with different dissolved oxygen le...

  18. Enhanced bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in catfish with exposure to the waterborne surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaobing; Yim, Sun-Young; Uppu, Prasanna; Kleinow, Kevin M

    2010-08-15

    Fish bioaccumulate a variety of contaminants and act as an exposure portal to the human consumer. Surfactants, known pharmaceutically to alter membrane permeability, change drug bioavailability and attenuate transporter function are also found in contaminant mixtures in the aquatic environment. The overall objective of this study was to determine if the surfactant C-12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) at environmentally relevant concentrations, alters the disposition and enhances bioaccumulation of co-exposed dietary xenobiotics in the catfish. Included for study were the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), pharmaceutical, ivermectin (IVM), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho-123), each exhibiting different dispositional footprints. Rho-123 transport into bile and membrane fluidity was examined in isolated perfused livers from control and LAS exposed catfish. Mass balance residue assessments were performed on catfish following in vivo exposure for 12 days to LAS in water at 0, 100 or 300 microg/L with 6 days of (3)H-IVM or (3)H-BaP gavage treatments. LAS at 1, 5 and 20 microM in the perfused liver, significantly decreased the transport of Rho-123 (1 microM) into bile by 18.6, 38.1 and 66.7%, respectively. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements demonstrated a 29.7% increase in fluidity at the (1 microM, 348 microg/L) LAS concentration. In vivo mass balance studies indicated that waterborne LAS (100 and 300 microg/L) increased the dietary dose remaining in fish by 39% and 78% for (3)H-IVM and 50 and 157% for (3)H-BaP. LAS at environmentally relevant concentrations altered the bioavailability and disposition of dietary xenobiotics in the catfish. Co-exposure with LAS increases xenobiotic bioaccumulation, potential toxicity of mixture components to the fish and the potential for residue transfer from fish to the consumer.

  19. Characterization and Development of EST-SSR Markers Derived from Transcriptome of Yellow Catfish

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    Jin Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco is one of the most important freshwater fish due to its delicious flesh and high nutritional value. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR markers has hampered the progress of genetic selection breeding and molecular research for yellow catfish. To this end, we aimed to develop and characterize polymorphic expressed sequence tag (EST–SSRs from the 454 pyrosequencing transcriptome of yellow catfish. Totally, 82,794 potential EST-SSR markers were identified and distributed in the coding and non-coding regions. Di-nucleotide (53,933 is the most abundant motif type, and AC/GT, AAT/ATT, AAAT/ATTT are respective the most frequent di-, tri-, tetra-nucleotide repeats. We designed primer pairs for all of the identified EST-SSRs and randomly selected 300 of these pairs for further validation. Finally, 263 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 57 primer pairs were found to be consistently polymorphic when four populations of 48 individuals were tested. The number of alleles for the 57 loci ranged from 2 to 17, with an average of 8.23. The observed heterozygosity (HO, expected heterozygosity (HE, polymorphism information content (PIC and fixation index (fis values ranged from 0.04 to 1.00, 0.12 to 0.92, 0.12 to 0.91 and −0.83 to 0.93, respectively. These EST-SSR markers generated in this study could greatly facilitate future studies of genetic diversity and molecular breeding in yellow catfish.

  20. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus important bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus infected with Edwardsiella ictaluri results in $40 - 50 million annual losses in profits to catfish producers. Early detection of this pathogen is necessary for disease control and reduction of economic loss. In this communication, the loop-mediated isothermal a...

  1. Influence of strain of sire on channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish embryo production and fingerling performance under commercial farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is presently the desired aquaculture species in US farm-raised catfish industry. Even though production and performance has improved over the last two decades, several production and performance parameters needs to be improved to maximize the genetic potential of this ...

  2. Experimental infection and detection of Aphanomyces invadans in European catfish, rainbow trout and European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, Birgit; Steinbauer, Peter; Geiger, Sheila; Hoffmann, Rudolf W

    2008-12-22

    European catfish Silurus glanis, European eel Anguilla anguilla and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were challenged by intramuscular injection of zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans, the oomycete associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS). The tropical three-spot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus is known to be highly susceptible and was used as a positive control. European catfish were highly susceptible and rainbow trout had moderate to low susceptibility, whereas eels appeared largely unaffected. Inflammatory host response in European catfish deviated from the effects seen in most other susceptible fish species and was characterised by a more loosely arranged accumulation of macrophages, small numbers of lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells without occurrence of EUS-characteristic mycotic granulomas. Semi-nested and single round PCR assays were developed for this study to detect A. invadans DNA in clinical samples of experimentally infected fish. The detection limit of the assays equals 1 genomic unit. Specificity was examined by testing the DNA of various oomycetes, other relevant pathogens and commensals as well as host DNA. The single round assay used was fully specific, whereas cross-reaction with the closely related Aphanomyces frigidophilus was observed using the semi-nested assay. Analysis of samples by PCR allowed detection prior to detectable histopathological lesions. Two other published PCR protocols were compared to the PCR protocols presented here.

  3. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  4. Modeling River Hydrologic Regime and Spawning of Migratory Catfishes in Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, C. M.; Waylen, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal hydrologic conditions and catfish larvae production were evaluated in the Madre de Dios River in order to determine whether environmental conditions influence the reproductive activity of a group of large, commercially important catfishes, in the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon. A simple stochastic model of floods is presented to describe the influence of the natural high flow regime on observed patterns of catfish larvae release and drifting. Daily river stage records at Puerto Maldonado are related to weekly larval catches to determine the association between flood and spawning events. On the basis of hydroclimatologic characteristics of Andean- Amazon regions, available long-term historical rainfall records are employed to approximate the likely inter- annual variability of floods within this Amazon headwater basin. Major larval drift appeared associated with stages of over the 5 m, or "Biologic Hydrologic Significant Events" (BSE), which act as triggers, or a reasonable surrogates, for spawning responses of these species. The timing of BSEs, estimated from the historical rainfall records, appear to be uniformly distributed during the rain season and their inter-arrival times exponential. These observations provided the basis of the stochastic model describing the likelihood of volumes of larvae releases from the headwater region to lowland Amazon. The ecologically significant role of the hydroclimatology of this region in the complete life cycle of this important Amazon fish resource is illustrated.

  5. Spine anatomy reveals the diversity of catfish through time: a case study of Synodontis (Siluriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Fara, Emmanuel; Otero, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) is a freshwater catfish endemic to Africa. The 118 extant species are present in almost all hydrographic basins. Some species are restricted to a single stream, whereas others have a vast distribution. Synodontis is known in the fossil record since the Miocene, and its history depends on the connections among African basins through time. The identification of species in the fossil record is essential to reconstruct this historical pattern. Catfish pectoral and dorsal spines are robust, they preserve well and they form most of the fossil remains for the genus Synodontis. Unfortunately, the criteria for the identification of extant Synodontis species are not applicable to fossil specimens. Here, we define 11 original morphological characters that permit to discriminate four extant species from the Chad-Chari hydrographic system. Six of these characters are defined on pectoral spines and five on dorsal spines. We then show that these characters can be used successfully for identifying fossil specimens. In particular, we present a case study in which we identify Synodontis cf. schall and Brachysynodontis cf. batensoda in the hominid-bearing sector Toros-Menalla (Late Miocene, northern Chad). We show that spine anatomy can be a powerful tool to recognise catfish species through time and thus to identify historical diversity pattern.

  6. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the impacts of carbofuran on endocrinology of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, for the first time and evaluated cortisol (CRT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (TST) and the oxidative stress markers including SOD, CAT, GSTs, GSH. The toxic effects on the metabolic enzymes, G6PDH and LDH, in addition to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage as biomarkers in Nile catfish, to sublethal exposures of carbofuran (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) were studied. Statistically significant differences between selected parameters between control and carbofuran-treated fish were recorded. Carbofuran caused a significant (p0.05) in gonads of treated fish. The two metabolic enzymes G6PDH and LDH in all tissues exhibited significant decreases (pgariepinus to sublethal doses of carbofuran and allow us to consider catfish as a good bioindicator to reflect the endocrine disrupting impacts of carbofuran, and reflect the potential of this pesticide to cause disturbance in antioxidant defense system as well as metabolism and induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage in contaminated ecosystems.

  7. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  8. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  9. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  10. Copper nanoparticles differentially target testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: in vivo and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Murugananthkumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study examined the impact of copper (Cu as nanoparticle (Cu-NPs and soluble form (CuSO4 in adult male catfish Clarias batrachus. Following treatment, upregulation of transcripts of several testis-related genes and increased androgen levels were evident. Though profound promotional effect was seen at gene and androgen levels, structural analysis revealed completely different scenario. Histological observations of testis showed disruption of basal lamina, distinct spermatogonium and enlarged spermatocytes in the treated groups. Quite alarmingly, transmission electron microscopic analysis showed damage of testicular lumen with irregular basal lamina and distinctive spermatocytes. In addition, Sertoli cells and erythrocytes exhibited damage after Cu treatments. Cytotoxic effects of Cu in catfish primary testis and TM3 Leydig cells showed cytotoxicity which is correlated well with morphological and flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrated that low dose of Cu/Cu-NPs can be detrimental to catfish testicular recrudescence vis-à-vis reproduction and the toxic effect manifest drastically in in vitro cultures.

  11. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  12. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae, a revisionary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Vari

    Full Text Available The catfishes of the subfamily Cetopsinae of the Neotropical family Cetopsidae are revised. Four genera, Cetopsidium new genus, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis, and Paracetopsis Bleeker are recognized as valid. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, and Pseudocetopsis are considered synonyms of Cetopsis and Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean and Cetopsogiton synonyms of Paracetopsis. Thirty-seven species are recognized in the Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium includes six species: C. ferreirai, new species, rio Trombetas; C. minutum, Essequibo River; C. morenoi, central and western portions of río Orinoco; C. orientale, coastal rivers of Suriname and French Guiana, and tentatively rio Tocantins and rio Xingu; C. pemon, new species, río Caura, río Caroni, río Meta, and rio Branco; and C. roae, new species, Rupununi River. Cetopsis includes 21 species: C. amphiloxa, río San Juan, río Atrato, and río Patia, western Colombia, and rivers of northwestern Ecuador; C. arcana, new species, rio Tocantins; C. baudoensis, río Baudo; C. caiapo, new species, rio Tocantins; C. candiru, Amazon basin; C. fimbriata, new species, río Truando; C. coecutiens, rio Amazonas, rio Tocantins, and río Orinoco; C. gobioides, upper rio São Francisco, rio Paraná, río Uruguay, and rio Juquiá; C. jurubidae, río Jurubidá; C. montana, new species, western portions of Amazon basin; C. motatanensis, Lago Maracaibo basin; C. oliveirai, Amazon basin; C. orinoco, río Orinoco, río Aroa, and río Yaracuy; C. othonops, río Magdalena and río Sinú; C. parma, western Amazon basin; C. pearsoni, new species, upper portions of rio Madeira; C. plumbea, western portions of rio Amazonas; C. sandrae, new species, rio Tapajós; C. sarcodes, new species, rio Tocantins; C. starnesi, new species, northwestern río de La Plata and southern rio Madeira; and C. umbrosa, new species, western río Orinoco. Cetopsis chalmersi is a synonym of C. gobioides. Cetopsis macroteronema is a synonym of C. plumbea

  13. Example of the application the microsatellite DNA fragments in the study of farmed European catfish (Silurus glanis, L. broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuciñski Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available European catfish, Silurus glanis L., is the second largest freshwater fish in Europe. The species is very popular among the farmers, as it is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Despite the growing importance of European catfish in freshwater aquaculture, the genetic data available on this species are still limited. The main purpose of the present study was to develop a reliable, feasible genetic protocol for future studies on European catfish populations and broodstocks in Poland. The genetic characteristics of the tested fish group were based on genetic parameters such as the polymorphism information content (PIC, the effective population size (Ne, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, and the Garza-Williamson index (M, among others. Additionally, the potential effects of a genetic bottleneck on the genetic variation of the broodstock were examined. The genetic analysis protocol described in this study can be used to establish genetic-based records for European catfish broodstocks, including for sperm cryobanking. This approach will be useful for elaborating the selection procedures that allow for optimal assemblages of spawning pairs in artificial reproduction. The application of the genetic analysis protocol in practice will permit maintaining high quality in European catfish broodstocks.

  14. Chemical compositions and muddy flavour/odour of protein hydrolysate from Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish mince and protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Penjamras, Pimpimol; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2014-01-01

    Chemical compositions and muddy compounds in dorsal and ventral muscles of Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish were comparatively studied. On a dry weight basis, Nile tilapia was rich in protein (93.1-93.8%), whilst broadhead catfish contained protein (55.2-59.5%) and lipid (36.6-42.4%) as the major constituents. Ventral portion had higher lipid or phospholipid contents with coincidentally higher geosmin and/or 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) contents. Geosmin was found in mince of Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish at levels of 1.5 and 3.2μg/kg, respectively. Broadhead catfish mince had 2-MIB at level of 0.8μg/kg, but no 2-MIB was detected in Nile tilapia counterpart. When pre-washing and alkaline solubilisation were applied for preparing protein isolate (PI), lipid and phospholipid contents were lowered with concomitant decrease in geosmin and 2-MIB contents. Protein hydrolysate produced from PI had a lighter colour and a lower amount of muddy compounds, compared with that prepared from mince. Therefore, PI from both Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish could serve as the promising proteinaceous material, yielding protein hydrolysate with the negligible muddy odour and flavour.

  15. L-Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Characterization and expression profiling in mucosal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongda, Wilawan; Li, Chao; Luo, Yupeng; Beck, Benjamin H; Peatman, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) have recently emerged as important molecules in the context of innate immunity in teleost fishes. Previously, using RNA-seq technology, we observed marked up-regulation of a RBL in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gill following a challenge with the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Furthermore, the magnitude of RBL up-regulation positively correlated with disease susceptibility. Moving forward from these findings, we wished to more broadly understand RBL function, diversity, and expression kinetics in channel catfish. Therefore, in the present study we characterized the RBL gene family present in select channel catfish tissues and profiled family member expression after challenge with two different Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Here, six RBLs were identified from channel catfish and were designated IpRBL1a, IpRBL1b, IpRBL1c, IpRBL3a, IpRBL3b, and IpRBL5a. These RBLs contained carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ranging from one to three domains and each CRD contained the conserved motifs of -YGR- and -DPC-. Despite a level of structural conservation, the catfish RBLs showed low full-length identity with RBLs from outside the order Siluriformes. IpRBL expression after bacterial infection varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting that IpRBLs may exert disparate functions or exhibit distinct tissue-selective roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogens.

  16. Transcriptome generation and analysis from spleen of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) through normalized cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Barman, A S; Sood, Neeraj; Mohindra, Vindhya

    2013-12-01

    Catfishes are commercially important fish for both the fisheries and aquaculture industry. Clarias batrachus, an Indian catfish species is economically important owing to its high demand. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from spleen of the Indian catfish to identify genes associated with immune function. One thousand nine hundred thirty seven ESTs were submitted to the GenBank with an average read length of approximately 700 bp. Clustering analysis of ESTs yielded 1,698 unique sequences, including 184 contigs and 1,514 singletons. Significant homology to known genes was found by homology searches against data in GenBank in 576 (34 %) ESTs, including similarity to functionally annotated unigenes for 158 ESTs. Additionally, 433 ESTs revealed similarity to unigenes and ESTs in the dbEST but the remaining 658 EST sequences (39 %) did not match any sequence in GenBank. Of a total of 1,698 ESTs generated, 65 ESTs were found to be associated with immune functions. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of C. batrachus ESTs collectively revealed a preponderance of immune relevant pathways apart from the presence of pathways involved in protein processing, localization, folding and protein degradation. This study constitutes first EST analysis of lymphoid organ in aquaculturally important Indian catfish species and could pave the way for further research of immune-related genes and functional genomics in this catfish.

  17. Evaluation of the flathead catfish population and fishery on Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, with emphasis on the effects of noodling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Dana L.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    I conducted a 3-year study at Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma to estimate effects of various fishing gears on the flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris population. Managers were particularly interested in the effect of handfishing or noodling on this population. I used a phone survey to assess angler effort and electrofishing and gill nets to calculate standard population metrics to assess composition of the current population. Survey data indicated that fishing effort and harvest were highest for trotlines and juglines and lowest for noodling. Size distribution of fish harvested by noodlers was not different from sizes that were available in the fishery and was similar to those fish harvested with other gears. Flathead catfish Sampled in Lake Carl Blackwell ranged in size from 38 to 1,220 mm total length, and 77% of the population was less than 508 mm (minimum legal size). Estimated total annual mortality was about 11%. Proportional size distribution (PSD) of flathead catfish for Lake Carl Blackwell indicates that about 70% of legal-sized flathead catfish were over the preferred size of 710 mm. Overall, the Lake Carl Blackwell flathead catfish population appeared healthy. There were a wide range of sizes and ages in the population, and PSD indicated a well-balanced population with many preferred and memorable-sized fish. Due to its rarity, noodling is probably not adversely influencing the population. Additionally, noodling at Lake Carl Blackwell does not appear to be as size-selective as previously thought. 

  18. Phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity of Edwardsiella ictaluri cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein (Crp) mutants in catfish host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Mitra, Arindam; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is an Enterobacteriaceae that causes lethal enteric septicemia in catfish. Being a mucosal facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is an excellent candidate to develop immersion-oral live attenuated vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry. Deletion of the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein (crp) gene in several Enterobacteriaceae has been utilized in live attenuated vaccines for mammals and birds. Here we characterize the crp gene and report the effect of a crp deletion in E. ictaluri. The E. ictaluri crp gene and encoded protein are similar to other Enterobacteriaceae family members, complementing Salmonella enterica Δcrp mutants in a cAMP-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 in-frame deletion mutant demonstrated growth defects, loss of maltose utilization, and lack of flagella synthesis. We found that the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant was attenuated, colonized lymphoid tissues, and conferred immune protection against E. ictaluri infection to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Evaluation of the IgM titers indicated that bath immunization with the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant triggered systemic and skin immune responses in catfish. We propose that deletion of the crp gene in E. ictaluri is an effective strategy to develop immersion live attenuated antibiotic-sensitive vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry.

  19. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2016-10-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  20. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Harvested from two lakes and artificial ponds in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joy Cecilia Atawodi; Armayau Hamisu Bichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) harvested from two lakes and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.Methods:Catfish samples (n=200) from two lakes and (n=200) from two private fish ponds were collected and their gills and gastrointestinal tract samples were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was used, followed by microscopy. Results: Oocysts of Cryptosporidium species were found in all the sampling sites with an overall positivity rate of 49.75%. A comparison between the lakes and ponds as sampling sites revealed a statistically significant (P<0.05) higher percentage of occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocyst from the lakes (39.25%) than from the ponds (10.50%). Conclusions: These findings document for the first time the natural occurrence ofCryptosporidium sp. in catfish intended for human consumption and therefore, underlines the need for public enlightenment to guard against any possible zoonotic transmission.

  1. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  2. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  3. The use of eugenol against Aeromonas hydrophila and its effect on hematological and immunological parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutili, Fernando Jonas; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Noro, Mirela; Gressler, Leticia Trevisan; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of eugenol against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and eugenol's effect on hematological and natural immune parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). In vitro, eugenol showed weak activity against A. hydrophila, but in vivo, at a subinhibitory concentration (10 mg L(-1)), it promoted survival in infected silver catfish. Eugenol (50 μg mL(-1)) reduced the hemolytic activity of A. hydrophila supernatant in vitro in fish erythrocytes. Subjecting catfish to eugenol baths (5 and 10 mg L(-1)) for five days did not alter the hematological and immunological parameters studied in this work. Based on these results, eugenol can be used to treat or prevent bacterial diseases in fish.

  4. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment.

  5. Gonadal transcriptomic analysis of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): identification of sex-related genes and genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Luan, Peixian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xue, Shuqun; Peng, Lina; Mahbooband, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) has been recognized as a vital freshwater aquaculture species in East and Southeast Asia. In addition to its commercial interest, it is also attracted much attention because of its value in studying sex-determination mechanisms. A comprehensive gonadal transcriptome analysis is believed to provide a resource for genome annotation, candidate gene identification, and molecular marker development. Herein, we performed a de novo assembly of yellow catfish gonad transcriptome by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 82,123 contigs were obtained, ranging from 351 to 21,268 bp, and N50 of 2,329 bp. Unigenes of 21,869 in total were identified. Of these, 229 and 1,188 genes were found to be specifically expressed in XY gonad tissue for 1 yr and 2 yr old yellow catfish, respectively; correspondingly, 51 and 40 genes were identified in XX gonad tissue at those two stages. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were conducted and classified all contigs into different categories. A large number of unigenes involved in sex determination were identified, as well as microsatellites and SNP variants. The expression patterns of sex-related genes were then validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggesting the high reliability of RNA-Seq results. In this study, the transcriptome of yellow catfish gonad was first sequenced, assembled, and characterized; it provides a valuable genomic resource for better understanding of yellow catfish sex determination as well as development of molecular markers, thereby assisting in the production of monosex yellow catfish for aquaculture.

  6. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae, a revisionary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Vari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The catfishes of the subfamily Cetopsinae of the Neotropical family Cetopsidae are revised. Four genera, Cetopsidium new genus, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis, and Paracetopsis Bleeker are recognized as valid. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, and Pseudocetopsis are considered synonyms of Cetopsis and Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean and Cetopsogiton synonyms of Paracetopsis. Thirty-seven species are recognized in the Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium includes six species: C. ferreirai, new species, rio Trombetas; C. minutum, Essequibo River; C. morenoi, central and western portions of río Orinoco; C. orientale, coastal rivers of Suriname and French Guiana, and tentatively rio Tocantins and rio Xingu; C. pemon, new species, río Caura, río Caroni, río Meta, and rio Branco; and C. roae, new species, Rupununi River. Cetopsis includes 21 species: C. amphiloxa, río San Juan, río Atrato, and río Patia, western Colombia, and rivers of northwestern Ecuador; C. arcana, new species, rio Tocantins; C. baudoensis, río Baudo; C. caiapo, new species, rio Tocantins; C. candiru, Amazon basin; C. fimbriata, new species, río Truando; C. coecutiens, rio Amazonas, rio Tocantins, and río Orinoco; C. gobioides, upper rio São Francisco, rio Paraná, río Uruguay, and rio Juquiá; C. jurubidae, río Jurubidá; C. montana, new species, western portions of Amazon basin; C. motatanensis, Lago Maracaibo basin; C. oliveirai, Amazon basin; C. orinoco, río Orinoco, río Aroa, and río Yaracuy; C. othonops, río Magdalena and río Sinú; C. parma, western Amazon basin; C. pearsoni, new species, upper portions of rio Madeira; C. plumbea, western portions of rio Amazonas; C. sandrae, new species, rio Tapajós; C. sarcodes, new species, rio Tocantins; C. starnesi, new species, northwestern río de La Plata and southern rio Madeira; and C. umbrosa, new species, western río Orinoco. Cetopsis chalmersi is a synonym of C. gobioides. Cetopsis macroteronema is a synonym of C. plumbea

  7. Toxic effects of mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride, and Emisan 6 (an organic mercurial fungicide) on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-12-01

    Mercurial toxicity in fishes has been focused mainly on tissue uptake and subcellular distribution, nephrotoxicity, development, hatching and survivability of young ones and teratology. Very few studies have been attempted to investigate Hg toxicity on gonadal activity of fishes throughout the breeding season. In a previous investigation the authors have studied the toxic effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/), methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) and emisan 6 (an alkoxyalkyl fungicide) on the survival and histology of the kidney of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. The present report deals with toxic effects of these mercurials on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish, an economically important species in the subcontinent.

  8. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  9. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) (Teleostei, Clariidae) cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Fadhil; Johari Endan; Farah S. Taip; Muhammad S. b. Hj. Ja’afar

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank) measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1), 8-12 cm (Tank 2) and 12-15 cm (Tank 3),respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010) by considering the waterqu...

  10. Spatial and seasonal variations on Henneguya exilis prevalence on cage intensive cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Luis Rábago-Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diseases are of particular importance for aquaculture worldwide, particularly in intensive culture. In Mexico, intensive culture of channel catfish is mainly done in floating cages. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of the myxozoan Henneguya and the effect of site, period and host length on its prevalence in cage-cultured channel catfish. Over a year, fish were examined on six different sites. Results showed the presence of Henneguya exilis in all the farms. However, no significant effects were observed for site and season on prevalence, nor was there a correlation between host length and infection prevalence.

  11. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  12. Evaluation of fish oil-rich in MUFAs for anti-diabetic and anti-inflammation potential in experimental type 2 diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keapai, Waranya; Apichai, Sopida; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn

    2016-01-01

    The advantages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been well established. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-diabetic action of MUFAs remain unclear. This study examined the anti-hyperglycemic effect and explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the actions of fish oil- rich in MUFAs that had been acquired from hybrid catfish (Pangasius larnaudii×Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) among experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats that were fed with fish oil (500 and 1,000 mg/kg BW) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose levels without increasing the plasma insulin levels. The diminishing levels of plasma lipids and the muscle triglyceride accumulation as well as the plasma leptin levels were identified in T2DM rats, which had been administrated with fish oil. Notably, the plasma adiponectin levels increased among these rats. The fish oil supplementation also improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic histological changes. Moreover, the supplementation of fish oil improved insulin signaling (p-AktSer473 and p-PKC-ζ/λThr410/403), p-AMPKThr172 and membrane GLUT4 protein expressions, whereas the protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and nuclear NF-κB) as well as p-PKC-θThr538 were down regulated in the skeletal muscle. These data indicate that the effects of fish oil-rich in MUFAs in these T2DM rats were partly due to the attenuation of insulin resistance and an improvement in the adipokine imbalance. The mechanisms of the anti-hyperglycemic effect are involved in the improvement of insulin signaling, AMPK activation, GLUT4 translocation and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine protein expressions. PMID:27847435

  13. Does the hearing sensitivity in thorny catfishes depend on swim bladder morphology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Zebedin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thorny catfishes exhibit large variations in swim bladder morphology. These organs are of different sizes, forms and may have simple or branched diverticula. The swim bladder plays an important role in otophysans because it enhances their hearing sensitivity by transmitting sound pressure fluctuations via ossicles to the inner ear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if a form-function relationship exists, the swim bladder morphology and hearing ability were analyzed in six species. The morphology was quantified by measuring the length, width and height and calculating a standardized swim bladder length (sSBL, which was then used to calculate the relative swim bladder length (rSBL. Hearing was measured using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique. Two species had simple apple-shaped and four species heart-shaped (cordiform bladders. One of the latter species had short unbranched diverticula on the terminal margin, two had a secondary bladder and two had many long, branched diverticula. The rSBL differed significantly between most of the species. All species were able to detect frequencies between 70 Hz and 6 kHz, with lowest thresholds found between 0.5 and 1 kHz (60 dB re 1 µPa. Hearing curves were U-shaped except in Hemidoras morrisi in which it was ramp-like. Mean hearing thresholds of species possessing smaller rSBLs were slightly lower (maximum 8.5 dB than those of species having larger rSBLs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings reveal a relationship between swim bladder form and its function among thorny catfishes. Relatively smaller swim bladders resulted in relatively better hearing. This is in contrast to a prior inter-familial study on catfishes in which species with large unpaired bladders possessed higher sensitivity at higher frequencies than species having tiny paired and encapsulated bladders.

  14. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  15. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) larvae by sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Fabiana Kömmling Seixas; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Odir A Dellagostin; Heden Luiz M Moreira; João Carlos Deschamps

    2010-03-01

    The silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) is an endemic American fish species. The sperm of each species has its own peculiarities and biological characteristics, which influence the success of mass DNA transfer methods. Our objective in this study was to evaluate different sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) methods to obtain transgenic silver catfish. Different treatments for the incorporation of a foreign pEGFP plasmid group were used: (1) dehydrated/rehydrated (DR), (2) dehydrated/rehydrated/electroporated (DRE), (3) electroporated (E), (4) incubated with seminal plasma (INC); and (5) incubated in the absence of seminal plasma (INCSP). Sperm motility, time of activity duration (TAD), fertilization rate (FR), hatching rate (HR) and sperm morphology were also evaluated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity rates for the presence of the transgene were: DRE 60%; DR 40%; E 25%; INC 5% and INCSP 25%. The rates of embryo EGFP expression were: DRE 63%; DR 44%; E 34%; INC 8% and INCSP 38%. The fertilization rate in the control and DRE treatments groups were higher than in the DR group, but the E, INC and INCSP treatment groups had the lowest rate. The hatching rates of the DRE, DR and control groups were higher than in the INCSP, INC and E treatment groups ( > 0.05). There were no differences among the DRE and DR, E and DR, E and INCSP groups in expression and PCR positivity rates of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in embryos. Scanning electron microscopy also did not show any change in sperm morphology among treatment groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on transgene transmission of exogenous DNA into silver catfish larvae through SMGT technology

  16. Channel catfish virus disease%斑点叉尾鮰病毒病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ 斑点叉尾鮰病毒病(Channel catfish virus disease,CCVD)是由疱疹病毒引起的斑点叉尾鮰疾病,主要感染养殖的斑点叉尾鮰,是其幼鱼暴发性急性传染病,具很高死亡率,可造成严重的经济损失.为OIE规定疫病,我国将其列为二类疫病.

  17. Effects of diphenyl diselenide on growth, oxidative damage, and antioxidant response in silver catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Charlene; Marins, Aline; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] at different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) on growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in silver catfish after 30 and 60 days. Fish fed with 5.0 mg/kg of (PhSe)2 experienced a significant decrease in weight, length, and condition factor after 30 days and these parameters increased after 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) decreased in the liver of silver catfish supplemented with (PhSe)2 after 30 days at all concentrations, while after 60 days these parameters decreased in liver, gills, brain, and muscle. Supplementation with (PhSe)2 induced a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity from liver only after 60 days of feeding. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased at 5.0 mg/kg after 30 and 60 days and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was enhanced at 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg after 30 and 60 days. Silver catfish supplemented for 30 days showed a significant increase in liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) at 3.0 mg/kg, while after 60 days GST activity increased in liver at 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg and in gills at 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg of (PhSe)2. After 30 days, non-protein thiols (NPSH) did not change, while after 60 days NPSH increased in liver, gills, brain, and muscle. In addition, ascorbic acid (AA) levels after 30 days increased in liver at three concentrations and in gills and muscle at 1.5 mg/kg, while after 60 days, AA increased at all concentrations in all and tissues tested. Thus, diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 for 60 days could be more effective for silver catfish. Although the concentration of 5.0 mg/kg showed decreased growth parameters, concentrations of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, in general, decreased oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses.

  18. The Ultrastructure of Secretory Cells of the Islets of Langerhans in South American Catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Luchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows that a detailed description of the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the South American catfish Rhamdia quelen pancreatic islets is presented. Evidence is offered to support the contention that the α-granules consist of a central and an outer portion of different electron densities and solubilities, that the δ-cells are most probably morphologically altered but viable α-cells, and that the β-granules possibly possess a repeating substructure and may therefore represent an intracellular crystalline storage form of insulin.

  19. Catching a Catfish: Constructing the ‘good’ social media user in reality television

    OpenAIRE

    Lovelock, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article interrogates the cultural work of ‘old’ media texts which take social media use as a narrative focus. Employing the MTV reality show Catfish: The TV Show as a case study, I argue that, in this program, the specific conventions of reality television - authenticity, confession and self-realization – work to produce and circulate normative scripts of “appropriate” and “inappropriate” ways to articulate the self on social media, which align with reality TV’s established investment in...

  20. Influence of pH on eggs and larvae of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Arthur Augusto; UFSC; Nuñer, Alex Pires de Oliveira; UFSC; Esquivel, Juan Ramon; Piscicultura Panamá

    2008-01-01

    The influence of pH on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) eggs and larvae was evaluated in experiments with 6 treatments (pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) in three spawnings. All eggs in pH 4 died. Same results occurred when temperature fell to 17ºC. There was no difference in fertilization rates of spawnings at the same water temperature. In spawning with higher temperature the lowest fertilization rate was registered at pH 6 and 7. Eclosion time was directly proportional to temp...

  1. CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO AND NITROGENOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION IN THE INTENSIVE CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Gunadi; Enang Harris; Eddy Supriyono; Sukenda Sukenda; Tatag Budiardi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the optimum C/N ratio for heterotrophic bacteria (biofloc) growth in order to control nitrogenous waste accumulation in the catfish (Clarias gariepinus) culture. Twenty fish with an initial individual size of about 50 g were stocked in fiberglass tanks which were filled with 200 L of water. Fish were fed with commercial floating fish feed with a protein level of 31%-33% (manufacturer label). The daily feeding rate was 2.5% of the fish biomass. The ...

  2. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aquifer used for hybrid catfish hatcheries is less than 10 mg/L of calcium hardness and 1- 25 mg/L of magnesium hardness. Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioti...

  3. Effects of 17a-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle, development and semen release response in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.; Eding, E.H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle development in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were investigated in an attempt to improve semen collection from this species. Treatment of larvae with dietary 17alpha-methyltestosterone at 50 mg kg(-1) for days 12-33 or days 12-40

  4. Seasonal changes in steroid metabolism in the male reproductive organ-system of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, J.W.; Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Steroid and steroid glucuronide synthesis in feral male African catfish was investigated in vitro by incubating testes with [3H]-pregnenolone and seminal vesicles with [3H]-androstenedione. In testes, the capacity to form progestins, androgens, especially 11-oxygenated ones, and steroid glucuronides

  5. Extensive jaw mobility in suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae): a morphological and kinematic analysis of substrate scraping mode of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Dominique; Geerinckx, Tom; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Loricariidae, or suckermouth armored catfishes, possess upper and lower jaws that are ventrally oriented and that bear teeth that touch the substrate from which algae and other food items are scraped. The ventral orientation and the highly specialized morphology of the jaws, characterized by protrusible upper jaws and left-right decoupled lower jaws, are observed in Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the species investigated here. Kinematic data of the scraping feeding movements, obtained by external high-speed and x-ray recordings, are used to quantify jaw movement, especially to test for upper jaw mobility and versatility during substrate scraping. Our results show that the mobility of the jaws is indeed high compared with what is standard for catfishes. The upper jaw's ability to perform a substantial degree of rostrocaudal movement is quite unique for catfishes. The ventromedially oriented lower jaws, with the teeth and the coronoid process at opposite sides, display an extensive mobility: they rotate around the suspensorial articulation and around their longitudinal axis, resulting in an extended scraping movement and thereby covering a large surface area. The lower jaws also show a left-right asymmetry in their movements during scraping. Thus, our results suggest that the extreme morphological specializations of the jaws in loricariid catfishes are linked to an increased mobility and functional versatility, allowing these animals to efficiently scrape algae from substrates with irregular surfaces.

  6. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia W Pridgeon; Phillip H Klesius; Gregory A Lewbart; Harry V Daniels; Megan Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify bacteria isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine whether they are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Methods:Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues of diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). The isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification followed by virulence study in fish. Results: Based on biochemical analysis, the 25 isolates were found to share homologies with either Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila). Based on sequencing results of partial 16S rRNA gene, 15 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified E. tarda strain TX1, whereas the other 10 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified A. hydrophila strain An4. When healthy fish were exposed to flounder isolate by intracoelomic injection, the LD50 values of flounder isolate E. tarda to channel catfish or Nile tilapia [(10±2) g] were 6.1í104 and 1.1í107 CFU/fish, respectively, whereas that of flounder isolate A. hydrophila to channel catfish and Nile tilapia were 1.4í107 and 5.6í107 CFU/fish, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first report that E. tarda and A. hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder are virulent to catfish and tilapia.

  7. Immunocytochemical Identification and Localization of Diffuse Neuroendocrine System (DNES) Cells in Gastrointestinal Tract of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Min; WANG Kai-yu; ZHANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    To detect distribution and relative frequency of diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES) cells in the gastrointestinal tract of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the intestinal tract of channel catfish was divided into seven portions from proximal to distal: the enlarged area after oesophagus, cardia, fundus, pylorus, and anterior, middle, and posterior intestine. Immunohistochemical method using the strept avidin-biotin-complex (SABC) was employed. All antisera between seven portions of the channel catfish were compared statistically using statistical package for the social science (SPSS). Five types of DNES cells were determined: neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (NPY-IR) cells were demonstrated in both anterior and middle intestine; serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactive cells were detected throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract; vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) positive cells were at the highest frequency in pylorus; glucagon-immunoreactive (GLU-IR) cells were moderate in number in the fundus and anterior, middle intestine, and no immunoreactivity was determined in the other portions; somatostatin (SOM) positive cells were more abundant in the anterior and middle intestine. The regional distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, are essentially similar to those of other fish. However, some characteristics are observed in this species, which further proved that the diversity of the physiological function of DNES cells was based on their morphology.

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum C014 on Innate Immune Response and Disease Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Hybrid Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureerat Butprom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain isolated from intestines of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Male × Clarias macrocephalus Female exhibited an in vitro inhibitory effect on a fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila TISTR 1321. By using the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C014. To examine whether L. plantarum C014 had potential for use as an immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish, the fish diet supplemented with L. plantarum C014 (107 CFU/g diet was prepared and used for the in vivo investigation of its effect on innate immune response and disease resistance of hybrid catfish. Two innate immune response parameters, phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and plasma lysozyme activity, were significantly enhanced in the treated fish after 45 days of feeding. Feeding the fish with the L. plantarum C014 supplemented diet for 45 days before challenging them with A. hydrophila at the dose of LD50 could reduce the mortality rate of the fish from 50% (in control group to 0% (in treated group. Based on its origin and beneficial effect on innate immune response and disease resistance, L. plantarum C014 may be a potential candidate for use as a natural and safe immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish.

  9. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  10. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria;

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  11. Evaluation of three aging techniques and back-calculated growth for introduced Blue Catfish from Lake Oconee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Michael D.; Peterson, James T.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2015-01-01

    Back-calculation of length-at-age from otoliths and spines is a common technique employed in fisheries biology, but few studies have compared the precision of data collected with this method for catfish populations. We compared precision of back-calculated lengths-at-age for an introducedIctalurus furcatus (Blue Catfish) population among 3 commonly used cross-sectioning techniques. We used gillnets to collect Blue Catfish (n = 153) from Lake Oconee, GA. We estimated ages from a basal recess, articulating process, and otolith cross-section from each fish. We employed the Frasier-Lee method to back-calculate length-at-age for each fish, and compared the precision of back-calculated lengths among techniques using hierarchical linear models. Precision in age assignments was highest for otoliths (83.5%) and lowest for basal recesses (71.4%). Back-calculated lengths were variable among fish ages 1–3 for the techniques compared; otoliths and basal recesses yielded variable lengths at age 8. We concluded that otoliths and articulating processes are adequate for age estimation of Blue Catfish.

  12. Characterization of an Oct1 orthologue in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: A negative regulator of immunoglobulin gene transcription?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennard, M.L.; Hikima, J.I.; Ross, D.A.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Wilson, M.R.; Miller, N.W.; Warr, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background - The enhancer (E¿3') of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been well characterized. The functional core region consists of two variant Oct transcription factor binding octamer motifs and one E-protein binding ¿E5 site. An orthologu

  13. Efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, female Ictalurus punctatus X male Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    study was conducted to examine the efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Two 28% protein alternative diets supplemented with l-lysine HCl at the required level based on 62% (previously published value) or 10...

  14. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  15. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF REGENERATION FOLLOWING HEPATOTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE CYANOTOXIN MICROCYSTIN-LR IN THE HARDHEAD CATFISH AND GULF KILLIFISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), causes liver damage in several freshwater fish species. The damage appears to be acute and irreversible. In the present study, two estuarine species, hardhead catfish, Arius felis, and gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, were inject...

  16. Characterization and value-added utilization of proteins extracted from the by-products from catfish fillet processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish farming is the most important warm water aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. The by-products, including heads, skin, bone frame and viscera, account for 55-65% of the whole fish mass after fillet processing. The by-products contain 35% of protein on a dry basis, and may be...

  17. Male-biased genes in catfish as revealed by RNA-Seq analysis of the testis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyue Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish.

  18. Male-Biased Genes in Catfish as Revealed by RNA-Seq Analysis of the Testis Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fanyue; Liu, Shikai; Gao, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Yanliang; Perera, Dayan; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Chao; Sun, Luyang; Zhang, Jiaren; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY) sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female) allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. Conclusion/Significance We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish. PMID:23874634

  19. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and 5β-pre

  20. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  1. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  2. Post-prandial protease activity in the digestive tract of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.; Segner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The alkaline proteolytic activity in the gut of African catfish larvae was studied during short time ranges from 30 min to 4 h after ingestion of decapsulated Artemia cysts. The variation in total protease and trypsin activities during the day was monitored during starvation, after one single meal i

  3. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  4. Evaluation of various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs to replace soybean meal in diets for pond-raised channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in earthen ponds to evaluate the use of combinations of two or three alternative protein sources to replace soybean meal in diets for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Six 28% protein diets containing various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs including cottonse...

  5. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larva

  6. Spike-Interval Triggered Averaging Reveals a Quasi-Periodic Spiking Alternative for Stochastic Resonance in Catfish Electroreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankheet, M.J.M.; Klink, P.C.; Borghuis, B.G.; Noest, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Catfish detect and identify invisible prey by sensing their ultra-weak electric fields with electroreceptors. Any neuron that deals with small-amplitude input has to overcome sensitivity limitations arising from inherent threshold non-linearities in spike-generation mechanisms. Many sensory cells so

  7. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  8. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Peterson, B C; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased growth in channel catfish is associated with expression of the genes that code for uncoupling proteins (UCP) 2 and 3, members of the mitochondrial channel proteins involved in nutrient sensing and metabolism. The specific objective was to contrast the levels of UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in fast vs slow growing catfish as well as in fed vs fasted catfish. Two distinct UCP2 transcripts were identified and named UCP2a and UCP2b, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of catfish UCP2s were highly similar to UCP2 and other UCPs from other fish and mammals (>75%). Expression of UCP2a mRNA was detectable at very low levels in various metabolically active tissues, whereas the expression of UCP2b mRNA was readily detectable in the muscle and heart. In a 21-wk feeding study, fish that grew faster had a greater percent body fat at the end of the study (P muscle was increased (P growth and associated fat accumulation appears to be independent of muscle UCP2b mRNA expression and UCP2b-mediated mechanisms.

  9. Immunocytochemical labelling of isolated catfish pituitary gonadotrops with the protein A-gold method on epon sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R. de; Peute, J.; Pelt, A.M.M. van; Leunissen, J.L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The adenohypophysis of catfish and other teleosts consists of morphologically and functionally different cell types. Hormone synthesis and release in some of these cell types are controlled by similar hypothalamic peptidergic and aminergic systems. In vivo also blood-born steroids may directly and/o

  10. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish.

  11. Effects of density, PVC-tubes and feeding time on growth, stress and aggression in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de J.W.; Spanings, T.; Flik, G.

    2016-01-01

    Successive exposure to aquaculture-related stressors may compromise the allostatic capacity of African catfish and lead to allostatic overload and poor welfare. Therefore, we tested the effect of (i) feeding during the light or dark phase, (ii) density (51 fish per 140 L versus 51 fish per 43 L) and

  12. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3, isolated from catfish and antagonistic against hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabo...

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, F; Zhang, H B; Wang, Y; Hou, L F; Dong, H J; Wang, Z F; Pan, G W; Cao, X Y

    2016-09-01

    This study represents the first report of a C-type lectin (ctl) in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco. The complete sequence of ctl complementary (c)DNA consisted of 685 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of c.y 20.204 kDa. The deduced amino-acid sequence contained a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate recognition domain with four cysteine residues and GlnProAsp (QPD) and TrpAsnAsp (WND) motifs. Ctl showed the highest identity (56.0%) to the predicted lactose binding lectin from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Quantitative real-time (qrt)-PCR analysis showed that ctl messenger (m)RNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish, with high expression in trunk kidney and head kidney, which was increased following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in a duration-dependent manner. Purified recombinant Ctl (rCtl) from Escherichia coli BL21 was able to bind and agglutinate Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner. These results suggested that Ctl might be a C-type lectin of T. fulvidraco involved in innate immune responses as receptors (PRR).

  14. Genetic structure of populations and conservation issues relating to an endangered catfish, Clarias batrachus, in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D; A, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), is a highly valued species endemic to India that is currently in drastic decline in most of its natural habitat. The present study was undertaken to document the genetic structure of populations of this species using mitochondrial DNA markers, specifically from the cytochrome B and D-loop regions. Specimens from eight wild populations were collected and analyzed from different regions in India. The genetic variation within and among populations was evaluated using a range of descriptive statistics. The analysis described here provides a broad and consistent view of population structure and demographic history of populations of C. batrachus. Although there was some genetic structuring consistent with regional differences, all eight populations examined here showed relatively low levels of genetic variation in terms of both haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the different analyses used. However, a number of private haplotypes were discovered, and this may provide valuable information for future selective breeding program and conservation management. The results may aid in the design and implementation of strategies for the future management of this endangered catfish C. batrachus in India.

  15. The development of the digestive tract in larval European catfish (Silurus glanis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić, Z; Kuzir, S; Petrinec, Z; Gjurcević, E; Bozić, M

    2008-04-01

    The European catfish, Silurus glanis L., has become an important aqua cultural fish in Croatia, and it is cultivated extensively in ponds in polyculture with carps. The development of the digestive tract in S. glanis was studied with the aim of improving intensive fish production. Research was carried out on S. glanis larval stadium from 1- to 19-day post-hatching (DPH). The main histological methods used were: haematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid Schiff staining (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) and toluidin blue staining (TB). A yolk sac was present during the first 5 days (1-5-DPH). During the initial 3-DPH period, there was no trace PAS and AB activity in the digestive tract. Differentiation of the digestive tract began at 3- to 5-DPH. The oesophagus was positive for AB at 5-DPH, PAS and TB after 7-DPH. Differentiation of enterocytes began at 5-DPG and the intestines were complete at 11-DPH. Development of liver and pancreas was also studied. The analysis of data obtained in this study suggests that after 5-DPH catfish larvae have morphologically completed digestive tracts.

  16. Steroidogenesis by ovaries and testes of the European catfish, the wels (Silurus glanis), in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, D E; Bhattacharya, S; Koldras, M; Bieniarz, K

    1993-03-01

    Testosterone, 3α,17-dihydroxy-5β-pregnen-20-one, 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20βP) and 5β-pregnane-3α,17,20β-triol were identified as the major metabolites of [(3)H] 17-hydroxyprogesterone in ovarian incubations of the European catfish Silurus glanis. 17,20βP and the reduced triol were present only in ovaries from fish primed with carp hypophysial homogenate (chh) while testosterone yields were significantly higher in controls than in treated fish. 11-Ketotestosterone, 11β-hydroxytestosterone and 17,20α-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20αP) were identified as the major metabolites of [(3)H]17-hydroxyprogesterone in in vitro incubations of testes of a spermiating catfish. There was no significant production of conjugates or other water soluble metabolites by either sex. The stimulation of plasma 17,20αP, 17,20βP and 11β-hydroxytestosterone by chh in primed but not control males suggests that the role of these steroids in spermiation should be further examined.

  17. [Purification and properties of serine proteinases from European catfish Silurus glanis L. pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulitina, N N; Khabliuk, V V; Proskuriakov, M T

    2005-01-01

    Three trypsin isoforms (designated as T1, T2, and T3), three chymotrypsin isoforms (Kh1, Kh2, and Kh3), and two elastase isoforms (E1 and E2) were isolated from the pancreas of European catfish Silurus glanis L. by salting out with (NH4)2SO4, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Isoelectric points of the enzymes, determined by isoelectric focusing, amounted to 4.42 for T1, 5.64 for T2, 6.90 for T3, 4.93 for Khl, 5.23 for Kh2, 6.18 for Kh3, 6.17 for E1, and 8.48 for E2. Molecular weights of proteinases within each group were close and amounted to 30100 Da for trypsins, 39800 Da for chymotrypsins, and 24000 Da for elastases. The enzymes isolated displayed maximal activities at alkaline pH values. Inhibitor analysis demonstrated that all the proteinases isolated from European catfish pancreas belonged to the serine type.

  18. Development of the lateral line mechanoreceptors in the catfish Silurus glanis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Anton

    2010-07-01

    In fish the neuromasts of the lateral line develop as follows: a “migrating primordium” (MP) migrates from the postotic placode along the future posterior lateral line canal to the tail fin. Its placodal cells are assumed to be the basis for the development of the neuromasts. However, an MP was not found in all fish, e.g., in catfish. In the present study, a search was made for the MP in the larvae of the catfish Silurus glanis. Using light and electron microscopy, an MP was found to migrate along the ventral rim of the tail. It precedes the formation of a ventral row of free neuromasts. An MP preceding the main lateral row of the future canal neuromasts was not found. The necessity of the MP for the ventral-free neuromast development is shown by making incisions which block its migration. The result: caudal to the incision site neuromasts do not develop. On the other hand, the same incision procedure applied to the assumed migration route of a—hypothetical—lateral MP does not block the development of the lateral neuromasts. It is concluded that in this case an MP is not necessary for the development of the canal neuromasts.

  19. Analysis of matrix proteins of otolith in upside-down catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Okamoto, N.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    We have previously suggested that the calcium density of the otolith in upside-down swimming Synodontis nigriventris is lower than that in upside-up swimming Synodontis multipunctatus Biol Space Sci 2002 In this study we examined EDTA-soluble matrix proteins of otolith in the utricle of the catfish S nigriventris S multipunctatus and upside-up swimming Synodontis brichadi and goldfish Carassius auratus We detected two main bands about 55 kD and 80 kD with SDS-PAGE in the 3 species of the catfish In cntrast goldfish had the about 55 kD band alone The band of about 80 kD was consisted of two sub-bands a lighter and a heavier band A lighter band was observed in S brichadi and a heavier band was observed in S nigriventris S multipunctatus had the both bands Furthermore mass spectrometric analysis showed there were some proteins of molecular weight under 14 kD The molecular weights of the proteins were different among the fishes These results suggest that many different kinds of matrix protein may cause different degree of calcification in otolith formation

  20. Observation and hydrodynamic analysis of fast-start of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Jun; YIN Xiezhen; LU Xiyun

    2005-01-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of the escape response of yellow catfish ( Pelteobagrus fulvidraco ) is investigated.It is observed from digital high-speed camera that all the escape response of yellow catfish is a C-type fast-start, which is characterized by the C-shape of the fish body at the end of the first contraction of the lateral musculature. Based on the analysis of the mass center movement and the performance of the caudal fin, the fast-start process can be divided into two stages: in stage one the fish body rotates rapidly around its mass center and in stage two the fish begins moving straightly. Theoretically, the Weihs' model is employed to obtain the forces, moments and turning angular accelerations acting on the fish during the escape response. The results are in good agreement with the experimental observation. Furthermore, muscle strain at different locations along the body is calculated. At last, the dynamical performance of the escape response is explained.

  1. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  2. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822, fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swollen abdomen, anorexia, fin and tail rot, and reddish operculum. The LD50 of E. tarda PBB and PBP strains was found to be 8.52 × 106 and 1.68 × 107 cells fish-1, respectively. Histopathological observations on catfish infected naturally revealed lymphocyte infiltration in muscle and focal necrosis, hyperplasia, edema, and swelling of the gill lamellar epithelium. The kidney of diseased fish exhibited ischemic type tubulopathy, necrosis of nephritic tubules, hyperplastic hematopoietic tissue, rupture of the tubular basement membrane, hydropic dystrophy of nephritic cells, neutrophil infiltration, fibrinoid necrosis of nephretic tubules, hemosiderin deposition, and edema. The liver sections revealed lymphocyte infiltration, dilation of hepatic sinusoids, expansion of space between hepatic sinusoids, and focal necrosis. The inflammatory responses observed in kidney and liver in the present study were presumably suppuration and were attributed to the potential virulence factors of E. tarda.

  3. Effect of different pretreatments on functional properties of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, S F; Ghassem, M; Mamot, S; Babji, A S

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatments with different types of alkali and acid were compared to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part, the skins were only treated with alkaline (Ca(OH)2 or NaOH) solution or pretreated with acetic acid solution. For second part, combination of alkali and acid pretreatment was carried out. For the third part, the skins were first treated with NaOH solution, followed by the treatment with acetic acid, citric acid or sulfuric acid solution. Functional properties including the yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, pH and viscoelastic properties were determined on gelatins obtained with different pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment with alkali removed noncollagenous proteins effectively, whilst acid pretreatment induced some loss of collagenous proteins. Combination of alkali and acid pretreatment not only removed the noncollagenous proteins and caused a significant amount of swelling, but also provided the proper pH condition for extraction, during which some cross-linkages could be further destroyed but with less breakage of intramolecular peptide chains. Pretreatment of catfish skins with 0.2 N NaOH followed by 0.05 M acetic acid improved yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, melting temperature and gelling temperature of gelatin extract.

  4. Toxicity of buprofezin on the survival of embryo and larvae of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kasi; Muthu, Narmataa; Xavier, Rathinam; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Rahman, M Aminur; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-01-01

    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (p0.05) in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L) of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.

  5. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  6. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion.

  7. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  8. Spontaneous behavior of basal Copionodontinae cave catfishes from Brazil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rantin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are particularly interesting due to their behavioral specializations, resultant from evolution in isolation. We present data from a spontaneous behavior study (spatial distribution and preference for microhabitats of two troglobitic catfish from Brazil: Glaphyropoma spinosum and a new species of Copionodon. We compared the data with those obtained of a sympatric epigean species, Copionodon pecten. These Trichomycteridae species belong to a basal and apparently monophyletic subfamily – Copionodontinae, endemic to Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia state, eastern Brazil. We observed the fishes in natural and laboratory conditions through ad libitum and focal animal methods. Each spatial behavioral category (hidden, bottom, midwater, surface and wall swimming and stationary in the bottom was timed individually, with a sample of 12 specimens per species. Unlike most troglobitic fishes, cave copionodontines tested herein did not extend exploratory behavior to midwater, with benthonic and thigmotactic-related exploratory behavior. This behavior is possibly related to its feeding behavior specializations, strong territorialism and photophobic behavior. The epigean Copionodon species is also benthonic. The spatial behavior of the cave Copionodontinae could be interpreted as a retained and plesiomorphic character-state in relation to other trichomycterid catfishes.

  9. Embryonic and larval development of critically endangered riverine catfish Rita rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fazlul Awal Mollah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the embryonic and larval development of freshwater catfish Rita rita. The mature eggs and sperms were collected by using artificial insemination technique and fertilized eggs were incubated in mini circular hatchery with provision of continuously water supply. The fertilized eggs were transparent, demarsal, spherical, non-adhesive and brownish in colour with a diameter ranging between 1.3 to 1.6 mm. First cleavage occurred within 25-30 min post-fertilization at temperature of 28±1°C. Hatching started 22 h post-fertilization and completed within 24 h at the same temperature range. Newly hatched larvae were 2.0 mm in length devoid of mouth and pigmentation and started feeding at 48 to 60 h post-hatching. To date, this is the first time the early embryonic and larval development of freshwater catfish R. rita is described. Thus the findings of the present study provide valuable information that may help establishing the large scale seed production technique of Rita.

  10. Use of solar energy in the production of channel catfish. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, G C

    1976-01-01

    No catfish are grown commercially in eastern Kentucky due primarily to a growing season approximately three weeks too short to provide the minimum 180 day feeding season. This research project was designed to test the feasibility of using solar energy to heat pond water enough to lengthen the feeding season the required number of days. The procedure involved the heating of a small starter pond by covering it with a solar swimming pool cover. Fingerling catfish were stocked in the small pond in early April and transferred to a larger rearing pond in May when water temperatures in the larger pond reached 65/sup 0/ F. Oxygen levels were maintained at acceptable levels in the covered pond by frequent aeration. Water quality resulting from a prolonged spring drought and run-off from a pasture fertilized by chicken manure seriously affected the project. Other significant problems encountered included algae build-up and the accumulation ammonia and carbon dioxide in the water. Losses to fungus infection was the most serious problem encountered. Approximately 30 percent of the fingerlings died from this cause while in the small covered pond. After the fish were transferred to the large rearing pond, no further unanticipated problems were encountered. From the time the fish were transferred to the large pond they were handled in a typical open pond operation. At the end of the growing season in October, the fish had an average weight of 1.4 pounds.

  11. Parasites of two coexisting invasive sailfin catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae in a tropical region of Mexico

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    María Amparo Rodríguez-Santiago

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently many species of Amazon sailfin catfishes (Loricariidae have been introduced to wild environments outside their native range. There is, however, little knowledge about their role as vectors of parasites that can infect native fish or even humans through its consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the parasitic fauna of the invasive sailfin catfish species Pterygoplichthys pardalis (leopard pleco and P. disjunctivus (vermiculated pleco from freshwater systems in the southeast of Mexico. Four ectoparasite species were found in P. pardalis (1 protozoan: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis ; 2 monogeneans: Urocleidoides vaginoclastrum and Heteropriapulus heterotylus ; 1 digenean: Clinostomum sp., and only one in Heteropriapulus disjunctivus (H. heterotylus . No endoparasites were found. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis , U. vaginoclaustrum and Clinostomum sp. , were considered as rare species (prevalence <5% since they were found in a single individual of P. pardalis . H. heterotylus was the only species shared among both host species and it occurs throughout the year. This monogenean species represents 96% of total parasites recorded in P. pardalis and 100% in P. disjunctivus. Monthly values of prevalence, intensity and abundance of H. heterotylus in both host species showed important intra-annual variations, but not differ significantly between both hosts.

  12. Studies on the cranial osteology of the blind catfish Horoglanis krishnai Menon (Pisces, Clariidae.

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    Mercy T.V. Anna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Horaglanis krishnai Menon is a blind catfish inhabiting the dug- out wells at Kottayam, Kerala, South India. Studies on the cranial osteology of the fish show that the bones on the skull are firmly articulated. The frontoparietal fontanella is very large so that the cranium virtually lacks a roof. The sphenotics and alisphenoids are hardly recognizable and the orbital bones are entirely lacking. In osteological features H. krishnai closely resembles Uegitglanis zammaroni. But in H. krishnai the orbital bones are further reduced or even absent. The fontanella is larger than that of any other known catfish. These two species must have evolved from the same ancester and have taken up nearly identical ways of life. The difference between the skeletons of these two appears to be largely dependent on the relative size of the frontoparietal fontanella. Its greater development in H. krishnai brought about a suppression or reduction of some of the bones clearly visible in Uegitglanis. It would appear that the modification initiated in Uegitglanis gatered momentum in Horaglanis. These two fishes form a group distinct from clariids and bagrids but form a connecting link between the two.

  13. Distribution of catfishes in wetlands of two flood plain districts in Tamil Nadu, India

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    B. Rajagopal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the distribution of catfishes in selected wetlands in Kancheepuram and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu, southern India. Different types of wetlands such as tanks, pools, lakes, open wells and estuaries were selected for the study based on their different environmental set up. Fishes were collected with the help of fishermen using cast and seine nets. Twelve species of catfishes from five families (Ariidae, Bagridae, Heteropneustidae, Schilbeidae and Siluridae were recorded, of which 10 species from four families were from Kanyakumari and six species belonging to three families were from Kancheepuram District. In Kancheepuram, the species recorded were Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus seengtee, M. gulio, M. keletius, M. vittatus and Neotropius atherinoides, and in Kanyakumari the species recorded were Arius arius, Arius subrostratus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus armatus, M. seengtee, M. gulio, M. montanus, M. vittatus, Ompok bimaculatus and O. malabaricus. Among the wetlands, the highest species richness was seen in Puthery and Erachakulam tanks in Kanyakumari and Chembarampakkam Lake in Kancheepuram. The lowest species richness was observed was in Vishnupuram, Thotiode tanks and Mavadi pool of the former district and Vandalur Tank, Kalpakkam Estuary of the latter. Environmental factors such as microhabitat diversity and substrate diversity in the wetlands significantly influenced species richness.

  14. First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil

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    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This study characterises morphologically Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with Giemsa. Ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of T. heterodentata. Prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host. Trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. In relation to previous reports of T. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. This work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of T. heterodentata. A list of hosts and comparative measurements of T. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.

  15. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen infected with Aeromonassp.

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    FERNANDO J. SUTILI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonassp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10: untreated fish (negative control, 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1 was greater than 90%.

  16. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

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    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  17. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822

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    Christopher Didigwu Nwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods: Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L. Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results: Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the mean values of hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, cellular hemoglobin, and cellular hemoglobin concentration. The levels of white blood cells, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased (P<0.05 while protein levels declined. However, no definite pattern of changes was observed in the number and type of leucocytes. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  18. Molecular identification of intergenus crosses involving catfish hybrids: risks for aquaculture production

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    Diogo T. Hashimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring of the interspecific hybrid production and trade is essential for the appropriate management of these animals in fish farms. The identification of catfish hybrids by morphological analysis is unreliable, particularly of juveniles and post-F1 individuals. Therefore, in the present study, we used five molecular markers (four nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene to detect hybrids in the trade of pimelodid juvenile fish from different stocks purchased of five seed producers in Brazil. Samples commercialized as pintado (pure species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from three fish farms were genetically identified as hybrid cachapinta (♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ P. corruscans . In the stocks purchased as cachandiá (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Leiarius marmoratus and cachapira (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , we suggested the occurrence of intergenus crosses involving the hybrid cachapinta, which was used instead of the pure species P. reticulatum . The problems involving the hybrid cachapinta production were discussed in the present study, especially because these animals have caused genetic contamination and threatened the genetic integrity of natural and cultivated populations. In order to improve the surveillance of the production and provide criteria for the correct management of catfish hybrids, genetic markers has become an excellent alternative to the morphological identification, including juveniles or post-F1 generations.

  19. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    Lenise de Lima Silva

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  20. CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO AND NITROGENOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION IN THE INTENSIVE CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus CULTURE

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    Bambang Gunadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the optimum C/N ratio for heterotrophic bacteria (biofloc growth in order to control nitrogenous waste accumulation in the catfish (Clarias gariepinus culture. Twenty fish with an initial individual size of about 50 g were stocked in fiberglass tanks which were filled with 200 L of water. Fish were fed with commercial floating fish feed with a protein level of 31%-33% (manufacturer label. The daily feeding rate was 2.5% of the fish biomass. The inoculation of commercial Bacillus sp. isolates was applied in the first day of the experiment after fish stocking in order to obtain a bacterial density in water of 106 cfu/L. Molases was suplemented daily to the tanks to adjust C/N ratio in water. Four C/N ratios, i.e. 0, 7, 14, and 21, were applied as treatments in this experiment. The results showed that molasses suplementation up to C/N ratio 14 to 21 were able to support the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and to inhibit the accumulation of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN and nitrite in water therefore increase water quality for better growth of cultured catfish.

  1. Lippia alba essential oil promotes survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutili, Fernando J; Cunha, Mauro A; Ziech, Rosangela E; Krewer, Carina C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Heldwein, Clarissa G; Gressler, Leticia T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Vargas, Agueda C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2015-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo activity of the Lippia alba essential oil (EO) against Aeromonas sp. was evaluated. In the in vitro assay the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EO for Aeromonas cells were determined using the microdilution method. Twenty five strains of Aeromonas sp. isolated from infected fish obtained from local fish farms were used. MIC and MBC values were 2862 and 5998 µg mL-1 for L. alba EO and 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 for gentamicin, respectively. In the in vivo assay silver catfish juveniles (Rhamdia quelen) (7.50 ± 1.85 g and 10.0 ± 1.0 cm) with typical injuries associated to Aeromonas infection were divided into four treatments (in triplicate n=10): untreated fish (negative control), 10 mg L-1 of gentamicin, and 20 or 50 µL L-1 of EO. Fish were maintained in aerated 20 L plastic boxes. After 10 days survival of silver catfish infected with Aermonas sp. and treated with essential oil (50 µL L-1) was greater than 90%.

  2. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas and Aeromonas isolates from catfish of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Huu Thinh; Smooker, Peter M; Shimeta, Jeff; Coloe, Peter J

    2014-07-16

    A collection of 116 motile Pseudomonas spp. and 92 Aeromonas spp. isolated from 15 Vietnamese intensive catfish farms was analyzed to examine the molecular antibiotic resistance characteristics and the transferability of resistance markers within and between species. High levels of resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin were observed. The percentage of multiple drug resistance of Pseudomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp. isolates was 96.6% and 61.9%, respectively. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index mean values of 0.457 and 0.293 of Pseudomonas and Aeromonas isolates, respectively, indicated that these isolates were exposed to high risk sources of contamination where antibiotics were commonly used. Approximately 33% of Pseudomonas spp. and 28% of Aeromonas spp. isolates from catfish contained class 1 integrons, but no class 2 integrons were detected. Several common resistance genes including aadA, dfrA and catB were harbored in class 1 integrons. Large plasmids (>55 kb) were frequently detected in 50% and 71.4% of the plasmids extracted from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas isolates, respectively. Conjugation and transformation experiments demonstrated the successful transfer of all or part of the resistance phenotypes of catfish isolates to the recipient strains, including laboratory strains and strains isolated from this study. These results highlight the likely role of catfish bacteria as a reservoir of antibiotic resistant, Gram-negative bacteria harboring a pool of mobile genetic elements that can readily be transferred intra- and interspecies. To our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from catfish in Vietnam.

  3. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758) from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhchali, Mohammad; Tehrani, Ali-Asghar; Ghoreishi, Mozafar

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes including Orientocreadium siluri (27%), Crowcrocoecum skrjabini (39%), and cestode Bothriocephalus gowkongensis (34%). All the parasites were found in the intestine. Mid-gut followed by foregut appeared to be the most commonly infected parts of the alimentary tract of hosts. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between infection rate, catfish body size, and weight (P < 0.05).

  4. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758 from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran

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    Mohammad Yakhchali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes including Orientocreadium siluri (27%, Crowcrocoecum skrjabini (39%, and cestode Bothriocephalus gowkongensis (34%. All the parasites were found in the intestine. Mid- gut followed by foregut appeared to be the most commonly infected parts of the alimentary tract of hosts. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between infection rate, catfish body size, and weight (P < 0.05.

  5. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

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    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  6. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

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    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  7. Thirty-Year-Old Paradigm about Unpalatable Perch Egg Strands Disclaimed by the Freshwater Top-Predator, the European Catfish (Silurus glanis)

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    Kočvara, Luboš; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Hoang The, Son Chung; Šmejkal, Marek; Peterka, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    So far, perch egg strands have been considered unpalatable biological material. However, we repeatedly found egg strands of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in the diet of European catfish (Silurus glanis) caught by longlines in Milada and Most Lakes, Czech Republic. The finding proves that perch egg strands compose a standard food source for this large freshwater predatory fish. It extends the present knowledge on catfish foraging plasticity, showing it as an even more opportunistic feeder. Utilization of perch egg strands broadens the catfish diet niche width and represents an advantage against other fish predators. Comparison of datasets from extensive gillnet and SCUBA diver sampling campaigns gave the evidence that at least in localities where food sources are limited, multilevel predation by catfish may have an important impact on the perch population. PMID:28060862

  8. Life cycle assessment of intensive striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta for screening hotspots as input to environmental policy and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intensive striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta has, in recent years, raised environmental concerns. We conducted a stakeholder-based screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the intensive farming system to determine the critical environmental impact and their causative processes in producing striped catfish. Additional to the LCA, we assessed water use and flooding hazards in the Mekong Delta. Materials and methods The goal and scope of the LCA were defined in a stakeholder ...

  9. Genetic manipulation of sex ratio for the large-scale breeding of YY super-male and XY all-male yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanqin; Guan, Bo; Xu, Jiang; Hou, Changchun; Tian, Hua; Chen, Hongxi

    2013-06-01

    Yellow catfish has become one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. The mono-sex male yellow catfish has important application value in aquaculture because the male grows generally faster than the sibling females under the same conditions. This study has screened YY super-male and YY physiological female yellow catfish by sex reversal, gynogenesis, and progeny testing, which can help to achieve the large-scale production of YY super-male and XY all-male. From 2008 to 2010, about 123,000 YY super-male were produced, and about 81 million XY all-male fry were produced with 100% male rate by random sampling. Therefore, these results indicate that YY super-male and YY physiological female yellow catfish can be viable and fertile. We conclude that the mono-sex breeding technique by YY super-male yellow catfish is stable and reliable, which has great potential for application in yellow catfish aquaculture.

  10. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shikai; Sun, Luyang; Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Nannan; Nelson, David; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods We identified CYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish. Phylogenetic analyses and conserved syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their identities and orthologies. Meta-analysis of RNA-Seq databases was conducted to analyze expression profile of CYP genes following bacterial infection. Results A full set of 61 CYP genes were identified and characterized in channel catfish. Phylogenetic tree and conserved synteny provided strong evidence of their identities and orthorlogy. Lineage-specific gene duplication was evident in a number of clans in channel catfish. CYP46A1 is missing in the catfish genome as observed with syntenic analysis and RT-PCR analysis. Thirty CYPs were found up- or down-regulated in liver, while seven and eight CYPs were observed regulated in intestine and gill following bacterial infection. Conclusion We systematically identified and characterized a full set of 61 CYP genes in channel catfish and studied their expression profiles after bacterial infection. Strikingly large numbers of CYP genes appear to be involved in the bacterial defense processes. General significance This work provides an example to systematically study CYP genes in non-model species. Moreover, it provides a basis for further toxicological and physiological studies in channel catfish. PMID:24780645

  11. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  12. Trypanosomiasis in hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus and other freshwater fishes

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    Promkhunthong, W.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The infestation of Trypanosoma sp. (Kinetoplastida in the hybrid catfish and some fresh water fish was studied showing such parasitic infestation was specific only in catfish. The virulence as determined by LD50 for 5 days was 2.28x1010 cell in a fish sample. The parasitic infestation caused hematological changes by the reduction of red as well as white blood cells. The reductions were highly significant as compared to the healthy sample (p<0.05 as noted by the red and white blood cell count which dropped from 2.14±0.48x106 to 1.62±0.27x106 cells/ml and from 1.45±3.76x105 to 2.42±0.78x104 cells/ml blood in the infested samples, respectively. Similar trend was noted for hemoglobin and hematocrit which dropped significantly (p<0.05. The hemoglobin in healthy fish is 7.075±0.929g/100g, which dropped to 6.268±0.697g/100g in the samples with infestation. The percentage of hematocrit in healthy sample is 25.275±3.318%, which dropped to 21.722±3.068% in the samples with infestation. The reverse trend was recognized for serum protein andleukocrit which increased in the samples with Trypanosoma sp. infestation. The density gradient centrifugation technique was employed in the isolation of parasites in which 50% Percoll solution in 0.85% final preparation of saline solution was capable of removing Trypanosoma sp. from the blood. The study of antibody levels in serum showed that the infested hybrid catfish could develop the antibody which reached a peak 14 days after the infestation. Trypanosoma sp. was unable to cause histological changes in the tissues of gill, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and intestine. Minor inflammations were observed, even the cases that large number of parasites were found in the tissues, blood streams and sinuses. Marked reductions were recorded for mature red blood cells while there were the formation of immature red blood and phagocytotic cells at higher rates as compared to the healthy individual.

  13. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

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    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  14. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  15. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  16. Efficient assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of catfish by RNA-Seq analysis of a doubled haploid homozygote

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    Liu Shikai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon the completion of whole genome sequencing, thorough genome annotation that associates genome sequences with biological meanings is essential. Genome annotation depends on the availability of transcript information as well as orthology information. In teleost fish, genome annotation is seriously hindered by genome duplication. Because of gene duplications, one cannot establish orthologies simply by homology comparisons. Rather intense phylogenetic analysis or structural analysis of orthologies is required for the identification of genes. To conduct phylogenetic analysis and orthology analysis, full-length transcripts are essential. Generation of large numbers of full-length transcripts using traditional transcript sequencing is very difficult and extremely costly. Results In this work, we took advantage of a doubled haploid catfish, which has two sets of identical chromosomes and in theory there should be no allelic variations. As such, transcript sequences generated from next-generation sequencing can be favorably assembled into full-length transcripts. Deep sequencing of the doubled haploid channel catfish transcriptome was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, yielding over 300 million high-quality trimmed reads totaling 27 Gbp. Assembly of these reads generated 370,798 non-redundant transcript-derived contigs. Functional annotation of the assembly allowed identification of 25,144 unique protein-encoding genes. A total of 2,659 unique genes were identified as putative duplicated genes in the catfish genome because the assembly of the corresponding transcripts harbored PSVs or MSVs (in the form of pseudo-SNPs in the assembly. Of the 25,144 contigs with unique protein hits, around 20,000 contigs matched 50% length of reference proteins, and over 14,000 transcripts were identified as full-length with complete open reading frames. The characterization of consensus sequences surrounding start codon and the stop

  17. In vivo near real time imaging of oxygen partial pressures in the glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 Morten Bo S. Svendsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) and John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) By injecting 1 IJm microspheres containing an oxygen-dependent phosphorescent dye into the vascular system and tissue...... of the transparent glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris), it is possible to measure near realtime oxygen partial pressure in vivo. We used a commercially-available digital single-lens reflex camera mounted with an optical long pass filter (II = 490 nm) and excited the phosphorescent dye in the microspheres inside...... of the microspheres and a recovery period from the anaesthesia, in vivo oxygen partial pressure can be determined by just taking a picture of the live fish exposed to blue light. As no electrodes or sensors are attached, the method allows a wide range of experiments investigating in vivo oxygen levels under different...

  18. Diel rhythms of feeding activity in the European catfish, Silurus glanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujard, T

    1995-10-01

    The diel rhythms of feeding activity of S. glanis held singly or in groups, and with free or time-restricted access to self-feeders is described. It was found that this this species has a strongly nocturnal feeding activity. European catfish can be trained to feed itself by day, but in such case its voluntary feed intake is reduced. When trained to feed by day, they resume their nocturnal behavior in less than 24 h when they have again free access to feed. It is also clearly evidenced that this fish species does not behave the same way when it is isolated from its congeneres rather than when it is maintained in groups, with a tendency to become arhythmic.

  19. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  20. Stimulation of gonadal development by sexual interaction of pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerd, J H; Sukkel, M; Bongers, A B; van der Does, H M; Steynis, E; Richter, C J

    1991-02-01

    Stimulation and inhibition of gonadal development by intersexual contact was studied in pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The effect of a possible interaction was studied by evaluation after a 98-day experimental period of gonadal development in combinations of intact and anosmic males and females. In addition, separate groups of males and females, respectively, were exposed to holding water from these combinations. A tentative model of stimulation of gonadal development by intersexual contact in pubertal fish was developed. Males stimulate ovarian development of females by both olfactory and tactile cues. In addition, males seem to enhance gonadal development of other males through olfactory stimulation via holding water. In contrast, females tended to inhibit male gonadal development, especially through tactile cues. It seems that although males are hampered by female tactile stimuli in their gonadal development and ability to stimulate male gonadal development, their ability to stimulate female gonadal development is not affected.

  1. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Provenzano R.

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.

  2. Mucosal response in African catfish after administration of Vibrio anguillarum O2 antigens via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervarcke, Stefaan; Ollevier, Frans; Kinget, Renaat; Michoel, Armand

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of mucosal vaccination in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with Vibrio anguillarum O2 bacterins. The antigen was administered via different routes: anal intubation, oral administration, intraperitoneal injection and immersion. To monitor the antigen uptake, a competitive ELISA was used. The antibody response was measured using an indirect ELISA. Increased antibody levels were found in bile and mucus upon anal intubation, which was not the case after intraperitoneal injection. The data indicate that oral vaccination of fish may be possible when antigens can reach the second gut segment in sufficient quantities and in the right form as confirmed by the recorded substantial induction of systemic and mucosal immunity. The results obtained are a strong indication for mucosal immune response and the two compartmental models for immune response in fish.

  3. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head width. We provide information on the external morphology and also on some osteological features for the new species. A key to species is presented for the coastal drainages between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia states.

  4. De novo Assembly and Analysis of the Chilean Pencil Catfish Trichomycterus areolatus Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Thomas T.; Ali, Jonathan M.; Bartlett, Maggie L.; McFarland, Madalyn M.; Clement, Emalie J.; Won, Harim I.; Sanford, Austin G.; Monzingo, Elyssa B.; Martens, Matthew C.; Hemsley, Ryan M.; Kumar, Sidharta; Gouin, Nicolas; Kolok, Alan S.; Davis, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomycterus areolatus is an endemic species of pencil catfish that inhabits the riffles and rapids of many freshwater ecosystems of Chile. Despite its unique adaptation to Chile's high gradient watersheds and therefore potential application in the investigation of ecosystem integrity and environmental contamination, relatively little is known regarding the molecular biology of this environmental sentinel. Here, we detail the assembly of the Trichomycterus areolatus transcriptome, a molecular resource for the study of this organism and its molecular response to the environment. RNA-Seq reads were obtained by next-generation sequencing with an Illumina® platform and processed using PRINSEQ. The transcriptome assembly was performed using TRINITY assembler. Transcriptome validation was performed by functional characterization with KOG, KEGG, and GO analyses. Additionally, differential expression analysis highlights sex-specific expression patterns, and a list of endocrine and oxidative stress related transcripts are included. PMID:27672404

  5. Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae in Kerala, India - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bijukumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the occurrence of the exotic South American suckermouth armoured catfishes (Loricariidae of the genus Pterygoplichthys spp. in the drainages of Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala.  The morphological taxonomy revealed that the specimens are closely related to Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 and P. pardalis (Castelnau, 1855, in addition to intermediary forms of unknown identity.  DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 also failed to establish the identity of the invaded species.  There may be possible hybridisation in aquariums or in fish farms or in the wild, but this needs to be found out aided by detailed studies incorporating different molecular markers and with sequences of topotypes.  The possible threats due to Pterygoplichthys spp. invasion and management options are discussed in the paper. 

  6. Biochemistry, cytogenetics and bioaccumulation in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different thorium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Lizelia M.; Kochhann, Daiani; Becker, Alexssandro G.; Pavanato, Maria A. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Llesuy, Susana F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Loro, Vania L.; Raabe, Alice [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Polo em Cruz Alta, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, 98025-810 Cruz Alta, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M.; Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Baldisserotto, Bernardo [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: bernardo@smail.ufsm.br

    2008-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thorium (Th) bioaccumulation on the metabolism of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through biochemical parameters of the muscle (glycogen, glucose, lactate, protein, and ammonia). In addition, lipidic peroxidation levels (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the gills and in hepatic and muscular tissues were also analyzed. Cytogenetic parameters were studied through the evaluation of nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells. Silver catfish juveniles were exposed to different waterborne Th levels (in {mu}g L{sup -1}): 0 (control), 25.3 {+-} 3.2, 69.2 {+-} 2.73, 209.5 {+-} 17.6, and 608.7 {+-} 61.1 for 15 days. The organs that accumulated the highest Th levels were the gills and skin. The increase of waterborne Th concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th levels in the gills, liver, skin and kidneys, with the highest accumulation in the gills and skin. Metabolic intermediates in the muscle were altered by Th exposure, but no clear relationship was found. CAT and GST activities in the hepatic and muscular tissues of this species suggest that the enzymatic activities can be stimulated at the lowest Th levels and inhibited at the higher levels (mainly in 608.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}). The results of the cytogenetic assay contribute to this hypothesis because the higher toxicity in blood samples was found in juveniles exposed to 69.2 and 209.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} Th.

  7. NDL-PCBs in muscle of the European catfish (Silurus glanis): an alert from Italian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Favaro, L; Prearo, M; Vivaldi, B; Brizio, P; Abete, M C

    2013-09-01

    The non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) highly contribute to the PCB dietary intake of total PCBs. Most of the NDL-PCBs are assumed through ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products. Therefore, it is important to quantify their presence in aquatic organisms to evaluate human risks associated with fish consumption. The European catfish is a top food-chain predator and is considered a reliable bio-monitoring tool reflecting the state of the environmental organic pollution. From 2006 to 2009, 54 European catfish were captured in four sites covering the area of the Po River (North Italy), and their muscles were analysed to determine the levels of 18 PCBs congeners. All samples presented detectable levels of 18 congeners and, on average, results showed an important presence of NDL-PCBs. The sum of the six congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 IUPAC) was used as indicator of the total PCBs concentration. The 33% of the samples analysed exceeded the maximum levels of 125 ng g(-1) set by European regulations in fish. The values measured ranged from 19.7 to 1015.4 ng g(-1) (mean 135.6 ± 149.8 ng g(-1)). The concentrations of NDL-PCBs were not related to fish weight or sex, while a significant variability was found among sites (p<0.05), according to the geographical location of many industrial activities in the catchment area of the Po River. PCB 153 and 138 were present in higher concentrations (40% and 30% respectively). We hypothesise that this is due to their high resistance to metabolic degradation.

  8. The lack of endocrine disrupting effects in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from a DDT sprayed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kerry; van Vuren, Johan Jansen; Bornman, Riana

    2012-05-01

    The exposure and response of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was studied in male specimens collected in the vicinity of a DDT spraying programme to control malaria. Two sites were situated in the DDT sprayed areas and one site upstream from exposed areas, used as a reference site. The collected specimens were analysed for DDT bioaccumulation and the extent of associated effects. The concentration of all DDT metabolites including p,p'-and o,p'-forms of DDT, DDE and DDD, were measured in the adipose tissue, whilst the effects were measured using a range of biomarkers. This included assessing the effectiveness of plasma calcium, magnesium, zinc and alkali-labile phosphates (ALPs) as indirect measures of vitellogenin (VTG). Gonad condition was determined by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI) for each individual and comparing it with the gonad mass that were adjusted with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The presence of intersex in gonads was identified and the overall body condition determined using the condition factor (CF). Overall, none of the biomarkers showed significant change in the presence of high levels of DDT nor lindane, dieldrin and endosulfan II. Subtle responses in the plasma concentrations of calcium, ALP and gonad condition were evident in the catfish where DDT concentrations were highest, whilst no effects related to intersex and body condition were evident. Overall this study highlighted the tolerance of C. gariepinus to DDT contamination, the practical implications of using biomarkers in developing countries, and the need for further research into developing biomarkers for much needed biomonitoring programmes in areas where malarial control programmes continue to use DDT.

  9. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.A.; Schoonen, W.G.; Lambert, J.G.; Van den Hurk, R.; Van Oordt, P.G.

    1987-06-01

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with (/sup 3/H)pregnenolone, (/sup 3/H)dehydroepiandrosterone, (/sup 3/H)17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (/sup 3/H)androstenedione, (/sup 14/C)11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and (/sup 3/H)testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin.

  10. Ecological impacts of fluridone and copper sulphate in catfish aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Annie P; Culver, David A; Lanno, Roman P; Voigt, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Fluridone and copper sulphate are often used for controlling macrophytes and algae in aquaculture ponds. The present study examined the ecological effects of these chemicals on macrophyte, phytoplankton, and zooplankton biomass; plankton community structure; water quality parameters; and fish survival and yield in catfish culture ponds using a randomized complete block design. The estimated half-life of fluridone in the individual ponds ranged from 1.6 d to 10.8 d. Free copper ion activity in ponds treated with copper sulphate was dynamic, ranging from pCu of 7.7 to 8.9 after each application and decreasing to approximately 12 (1 × 10(-12)  M) within 1 wk after each application, approaching observed values in control ponds (pCu = 12.3-13.4). No difference in macrophyte biomass was observed among treatments. Fluridone and copper treatments elicited different responses within the phytoplankton community. Copper treatments reduced Cyanophyta biomass but increased biomass of more tolerant taxa among the Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta. Fluridone treatments reduced total phytoplankton biomass including Cyanophyta and increased the sensitivity of Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta to copper. Copper also affected zooplankton community composition as a result of direct toxic effects on sensitive zooplankton taxa (e.g., Cladocera), whereas Copepoda biomass in copper-treated ponds exceeded that in controls. Catfish survival and yield were not significantly different among treatments. The results of the present study suggest that fluridone and copper interact at realistic application rates, increasing the ability to control algae compared with treatments where they are applied alone.

  11. Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50 was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish.

  12. Species-specific markers provide molecular genetic evidence for natural introgression of bullhead catfishes in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béres, Beatrix; Kánainé Sipos, Dóra; Müller, Tamás; Staszny, Ádám; Farkas, Milán; Bakos, Katalin; Urbányi, Béla

    2017-01-01

    Since three bullhead catfish species were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, they have spread to most European countries. In Hungary, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) was more widespread in the 1970s–1980s, but the black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) has gradually supplanted since their second introduction in 1980. The introgressive hybridization of the two species has been presumed based on morphological examinations, but it has not previously been supported by genetic evidence. In this study, 11 different Hungarian habitats were screened with a new species-specific nuclear genetic, duplex PCR based, marker system to distinguish the introduced catfish species, Ameiurus nebulosus, Ameiurus melas, and Ameiurus natalis, as well as the hybrids of the first two. More than 460 specimens were analyzed using the above markers and additional mitochondrial sequence analyses were also conducted on >25% of the individuals from each habitat sampled. The results showed that only 7.9% of the specimens from two habitats belonged to Ameiurus nebulosus, and 92.1% were classified as Ameiurus melas of all habitats, whereas the presence of Ameiurus natalis was not detected. Two specimens (>0.4%) showed the presence of both nuclear genomes and they were identified as hybrids of Ameiurus melas and Ameiurus nebulosus. An additional two individuals showed contradicting results from the nuclear and mitochondrial assays as a sign of a possible footprint of introgressive hybridization that might have happened two or more generations before. Surprisingly, the level of hybridization was much smaller than expected based on the analyses of the North American continent’s indigenous stock from the hybrid zones. This phenomenon has been observed in several invasive fish species and it is regarded as an added level of complexity in the management of their rapid adaptation. PMID:28265489

  13. Molecular systematic and historical biogeography of the armored Neotropical catfishes Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiachio, Márcio Cesar; Oliveira, Claudio; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2008-11-01

    The Neotropics possess the greatest freshwater fish diversity of the world, rendering the study of their evolutionary history extremely challenging. Loricariidae catfishes are one of the most diverse components of the Neotropical ichthyofauna and despite a long history of classification, major issues still need elucidation. Based on a nuclear gene, we present a robust phylogeny of two former loricariid subfamilies: Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae. Our results show that Neoplecostominae is nested within Hypoptopomatinae, and is the sister group to the former Otothyrini tribe. According to our results, supplemented by morphological observations, we erect two new subfamilies, the Otothyrinae and a new Hypoptopomatinae, and modify the Neoplecostominae by including the genus Pseudotocinclus. The uncovered evolutionary relationships allow a detailed analysis of their historical biogeography. We tested two Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis models for inferring the distribution range evolution of the new subfamilies, and show that the model having no constrains performs better than a model constraining long-range dispersal. The Maximum Likelihood reconstructions of ancestral ranges showed a marked division between the Amazonian origin of the Hypoptopomatinae and the eastern coastal Brazil+Upper Paraná origin of the Neoplecostominae and Otothyrinae. Markedly few instances of dispersal across the border separating the Amazon basin and the Paraná-Paraguay+eastern coastal Brazil+Uruguay were reconstructed. This result is in clear contrast with the historical biogeography of many Neotropical fishes, including other Loricariidae. Part of the dispersal limitation may be explained by divergent ecological specialization: lowland rivers versus mountain streams habitats. Moreover, because most species of the new subfamilies are small, we hypothesize that body size-related effects might limit their dispersal, like predation and energetic cost to migration. Finally

  14. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  15. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in Wels catfish, Silurus glanis L. 1758 from Amirkelayeh wetland, southwest of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Hossein; Sattari, Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Amirkelayeh international wetland with a surface area of 1,230 hectares and fifteen fish species is an important water resource in the southern part of the Caspian Sea. There is few reports on fish parasites of this area. In the present study, a total of 80 Wels catfish, Silurus glanis, were collected from April through July 2011. After recording biometric characteristics, common necropsy and parasitology methods were used. In the present study, a total of 441 individuals of seven parasite species consisting of one nematode: Raphidascaroides sp., one cestode: Triaenophorus crassus, two digenean trematodes: Aphanurus stossichi and Diplostomum spathaceum, two monogenean trematodes: Silurodiscoides vistulensis and Silurodiscoides siluri, and one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea was found in the catfish. The occurrence of copepodid stage of L. cyprinacea, Raphidascaroides sp. and T. crassus are reported for the first time from S. glanis in Iran.

  16. A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: Centromochlinae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available Centromochlus comprises twelve species, distributed in the main inland watersheds of South America, including the Orinoco, Essequibo, coastal rivers of Suriname, Amazon, upper Paraná and São Francisco basins. The new species is described from the upper rio Paraná based on material collected in 1965 during the construction of the UHE Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is easily distinguished from all congeners due to absence of adipose fin, a condition otherwise restricted to Gelanoglanis nanonocticolus, among centromochlin catfishes. The new species comprises small catfishes (adults ranging from 35 to 39 mm SL, in which modified anal fin of males is devoid of denticulations or spines, and most posterior rays reduced in length. In addition, Tatia simplex Mees is transferred to Centromochlus and its generic reassignment discussed.

  17. Microbiological and shelf life characteristics of eviscerated and vacuum packed freshwater catfish (Ompok pabda) during chill storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Viji, P; Visnuvinayagam, S; Ninan, George; Sangeeta, G; Triveni, A; Ravishankar, C N

    2015-03-01

    The effect of vacuum packaging technique on the shelflife of eviscerated pabda catfish (Ompok pabda) during chill storage at 4 ± 2 °C was studied. The shelflife of pabda fish was predicted based on the cumulative observations of biochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. There was no significant difference in the lipid quality parameters studied between the samples during the chill storage period, whereas, vacuum packaging significantly improved the sensory and microbiological quality. Based on microbiological parameters such as Total Viable Count, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Spp, total Vibrios, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, faecal Streptococcus and anaerobic sulphite reducers, the shelflife of chilled gutted pabda catfish was estimated to be 14-16 and 18-20 days for air packed and vacuum packed samples, respectively. The sensory parameters showed extended shelflife by four more days for both the samples.

  18. Aloysia triphylla essential oil as additive in silver catfish diet: Blood response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Sutili, Fernando J; Heinzmann, Berta M; Cunha, Mauro A; Brusque, Isabel C M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zeppenfeld, Carla C

    2017-03-01

    The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) is a promising product with potential use in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated hematological/biochemical responses and survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed a diet containing EOAT and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. After 21 days of feeding trial, fish were infected with A. hydrophila following a 10-day period of observation. Blood collection was performed before and after the bacterial challenge. Dietary EOAT by itself seems to affect some blood parameters, decreasing total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts and increasing total protein values. However, 2.0 mL EOAT/kg diet showed a possible potential protective effect after A. hydrophila infection, maintaining the evaluated parameters similar to basal values (from healthy fish before the feeding trial) and promoting survival of silver catfish.

  19. Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  20. Effect of the Addition of Catfish Meat on Improving of Jerked Meat Protein from Cassava Leaves (Manihot utilissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of catfish meat to increase protein of jerked meat cassava leaves (Manihot utilissima and  to find the best products from cassava leaves jerked meat. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Engineering and Process Technology,  Chemical Agricultural Products and Nutrition Department of Agricultural Technology Andalas University from August to October 2014. The method used in this study experimental method, using a completely randomized design (CRD with 6 treatments and 3 replications.  The treatments are the addition of catfish meat,  respectively : 37.5 % (A, 50 % (B, 62.5 % (C, 75 % (D, 87.5 % (E, and 100 % (F. Data was processed with statistically by using ANOVA which was followed by Duncan 's New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT at the 5% significance level.  The results of this study showed that the addition of catfish meat were very significantly  effect on the improvement of cassava leaves protein jerked ranged  from 25.9 % - 38.08 %,  decreasing water content that ranges between 7.58 % - 9.16 %,  increasing ash content which ranged between 1.15 % - 1.54 %, and fat content ranged from 28.83 % - 33.33 %.  Based on sensory analysis,  the best product is  treatment B ( the addition of 50 % of catfish meat,  where color was preferred by 70% panelist,  flavor by 75%,  taste by 90%,  and texture by 90% of panelist.

  1. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  2. Goliath catfish spawning in the far western Amazon confirmed by the distribution of mature adults, drifting larvae and migrating juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthem, Ronaldo B; Goulding, Michael; Leite, Rosseval G; Cañas, Carlos; Forsberg, Bruce; Venticinque, Eduardo; Petry, Paulo; Ribeiro, Mauro L de B; Chuctaya, Junior; Mercado, Armando

    2017-02-06

    We mapped the inferred long-distance migrations of four species of Amazonian goliath catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, B. platynemum, B. juruense and B. vaillantii) based on the presence of individuals with mature gonads and conducted statistical analysis of the expected long-distance downstream migrations of their larvae and juveniles. By linking the distribution of larval, juvenile and mature adult size classes across the Amazon, the results showed: (i) that the main spawning regions of these goliath catfish species are in the western Amazon; (ii) at least three species-B. rousseauxii, B. platynemum, and B. juruense-spawn partially or mainly as far upstream as the Andes; (iii) the main spawning area of B. rousseauxii is in or near the Andes; and (iv) the life history migration distances of B. rousseauxii are the longest strictly freshwater fish migrations in the world. These results provide an empirical baseline for tagging experiments, life histories extrapolated from otolith microchemistry interpretations and other methods to establish goliath catfish migratory routes, their seasonal timing and possible return (homing) to western headwater tributaries where they were born.

  3. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days.

  4. Goliath catfish spawning in the far western Amazon confirmed by the distribution of mature adults, drifting larvae and migrating juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthem, Ronaldo B.; Goulding, Michael; Leite, Rosseval G.; Cañas, Carlos; Forsberg, Bruce; Venticinque, Eduardo; Petry, Paulo; Ribeiro, Mauro L. de B.; Chuctaya, Junior; Mercado, Armando

    2017-01-01

    We mapped the inferred long-distance migrations of four species of Amazonian goliath catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, B. platynemum, B. juruense and B. vaillantii) based on the presence of individuals with mature gonads and conducted statistical analysis of the expected long-distance downstream migrations of their larvae and juveniles. By linking the distribution of larval, juvenile and mature adult size classes across the Amazon, the results showed: (i) that the main spawning regions of these goliath catfish species are in the western Amazon; (ii) at least three species—B. rousseauxii, B. platynemum, and B. juruense—spawn partially or mainly as far upstream as the Andes; (iii) the main spawning area of B. rousseauxii is in or near the Andes; and (iv) the life history migration distances of B. rousseauxii are the longest strictly freshwater fish migrations in the world. These results provide an empirical baseline for tagging experiments, life histories extrapolated from otolith microchemistry interpretations and other methods to establish goliath catfish migratory routes, their seasonal timing and possible return (homing) to western headwater tributaries where they were born. PMID:28165499

  5. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  6. Successful xenogeneic germ cell transplantation from Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) into adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Costa, G M J; Lacerda, S M S N; Brandão-Dias, P F P; Kalapothakis, E; Silva Júnior, A F; Alvarenga, E R; França, L R

    2016-05-01

    Fish germ cell transplantation presents several important potential applications for aquaculture, including the preservation of germplasm from endangered fish species with high genetic and commercial values. Using this technique in studies developed in our laboratory with adult male Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus), all the necessary procedures were successfully established, allowing the production of functional sperm and healthy progeny approximately 2months after allogeneic transplantation. In the present study, we evaluated the viability of the adult Nile tilapia testis to generate sperm after xenogeneic transplant of germ cells from sexually mature Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) that belong to a different taxonomic order. Therefore, in order to investigate at different time-periods post-transplantation, the presence and development of donor PKH26 labeled catfish germ cells were followed in the tilapia seminiferous tubules. From 7 to 20days post-transplantation, only PKH26 labeled spermatogonia were observed, whereas spermatocytes at different stages of development were found at 70days. Germ cell transplantation success and progression of spermatogenesis were indicated by the presence of labeled PKH26 spermatids and sperm on days 90 and 120 post-transplantation, respectively. Confirming the presence of the catfish genetic material in the tilapia testis, all recipient tilapias evaluated (n=8) showed the genetic markers evaluated. Therefore, we demonstrated for the first time that the adult Nile tilapia testis offers the functional conditions for development of spermatogenesis with sperm production from a fish species belonging to a different order, which provides an important new venue for aquaculture advancement.

  7. Multiple across-strain and within-strain QTLs suggest highly complex genetic architecture for hypoxia tolerance in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhu; Liu, Shikai; Jiang, Chen; Geng, Xin; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ning; Bao, Lisui; Li, Yun; Yao, Jun; Yang, Yujia; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Jin, Yulin; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-02-01

    The ability to survive hypoxic conditions is important for various organisms, especially for aquatic animals. Teleost fish, representing more than 50 % of vertebrate species, are extremely efficient in utilizing low levels of dissolved oxygen in water. However, huge variations exist among various taxa of fish in their ability to tolerate hypoxia. In aquaculture, hypoxia tolerance is among the most important traits because hypoxia can cause major economic losses. Genetic enhancement for hypoxia tolerance in catfish is of great interest, but little was done with analysis of the genetic architecture of hypoxia tolerance. The objective of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study to identify QTLs for hypoxia tolerance using the catfish 250K SNP array with channel catfish families from six strains. Multiple significant and suggestive QTLs were identified across and within strains. One significant QTL and four suggestive QTLs were identified across strains. Six significant QTLs and many suggestive QTLs were identified within strains. There were rare overlaps among the QTLs identified within the six strains, suggesting a complex genetic architecture of hypoxia tolerance. Overall, within-strain QTLs explained larger proportion of phenotypic variation than across-strain QTLs. Many of genes within these identified QTLs have known functions for regulation of oxygen metabolism and involvement in hypoxia responses. Pathway analysis indicated that most of these genes were involved in MAPK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways that were known to be important for hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis and survival.

  8. Preference behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, juveniles in waters with pH gradients: laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the preferred pH in silver catfish Rhamdia quelenjuveniles acclimated to different water hardness and the effect of shelters and infection by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish were acclimated for two weeks at different water hardness levels (4, 24, 50, or 100 mg CaCO3 L-1 and then transferred to a polyethylene tube with a pH gradient ranging from 3.5 to 11.7 and maintaining the same hardness. The position of the fish in the pH gradient was observed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after transfer. Acclimation to different water hardness did not change pH preference of uninfected silver catfish (pH 7.30-7.83, and the presence of a shelter at the preferred pH or outside this preferred pH did not change the chosen pH range, either. Consequently silver catfish favored the acid-base regulation over shelter seeking tendency. Juveniles infected with I. multifiliis acclimated to water hardness of 24 mg CaCO3 L-1 preferred alkaline pH (9.08-9.79. This choice is not explained by the higher Na+ levels at alkaline pH compared to neutral pH because infected and uninfected fish choose the same waterborne Na+ levels in a Na+ gradient with the same pH.

  9. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  10. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis of two different populations of cultured Korean catfish Silurus asotus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jong-Man Yoon; Gye-Woong Kim

    2001-12-01

    Genetic similarity and diversity of cultured catfish Silurus asotus populations collected from two areas in western Korea were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Out of 20 random primers tested, 5 produced 1344 RAPD bands ranging from 8.2 to 13.6 polymorphic bands per primer. The polymorphic bands in these populations ranged from 56.4% to 59.6%. Polymorphic bands per lane within populations ranged from 4.9% to 5.3%. The similarity within the Kunsan population varied from 0.39 to 0.82 with a mean (± SD) of 0.56 ± 0.08. The level of bandsharing values was 0.59 ± 0.07 within the catfish population from Yesan. The genetic similarity in cultured catfish populations may have been caused because individuals from two populations were reared in the same environmental conditions or by inbreeding during several generations. However, in view of bandsharing values, polymorphic bands and also the specific major bands that were inter-population-specific, significant genetic differentiation between these populations were present even if bandsharing (BS) values were somewhat numerically different. Therefore, the number of RAPD polymorphisms identified in this study may be sufficient to permit estimating genetic similarity and diversity. However, in future, additional populations, sampling sites and individuals will be necessary to make up for these weak points.

  11. Stomach contents of the catfishes Osteogeneiosus militaris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Arius maculatus (Thunberg, 1792 in the Songkhla Lake

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    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The catfishes, Osteogeneiosus militaris and Arius maculatus, were collected from Songkhla Lake, southern Thailand at two sites that varied in the extent to which they were exposed to higher salinity (the Outer Songkhla Lake and which were exposed to lower salinity (the Inner Songkhla Lake. Both fish species were carnivores feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates with regard to its major components of Tanaidacea, Amphipoda, Bivalvia, Polychaeta and Isopoda. Tanaidacean (Apseudes sapensis clearly dominated the diets of O. militaris in both sites ranging from 33.3 to 96.7% by frequency of occurrence and 23.5 to 90.2% by number. Amphipods were the most dominant prey of A. maculatus ranging from 40.0 to 93.3% by frequency of occurrence and 7.0-60.2% by number. Although Polychaeta were less numerically abundantly eaten by catfishes (0.4-6.4%, the frequency of occurrence was high (10.0-86.7% in almost all seasons. Some other large (Alpheidae and fish larvae and fast mobile animals (Mysidacea were much more commonly found in A. maculatus than in O. militaris. This study implies that these catfish species feed opportunistically on a variety of prey in their environment coupled with preferential feeding.

  12. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days. Received: 04 October 2014 Revised: 26 March 2015; Accepted: 05 April 2015

  13. Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Shikai; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Jiaren; Jiang, Yanliang; Li, Chao; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Li, Jiale; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-03-01

    Hemoglobins transport oxygen from gill to inner organs in fish, and this process is affected by temperature, one of the major environmental factors for fish. The hemoglobin gene clusters have been well studied in humans and several model fish species, but remain largely unknown in catfish. Here, eight α- and six β-hemoglobin genes were identified and characterized in channel catfish. Genomic synteny analysis showed that these hemoglobin genes were separated into two unlinked clusters, the MN cluster containing six α- and six β-hemoglobin genes, and the LA cluster consisting of two α-hemoglobin genes. Channel catfish hemoglobin genes were ubiquitously expressed in all the 10 tested tissues from healthy fish, but exhibited higher expression level in spleen, head kidney, and trunk kidney. In response to heat stress, hemoglobin genes, especially MN Hbα4, MN Hbα5, MN Hbα6, MN Hbβ4, MN Hbβ5, MN Hbβ6, LA Hbα1, and LA Hbα2, presumably the embryonic hemoglobin genes, were drastically up-regulated in the gill and head kidney of heat-tolerant fishes, but not in these tissues of the heat-intolerant fish, suggesting the importance of the embryonic hemoglobin genes in coping with the low oxygen conditions under heat stress.

  14. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft and hard water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, J; Gatlin, D M

    1993-12-01

    1. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft ( 100 mg/l as CaCO3) water were determined by feeding purified egg-white diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% calcium from CaCO3 for 8 weeks. 2. Catfish fry fed the basal diet (0.03% Ca) in hard and soft water had lower whole-body ash and whole-body calcium concentrations but higher weight gain and survival than those fed calcium-supplemented diets. 3. Fry in soft water generally had lower whole-body ash, whole-body calcium, and survival, as well as a higher incidence of spinal deformities than fry in hard water. 4. Feeding higher levels of calcium to fry reared in soft water did not increase whole-body calcium levels or decrease spinal deformities to the levels observed for fry reared in hard water and fed supplemental calcium. 5. These data indicate that calcium derived solely from dietary or environmental sources was not sufficient for optimum health of channel catfish fry.

  15. Transcriptional profiles of multiple genes in the anterior kidney of channel catfish vaccinated with an attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xingjiang; Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-12-01

    A total of 22 uniquely expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from channel catfish anterior kidney subtractive cDNA library at 12 h post vaccination with an attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila (AL09-71 N+R). Of the 22 ESTs, six were confirmed to be significantly (P < 0.05) induced by the vaccination. Of 88 channel catfish genes selected from literature, 14 were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated by the vaccination. The transcriptional levels of the total 20 genes induced by the vaccination were then compared to that induced by the virulent parent A. hydrophila (AL09-71) at different time points. At 3 h post vaccination (hpv) or infection (hpi), Na(+)/K(+) ATPase α subunit was upregulated the most. At 6 and 12 hpv or hpi, hepcidin and interleukin-1β were induced the highest. At 24 hpv or hpi, hepcidin was upregulated the most, followed by lysozyme c. At 48 hpi, lysozyme c and hepcidin were significantly induced. When vaccinated fish were challenged by AL09-71, relative percent of survival of vaccinated fish were 100% at 14 days post vaccination (dpv). Transcriptional levels of toll-like receptor 5 and hepcidin were significantly upregulated in vaccinated fish at 14 dpv. Taken together, our results suggest that vaccination with attenuated A. hydrophila mimics infection by live bacteria, inducing multiple immune genes in channel catfish.

  16. A Discussion on Culture Technology of Yel ow River Catfish Fry%黄河鲇鱼苗培育技术探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆礼

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the propagation technology of the Yellow River catfish, a test of catfish culture was done using the factory method by the technical staff of the Ningxia Fisheries Institute. In combination with the actual situation, a de-tailed study and analysis were made on the shape characteristics and ecological habits of catfish and the artificial propagation of catfish fry as well as the disease prevention and control and the matters needing attention in the breeding were summa-rized. It will provide a scientific basis for further determination of the operation regulation of the efficient breeding technology of the Yellow River catfish fry.%为进一步探索黄河鲇鱼的繁殖技术,宁夏水产研究所技术人员选择工厂化方式进行鲇鱼苗培育试验。文章结合实际,研究和分析了鲇鱼的形体特征、生态习性、人工繁殖鱼苗的培育、疾病防治,并对培育中的注意事项进行了总结,为下一步确定黄河鲇鱼苗高效养殖技术操作规程提供了科学依据。

  17. Comparative study on effects of dietary with diphenyl diselenide on oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia sp.) exposed to herbicide clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Toni, Cândida; Santi, Adriana; Lópes, Thais; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Neto, João Radünz; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The study investigated the capacity of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] (3.0mg/kg), on reduce the oxidative damage in liver, gills and muscle of carp and silver catfish exposed to clomazone (192h). Silver catfish exposed to clomazone showed increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in liver and muscle and protein carbonyl in liver and gills. Furthermore, clomazone in silver catfish decrease non-protein thiols (NPSH) in liver and gills and glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid in liver. (PhSe)2 reversed the effects caused by clomazone in silver catfish, preventing increases in TBARS and protein carbonyl. Moreover, NPSH and ascorbic acid were increased by values near control. The results suggest that (PhSe)2 attenuated the oxidative damage induced by clomazone in silver catfish. The clomazone no caused an apparent situation of oxidative stress in carp, showing that this species is more resistant to this toxicant. Altogether, the containing (PhSe)2 diet helps fish to increase antioxidants defenses.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, Rahayu; Kismiyati; Sudarno; Kurniawan, Hendi; Teguh Prayogi, Yudha

    2017-02-01

    Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of the familiar freshwater fish cultured in Indonesia farmer. One of the reason is the high mortality of the catfish infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) is a common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which affects freshwater fish. In Southeast Asia, the outbreak of this disease was firstly reported from West Java in 1980, when a total of 82.5 tons a month of catfish were lost, while in Central Java in 1984, the total loss was 1.6 tons. Saprolegniosis can cause economic loss due to high mortality from its case reaching 10% to 50%. This research aimed to identify and determine the percentage of A. hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. the catfish farmed in bozem Moro Krembangan, Surabaya, East Java. Meanwhile, a supporting parameter in this research is the value of water quality parameter including pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen that were measured during sampling. The results showed that of the 20 samples taken from the two cages, 19 fish were positively infected by A. drophila. percentage of infections of A. hydrophila that infect umbo catfish in Moro Krembangan, was 95%, while the percentage Saprolegnia sp. was 90%.

  19. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.

  20. Effects of astaxanthin and emodin on the growth, stress resistance and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Shi, Hong-zhuan; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Yu, Ye-bing; Wang, Ai-ming; Lv, Fu; Shen, Wen-biao

    2016-04-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) has become a commercially important fish species in China and eastern Asia. High-density aquaculture has led to congestion and excessive stress and contributed to bacterial infection outbreaks that have caused high mortality. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and emodin alone and in combination on the growth and stress resistance of yellow catfish. After 60 days of feeding, each group of fish (control, astaxanthin, emodin, and astaxanthin plus emodin (combination) groups) was exposed to acute crowding stress for 24 h, and a subsample of fish from the four groups was challenged with the bacterial septicemia pathogen Proteus mirabilis after the end of the crowding stress experiment. Compared with the control, the astaxanthin and emodin groups showed increases in serum total protein (TP), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hepatic heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) mRNA levels at 12 and 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress. The combination group exhibited increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum TP, hepatic SOD activity and hepatic HSP70 mRNA levels within 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress. However, decreases relative to the control were observed in the serum cortisol and glucose contents in the three treatment groups at 12 and 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress, in ALT and AST activity in the astaxanthin and emodin group at 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress, and in the serum lysozyme activity, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and hepatic catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in the combination group at 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress. Additionally, the cumulative mortality after P. mirabilis infection was lower in all three treatment groups (57.00%-70.33%) than in the control (77.67%). Dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and emodin decreased