WorldWideScience

Sample records for catfish expressed sequence

  1. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2001-09-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  2. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2013-03-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  3. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  4. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  5. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaolin

    2010-01-01

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing ...

  6. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C

    2010-01-01

    Background Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing ...

  7. Assembly of 500,000 Inter-Specific Catfish Expressed Sequence Tags and Large Scale Gene-Associated Marker Development for Whole Genome Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpo...

  8. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  9. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  10. Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Novel Genes with Sexually Dimorphic Expression in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Zheng, Min; Zheng, Jiajia; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yongzhuang; Peng, Lina; Wang, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiushi; Luan, Peixian; Mahbooband, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is a pivotal freshwater aquaculture species in China. It shows sexual size dimorphism favoring male in growth. Whole transcriptome approach is required to get the overview of genetic toolkit for understanding the sex determination mechanism aiming at devising its monosex production. Beside gonads, the brain is also considered as a major organ for vertebrate reproduction. Transcriptomic analyses on the brain and of different developmental stages will provide the dynamic view necessary for better understanding its sex determination. In this regard, we have performed a de novo assembly of yellow catfish brain transcriptome by high throughput Illumina sequencing. A total number of 154,507 contigs were obtained with the lengths ranging from 201 to 27,822 bp and N50 of 2,101 bp, as well as 20,699 unigenes were identified. Of these unigenes, 13 and 54 unigenes were detected to be XY-specifically expressed genes (SEGs) for one and 2-year-old yellow catfish, while the corresponding numbers of XX-SEGs for those two stages were 19 and 13, respectively. Our work identifies a set of annotated genes that are candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide variation (SNV) in yellow catfish. To validate the expression patterns of the sex-related genes, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicating the reliability and accuracy of our analysis. The results in our study may enhance our understanding of yellow catfish sex determination and potentially help to improve the production of all-male yellow catfish for aquaculture. PMID:26242754

  11. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned and sequenced using the RACE. The complete sequence of the CC MMP-9 cDNA g...

  12. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abernathy Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 BAC end sequences and their applications for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Using these and the additional 20,000 existing BAC end sequences as a resource along with linkage mapping and existing physical map, conserved syntenic regions were identified between the catfish and zebrafish genomes. A total of 10,943 catfish BAC end sequences (17.3% had significant BLAST hits to the zebrafish genome (cutoff value ≤ e-5, of which 3,221 were unique gene hits, providing a platform for comparative mapping based on locations of these genes in catfish and zebrafish. Genetic linkage mapping of microsatellites associated with contigs allowed identification of large conserved genomic segments and construction of super scaffolds. Conclusion BAC end sequences and their associated polymorphic markers are great resources for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Highly conserved chromosomal regions were identified to exist between catfish and zebrafish. However, it appears that the level of conservation at local genomic regions are high while a high level of chromosomal shuffling and rearrangements exist between catfish and zebrafish genomes. Orthologous regions established through comparative analysis should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in catfish.

  13. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    OpenAIRE

    Abernathy Jason; Xu Peng; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Ninwichian Parichart; Wang Shaolin; Jiang Yanliang; Liu Hong; Kucuktas Huseyin; Liu Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of...

  14. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Shaolin; Ninwichian, Parichart; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Xu, Peng(Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190, Beijing, China); Abernathy, Jason; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 B...

  15. C DNA CLONING, CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS RAFINESQUE, 1818) PEROXIREDOXIN 6 GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroxiredoxin 6 gene (Prdx6) of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced. Total RNA from channel catfish tissues was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified. The sequence of the channel catfish Prdx6 gene consists of 1003 nucleotides. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence ...

  16. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  17. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  18. In vivo and in vitro CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kristine L; Ganesan, Shobana; Patel, Monali; Metzger, Christine; Quiniou, Sylvie; Waldbieser, Geoff; Scheffler, Brian

    2006-07-01

    Our goal was to study the induction of CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). CYP1B belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of genes, is involved in the oxidation of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and could potentially be a useful biomarker in fish for exposure to AhR ligands. The full-length catfish CYP1B cDNA is 2417 nt to the polyA tail and encodes a putative protein of 536 amino acids. It has 67% amino acid similarity to carp and zebrafish CYP1B and 68% similarity to carp CYP1B2. Male channel catfish were collected from three Mississippi Delta sites: Lake Roebuck, Itta Bena; Bee Lake, Thornton; and Sunflower River, Indianola. Total RNA was isolated from wild-caught catfish gill, blood, gonad and liver tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine relative induction of CYP1B in wild catfish compared to laboratory control and BaP-exposed catfish (20mg/kg i.p. after 4 days). BaP exposure significantly induced CYP1B message in blood, gonad, and liver of laboratory catfish. In these same tissues of wild catfish from sites with relatively low sediment contaminants, CYP1B message was not statistically increased relative to laboratory control catfish. CYP1B transcript abundance was higher in gills compared to other tissues in both laboratory and wild catfish. When primary cultured gill cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BaP, TCDD, and PCBs 77, 126 and 169, CYP1B mRNA was induced more than 10-fold while PCB153 and 4,4'DDT did not cause significant CYP1B induction. Our results suggest that catfish CYP1B is induced by the classic AhR ligands. PMID:16697458

  19. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    OpenAIRE

    Erlong Wang; Jun Wang; Bo Long; Kaiyu Wang; Yang He; Qian Yang; Defang Chen; Yi Geng; Xiaoli Huang; Ping Ouyang; Weimin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine e...

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of two isoforms of Vasa gene in Southern catfish Silurus meridionalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Chong-Jiang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two isoforms of Vasa cDNA, derived from the 5′alternative splicing of the same gene, were isolated and characterized in Southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE methods. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the full length cDNA of Southern catfish Vasa (scVasa comprises 2525 base pairs (bp with an open reading frame (ORF of 1989 bp, encoding 662 amino acids, while that of Vasa short form (scVasa-s comprises 2438 bp with an ORF of 1926 bp, encoding 641 amino acids. Except the difference in 5′-untranslated region, scVasa-s also lacks a part of the 5′-ORF region found in the scVasa. Both of the two deduced amino acid sequences contain all the eight conserved motifs characteristic to the DEAD-box protein family and four arginine-glycine-glycine motifs unique to Vasa proteins. scVasa showed the highest similarity to Vasa homolog of giebel carp (73.3%. Tissue distribution analysis by RT-PCR revealed that these two isoforms were exclusively expressed in the gonads of both sexes. In adult fish, scVasa was found to be mainly expressed in the primary oocytes at phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ in the ovary while in the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in the testis by in situ hybridization. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expressions of both scVasa isoforms were much higher in ovarian recrudescent stage (mainly with phase Ⅱ oocytes than in vitellogenic stage (mainly with phase Ⅲ and Ⅳ oocytes [Acta Zoologica Sinica 54(6):1051–1060, 2008].

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of two isoforms of Vasa gene in Southern catfish Silurus meridionalis

    OpenAIRE

    HU Chong-Jiang; WU, Feng-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Hao; HUANG Bao-Feng; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Wang, De-Shou

    2008-01-01

    Two isoforms of Vasa cDNA, derived from the 5′alternative splicing of the same gene, were isolated and characterized in Southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the full length cDNA of Southern catfish Vasa (scVasa) comprises 2525 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1989 bp, encoding 662 amino acids, while that of Va...

  2. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish. PMID:26747053

  3. Expression profiles of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptides in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using quantitative PCR technique, the relative transcriptional levels of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes [NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin D, hepcidin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 ...

  4. G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish: Expression analysis and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the transcriptional profiles of G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish after infection with A. hydrophila compared to that in healthy catfish; 2) to determine whether over-expression of GPR18 in catfish gill cells will offer protec...

  5. Sex biased expression of ghrelin and GHSR associated with sexual size dimorphism in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ma, Wenge; He, Yan; Wu, Junjie; Dawar, Farman Ullah; Ren, Fan; Zhao, Xiaohan; Mei, Jie

    2016-03-10

    Sexual size dimorphism has been observed in many cultivable fish species including yellow catfish, in which male fish grow much faster than female fish. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of pituitary growth hormone (GH) release and known to potentially promote food intake and body weight gain. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism of sexual size dimorphism in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), ghrelin and its functional receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) cDNAs were cloned. Real-time PCR indicated that both ghrelin and GHSR were more highly expressed in hypothalamus and gut of male fish than female. During normal larval development, expression of ghrelin and GHSR genes was significantly higher in males than in females. 17a-Methyltestosterone (MT) treatment enhanced the expression of ghrelin in female larval fish and GHSR in both sexes, whereas the expression of ghrelin in male larval fish increased in the beginning, then decreased as the treatment time prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of ghrelin and GHSR in male juvenile was significantly increased compared with female juvenile, in short and long term fasting periods, suggesting that male fish may have a better appetite than female during fasting. Our results demonstrate that sex difference in the expression of ghrelin and GHSR may be involved in sexual size dimorphism by regulating feeding and GH/IGF signaling in yellow catfish. PMID:26692148

  6. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  7. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  8. 黄颡鱼HSC70基因及其组织表达分析%HSC70 GENE AND ITS TISSUE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS IN YELLOW CATFISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 张其中; 张占会; 崔淼

    2009-01-01

    热休克蛋白70(HSPTO)与生物体的抗胁迫能力密切相关.本文采用RACE(Rapid amplification of cDNA ends)技术,从黄颡鱼Pelteobagrus fulvidraco克隆到一种组成型热休克蛋白(HSC70)基因及其cDNA.该cDNA全长2245bp,包括5'非编码区82bp,3'非编码区225bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1938bp,编码645个氨基酸组成的蛋白质.黄颡鱼HSC70基因含有8个内含子,与人、鼠、虹鳟和花斑溪鳉的HSC70基因内含子数目相同,位置相似.其中,最长内含子(873bp)位于5'端非编码区,其余内含子(长度在80-251bp之间不等)均在编码区以内.黄颡鱼HSC70基因编码的氨基酸序列与南方鲶的相似度最高,达96.13%,与欧洲银鲫和团头鲂的相似度分别为94.45%和94.14%.RT-PCR检测显示,正常情况下黄颡鱼HSC70在血细胞、心脏、肝、头肾、脾、鳃、肌肉和脑中均有表达,但表达量在鳃中最高,肌肉中最低;统计结果显示,热激后HSC70在血细胞、肝、头肾和脑中的表达量显著上升(p0.05).%Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70s) act as a role of chaperone and play a key function in cytoprotection and cytore-pair, including protein assembly, correct folding, and membrane translocation, it also enhance the organisms' immunity and enduration to stressors. Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is an important cultured species in China. In order to illuminate molecular mechanism of the HSP70 family members in the catfish against stressors and diseases, it is necessary to clone the gene and cDNA sequence of HSP70 family members in the first instance. Therefore, the gene and its cDNA of a HSP70 family member were cloned in yellow catfish, and mRNA expression of the gene was studied in various tissues and organs of the catfish under heat-treated or unstressed condition.A full length cDNA of 2245 bp was cloned in the gill of yellow catfish with RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1938 bp, 5

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  10. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  11. Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the striped raphael catfish, Platydoras armatulus (Siluriformes: Doradidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Jiaren; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    Striped raphael catfish, Platydoras armatulus, belongs to catfish family Doradidae, which are endemic to South America and featured by a single row of thorny scutes along the lateral line. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of P. armatulus by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis provided the full-length mitogenome sequence of 16,470 bp. The P. armatulus mitogenome is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 30.9% A, 25.2% T, 15.9% G and 28.0% C, with A/T bias of 56.1%. The generation of P. armatulus mitogenome sequence enriched catfish molecular resources that are valuable for phylogenetic analysis and species identification studies. PMID:25329257

  12. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing

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    Bing Xie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs.

  13. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhilong; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Min; Liu, Jie; Tong, Ting; Li, Jia; Huang, Yu; Wen, Bo; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs. PMID:27089325

  14. Genome-wide identification of Hsp70 genes in channel catfish and their regulated expression after bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin; Li, Chao; Xie, Yangjie; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Chen; Li, Yun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock proteins 70/110 (Hsp70/110) are a family of conserved ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins which are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions. Besides the chaperone and housekeeping functions, they are also known to be involved in immune response during infection. In this study, we identified 16 Hsp70/110 geness in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) through in silico analysis using RNA-Seq and genome databases. Among them 12 members of Hsp70 (Hspa) family and 4 members of Hsp110 (Hsph) family were identified. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses provided strong evidence in supporting the orthologies of these HSPs. In addition, we also determined the expression patterns of Hsp70/110 genes after Flavobacterium columnare and Edwardsiella ictaluri infections by meta-analyses, for the first time in channel catfish. Ten out of sixteen genes were significantly up/down-regulated after bacterial challenges. Specifically, nine genes were found significantly expressed in gill after F. columnare infection. Two genes were found significantly expressed in intestine after E. ictaluri infection. Pathogen-specific pattern and tissue-specific pattern were found in the two infections. The significantly regulated expressions of catfish Hsp70 genes after bacterial infections suggested their involvement in immune response in catfish. PMID:26693666

  15. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque 1818, Tetraspanin Membrane Protein Family: Characterization and Expression Analysis of CD81 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD81, also known as the target of an antiproliferative antibody 1 (TAPA-1), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immune functions. In this report, we characterized and analyzed expression of the channel catfish CD81 transcript. T...

  16. NRAMP, TNF, TLR5, and Hepcidin Expression in Resistant and Susceptible Families of Channel Catfish Following Challenge With E. ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression of Nramp, TNF, TLR5, and Hepcidin, in spleen and liver tissue from two families of channel catfish, one resistant and one susceptible to ESC, following challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri. There were no significant differences in relative copy numbe...

  17. SNP discovery and validation in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish, Ictalurusfurcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally blue catfish x channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodsto...

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of fushi tarazu factor 1 in the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikipandla Sridevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1 encodes an orphan nuclear receptor belonging to the nuclear receptor family 5A (NR5A which includes adrenal 4-binding protein or steroidogenic factor-1 (Ad4BP/SF-1 and liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1 and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of aromatases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Present study was aimed to understand the importance of FTZ-F1 in relation to brain aromatase (cyp19a1b during development, recrudescence and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG induction. Initially, we cloned FTZ-F1 from the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus through degenerate primer RT-PCR and RACE. Its sequence analysis revealed high homology with other NR5A1 group members Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1, and also analogous to the spatial expression pattern of the latter. In order to draw functional correlation of cyp19a1b and FTZ-F1, we analyzed the expression pattern of the latter in brain during gonadal ontogeny, which revealed early expression during gonadal differentiation. The tissue distribution both at transcript and protein levels revealed its prominent expression in brain along with liver, kidney and testis. The expression pattern of brain FTZ-F1 during reproductive cycle and after hCG induction, in vivo was analogous to that of cyp19a1b shown in our earlier study indicating its involvement in recrudescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our previous results on cyp19a1b and the present data, it is plausible to implicate potential roles for brain FTZ-F1 in ovarian differentiation and recrudescence process probably through regulation of cyp19a1b in teleosts. Nevertheless, these interactions would require primary coordinated response from ovarian aromatase and its related transcription factors.

  19. Expression Profiles of Cloned Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Lymphoid Cell Lines and Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal channel catfish lymphoid cell lines and mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) have proven extremely useful in examining immune responses at the cellular and molecular levels. To date clonal catfish cell lines and MLC have been biologically and phenotypically characterized using a variety of techniq...

  20. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from disease channel catfish from West Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 was cultured from infected channel catfish during the 2009 disease outbreak in West Alabama. The complete genome of this highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp in size. The genome has 4489 coding sequences, 11 cop...

  1. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: expression analysis, lysozyme activity, and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  2. Expression Patterns of Cytochrome P450 Aromatase Genes During Ovary Development and Their Responses to Temperature Stress in Female Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Miao; QI Baoxia; WEN Haishen; HE Feng; LI Jifang; SHI Dan; HU Jian; ZHANG Yuanqing; MA Ruiqin; MU Weijie

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) plays a pivotal role in ovary development.In this study,we used semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to analyze spatiotemporal expressions of two P450arom genes (CYP1gA and CYP19B)and their responses to temperature stress in female yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco).Tissue distribution pattern of CYP19showed that CYP19B was abundantly expressed in fish brain and ovary (brain>ovary),but weakly in intestines,whereas CYP19Awas exclusively expressed in ovary.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed high transcript abundance of both CYP19A and CYP19B in the ovarian reproductive cycle,corresponding with serum estradiol-17β (E2) levels.Increases in aromatases,serum E2 and testosterone (T) levels in fish exposed to higher temperature indicated stimulation of ovarian maturation and recrudescence by heat stress in stages Ⅱ and V during the ovarian cycle,whereas associated decreases in stage III suggested vitellogenesis inhibition by heat stress.Gene expression of CYP19 was closely related to levels of serum E2.Results demonstrated CYP19 played a crucial role in the reproductive cycle of female yellow catfish.Different temperature stress affected CYP19 gene expression in the fish ovarian reproductive cycle.Associated P450arom genes could be useful for studying physiological aspects of yellow catfish.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the spleens of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C)-stimulated yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Chai, Xin-Yue; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae) is an economically important fish in China. However, genomic research and resources on this species are largely unavailable and still in infancy. In the present study, we constructed a cDNA library following poly I:C injection to screen for immune response genes in the spleens of P. fulvidraco using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 420 putative expressed sequence tag (EST) clones were identified at 24 h post-injection, which contain 103 genes consisting of 25 immune response genes, 12 cytoskeleton genes, 7 cell cycle and apoptosis genes, 7 respiration and energy metabolism genes, 7 transport genes, 26 metabolism genes, 10 stress response genes, 9 translational regulation genes, and 71 unknown genes. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) results revealed that a set of randomly selected immune response genes were identified to be up-regulated after 24 h of poly I:C stimulation compared to controls. Our study provides an annotation of immune genes in detail and insight into fish immunity. PMID:27368543

  4. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  5. cis sequence effects on gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence and transcriptional variability within and between individuals are typically studied independently. The joint analysis of sequence and gene expression variation (genetical genomics provides insight into the role of linked sequence variation in the regulation of gene expression. We investigated the role of sequence variation in cis on gene expression (cis sequence effects in a group of genes commonly studied in cancer research in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We estimated the proportion of genes exhibiting cis sequence effects and the proportion of gene expression variation explained by cis sequence effects using three different analytical approaches, and compared our results to the literature. Results We generated gene expression profiling data at N = 697 candidate genes from N = 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines for this study and used available candidate gene resequencing data at N = 552 candidate genes to identify N = 30 candidate genes with sufficient variance in both datasets for the investigation of cis sequence effects. We used two additive models and the haplotype phylogeny scanning approach of Templeton (Tree Scanning to evaluate association between individual SNPs, all SNPs at a gene, and diplotypes, with log-transformed gene expression. SNPs and diplotypes at eight candidate genes exhibited statistically significant (p cis sequence effects in our study, respectively. Conclusion Based on analysis of our results and the extant literature, one in four genes exhibits significant cis sequence effects, and for these genes, about 30% of gene expression variation is accounted for by cis sequence variation. Despite diverse experimental approaches, the presence or absence of significant cis sequence effects is largely supported by previously published studies.

  6. Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp. ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.

  7. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and kinetic analysis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Luo, Zhi; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Up to date, only limited information is available on genetically and functionally different isoforms of CPT I enzyme in fish. In the study, molecular characterization and their tissue expression profile of three CPT Iα isoforms (CPT Iα1a, CPT Iα1b and CPT Iα2a) and a CPT Iβ isoform from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco is determined. The activities and kinetic features of CPT I from several tissues have also been analyzed. The four CPT I isoforms in yellow catfish present distinct differences in amino acid sequences and structure. They are widely expressed in liver, heart, white muscle, spleen, intestine and mesenteric adipose tissue of yellow catfish at the mRNA level, but with the varying levels. CPT I activity and kinetics show tissue-specific differences stemming from co-expression of different isoforms, indicating more complex pathways of lipid utilization in fish than in mammals, allowing for precise control of lipid oxidation in individual tissue. PMID:23238057

  8. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analyses of the Complement Component C8α, C8β and C9 Genes in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) after the Aeromonas hydrophila Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huan; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Zhang, Xiao-Ting; Shi, Ze-Chao; Wei, Kai-Jian; Yang, Rui-Bin; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-01-01

    The complement components C8α, C8β and C9 have important roles in the innate immune system against invading microorganisms. Partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes (Pf: abbreviation of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were cloned from yellow catfish. The Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes showed the greatest amino acid similarity to C8α (54%) and C8β (62%) of zebrafish and to C9 (52%) of grass carp, respectively. Ontogenetic expression analyses using real-time quantitative PCR suggested that the three genes may play crucial roles during embryonic and early larval development. The mRNA expressions of the three genes were all at the highest levels in liver tissue, and at lower or much lower levels in 16 other tissues, demonstrating that the liver is the primary site for the protein synthesis of Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9. Injection of Aeromonas hydrophila led to up-regulation of the three genes in the spleen, head kidney, kidney, liver and blood tissues, indicating that the three genes may contribute to the host's defense against invading pathogenic microbes. An increased understanding of the functions of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes in the innate immunity of yellow catfish will help enhance production of this valuable freshwater species. PMID:27005612

  9. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analyses of the Complement Component C8α, C8β and C9 Genes in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco after the Aeromonas hydrophila Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complement components C8α, C8β and C9 have important roles in the innate immune system against invading microorganisms. Partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes (Pf: abbreviation of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were cloned from yellow catfish. The Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes showed the greatest amino acid similarity to C8α (54% and C8β (62% of zebrafish and to C9 (52% of grass carp, respectively. Ontogenetic expression analyses using real-time quantitative PCR suggested that the three genes may play crucial roles during embryonic and early larval development. The mRNA expressions of the three genes were all at the highest levels in liver tissue, and at lower or much lower levels in 16 other tissues, demonstrating that the liver is the primary site for the protein synthesis of Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9. Injection of Aeromonas hydrophila led to up-regulation of the three genes in the spleen, head kidney, kidney, liver and blood tissues, indicating that the three genes may contribute to the host’s defense against invading pathogenic microbes. An increased understanding of the functions of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes in the innate immunity of yellow catfish will help enhance production of this valuable freshwater species.

  10. Transcriptional profiles of multiple genes in the anterior kidney of channel catfish vaccinated with an attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 22 uniquely expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from channel catfish anterior kidney subtractive cDNA library at 12h post vaccination with an attenuated A. hydrophila (AL09-71 N+R). Of the 22 ESTs, six were confirmed to be significantly (P<0.05) induced by the vaccination. Of 8...

  11. Towards the ictalurid catfish transcriptome: generation and analysis of 31,215 catfish ESTs

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham Rex; Muir William; Liu Lei; Turan Cemal; Simmons Micah; Serapion Jerry; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Nandi Samiran; Kucuktas Huseyin; Xu Peng; Baoprasertkul Puttharat; He Chongbo; Feng Jinian; Wang Shaolin; Peatman Eric

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline inf...

  12. Expression and activity of recombinant proaerolysin derived from Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from diseased channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaerolysin-coding gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of A. hydrophila and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant proaerolysin was inactive and could be activated by treatment with proteases, furin and trypsin, and extra-cellular proteins (ECPs, the cell-free supernatant of...

  13. Use of Molecular Markers for Catfish Production and Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish are a diploid species native to North America and the primary product of U.S. aquaculture, and molecular genetic research supports selective breeding of catfish for commercial production. To date, short tandem repeat loci have been used to characterize DNA sequence variation within ...

  14. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish. PMID:26704851

  15. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    2003-01-01

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries. Recently, however, we succeeded in cloning the cDNA encoding the putative cfFSHbeta; the cDNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunit of cfLH have been cloned before. Here we report the expression of biologica...

  16. Influence of environmental ammonia on the production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► High environmental ammonia caused more production and accumulation of NO in air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). ► Hyper-ammonia stress caused induction and zonal specific expression of iNOS enzyme protein, mRNA expression in different tissues. ► Activation of NFκB that resulted under hyper-ammonia stress was believed to be the cause of induction of iNOS gene. - Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly versatile and unique ubiquitous signaling molecule, and is known to play diverse physiological functions in mammals including those of adaptation to various stresses. The present study reports on the influence of exposure to high external ammonia (HEA) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), that produces NO from L-arginine in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis), which is reported to tolerate a very HEA. Some levels of NO were found to be present in all the tissues and also in plasma of control fish, which further enhanced significantly in fishes treated with high concentrations of environmental ammonia (25 and 50 mM ammonium chloride) for 7 days, accompanied by more efflux of NO from the perfused liver. This was accomplished by the induction of iNOS activity in different tissues of fish exposed to HEA, which otherwise was not detectable in control fish. Exposure to 25 mM ammonium chloride also led to a significant expression of iNOS protein in different tissues, followed by further increase at 50 mM ammonium chloride. Further, there was an increase in the expression of iNOS mRNA in ammonia-treated fish, thus suggesting that the expression of iNOS gene under hyper-ammonia stress was probably regulated at the transcriptional level. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that the expression of iNOS in different tissues was zonal specific and not expressed uniformly throughout the organ. Hyper-ammonia stress also led to activation and nuclear

  17. Influence of environmental ammonia on the production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Mahua G. [Biochemical Adaptation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022 (India); Saha, Nirmalendu, E-mail: nsaha@nehu.ac.in [Biochemical Adaptation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High environmental ammonia caused more production and accumulation of NO in air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyper-ammonia stress caused induction and zonal specific expression of iNOS enzyme protein, mRNA expression in different tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of NF{kappa}B that resulted under hyper-ammonia stress was believed to be the cause of induction of iNOS gene. - Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly versatile and unique ubiquitous signaling molecule, and is known to play diverse physiological functions in mammals including those of adaptation to various stresses. The present study reports on the influence of exposure to high external ammonia (HEA) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), that produces NO from L-arginine in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis), which is reported to tolerate a very HEA. Some levels of NO were found to be present in all the tissues and also in plasma of control fish, which further enhanced significantly in fishes treated with high concentrations of environmental ammonia (25 and 50 mM ammonium chloride) for 7 days, accompanied by more efflux of NO from the perfused liver. This was accomplished by the induction of iNOS activity in different tissues of fish exposed to HEA, which otherwise was not detectable in control fish. Exposure to 25 mM ammonium chloride also led to a significant expression of iNOS protein in different tissues, followed by further increase at 50 mM ammonium chloride. Further, there was an increase in the expression of iNOS mRNA in ammonia-treated fish, thus suggesting that the expression of iNOS gene under hyper-ammonia stress was probably regulated at the transcriptional level. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that the expression of iNOS in different tissues was zonal specific and not expressed uniformly

  18. Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Oliveira Cruz, Viviane; Emediato, Flavia L; de Camargo Teixeira, Cristiane; Souza, Manoel T; Matsumoto, Takashi; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Claudia F; Amorim, Edson P; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Martins, Natalia F; de Jesus Barbosa Cavalcante, Maria; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios J

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana–Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were...

  19. Comprehensive survey and genomic characterization of toll-like receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: identification of novel fish TLRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive survey of channel catfish Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) was undertaken following a genomic PCR approach based on degenerate primers. Twenty different TLRs were identified in channel catfish. Channel catfish TLR sequences were characterized by phylogenetic analysis based on their conserv...

  20. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  1. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza, S J; Camargo, A A; Briones, M R;

    2000-01-01

    by EST or full length cDNA sequences available in GenBank but not utilized in the initial annotation of the first human chromosome sequence. Thus despite representing less than 15% of all expressed human sequences in the public databases at the time of the present analysis, ORESTES sequences defined 48...

  2. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Sandro J.; Anamaria A Camargo; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Fernando F. Costa; NAGAI, MARIA APARECIDA; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zago, Marco A.; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C.; Carrer, Helaine; El-Dorry, Hamza F. A.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gruber, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Transcribed sequences in the human genome can be identified with confidence only by alignment with sequences derived from cDNAs synthesized from naturally occurring mRNAs. We constructed a set of 250,000 cDNAs that represent partial expressed gene sequences and that are biased toward the central coding regions of the resulting transcripts. They are termed ORF expressed sequence tags (ORESTES). The 250,000 ORESTES were assembled into 81,429 contigs. Of these, 1,181 ...

  3. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  4. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sandro J.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Costa, Fernando F.; Nagai, Maria Aparecida; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zago, Marco A.; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C.; Carrer, Helaine; El-Dorry, Hamza F. A.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gruber, Arthur; Hackel, Christine; Kimura, Edna T.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Marie, Suely K. N.; Martins, Elizabeth A. L.; Nóbrega, Marina P.; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Pardini, Maria Inês M. C.; Pereira, Gonçalo G.; Pesquero, João Bosco; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Rogatto, Silvia R.; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.; Sogayar, Mari C.; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Tajara, Eloiza H.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Acencio, Marcio; Alberto, Fernando L.; Amaral, Maria Elisabete J.; Aneas, Ivy; Bengtson, Mário Henrique; Carraro, Dirce M.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Carvalho, Lúcia Helena; Cerutti, Janete M.; Corrêa, Maria Lucia C.; Costa, Maria Cristina R.; Curcio, Cyntia; Gushiken, Tsieko; Ho, Paulo L.; Kimura, Elza; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Maia, Gustavo; Majumder, Paromita; Marins, Mozart; Matsukuma, Adriana; Melo, Analy S. A.; Mestriner, Carlos Alberto; Miracca, Elisabete C.; Miranda, Daniela C.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.; Nóbrega, Francisco G.; Ojopi, Élida P. B.; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo C.; Pessoa, Luciana Gilbert; Rahal, Paula; Rainho, Claudia A.; da Ro's, Nancy; de Sá, Renata G.; Sales, Magaly M.; da Silva, Neusa P.; Silva, Tereza C.; da Silva, Wilson; Simão, Daniel F.; Sousa, Josane F.; Stecconi, Daniella; Tsukumo, Fernando; Valente, Valéria; Zalcberg, Heloisa; Brentani, Ricardo R.; Reis, Luis F. L.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Transcribed sequences in the human genome can be identified with confidence only by alignment with sequences derived from cDNAs synthesized from naturally occurring mRNAs. We constructed a set of 250,000 cDNAs that represent partial expressed gene sequences and that are biased toward the central coding regions of the resulting transcripts. They are termed ORF expressed sequence tags (ORESTES). The 250,000 ORESTES were assembled into 81,429 contigs. Of these, 1,181 (1.45%) were found to match sequences in chromosome 22 with at least one ORESTES contig for 162 (65.6%) of the 247 known genes, for 67 (44.6%) of the 150 related genes, and for 45 of the 148 (30.4%) EST-predicted genes on this chromosome. Using a set of stringent criteria to validate our sequences, we identified a further 219 previously unannotated transcribed sequences on chromosome 22. Of these, 171 were in fact also defined by EST or full length cDNA sequences available in GenBank but not utilized in the initial annotation of the first human chromosome sequence. Thus despite representing less than 15% of all expressed human sequences in the public databases at the time of the present analysis, ORESTES sequences defined 48 transcribed sequences on chromosome 22 not defined by other sequences. All of the transcribed sequences defined by ORESTES coincided with DNA regions predicted as encoding exons by genscan. (http://genes.mit.edu/GENSCAN.html). PMID:11070084

  5. Efficient assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of catfish by RNA-Seq analysis of a doubled haploid homozygote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shikai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon the completion of whole genome sequencing, thorough genome annotation that associates genome sequences with biological meanings is essential. Genome annotation depends on the availability of transcript information as well as orthology information. In teleost fish, genome annotation is seriously hindered by genome duplication. Because of gene duplications, one cannot establish orthologies simply by homology comparisons. Rather intense phylogenetic analysis or structural analysis of orthologies is required for the identification of genes. To conduct phylogenetic analysis and orthology analysis, full-length transcripts are essential. Generation of large numbers of full-length transcripts using traditional transcript sequencing is very difficult and extremely costly. Results In this work, we took advantage of a doubled haploid catfish, which has two sets of identical chromosomes and in theory there should be no allelic variations. As such, transcript sequences generated from next-generation sequencing can be favorably assembled into full-length transcripts. Deep sequencing of the doubled haploid channel catfish transcriptome was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, yielding over 300 million high-quality trimmed reads totaling 27 Gbp. Assembly of these reads generated 370,798 non-redundant transcript-derived contigs. Functional annotation of the assembly allowed identification of 25,144 unique protein-encoding genes. A total of 2,659 unique genes were identified as putative duplicated genes in the catfish genome because the assembly of the corresponding transcripts harbored PSVs or MSVs (in the form of pseudo-SNPs in the assembly. Of the 25,144 contigs with unique protein hits, around 20,000 contigs matched 50% length of reference proteins, and over 14,000 transcripts were identified as full-length with complete open reading frames. The characterization of consensus sequences surrounding start codon and the stop

  6. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  7. Expression analysis and localization of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 in the testis of catfish, Clarias batrachus: Impact of wt1-esiRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugananthkumar, Raju; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2016-08-15

    In teleosts, a comprehensive role or interaction of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 genes in relation to gonadal development and/or recrudescence was never attempted. Present study aimed to identify the involvement of these genes during testicular development of catfish, Clarias batrachus. Dominant expression of wt1 and gata4 was observed in developing and adult testis, while ad4bp/sf-1 showed steady expression. Localization of these genes in adult testis revealed their presence in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and interstitial/Leydig cells. Significant high expression during pre-spawning and spawning phases, and upregulated levels of these genes after hCG induction authenticated gonadotropic regulation. Transient silencing of wt1-esiRNA displayed decrease in wt1 expression, which further downregulated the expression of ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4, and certain steroidogenic enzyme genes related to androgen production. These results suggest that wt1 might target ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 expression, and also have regulatory influence either indirectly or directly on the steroidogenic enzyme genes of catfish. PMID:27173028

  8. Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Paik, Hyojung

    2011-04-30

    In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

  9. Differential expression analysis for sequence count data

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Simon; Huber, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing assays such as RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq or barcode counting provide quantitative readouts in the form of count data. To infer differential signal in such data correctly and with good statistical power, estimation of data variability throughout the dynamic range and a suitable error model are required. We propose a method based on the negative binomial distribution, with variance and mean linked by local regression and present an implementation, DESeq, as an R/Bioconductor ...

  10. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  11. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Joseph W Kloepper; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including...

  12. BOB.1 of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Not a transcriptional coactivator?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Wilson, Melanie R.; Miller, Norman W.; Cunningham, Charles; Warr, Gregory W.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)is driven by the Eμ3′ enhancer, whose core region contains two octamer motifs and a μE5 site. Orthologues of the Oct1 and Oct2 transcription factors have been cloned in the channel catfish and shown to bind to the octamer motifs within the core enhancer. While catfish Oct2 is an activator of transcription, catfish Oct1 failed to drive transcription and may act as a negative regulator of IGH tr...

  13. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  14. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  15. Analysis of Seed-expressed Sequence Tags in Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJia-Rui; WANGFang; ZHAOXiang-Yu; DONGYu-Xiu; ZHANGLi-Yuan; ZHANGXian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    To isolate seed-expressed sequences, a cDNA library was constructed using wheat ( Triticumaest/vum L) seed tissues at 12 d after pollination. Plasmid DNAs of 10 000 clones randomly picked out fromthe library were prepared. The preparation of high density filters were made with the Biomek 2000 HDRTsystem, and then hybridized separately with three probes prepared by reverse transcription of RNA ofunpollinated ovary, embryo and endosperm. Based on the hybridization results, 800 clones expressed inembryo and/or endosperm were chosen for further analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Finally,216 different genes were identified preliminarily. Of them, 24 (11.5%) were considered identical to knownwheat genes, 122 (56%) were identified as putative new plant genes which may be involved in seed storageproteins, biochemical metabolisms, development, and other biological processes of seeds, while 70 (32.5%)sequence identities could not be determined.

  16. Modulated expression and enzymatic activities of Darkbarbel catfish, Pelteobagrus vachelli for oxidative stress induced by acute hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guosong; Mao, Jianqiang; Liang, Fenfei; Chen, Jiawei; Zhao, Cheng; Yin, Shaowu; Wang, Li; Tang, Zhonglin; Chen, Shuqiao

    2016-05-01

    Large changes in oxygen availability in aquatic environments, ranging from anoxia through to hyperoxia, can lead to corresponding wide variation in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fish with aquatic respiration. In order to evaluate the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on oxidative stress in fish, the mRNA and protein expression of SODs (Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) as well as indices (CP, LPO and MDA) and enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST) were analyzed in liver and brain tissues of Pelteobagrus vachelli. Predominant expression of PvSOD2 was detected in heart, brain, and liver. In contrast, PvSOD1 was highly expressed in liver. Based on the expression patterns of above parameters, we inferred that brain tissue of P. vachelli under 0.7 mg/L degree of acute hypoxia condition could experience hypometabolic states or no suffering stress, but brain tissue has effective mechanisms to minimize or prevent oxidative stress during the transition from hypoxia to reoxygenation. Our results also demonstrated an increased expression of SODs and enzymatic activities for oxidative stress in liver under hypoxic conditions, which supports the hypothesis that anticipatory preparation takes place in order to deal with the encountered oxidative stress during the recovery from hypoxia as proposed by M. Hermes-Lima. Therefore, this study will provide a clue to better understand the action mode of antioxidant genes and enzymes under oxidative stress in fish. PMID:26945243

  17. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly si...

  18. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  19. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Liver Tissue in Swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; ZHAO Zhi-hui; LIU Zhao-liang; ZHAO Xing-bo; LIAN Zhen-xing; WU Chang-xin

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the expression of function gene and its effect on metabolic control and other physiological function in liver, 438 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were determined, which were from a cDNA library of porcine liver tissue. The results showed that the nucleotide sequences of 186 ESTs have already presented in GenBank database, and 37 ESTs could be found the homology with human and other species,while the others were not identified. 45 full length insertion of the clones randomly isolated from cDNA library were also completely sequenced with different size, and the results showed that 19 of them were functionknown genes, 11 had no open reading frame ( ORF )at all and 15 had ORF but the function were not elucidated yet.

  20. Growing catfish in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Surtida, Marilyn B.; Buendia, Romeo Y.

    2000-01-01

    The catfish industry in the Philippines is budding and projected to expand in the coming years. This is evident from conversations with active catfish farmers who all hope to be able to expand production, whether backyard or commercial because their present production can hardly supply the demands of buyers. NIFTDC, a fisheries technology and development center in Dagupan City, Philippines, however, says that unless the government has a catfish program, expansion of the industry would be slow...

  1. Catfish - King of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Godø, Olav Rune; Huse, Irene; Michalsen, Kathrine

    1995-01-01

    During an acoustic tagging experiment on cod in the Barents Sea in March 1995 a hierarchy between different fish species was revealed, and the catfish (Anarhichas sp.) was observed to be dominant in relation to cod and haddock. When catfish are present at the fishing grounds, the dominant feeding behaviour of this species might reduce efficiency on other species. If longline catch data are used for stock assessment purposes, the catfish population might therefore be overestimat...

  2. Evaluation of immune responses against the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish is a dominant aquaculture species in the USA and has been cultured for several decades. Recently, an increasing number of producers are showing an interest in the culture of hybrid catfish (channel catfish × blue catfish) instead of channel catfish due to its performance traits. The ...

  3. Channel catfish granzyme-like I is a highly specific serine protease with metase activity that is expressed by fish NK-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Michael; Akula, Srinivas; Hellman, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Here we present the extended cleavage specificity of catfish granzyme-like I, previously identified in fish NK-like cells. This protease has been characterised using substrate phage display and further validated by using a panel of recombinant substrates. A strict preference for Met in the P1 (cleavage) position, indicating metase specificity was observed. A screening of potential in vivo substrates was performed based on the derived P5-P3' consensus: Arg-Val-Thr-Gly-Met(↓)Ser-Leu-Val. Channel catfish caspase 6 was one very interesting potential target identified. This site was present in an adjacent position to the classic caspase activation site (Asp179 in human caspase 6). Cleavage of this site (hence potential activation) by the catfish granzyme-like I could reveal a novel mechanism of caspase 6 activation. This poses an interesting idea that the role of granzyme-like proteases in the activation of caspase dependent apoptosis mechanisms has been conserved for over 400 million years. PMID:27216028

  4. Whole genome comparative analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with four model fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanliang; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Hong; Sun, Fanyue; Bao, Lisui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to study evolution of genomes. It allows transfer of genome information from the well-studied model species to non-model species. Catfish is an economically important aquaculture species in United States. A large amount of genome resources have been developed from catfish including genetic linkage maps, physical maps, BAC end sequences (BES), integrated linkage and physical maps using BES-derived markers, physical map contig-specific sequences...

  5. The chicken progesterone receptor: sequence, expression and functional analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gronemeyer, H; Turcotte, B; Quirin-Stricker, C; Bocquel, M T; Meyer, M E; Krozowski, Z; Jeltsch, J M; Lerouge, T; Garnier, J M; P. Chambon

    1987-01-01

    The complete mRNA sequence of the chicken progesterone receptor (cPR) has been determined. Expression of the cloned cDNA both in vivo and in vitro produces a protein that has the same apparent mol. wt on SDS--polyacrylamide gels as the 'natural' cPR form B (109 kd) as determined by immunoblotting and photoaffinity labelling. When expressed in HeLa or in Cos-1 cells the 'cloned' cPR displays hormone binding characteristics indistinguishable from the 'natural' receptor and, in the presence of p...

  6. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A recent epidemic outbreak of motile Aeromonas septicemia of catfish caused by highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila is a major threat to the catfish industry in the southeastern United States. The lack of a complete genome sequence for this newly emerged A. hydrophila genotype hampers ef...

  7. The catfish genome database cBARBEL: an informatic platform for genome biology of ictalurid catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Yang, Qing; Wang, Shaolin; Hu, Zhiliang; Reecy, James; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-01

    The catfish genome database, cBARBEL (abbreviated from catfish Breeder And Researcher Bioinformatics Entry Location) is an online open-access database for genome biology of ictalurid catfish (Ictalurus spp.). It serves as a comprehensive, integrative platform for all aspects of catfish genetics, genomics and related data resources. cBARBEL provides BLAST-based, fuzzy and specific search functions, visualization of catfish linkage, physical and integrated maps, a catfish EST contig viewer with...

  8. Catfish production using intensive aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the last 3 years, researchers at UAPB and NWAC have been monitoring and verifying production yields in intensively aerated catfish ponds with aeration rates greater than 6 hp/acre. We now have three years of data on commercial catfish production in intensively aerated ponds. With stocking densi...

  9. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, CD63 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD63, also known as lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP-3), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immuno-physiological functions. In this communication, we cloned, sequenced and characterized the channel catfish, CD63 transcr...

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled (U- 14C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U-14C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U-14C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  11. Expressed sequence tag analysis in tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju-Kyung; Sun, Qi; Rota, Mauricio La; Edwards, Hugh; Tefera, Hailu; Sorrells, Mark E

    2006-04-01

    Tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) is the most important cereal crop in Ethiopia; however, there is very little DNA sequence information available for this species. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from 4 cDNA libraries: seedling leaf, seedling root, and inflorescence of E. tef and seedling leaf of Eragrostis pilosa, a wild relative of E. tef. Clustering of 3603 sequences produced 530 clusters and 1890 singletons, resulting in 2420 tef unigenes. Approximately 3/4 of tef unigenes matched protein or nucleotide sequences in public databases. Annotation of unigenes associated 68% of the putative tef genes with gene ontology categories. Identification of the translated unigenes for conserved protein domains revealed 389 protein family domains (Pfam), the most frequent of which was protein kinase. A total of 170 ESTs containing simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified and 80 EST-SSR markers were developed. In addition, 19 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and (or) insertion-deletion (indel) and 34 intron fragment length polymorphism (IFLP) markers were developed. The EST database and molecular markers generated in this study will be valuable resources for further tef genetic research. PMID:16699556

  12. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  13. Expressed sequence tags from the plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgios J; Benabdellah, Karim; Zingales, Bianca; González, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    We have generated 2190 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cDNA library of the plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens. Upon processing and clustering the set of 1893 accepted sequences was reduced to 697 clusters consisting of 452 singletons and 245 contigs. Functional categories were assigned based on BLAST searches against a database of the eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG). Thirty six percent of the generated sequences showed no hits against the KOG database and 39.6% presented similarity to the KOG classes corresponding to translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis. The most populated cluster contained 45 ESTs homologous to members of the glucose transporter family. This fact can be immediately correlated to the reported Phytomonas dependence on anaerobic glycolytic ATP production due to the lack of cytochrome-mediated respiratory chain. In this context, not only a number of enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were identified but also of the Krebs cycle as well as specific components of the respiratory chain. The data here reported, including a few hundred unique sequences and the description of tandemly repeated motifs and putative transcript stability motifs at untranslated mRNA ends, represent an initial approach to overcome the lack of information on the molecular biology of this organism. PMID:15869816

  14. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVELYN SILVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a filamentous plant pathogen of a wide range of plant species, and its infection may cause enormous damage both during plant growth and in the post-harvest phase. We have constructed a cDNA library from an isolate of B. cinerea and have sequenced 11,482 expressed sequence tags that were assembled into 1,003 contigs sequences and 3,032 singletons. Approximately 81% of the unigenes showed significant similarity to genes coding for proteins with known functions: more than 50% of the sequences code for genes involved in cellular metabolism, 12% for transport of metabolites, and approximately 10% for cellular organization. Other functional categories include responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, cell communication, cell homeostasis, and cell development. We carried out pair-wise comparisons with fungal databases to determine the B. cinerea unisequence set with relevant similarity to genes in other fungal pathogenic counterparts. Among the 4,035 non-redundant B. cinerea unigenes, 1,338 (23% have significant homology with Fusarium verticillioides unigenes. Similar values were obtained for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans (22% and 24%, respectively. The lower percentages of homology were with Magnaporthe grisae and Neurospora crassa (13% and 19%, respectively. Several genes involved in putative and known fungal virulence and general pathogenicity were identified. The results provide important information for future research on this fungal pathogen

  15. Apolipoprotein A1 in channel catfish: Transcriptional analysis, antimicrobial activity, and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine transcriptional profiles of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in collected channel catfish tissues after infection with A. hydrophila by bath immersion; 2) investigate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 produced in E. coli expression syst...

  16. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  17. Characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs from Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamarsheh Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi is a natural vector of Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in many countries. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites, are common in eukaryotic genomes and are short, repeated nucleotide sequence elements arrayed in tandem and flanked by non-repetitive regions. The enrichment methods used previously for finding new microsatellite loci in sand flies remain laborious and time consuming; in silico mining, which includes retrieval and screening of microsatellites from large amounts of sequence data from sequence data bases using microsatellite search tools can yield many new candidate markers. Results Simple sequence repeats (SSRs were characterized in P. papatasi expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from a public database, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. A total of 42,784 sequences were mined, and 1,499 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 3.5% and an average density of 15.55 kb per SSR. Dinucleotide motifs were the most common SSRs, accounting for 67% followed by tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats, accounting for 31.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. The length of microsatellites varied from 5 to 16 repeats. Dinucleotide types; AG and CT have the highest frequency. Dinucleotide SSR-ESTs are relatively biased toward an excess of (AXn repeats and a low GC base content. Forty primer pairs were designed based on motif lengths for further experimental validation. Conclusion The first large-scale survey of SSRs derived from P. papatasi is presented; dinucleotide SSRs identified are more frequent than other types. EST data mining is an effective strategy to identify functional microsatellites in P. papatasi.

  18. A blackberry (Rubus L. expressed sequence tag library for the development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Main Dorrie S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent development of novel repeat-fruiting types of blackberry (Rubus L. cultivars, combined with a long history of morphological marker-assisted selection for thornlessness by blackberry breeders, has given rise to increased interest in using molecular markers to facilitate blackberry breeding. Yet no genetic maps, molecular markers, or even sequences exist specifically for cultivated blackberry. The purpose of this study is to begin development of these tools by generating and annotating the first blackberry expressed sequence tag (EST library, designing primers from the ESTs to amplify regions containing simple sequence repeats (SSR, and testing the usefulness of a subset of the EST-SSRs with two blackberry cultivars. Results A cDNA library of 18,432 clones was generated from expanding leaf tissue of the cultivar Merton Thornless, a progenitor of many thornless commercial cultivars. Among the most abundantly expressed of the 3,000 genes annotated were those involved with energy, cell structure, and defense. From individual sequences containing SSRs, 673 primer pairs were designed. Of a randomly chosen set of 33 primer pairs tested with two blackberry cultivars, 10 detected an average of 1.9 polymorphic PCR products. Conclusion This rate predicts that this library may yield as many as 940 SSR primer pairs detecting 1,786 polymorphisms. This may be sufficient to generate a genetic map that can be used to associate molecular markers with phenotypic traits, making possible molecular marker-assisted breeding to compliment existing morphological marker-assisted breeding in blackberry.

  19. Analysis of simple sequence repeats markers derived from Phytophthora sojae expressed sequence tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhendong; HUO Yunlong; WANG Xiaoming; HUANG Junbin; WU Xiaofei

    2004-01-01

    Five thousand and eight hundred publicly available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Phytophthora sojae were electronically searched and 415 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 369 ESTs. The average density of SSRs was one SSR per 8.9 kb of EST sequence screened. The most frequent repeats were trinucleotide repeats (50.1%) and the least frequent were tetranucleotide repeats (8.2%). Forty primer pairs were designed and tested on 5 strains of P. sojae. Thirty-three primer pairs had successful PCR amplifications. Of the 33 functional primer pairs, 28 primer pairs produced characteristic SSR bands of the expected size, and 15 primer pairs (45.5%) detected polymorphism among 5 tested strains of P. sojae. Based on the polymorphisms detected with 20 EST-SSR markers, the 5 tested strains of P. sojae were clustered into 3 groups. In this study, the SSR markers of P. sojae were developed for the first time. These markers could be useful for identification, genetic variation study, and molecular mapping of P. sojae and its relative species.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Anopheles stephensi embryo using expressed sequence tags

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaustubh Gokhale; Deepak P Patil; Dhiraj P Dhotre; Rajnikant Dixit; Murlidhar J Mendki; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2013-06-01

    Germ band retraction (GBR) stage is one of the important stages during insect development. It is associated with an extensive epithelial morphogenesis and may also be pivotal in generation of morphological diversity in insects. Despite its importance, only a handful of studies report the transcriptome repertoire of this stage in insects. Here, we report generation, annotation and analysis of ESTs from the embryonic stage (16–22 h post fertilization) of laboratory-reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. A total of 1002 contigs were obtained upon clustering of 1140 high-quality ESTs, which demonstrates an astonishingly low transcript redundancy (12.1%). Putative functions were assigned only to 213 contigs (21%), comprising mainly of transcripts encoding protein synthesis machinery. Approximately 78% of the transcripts remain uncharacterized, illustrating a lack of sequence information about the genes expressed in the embryonic stages of mosquitoes. This study highlights several novel transcripts, which apart from insect development, may significantly contribute to the essential biological complexity underlying insect viability in adverse environments. Nonetheless, the generated sequence information from this work provides a comprehensive resource for genome annotation, microarray development, phylogenetic analysis and other molecular biology applications in entomology.

  1. LOX: Inferring level of expression from diverse methods of census sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2010-06-10

    Summary: We present LOX (Level Of eXpression) that estimates the Level Of gene eXpression from high-throughput-expressed sequence datasets with multiple treatments or samples. Unlike most analyses, LOX incorporates a gene bias model that facilitates integration of diverse transcriptomic sequencing data that arises when transcriptomic data have been produced using diverse experimental methodologies. LOX integrates overall sequence count tallies normalized by total expressed sequence count to provide expression levels for each gene relative to all treatments as well as Bayesian credible intervals. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. [Isolation and expression of novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from ovarian follicles of Shaoxing ducks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Gang; Chen, Jie; Ni, Ying-Dong; Zhou, Yu-Chuan; Zhao, Ru-Qian

    2004-10-01

    Three expressed sequence tags ( ESTs), SXDF0201 (271 bp), SXDF0202 (200 bp) and SXDF0203 (173 bp), were isolated from ovarian follicles of Shaoxing ducks by using silver staining mRNA differential display. GenBank/BLAST analysis revealed that SXDF0201 was not homologous to any of the published sequences from all species, indicating that it was a novel EST and was then registered in GenBank (GenBank Accession No.: CB072629), while SXDF0202 and SXDF0203 were found to be highly homologous to seven known chicken ESTs and chicken mRNA for gizzard smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. 5'-RACE was employed to extend the SXDF0201 to 544 bp which was confirmed as novel in BLAST search. The temporal and spatial expression of SXDF0201 and SXDF0202 were also investigated with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The result showed that: both SXDF0201 and SXDF0202 were found to be expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, muscle, liver, and fat tissues of Shaoxing ducks; SXDF0201 was expressed significantly higher in ovaries of 30-day-old Shaoxing ducks compared with that of 60-day-old (P hierarchical follicles, the expression of SXDF0202 in granulose layers increased along with follicular maturation (P < 0.01) from Fw to F3 follicles, but decreased dramatically to the lowest in F1 follicles (P < 0.01). In theca layers, the highest expression of SXDF0202 was found in Fw follicles (P < 0.01). PMID:15552044

  3. Efficient expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PGK gene depends on an upstream activation sequence but does not require TATA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, J E; Stanway, C; Kim, S.; Mellor, J; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1986-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase) gene encodes one of the most abundant mRNA and protein species in the cell. To identify the promoter sequences required for the efficient expression of PGK, we undertook a detailed internal deletion analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the gene. Our analysis revealed that PGK has an upstream activation sequence (UASPGK) located between 402 and 479 nucleotides upstream from the initiating ATG sequence which is required for full trans...

  4. DNA Barcoding of Catfish: Species Authentication and Phylogenetic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Li Lian; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Kucuktas, Huseyin; He, Shunping; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Na-Nakorn, Uthairat; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from individuals of ...

  5. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jianfeng; Hu, Haiyan; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Guangce; Peng, Guang; Sun, Song

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a green tide broke out before the sailing competition of the 29th Olympic Games in Qingdao. The causative species was determined to be Enteromorpha prolifera ( Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller), a familiar green macroalga along the coastline of China. Rapid accumulation of a large biomass of floating U. prolifera prompted research on different aspects of this species. In this study, we constructed a nonnormalized cDNA library from the thalli of U. prolifera and acquired 10 072 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). These ESTs were assembled into 3 519 nonredundant gene groups, including 1 446 clusters and 2 073 singletons. After annotation with the nr database, a large number of genes were found to be related with chloroplast and ribosomal protein, GO functional classification showed 1 418 ESTs participated in photosynthesis and 1 359 ESTs were responsible for the generation of precursor metabolites and energy. In addition, rather comprehensive carbon fixation pathways were found in U. prolifera using KEGG. Some stress-related and signal transduction-related genes were also found in this study. All the evidences displayed that U. prolifera had substance and energy foundation for the intense photosynthesis and the rapid proliferation. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I revealed that this green-tide causative species is most closely affiliated to Pseudendoclonium akinetum (Ulvophyceae).

  6. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  7. Algorithms for Determining Differentially Expressed Genes and Chromosome Structures From High-Throughput Sequencing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are able to sequence DNA or RNA molecules at unprecedented speed and with high accuracy. Recently, NGS technologies have been applied in a variety of contexts, e.g., whole genome sequencing, transcript expression profiling, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, and small RNA sequencing, to accelerate genomic researches. The size of NGS data is usually gigantic such that the data analysis in these applications of NGS largely relies on efficient...

  8. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton; Jessica Wynn; Tuoyu Geng; Chong, Nelson W.; Ed Smith

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences d...

  9. Gene Identification and Expression Analysis of 86,136 Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) from the Rice Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhou; Lin Ye; Li Lin; Jun Li; Xuegang Wang; Hao Xu; Yibin Pan; Wei Lin; Wei Tian; Jing Liu; Liping Wei; Jiabin Tang; Siqi Liu; Huanming Yang; Jun Yu; Jian Wang; Michael G. Walker; Xiuqing Zhang; Jun Wang; Songnian Hu; Huayong Xu; Yajun Deng; Jianhai Dong

    2003-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) analysis has pioneered genome-wide gene discovery and expression profiling. In order to establish a gene expression index in the rice cultivar indica, we sequenced and analyzed 86,136 ESTs from nine rice cDNA libraries from the super hybrid cultivar LYP9 and its parental cultivars. We assembled these ESTs into 13,232 contigs and leave 8,976 singletons. Overall, 7,497 sequences were found similar to the existing sequences in GenBank and 14,711 are novel. These sequences are classified by molecular function, biological process and pathways according to the Gene Ontology. We compared our sequenced ESTs with the publicly available 95,000 ESTs from japonica, and found little sequence variation, despite the large difference between genome sequences. We then assembled the combined 173,000 rice ESTs for further analysis. Using the pooled ESTs, we compared gene expression in metabolism pathway between rice and Avabidopsis according to KEGG. We further profiled gene expression patterns in different tis sues, developmental stages, and in a conditional sterile mutant, after checking the libraries are comparable by means of sequence coverage. We also identified some possible library specific genes and a number of enzymes and transcription factors that contribute to rice development.

  10. Nylon Filter Arrays Reveal Differential Expression of Expressed Sequence Tags in Wheat Roots Under Aluminum Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai XIAO; Gui-Hua BAI; Brett F CARVER

    2005-01-01

    To enrich differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for aluminum (Al) tolerance, cDNA subtraction libraries were generated from Al-stressed roots of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) nearisogenic lines (NILs) contrasting in Al-tolerance gene(s) from the Al-tolerant cultivar Atlas 66, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Expression patterns of the ESTs were investigated with nylon filter arrays containing 614 cDNA clones from the subtraction library. Gene expression profiles from macroarray analysis indicated that 25 ESTs were upregulated in the tolerant NIL in response to Al stress. The result from Northern analysis of selected upregulated ESTs was similar to that from macroarray analysis. These highly expressed ESTs showed high homology with genes involved in signal transduction, oxidative stress alleviation, membrane structure, Mg2+ transportation, and other functions. Under Al stress, the Al-tolerant NIL may possess altered structure or function of the cell wall, plasma membrane, and mitochondrion. The wheat response to Al stress may involve complicated defense-related signaling and metabolic pathways.The present experiment did not detect any induced or activated genes involved in the synthesis of malate and other organic acids in wheat under Al-stress.

  11. Alternative Splicing and Expression Profile Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags in Domestic Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhang; Lin Tao; Lin Ye; Ling He; Yuan-Zhong Zhu; Yue-Dong Zhu; Yan Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) is one of the most important mammals to humans. Alternative splicing is a cellular mechanism in eukaryotes that greatly increases the diversity of gene products. Expression sequence tags (ESTs) have been widely used for gene discovery, expression profile analysis, and alternative splicing detection. In this study, a total of 712,905 ESTs extracted from 101 different nonnormalized EST libraries of the domestic pig were analyzed. These EST libraries cover the nervous system, digestive system, immune system, and meat production related tissues from embryo, newborn, and adult pigs, making contributions to the analysis of alternative splicing variants as well as expression profiles in various stages of tissues. A modified approach was designed to cluster and assemble large EST datasets, aiming to detect alternative splicing together with EST abundance of each splicing variant. Much efforts were made to classify alternative splicing into different types and apply different filters to each type to get more reliable results. Finally, a total of 1,223 genes with average 2.8 splicing variants were detected among 16,540 unique genes. The overview of expression profiles would change when we take alternative splicing into account.

  12. Calcium deprivation during channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus X blue catfish, I. furcatus F1 hybrid catfish embryo development affects hatching success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish are produced by fertilizing eggs from hormone-induced, strippable channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) females with sperm from blue catfish (I. furcatus). Many catfish hatchery supplies have low calcium concentrations and are supplemented with an external source of ca...

  13. Nucleotide sequence and expression analysis of the Acetobacter xylinum uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Brede, G; Fjaervik, E; Valla, S

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Acetobacter xylinum uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase gene was determined; this is the first procaryotic uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase gene sequence reported. The sequence data indicated that the gene product consists of 284 amino acids. This finding was consistent with the results obtained by expression analysis in vivo and in vitro in Escherichia coli.

  14. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    2003-01-01

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries. Recen

  15. Comparative Oxygen Tolerance of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus and Channel Catfish I. punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) have several advantages over channel catfish (I. punctatus) as commercial culture fish. They are more resistant to ESC, PGD, and CCVD, major diseases of channel catfish. They are very easy to seine, with a near-total harvest possible with one seine haul, and may ex...

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Eutropiichthys vacha (Hamilton, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punhal, Lashari; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Waryani, Baradi; Jalbani, Shaista; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Zhang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Eutropiichthys vacha, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red-listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,478 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.06% A, 27.59% C, 15.65% G, and 25.68% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, E. vacha provides the fundamental tool for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:25630731

  17. Developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (Rubus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bushakra, Jill M.; Lewers, Kim S; Staton, Margaret E.; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Saski, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are a source of SSRs that can be used to develop markers to facilitate plant breeding and for more basic research across genera and higher plant orders. Methods Leaf and meristem...

  18. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Qian; Long-Fa Jiang; Li-Qiang Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15%) extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room te...

  19. FINDING REGULATORY ELEMENTS USING JOINT LIKELIHOODS FOR SEQUENCE AND EXPRESSION PROFILE DATA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IAN HOLMES, UC BERKELEY, CA, WILLIAM J. BRUNO, LANL

    2000-08-20

    A recent, popular method of finding promoter sequences is to look for conserved motifs up-stream of genes clustered on the basis of expression data. This method presupposes that the clustering is correct. Theoretically, one should be better able to find promoter sequences and create more relevant gene clusters by taking a unified approach to these two problems. We present a likelihood function for a sequence-expression model giving a joint likelihood for a promoter sequence and its corresponding expression levels. An algorithm to estimate sequence-expression model parameters using Gibbs sampling and Expectation/Maximization is described. A program, called kimono, that implements this algorithm has been developed and the source code is freely available over the internet.

  20. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  1. Sequence Searcher: A Java tool to perform regular expression and fuzzy searches of multiple DNA and protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upton Chris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sequence-searching tools have limiting factors for their use. For example, they may be platform specific, enforce restrictive size limits and sequences to be searched, or only allow searches of one of DNA or protein. Findings We present an easy-to-use, fast, platform-independent tool to search for amino acid or nucleotide patterns within one or many protein or nucleic acid sequences. The user can choose to search for regular expressions or perform a fuzzy search in which a particular number of errors is accepted during matching of a sequence. Positions of mismatches in fuzzy searches are displayed graphically the user. Conclusion SeqS provides an improved feature set and functions as a stand-alone tool or could be integrated into other bioinformatics platforms.

  2. Sequence and expression analysis of gaps in human chromosome 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Seemann, Stefan; Mang, Yuan;

    2012-01-01

    The finished human genome-assemblies comprise several hundred un-sequenced euchromatic gaps, which may be rich in long polypurine/polypyrimidine stretches. Human chromosome 20 (chr 20) currently has three unfinished gaps remaining on its q-arm. All three gaps are within gene-dense regions and/or ...

  3. Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dicty_cDB Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and ex...pression profile Data detail Data name Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and result... sequences of cDNA sequences of Dictyostelium discoideum and their annotation (amino acid sequence and resul...ence and full-length cDNA sequence by the assembly program Phrap ( http://www.phrap.org/index.html ). Link to the... list of clones constituting the contig, the information on its mapping to the genome mapped to genome sequence and the

  4. Pyridoxine requirements of channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J W; Murai, T

    1979-04-01

    In 20 and 12 week feeding trials, channel catfish fingerlings were fed purified diets containing five levels (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and six levels (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) of supplemental pyridoxine hydrochloride. Fish fed unsupplemented diets (pyridoxine content of 1.2 mg/kg) were characterized by anoxeria, nervous disorders, tetany, greenish-blue body coloration, and eventual mortality. Anemia, which has been reported in pyridoxine deficient salmonids, was not observed in pyridoxine deficient catfish. However, a microcytic, normochromic anemia was observed in groups fed high dietary levels of pyridoxine (20 mg/kg or greater). The dietary pyridoxine level required for maximal growth was approximately 3 mg/kg of diet. All other deficiency signs were prevented by 2.2 mg/kg of diet. PMID:430257

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATE LOGOS FOR FARM-RAISED CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Alvin R.; Dellenbarger, Lynn E.

    1993-01-01

    Product differentiation can consist of identifying the corporate firm that produces the product (such as Kraft) or the producer cooperative that produces the product (such as Ocean Spray). The Catfish Institute (funded by producers, feed mills and processors) was created to promote the generic sales of farm-raised catfish. Also, a number of Mississippi catfish processors are differentiating their product by promoting it as Mississippi Farm-Raised Catfish. Louisiana farm-raised catfish are hig...

  6. Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The infectivity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate for fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was determined by bath immersion and injection infectivity experiments. Channel catfish exposed by immersion were exposed to baths containing 1012, 1011,...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839) (Siluriformes, Bagridae) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and red listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,588 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.28% A, 27.80% C, 15.31% G, and 25.57% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala provides the fundamental tools for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:24617486

  8. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  9. Mining of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chunxian; Gmitter Jr, Fred G

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant variations in a genome, have been widely used in various studies. Detection and characterization of citrus haplotype-based expressed sequence tag (EST) SNPs will greatly facilitate further utilization of these gene-based resources. Results In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for...

  10. A Novel Approach to Sequence Validating Protein Expression Clones with Automated Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr Stephanie E; Zuo Dongmei; Hu Yanhui; Rolfs Andreas; Taycher Elena; Williamson Janice; LaBaer Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Whereas the molecular assembly of protein expression clones is readily automated and routinely accomplished in high throughput, sequence verification of these clones is still largely performed manually, an arduous and time consuming process. The ultimate goal of validation is to determine if a given plasmid clone matches its reference sequence sufficiently to be "acceptable" for use in protein expression experiments. Given the accelerating increase in availability of tens ...

  11. Simple sequence repeats in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata expressed sequence tags: a new resource for evolutionary genetic studies of passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkhead Timothy R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passerines (perching birds are widely studied across many biological disciplines including ecology, population biology, neurobiology, behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology. However, understanding the molecular basis of relevant traits is hampered by the paucity of passerine genomics tools. Efforts to address this problem are underway, and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata will be the first passerine to have its genome sequenced. Here we describe a bioinformatic analysis of zebra finch expressed sequence tag (EST Genbank entries. Results A total of 48,862 ESTs were downloaded from GenBank and assembled into contigs, representing an estimated 17,404 unique sequences. The unique sequence set contained 638 simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites of length ≥20 bp and purity ≥90% and 144 simple sequence repeats of length ≥30 bp. A chromosomal location for the majority of SSRs was predicted by BLASTing against assembly 2.1 of the chicken genome sequence. The relative exonic location (5' untranslated region, coding region or 3' untranslated region was predicted for 218 of the SSRs, by BLAST search against the ENSEMBL chicken peptide database. Ten loci were examined for polymorphism in two zebra finch populations and two populations of a distantly related passerine, the house sparrow Passer domesticus. Linkage was confirmed for four loci that were predicted to reside on the passerine homologue of chicken chromosome 7. Conclusion We show that SSRs are abundant within zebra finch ESTs, and that their genomic location can be predicted from sequence similarity with the assembled chicken genome sequence. We demonstrate that a useful proportion of zebra finch EST-SSRs are likely to be polymorphic, and that they can be used to build a linkage map. Finally, we show that many zebra finch EST-SSRs are likely to be useful in evolutionary genetic studies of other passerines.

  12. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) tetraspanin membrane protein family: Identification, characterization, and expression analysis of CD63 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD63, known as lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP-3), is a member of the tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immuno-physiological functions. In this communication, we report the identification, characterization, and expression analysis...

  13. mESAdb: microRNA Expression and Sequence Analysis Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Koray D.; Karakülah, Gökhan; Yakıcıer, Cengiz M.; Acar, Aybar C.; Konu, Özlen

    2010-01-01

    microRNA expression and sequence analysis database (http://konulab.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/mirna/) (mESAdb) is a regularly updated database for the multivariate analysis of sequences and expression of microRNAs from multiple taxa. mESAdb is modular and has a user interface implemented in PHP and JavaScript and coupled with statistical analysis and visualization packages written for the R language. The database primarily comprises mature microRNA sequences and their target data, along with selected...

  14. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047, among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65% and low in the peach (46%, and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species. Conclusions We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.

  15. Expressed sequence tags from heat-shocked seagrass Zostera noltii (Hornemann) from its southern distribution range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massa, Sonia I.; Pearson, Gareth A.; Aires, Tania; Kube, Michael; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Reinhardt, Richard; Serrao, Ester A.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Predicted global climate change threatens the distributional ranges of species worldwide. We identified genes expressed in the intertidal seagrass Zostera midi during recovery from a simulated low tide heat-shock exposure. Five Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) libraries were compared, corresponding to f

  16. DMBT1 expression and glycosylation during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robbe, C; Paraskeva, C; Mollenhauer, J;

    2005-01-01

    expression, location and its mode of secretion during malignant transformation in colorectal cancer. Using human colorectal PC/AA cell lines and tissue sections from individual patients, we have examined the expression of DMBT1 and its glycosylation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence leading to the...

  17. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E., III

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  18. Novel expressed sequence tags of an alpine-cold plant species,Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gymnadenia conopsea,an alpine Orchidaceae plant,was one of the widely used Tibetan traditional medicines.In this study,we sequenced total 105 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a full-length cDNA expression library constructed by the Oligo-capping technique.The further bioinformatic analyses suggested that the 65 represented unique sequences showed high homology to previously identified genes in other plants:30 sequences matched to other uncharacterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs),and 10 sequences showed no good matches to available sequences in DNA databases.Gene ontology annotation by InterProScan indicated that many of these cDNAs (7 percent) have no known molecular functions and may be unique to G.conopsea.Fifty-five ESTs with matched proteins were involved in a series of diverse functions,in which molecular function such as "binding" (42.9 percent) and "catalytic activity" (25.0 percent) were the most frequent functions of the cDNAs.This cDNA library provided a critical basis for further investigation of functional genes expression under cold stress in this alpine species.In addition,13 ESTs-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and can also be used for genotypic identification and for the genetic diversity analysis of G.conopsea and its closely related species.

  19. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho; Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães; Marcia Soares Vidal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for th...

  20. Expression of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus sequences in Beagle dog tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeled cDNA synthesized from RNA extracted from 238PuO2-, 239PuO2-, and 90Sr-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs, from nontumor tissue from 239PuO2-exposed dogs, and from unexposed dog lung and liver tissue produces strong hybridization signals with a plasmid (pKSma) that contains Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KMSV) sequences. At least 90 percent of the KMSV sequences are expressed in these dog tissues, including sequences corresponding to p21 K-ras, qp70 envelope glycoprotein, and at least one other proviral sequence. The expression of Kirsten ras and other sarcoma virus sequences may have important implications for the interpretation of carcinogenesis studies in these dogs. (author)

  1. Multi-species microarrays reveal the effect of sequence divergence on gene expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gilad, Yoav; Rifkin, Scott A.; Bertone, Paul; Gerstein, Mark; White, Kevin P

    2005-01-01

    Interspecies comparisons of gene expression levels will increase our understanding of the evolution of transcriptional mechanisms and help to identify targets of natural selection. This approach holds particular promise for apes, as many human-specific adaptations are thought to result from differences in gene expression rather than in coding sequence. To date, however, all studies directly comparing interspecies gene expression have been performed on single-species arrays, so that it has bee...

  2. The heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens expresses many species-specific genes, as identified by comparative expressed sequence tag analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigola, D.; Fiers, M.W.E.J.; Vurro, E.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    ¿ Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator and an emerging plant model species to study heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance. This paper describes the analysis of the first expressed sequence tag (EST) collection from T. caerulescens. This col

  3. Global transcription analysis of vaccinated channel catfish following challenge with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the identities of genes involved in either innate or adaptive immunity, microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts were performed to compare gene expression in vaccinated channel catfish after challenge with a virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to that in sham-vaccinated fis...

  4. Insights into a dinoflagellate genome through expressed sequence tag analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaldo Maria F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates are important marine primary producers and grazers and cause toxic "red tides". These taxa are characterized by many unique features such as immense genomes, the absence of nucleosomes, and photosynthetic organelles (plastids that have been gained and lost multiple times. We generated EST sequences from non-normalized and normalized cDNA libraries from a culture of the toxic species Alexandrium tamarense to elucidate dinoflagellate evolution. Previous analyses of these data have clarified plastid origin and here we study the gene content, annotate the ESTs, and analyze the genes that are putatively involved in DNA packaging. Results Approximately 20% of the 6,723 unique (11,171 total 3'-reads ESTs data could be annotated using Blast searches against GenBank. Several putative dinoflagellate-specific mRNAs were identified, including one novel plastid protein. Dinoflagellate genes, similar to other eukaryotes, have a high GC-content that is reflected in the amino acid codon usage. Highly represented transcripts include histone-like (HLP and luciferin binding proteins and several genes occur in families that encode nearly identical proteins. We also identified rare transcripts encoding a predicted protein highly similar to histone H2A.X. We speculate this histone may be retained for its role in DNA double-strand break repair. Conclusion This is the most extensive collection to date of ESTs from a toxic dinoflagellate. These data will be instrumental to future research to understand the unique and complex cell biology of these organisms and for potentially identifying the genes involved in toxin production.

  5. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Covadonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate. Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan. BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value -5 hits and further Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289. Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

  6. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  7. Evaluation of potential candidate genes involved in salinity tolerance in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) using an RNA-Seq approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Viet; Jung, Hyungtaek; Nguyen, Thanh Minh; Hurwood, David; Mather, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Increasing salinity levels in freshwater and coastal environments caused by sea level rise linked to climate change is now recognized to be a major factor that can impact fish growth negatively, especially for freshwater teleost species. Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is an important freshwater teleost that is now widely farmed across the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam. Understanding the basis for tolerance and adaptation to raised environmental salinity conditions can assist the regional culture industry to mitigate predicted impacts of climate change across this region. Attempt of next generation sequencing using the ion proton platform results in more than 174 million raw reads from three tissue libraries (gill, kidney and intestine). Reads were filtered and de novo assembled using a variety of assemblers and then clustered together to generate a combined reference transcriptome. Downstream analysis resulted in a final reference transcriptome that contained 60,585 transcripts with an N50 of 683 bp. This resource was further annotated using a variety of bioinformatics databases, followed by differential gene expression analysis that resulted in 3062 transcripts that were differentially expressed in catfish samples raised under two experimental conditions (0 and 15 ppt). A number of transcripts with a potential role in salinity tolerance were then classified into six different functional gene categories based on their gene ontology assignments. These included; energy metabolism, ion transportation, detoxification, signal transduction, structural organization and detoxification. Finally, we combined the data on functional salinity tolerance genes into a hypothetical schematic model that attempted to describe potential relationships and interactions among target genes to explain the molecular pathways that control adaptive salinity responses in P. hypophthalmus. Our results indicate that P. hypophthalmus exhibit predictable plastic regulatory responses

  8. Expression sequence tag library derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the chlorocebus sabaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchitchek Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Green Monkeys (AGM are amongst the most frequently used nonhuman primate models in clinical and biomedical research, nevertheless only few genomic resources exist for this species. Such information would be essential for the development of dedicated new generation technologies in fundamental and pre-clinical research using this model, and would deliver new insights into primate evolution. Results We have exhaustively sequenced an Expression Sequence Tag (EST library made from a pool of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from sixteen Chlorocebus sabaeus monkeys. Twelve of them were infected with the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. The mononuclear cells were or not stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A, with lipopolysacharrides, or through mixed lymphocyte reaction in order to generate a representative and broad library of expressed sequences in immune cells. We report here 37,787 sequences, which were assembled into 14,410 contigs representing an estimated 12% of the C. sabaeus transcriptome. Using data from primate genome databases, 9,029 assembled sequences from C. sabaeus could be annotated. Sequences have been systematically aligned with ten cDNA references of primate species including Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Macaca mulatta to identify ortholog transcripts. For 506 transcripts, sequences were quasi-complete. In addition, 6,576 transcript fragments are potentially specific to the C. sabaeus or corresponding to not yet described primate genes. Conclusions The EST library we provide here will prove useful in gene annotation efforts for future sequencing of the African Green Monkey genomes. Furthermore, this library, which particularly well represents immunological and hematological gene expression, will be an important resource for the comparative analysis of gene expression in clinically relevant nonhuman primate and human research.

  9. In silico identification of coffee genome expressed sequences potentially associated with resistance to diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Mazzinghy Alvarenga; Eveline Teixeira Caixeta; Bárbara Hufnagel; Flávia Thiebaut; Eunize Maciel-Zambolim; Laércio Zambolimand; Ney Sussumu Sakiyama

    2010-01-01

    Sequences potentially associated with coffee resistance to diseases were identified by in silico analyses using the database of the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project (BCGP). Keywords corresponding to plant resistance mechanisms to pathogens identified in the literature were used as baits for data mining. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) related to each of these keywords were identified with tools available in the BCGP bioinformatics platform. A total of 11,300 ESTs were mined. These ESTs were clu...

  10. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max;

    2014-01-01

    . Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly in...... filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014...

  11. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  12. Sequencing and expression analysis of hepcidin mRNA in donkey (Equus asinus liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypoferremia that is observed during systemic inflammatory processes is mediated by hepcidin, which is a peptide that is mainly synthesized in the livers of several mammalian species. Hepcidin plays a key role in iron metabolism and in the innate immune system. It's up-regulation is particularly useful during acute inflammation, and it restricts the iron availability that is necessary for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the hepcidin mRNA of Equus asinus has been characterized, and the expression of donkey hepcidin in the liver has been determined. The donkey hepcidin sequence has an open reading frame (ORF of 261 nucleotides, and the deduced corresponding protein sequence has 86 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of donkey hepcidin was most homologous to Equus caballus (98%. The mature donkey hepcidin sequence (25 amino acids was 100% homologous to the equine mature hepcidin and has eight conserved cysteine residues that are found in all of the investigated hepcidin sequences. The expression profile of donkey hepcidin in the liver was high and was similar to the reference gene expression. The donkey hepcidin sequence was deposited in GenBankTM (HQ902884 and may be useful for additional studies on iron metabolism and the inflammatory process in this species.

  13. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF A cDNA SEQUENCE FOR HUMAN THIOREDOXIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingyong(刘庆勇); Ruan Xiyun(阮喜云); Liu Xiaogong(刘效恭); Ji Zongzheng(纪宗正); Dang Jiangong; Nan Xunyi(南勋义); Wang Quanying(王全颖); Yang Guangxiao(杨广笑)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To clone and determine the sequence and expression of a cDNA segment for human thioredoxin. Methods The cDNA segment of thioredoxin was obtained through amplification by RT-PCR cloning from 143 (TK-) human osteosarcoma cell. The amplified products were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. Then the expressed vector pBV220-hTRX was constructed and transformed into E.coli strain DH5α for hTRX expression. The hTRX was purified by DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column and the activity of recombinant hTRX was determined by the insulin disulfide reduction assay. Results Comparison of cDNA sequence of the cloned fragments with that of the reported hTRX (GenBank J04026) demonstrated that there were two differences compared to the reported cDNA sequence for hTRX at bp180 and bp284, and the amino acids enceoded altered respectively, but motif of the sequence was identical to that of the reported hTRX. The recombinant hTRX can catalyze insulin reduction by DTT. Conclusion The successful cloning and expression of hTRX cDNA formed a basis for further study on biological functions and utilization of hTRX.

  14. Presence and Expression of Microbial Genes Regulating Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Along the Tanana River Successional Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, R. D.; Rogers, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    We report on work to assess the functional gene sequences for soil microbiota that control nitrogen cycle pathways along the successional sequence (willow, alder, poplar, white spruce, black spruce) on the Tanana River floodplain, Interior Alaska. Microbial DNA and mRNA were extracted from soils (0-10 cm depth) for amoA (ammonium monooxygenase), nifH (nitrogenase reductase), napA (nitrate reductase), and nirS and nirK (nitrite reductase) genes. Gene presence was determined by amplification of a conserved sequence of each gene employing sequence specific oligonucleotide primers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Expression of the genes was measured via nested reverse transcriptase PCR amplification of the extracted mRNA. Amplified PCR products were visualized on agarose electrophoresis gels. All five successional stages show evidence for the presence and expression of microbial genes that regulate N fixation (free-living), nitrification, and nitrate reduction. We detected (1) nifH, napA, and nirK presence and amoA expression (mRNA production) for all five successional stages and (2) nirS and amoA presence and nifH, nirK, and napA expression for early successional stages (willow, alder, poplar). The results highlight that the existing body of previous process-level work has not sufficiently considered the microbial potential for a nitrate economy and free-living N fixation along the complete floodplain successional sequence.

  15. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. samples of serunding were prepared with 3 different sizes (30-40cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm) of African catfish and control was prepared using round scad fish ('ikan selayang') with same amount of fish flesh...

  16. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan Univer...

  17. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  18. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding lytic functions of Bacteriophage Fg1e

    OpenAIRE

    OKI, Masaya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Taketo, Akira; KODAIRA, Ken-Ichi

    1996-01-01

    The lysis genes of a Lactobacillus phage Fgle were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 3813-bp Fgle DNA revealed five successive open reading frames (ORF), Rorf50, Rorf118, hol, and lys and Rorf175, in the same DNA strand. By comparative analysis of the DNA sequence, the putative hol product (holin) has an estimated molecular weight is 14.2 kDa, and contains two potential transmembrane helices and highly charged N- and C-termini, resembling predict...

  19. Mining for single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions / deletions in expressed sequence tag libraries of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Riju, Aykkal; Chandrasekar, Arumugam; Arunachalam, Vadivel

    2007-01-01

    The oil palm is a tropical oil bearing tree. Recently EST-derived SNPs and SSRs are a free by-product of the currently expanding EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) data bases. The development of high-throughput methods for the detection of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and small indels (insertion / deletion) has led to a revolution in their use as molecular markers. Available (5452) Oil palm EST sequences were mined from dbEST of NCBI. CAP3 program was used to assemble EST sequences into co...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes. PMID:25329264

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Loxosceles laeta (Araneae, Sicariidae) spider venomous gland using expressed sequence tags

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Diego D; Kobashi Leonardo S.; Gonçalves-de-Andrade Rute M.; Junqueira-de-Azevedo Inácio de LM; Fernandes-Pedrosa Matheus de F; Ho Paulo L; Tambourgi Denise V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The bite of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles can induce a variety of clinical symptoms, including dermonecrosis, thrombosis, vascular leakage, haemolysis, and persistent inflammation. In order to examine the transcripts expressed in venom gland of Loxosceles laeta spider and to unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 3,008 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cDNA library. Results All ESTs were clustered int...

  2. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human β-glucuronidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental β-glucuronidase (β-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen β-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human β-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human β-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for β-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length

  3. Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Lange, Bernd Markus (Pullman, WA); McCaskill, David G. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-01-01

    cDNAs encoding 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences have been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7) are provided which code for the expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from plants. In another aspect the present invention provides for isolated, recombinant DXPS proteins, such as the proteins having the sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:8. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthases, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding a plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate, or its derivatives such as isopentenyl diphosphate (BP), or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase, or the production of its products.

  4. DYNAMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING U.S. AND REGIONAL CATFISH DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Jack E.; Ermita, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    Response to changes in factors influencing consumption of catfish and competing commodities differ between national, South Atlantic, and Southwest Central markets. A modified state adjustment model for catfish, beef, chicken, and other fish explicitly included age distribution, residence, occupation, education, and race/ethnic variables associated with habit formation. Nationally, per capita expenditures on catfish respond to present and past relative prices, and catfish, chicken, and other f...

  5. Two lamprey Hedgehog genes share non-coding regulatory sequences and expression patterns with gnathostome Hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shungo Kano

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh genes play major roles in animal development and studies of their evolution, expression and function point to major differences among chordates. Here we focused on Hh genes in lampreys in order to characterize the evolution of Hh signalling at the emergence of vertebrates. Screening of a cosmid library of the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis and searching the preliminary genome assembly of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus indicate that lampreys have two Hh genes, named Hha and Hhb. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Hha and Hhb are lamprey-specific paralogs closely related to Sonic/Indian Hh genes. Expression analysis indicates that Hha and Hhb are expressed in a Sonic Hh-like pattern. The two transcripts are expressed in largely overlapping but not identical domains in the lamprey embryonic brain, including a newly-described expression domain in the nasohypophyseal placode. Global alignments of genomic sequences and local alignment with known gnathostome regulatory motifs show that lamprey Hhs share conserved non-coding elements (CNE with gnathostome Hhs albeit with sequences that have significantly diverged and dispersed. Functional assays using zebrafish embryos demonstrate gnathostome-like midline enhancer activity for CNEs contained in intron2. We conclude that lamprey Hh genes are gnathostome Shh-like in terms of expression and regulation. In addition, they show some lamprey-specific features, including duplication and structural (but not functional changes in the intronic/regulatory sequences.

  6. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of Selenoprotein Transcripts in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A Sunde

    Full Text Available The minimum Se requirement for male turkey poults is 0.3 μg Se/g--three times higher than requirements found in rodents--based on liver and gizzard glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4 and GPX1 activities. In addition, turkey liver GPX4 activity is 10-fold higher and GPX1 activity is 10-fold lower than in rats, and both GPX1 and GPX4 mRNA levels are dramatically down-regulated by Se deficiency. Currently, the sequences of all annotated turkey selenoprotein transcripts and proteins in the NCBI database are only "predicted." Thus we initiated cloning and sequencing of the full turkey selenoprotein transcriptome to demonstrate expression of selenoprotein transcripts in the turkey, and to develop tools to investigate Se regulation of the full selenoproteome. Total RNA was isolated from six tissues of Se-adequate adult tom turkeys, and used to prepare reverse-transcription cDNA libraries. PCR primers were designed, based initially on chicken, rodent, porcine, bovine and human sequences and later on turkey shotgun cloning sequences. We report here the cloning of full transcript sequences for 9 selenoproteins, and 3'UTR portions for 15 additional selenoproteins, which include SECIS elements in 22 3'UTRs, and in-frame Sec (UGA codons within coding regions of 19 selenoproteins, including 12 Sec codons in SEPP1. In addition, we sequenced the gap between two contigs from the shotgun cloning of the turkey genome, and found the missing sequence for the turkey Sec-tRNA. RTPCR was used to determine the relative transcript expression in 6 tissues. GPX3 expression was high in all tissues except kidney, GPX1 expression was high in kidney, SEPW1 expression was high in heart, gizzard and muscle, and SELU expression was high in liver. SEPP2, a selenoprotein not found in mammals, was highly expressed in liver but not in other tissues. In summary, transcripts for 24 selenoproteins are expressed in the turkey, not just predicted.

  7. Mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon): structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R-Q; Wang, D-Z; Li, C-T; Yang, X-R

    2016-01-01

    The complete 16,532-nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon) was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method, and compared with the mitochondrial genome sequences of 49 other catfish species belonging to the order Siluriformes. The locations of protein-coding genes and ribosomal ribonucleic acids (RNAs) were identified by comparison with known sequences of other catfishes, including P. fulvidraco and P. nitidus. The P. eupogon mitochondrial genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. The gene order was identical to that of other Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets were carried out to further clarify the relative phylogenetic position of P. eupogon, and identify phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) 8.0.X were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of P. eupogon with Amblycipitidae than Siluridae. We therefore concluded that this species appears to be closely related to the Amblycipitidae. In the phylogenetic tree, the Amblycipitidae appeared as the most basal extant lineage within the Siluriformes, while the Bagridae appeared as the sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The mitochondrial genome sequence of P. eupogon has been deposited in GenBank (accession No. KJ001784). PMID:27323031

  8. Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR Marker Resources for Diversity Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collection of 24,840 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from five mango (Mangifera indica L. cDNA libraries was mined for EST-based simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Over 1,000 ESTs with SSR motifs were detected from more than 24,000 EST sequences with di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant. Of these, 25 EST-SSRs in genes involved in plant development, stress response, and fruit color and flavor development pathways were selected, developed into PCR markers and characterized in a population of 32 mango selections including M. indica varieties, and related Mangifera species. Twenty-four of the 25 EST-SSR markers exhibited polymorphisms, identifying a total of 86 alleles with an average of 5.38 alleles per locus, and distinguished between all Mangifera selections. Private alleles were identified for Mangifera species. These newly developed EST-SSR markers enhance the current 11 SSR mango genetic identity panel utilized by the Australian Mango Breeding Program. The current panel has been used to identify progeny and parents for selection and the application of this extended panel will further improve and help to design mango hybridization strategies for increased breeding efficiency.

  9. Gene discovery and transcript analyses in the corn smut pathogen Ustilago maydis: expressed sequence tag and genome sequence comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saville Barry J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ustilago maydis is the basidiomycete fungus responsible for common smut of corn and is a model organism for the study of fungal phytopathogenesis. To aid in the annotation of the genome sequence of this organism, several expressed sequence tag (EST libraries were generated from a variety of U. maydis cell types. In addition to utility in the context of gene identification and structure annotation, the ESTs were analyzed to identify differentially abundant transcripts and to detect evidence of alternative splicing and anti-sense transcription. Results Four cDNA libraries were constructed using RNA isolated from U. maydis diploid teliospores (U. maydis strains 518 × 521 and haploid cells of strain 521 grown under nutrient rich, carbon starved, and nitrogen starved conditions. Using the genome sequence as a scaffold, the 15,901 ESTs were assembled into 6,101 contiguous expressed sequences (contigs; among these, 5,482 corresponded to predicted genes in the MUMDB (MIPS Ustilago maydis database, while 619 aligned to regions of the genome not yet designated as genes in MUMDB. A comparison of EST abundance identified numerous genes that may be regulated in a cell type or starvation-specific manner. The transcriptional response to nitrogen starvation was assessed using RT-qPCR. The results of this suggest that there may be cross-talk between the nitrogen and carbon signalling pathways in U. maydis. Bioinformatic analysis identified numerous examples of alternative splicing and anti-sense transcription. While intron retention was the predominant form of alternative splicing in U. maydis, other varieties were also evident (e.g. exon skipping. Selected instances of both alternative splicing and anti-sense transcription were independently confirmed using RT-PCR. Conclusion Through this work: 1 substantial sequence information has been provided for U. maydis genome annotation; 2 new genes were identified through the discovery of 619

  10. Evolution at Two Levels in Fire Ants: The Relationship between Patterns of Gene Expression and Protein Sequence Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, B. G.; Ometto, L.; Keller, L.; Goodisman, M. A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in protein sequence and gene expression each contribute to phenotypic diversity, and may be subject to similar selective pressures. Eusocial insects are particularly useful for investigating the evolutionary link between protein sequence and condition-dependent patterns of gene expression because gene expression plays a central role in determining differences between eusocial insect sexes and castes. We investigated the relationship between protein coding sequence evolution and gene...

  11. Expressed sequence tags as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of placental mammal evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Kullberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigate the usefulness of expressed sequence tags, ESTs, for establishing divergences within the tree of placental mammals. This is done on the example of the established relationships among primates (human, lagomorphs (rabbit, rodents (rat and mouse, artiodactyls (cow, carnivorans (dog and proboscideans (elephant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have produced 2000 ESTs (1.2 mega bases from a marsupial mouse and characterized the data for their use in phylogenetic analysis. The sequences were used to identify putative orthologous sequences from whole genome projects. Although most ESTs stem from single sequence reads, the frequency of potential sequencing errors was found to be lower than allelic variation. Most of the sequences represented slowly evolving housekeeping-type genes, with an average amino acid distance of 6.6% between human and mouse. Positive Darwinian selection was identified at only a few single sites. Phylogenetic analyses of the EST data yielded trees that were consistent with those established from whole genome projects. CONCLUSIONS: The general quality of EST sequences and the general absence of positive selection in these sequences make ESTs an attractive tool for phylogenetic analysis. The EST approach allows, at reasonable costs, a fast extension of data sampling from species outside the genome projects.

  12. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S. [Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); Arbuthnot, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Arbuthnot@wits.ac.za [Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2009-11-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  13. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Loxosceles laeta (Araneae, Sicariidae) spider venomous gland using expressed sequence tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de F; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de LM; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Kobashi, Leonardo S; Almeida, Diego D; Ho, Paulo L; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2008-01-01

    Background The bite of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles can induce a variety of clinical symptoms, including dermonecrosis, thrombosis, vascular leakage, haemolysis, and persistent inflammation. In order to examine the transcripts expressed in venom gland of Loxosceles laeta spider and to unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 3,008 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cDNA library. Results All ESTs were clustered into 1,357 clusters, of which 16.4% of the total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences, being the Sphingomyelinases D the most abundant transcript; 14.5% include "possible toxins", whose transcripts correspond to metalloproteinases, serinoproteinases, hyaluronidases, lipases, C-lectins, cystein peptidases and inhibitors. Thirty three percent of the ESTs are similar to cellular transcripts, being the major part represented by molecules involved in gene and protein expression, reflecting the specialization of this tissue for protein synthesis. In addition, a considerable number of sequences, 25%, has no significant similarity to any known sequence. Conclusion This study provides a first global view of the gene expression scenario of the venom gland of L. laeta described so far, indicating the molecular bases of its venom composition. PMID:18547439

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Loxosceles laeta (Araneae, Sicariidae spider venomous gland using expressed sequence tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Diego D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bite of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles can induce a variety of clinical symptoms, including dermonecrosis, thrombosis, vascular leakage, haemolysis, and persistent inflammation. In order to examine the transcripts expressed in venom gland of Loxosceles laeta spider and to unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 3,008 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a cDNA library. Results All ESTs were clustered into 1,357 clusters, of which 16.4% of the total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences, being the Sphingomyelinases D the most abundant transcript; 14.5% include "possible toxins", whose transcripts correspond to metalloproteinases, serinoproteinases, hyaluronidases, lipases, C-lectins, cystein peptidases and inhibitors. Thirty three percent of the ESTs are similar to cellular transcripts, being the major part represented by molecules involved in gene and protein expression, reflecting the specialization of this tissue for protein synthesis. In addition, a considerable number of sequences, 25%, has no significant similarity to any known sequence. Conclusion This study provides a first global view of the gene expression scenario of the venom gland of L. laeta described so far, indicating the molecular bases of its venom composition.

  16. Seventy microsatellite markers from Persea americana Miller (avocado) expressed sequence tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for Persea americana Mill. were investigated to expand upon the number of informative microsatellite markers available for avocado. Seventy informative loci were discovered using twenty-four P. americana var. americana Mill. accessions. The number of alleles detected r...

  17. Characterization and differential expression analysis of artichoke phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, Angelo; Pignone, Domenico; Morgese, Anita; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    Sequences encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were isolated from artichoke, by using a sequence homology strategy, by screening a genomic library and by 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) technology. These analyses and Southern blots suggested that, in artichoke, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is encoded by a small gene family. The sequences isolated from genomic DNA possess two exons and one intron at the conserved position as in most plant pal characterized to date. The 3'-RACE analysis also indicated that each member of the artichoke pal gene family was present as a pool of transcripts, different in the length of 3'-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequences were highly similar to those of PAL from lettuce and sunflower. One of the artichoke pal genes was completely sequenced, and its 5' upstream region contained TATA, CAAT box and cis regulatory elements identified in other phenylpropanoid pathway genes as playing a role in UV and elicitor induction. The expression of three of the identified artichoke pal sequences was evaluated in different plant parts, in developmental stages and after wounding, using gene-specific primers/probe combinations in real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. The three putative genes were differentially expressed in the plant parts analysed and were developmentally regulated. Moreover, after leaf mechanical injury, all of them were differentially regulated. The possible involvement of the single pal genes in different physiological processes is discussed. PMID:18251868

  18. Ensuring critical event sequences in high integrity software by applying path expressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, M.E.C.

    1996-07-01

    The goal of this work is to extend the use of existing path expression theory and methodologies to ensure that critical software event sequences are maintained even in the face of malevolent attacks and harsh or unstable operating environments. This will be accomplished by providing dynamic fault management measures directly to the software developer and to their varied development environments. This paper discusses the perceived problems, a brief overview of path expressions, and the author`s proposed extension areas. The authors discuss how the traditional path expression usage and implementation differs from the intended usage and implementation.

  19. Ensuring critical event sequences in high consequence computer based systems as inspired by path expressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, M.E.C.

    1997-02-01

    The goal of our work is to provide a high level of confidence that critical software driven event sequences are maintained in the face of hardware failures, malevolent attacks and harsh or unstable operating environments. This will be accomplished by providing dynamic fault management measures directly to the software developer and to their varied development environments. The methodology employed here is inspired by previous work in path expressions. This paper discusses the perceived problems, a brief overview of path expressions, the proposed methods, and a discussion of the differences between the proposed methods and traditional path expression usage and implementation.

  20. Grouping of multicopper oxidases in Lentinula edodes by sequence similarities and expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Yoshida, Kentaro; Natsume, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Sato, Shiho; van Peer, Arend F; Konno, Naotake

    2015-12-01

    The edible white rot fungus Lentinula edodes possesses a variety of lignin degrading enzymes such as manganese peroxidases and laccases. Laccases belong to the multicopper oxidases, which have a wide range of catalytic activities including polyphenol degradation and synthesis, lignin degradation, and melanin formation. The exact number of laccases in L. edodes is unknown, as are their complete properties and biological functions. We analyzed the draft genome sequence of L. edodes D703PP-9 and identified 13 multicopper oxidase-encoding genes; 11 laccases in sensu stricto, of which three are new, and two ferroxidases. lcc8, a laccase previously reported in L. edodes, was not identified in D703PP-9 genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 13 multicopper oxidases can be classified into laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 and ferroxidases. From sequence similarities and expression patterns, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 can be divided into two subgroups. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group A members are mainly secreted from mycelia, while laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group B members are expressed mainly in fruiting bodies during growth or after harvesting but are lowly expressed in mycelia. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 members are mainly expressed in mycelia, and two ferroxidases are mainly expressed in the fruiting body during growth or after harvesting, and are expressed at very low levels in mycelium. Our data suggests that L. edodes laccases in same group share expression patterns and would have common biological functions. PMID:26384343

  1. baySeq: Empirical Bayesian methods for identifying differential expression in sequence count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardcastle Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput sequencing has become an important technology for studying expression levels in many types of genomic, and particularly transcriptomic, data. One key way of analysing such data is to look for elements of the data which display particular patterns of differential expression in order to take these forward for further analysis and validation. Results We propose a framework for defining patterns of differential expression and develop a novel algorithm, baySeq, which uses an empirical Bayes approach to detect these patterns of differential expression within a set of sequencing samples. The method assumes a negative binomial distribution for the data and derives an empirically determined prior distribution from the entire dataset. We examine the performance of the method on real and simulated data. Conclusions Our method performs at least as well, and often better, than existing methods for analyses of pairwise differential expression in both real and simulated data. When we compare methods for the analysis of data from experimental designs involving multiple sample groups, our method again shows substantial gains in performance. We believe that this approach thus represents an important step forward for the analysis of count data from sequencing experiments.

  2. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from a fetal human heart cDNA library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D.M.; Fung, Y.W.; Wang, R.X.; Laurenssen, C.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Single-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has been widely used to identify novel genes and to study gene expression in a variety of tissues. We have generated 2244 ESTs from a human fetal heart library (Gen-Bank Accession Nos. R30692-30774 and R56965-58824), which we present in this report. Of these, 51.7% showed no homology to known genes or were similar only to other ESTs, while 48.4% demonstrated homology to known transcripts. A total of 764 ESTs corresponding to known genes were used to study gene expression patterns in the fetal heart and to analyze differences in these patterns from those observed in the adult heart. These analyses demonstrate the utility of ESTs and sequence-tagged clones in comparative studies of gene expression in the cardiovascular system, and they reveal that differential gene expression underlies the structural and functional characteristics of the developing heart. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Comparative production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on growth and yield (kg/ha) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the channel x blue hybrid catfish (I. punctatus female x I. furcatus male), which shared the Jubilee strain of channel catfish as the maternal parent, was evaluated...

  4. The Organoleptic and Smoked Catfish Histology from Pre-cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Venny Yuliastri; Ruddy Suwandi; Uju

    2015-01-01

    Catfish is one of the main commodities in fresh water aquaculture. Indonesia catfish production increased 37,49% in 2010 until 2014. Protein content of catfish is 17.7-26.7% and fat about 0.95 until 11.5%. The objective of this study was to determine the best organoleptic and to study the changes of tissue structure of catfish caused by process precooking and smoking process. Precooked Catfish with variation 5, 10 and 15 minute; temperature of 100oC, and smoked for 7 hours with...

  5. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for marker development in yam (Dioscorea alata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Asiedu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (Dioscorea spp. worldwide. Availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. However, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. Therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. The current investigation is focused on studying gene expression, by large scale generation of ESTs, from one susceptible (TDa 95-0310 and two resistant yam genotypes (TDa 87-01091, TDa 95-0328 challenged with the fungus. Total RNA was isolated from young leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes and cDNA libraries were sequenced using Roche 454 technology. Results A total of 44,757 EST sequences were generated from the cDNA libraries of the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Greater than 56% of ESTs were annotated using MapMan Mercator tool and Blast2GO search tools. Gene annotations were used to characterize the transcriptome in yam and also perform a differential gene expression analysis between the resistant and susceptible EST datasets. Mining for SSRs in the ESTs revealed 1702 unique sequences containing SSRs and 1705 SSR markers were designed using those sequences. Conclusion We have developed a comprehensive annotated transcriptome data set in yam to enrich the EST information in public databases. cDNA libraries were constructed from anthracnose fungus challenged leaf tissues for transcriptome characterization, and differential gene expression analysis. Thus, it helped in identifying unique transcripts in each library for disease resistance. These EST resources provide the basis for future microarray development, marker validation, genetic linkage mapping and QTL analysis in Dioscorea species.

  6. Molecular cloning, sequence identification, and gene expression analysis of bovine ADCY2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y X; Jin, H G; Yan, C G; Ren, C Y; Jiang, C J; Jin, C D; Seo, K S; Jin, X

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclase 2 (ADCY2), a class B member of adenylyl cyclases, is important in accelerating phosphor-acidification as well as glycogen synthesis and breakdown. Given its distinct role in flesh tenderization after butchering, we cloned and sequenced the ADCY2 gene from Yanbian cattle and assessed its expression in bovine tissues. A 2947 bp nucleotide sequence representing the full-length cDNA of bovine ADCY2 gene was obtained by 5' and 3' remote analysis computations for gene expression. Analyses of the putative protein sequence showed that ADCY2 had high homology among species, except with the non-mammal Oreochromis niloticus. Gene structural domain analyses in humans and rats indicated that the ADCY2 protein had no flaw; only the transmembrane domain was reduced and the CYCc structure domain was shortened. Assessment of ADCY2 expression in bovine tissues by real-time PCR showed that the highest expression was in the testes, followed by the longissimus dorsi, tensor fasciae latae, and latissimus dorsi. These data will serve as a foundation for further insight into the cattle ADCY2 gene. PMID:24797538

  7. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  8. Diversity Analysis in Cannabis sativa Based on Large-Scale Development of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chunsheng; Xin, Pengfei; Cheng, Chaohua; Tang, Qing; Ping CHEN; Wang, Changbiao; Zang, Gonggu; Zhao, Lining

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fiber, oils, and intoxicants. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Based on the cannabis transcriptome, 4,577 SS...

  9. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers for Aspergillus flavus: Emphasis on Variability of Isolates from the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were developed from Aspergillus flavus expressed sequence tag (EST) database to conduct an analysis of genetic relationships of Aspergillus isolates from numerous host species and geographical regions, but primarily from the United States. Twenty-nine primers wer...

  10. Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Genomovar II Strain 94-081

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Salih; Tekedar, Hasan C.; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in fresh and brackish water worldwide. F. columnare strain 94-081 was isolated from a diseased channel catfish in 1994; its genome sequence is the first completed genomovar II sequence. PMID:27231366

  11. An abundance of ubiquitously expressed genes revealed by tissue transcriptome sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramsköld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The parts of the genome transcribed by a cell or tissue reflect the biological processes and functions it carries out. We characterized the features of mammalian tissue transcriptomes at the gene level through analysis of RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq data across human and mouse tissues and cell lines. We observed that roughly 8,000 protein-coding genes were ubiquitously expressed, contributing to around 75% of all mRNAs by message copy number in most tissues. These mRNAs encoded proteins that were often intracellular, and tended to be involved in metabolism, transcription, RNA processing or translation. In contrast, genes for secreted or plasma membrane proteins were generally expressed in only a subset of tissues. The distribution of expression levels was broad but fairly continuous: no support was found for the concept of distinct expression classes of genes. Expression estimates that included reads mapping to coding exons only correlated better with qRT-PCR data than estimates which also included 3' untranslated regions (UTRs. Muscle and liver had the least complex transcriptomes, in that they expressed predominantly ubiquitous genes and a large fraction of the transcripts came from a few highly expressed genes, whereas brain, kidney and testis expressed more complex transcriptomes with the vast majority of genes expressed and relatively small contributions from the most expressed genes. mRNAs expressed in brain had unusually long 3'UTRs, and mean 3'UTR length was higher for genes involved in development, morphogenesis and signal transduction, suggesting added complexity of UTR-based regulation for these genes. Our results support a model in which variable exterior components feed into a large, densely connected core composed of ubiquitously expressed intracellular proteins.

  12. In-depth cDNA Library Sequencing Provides Quantitative Gene Expression Profiling in Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanling Yang; Dingge Ying; Yu-Lung Lau

    2009-01-01

    procedures may allow detection of many expres-sion features for less abundant gene variants. With the reduction of sequencing cost and the emerging of new generation sequencing technology, in-depth sequencing of cDNA pools or libraries may represent a better and powerful tool in gene expression profiling and cancer biomarker detection. We also propose using sequence-specific subtraction to remove hundreds of the most abundant housekeeping genes to in-crease sequencing depth without affecting relative expression ratio of other genes, as transcripts from as few as 300 most abundantly expressed genes constitute about 20% of the total transcriptome. In-depth sequencing also represents a unique ad-vantage of detecting unknown forms of transcripts, such as alternative splicing variants, fusion genes, and regulatory RNAs, as well as detecting mutations and polymorphisms that may play important roles in disease pathogenesis.

  13. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Aeromonas veronii TH0426 with potential application in biosynthesis of pullulanase and chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuanhuan; Pan, Xiaoyi; Xu, Yang; Siddiqui, Shahrood A; Wang, Chunfeng; Shan, Xiaofeng; Qian, Aidong

    2016-06-10

    Aeromonas veronii TH0426 is a pathogen of the farmed yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco but shows high-level expression of pullulanase and chitinase. Here, we present its genome sequence, which is the first reported complete genome of fish pathogen in A. veronii to date. Strain TH0426 harbors a single circular 4,923,009bp chromosome with a GC content of 58.25%. There are 4525 genes identified on its genome, including 4244 protein-coding genes, 32 rRNA genes, 120 tRNA genes, a noncoding RNA and 128 pseudo genes. We believe that the genomic information of A. veronii TH0426 would facilitate to reveal its pathogenic mechanism associated with yellow catfish, develop vaccine to decrease economic losses for fish farming, meanwhile explore the potential application in producing pullulanase and chitinase. PMID:27080448

  14. A novel approach to sequence validating protein expression clones with automated decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr Stephanie E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas the molecular assembly of protein expression clones is readily automated and routinely accomplished in high throughput, sequence verification of these clones is still largely performed manually, an arduous and time consuming process. The ultimate goal of validation is to determine if a given plasmid clone matches its reference sequence sufficiently to be "acceptable" for use in protein expression experiments. Given the accelerating increase in availability of tens of thousands of unverified clones, there is a strong demand for rapid, efficient and accurate software that automates clone validation. Results We have developed an Automated Clone Evaluation (ACE system – the first comprehensive, multi-platform, web-based plasmid sequence verification software package. ACE automates the clone verification process by defining each clone sequence as a list of multidimensional discrepancy objects, each describing a difference between the clone and its expected sequence including the resulting polypeptide consequences. To evaluate clones automatically, this list can be compared against user acceptance criteria that specify the allowable number of discrepancies of each type. This strategy allows users to re-evaluate the same set of clones against different acceptance criteria as needed for use in other experiments. ACE manages the entire sequence validation process including contig management, identifying and annotating discrepancies, determining if discrepancies correspond to polymorphisms and clone finishing. Designed to manage thousands of clones simultaneously, ACE maintains a relational database to store information about clones at various completion stages, project processing parameters and acceptance criteria. In a direct comparison, the automated analysis by ACE took less time and was more accurate than a manual analysis of a 93 gene clone set. Conclusion ACE was designed to facilitate high throughput clone sequence

  15. Probing essential oil biosynthesis and secretion by functional evaluation of expressed sequence tags from mint glandular trichomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, B. Markus; Wildung, Mark R.; Stauber, Einar J.; Sanchez, Christopher; Pouchnik, Derek; Croteau, Rodney

    2000-01-01

    Functional genomics approaches, which use combined computational and expression-based analyses of large amounts of sequence information, are emerging as powerful tools to accelerate the comprehensive understanding of cellular metabolism in specialized tissues and whole organisms. As part of an ongoing effort to identify genes of essential oil (monoterpene) biosynthesis, we have obtained sequence information from 1,316 randomly selected cDNA clones, or expressed sequence tags (ESTs), from a pe...

  16. Gene Expression Analysis in the Age of Mass Sequencing: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarsky, Christian; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Roy, Janine

    2016-01-01

    During the last years the technology used for gene expression analysis has changed dramatically. The old mainstay, DNA microarray, has served its due course and will soon be replaced by next-generation sequencing (NGS), the Swiss army knife of modern high-throughput nucleic acid-based analysis. Therefore preparation technologies have to adapt to suit the emerging NGS technology platform. Moreover, interpretation of the results is still time consuming and employs the use of high-end computers usually not found in molecular biology laboratories. Alternatively, cloud computing might solve this problem. Nevertheless, these new challenges have to be embraced for gene expression analysis in general. PMID:26667455

  17. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  18. Expressed Sequence Tags from the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, an obligate parasite of the sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouzeyar Said

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sunflower downy mildew is a major disease caused by the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity. In this study we used a genomics approach to gain a first insight into the transcriptome of P. halstedii. Results To identify genes from the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii that are expressed during infection in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. we employed the suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH method from sunflower seedlings infected by P. halstedii. Using this method and random sequencing of clones, a total of 602 expressed sequence tags (ESTs corresponding to 230 unique sequence sets were identified. To determine the origin of the unisequences, PCR primers were designed to amplify these gene fragments from genomic DNA isolated either from P. halstedii sporangia or from Helianthus annuus. Only 145 nonredundant ESTs which correspond to a total of 373 ESTs (67.7% proved to be derived from P. halstedii genes and that are expressed during infection in sunflower. A set of 87 nonredundant sequences were identified as showing matches to sequences deposited in public databases. Nevertheless, about 7% of the ESTs seem to be unique to P. halstedii without any homolog in any public database. Conclusion A summary of the assignment of nonredundant ESTs to functional categories as well as their relative abundance is listed and discussed. Annotation of the ESTs revealed a number of genes that could function in virulence. We provide a first glimpse into the gene content of P. halstedii. These resources should accelerate research on this important pathogen.

  19. p21WAF1/CIP1 gene DNA sequencing and its expression in human osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖威明; 张春林; 李佛保; 曾炳芳; 曾益新

    2004-01-01

    Background Mutation and expression change of p21WAF1/CIP1 may play a role in the growth of osteosarcoma. This study was to investigate the expression of the p21WAF1/CIP1 gene in human osteosarcoma, p21WAF1/CIP1 gene DNA sequence change and their relationships with the phenotype and clinical prognosis.Methods p21WAF1/CIP1 gene in 10 normal people and the tumours of 45 osteosarcoma patients were examined using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) with silver staining. The PCR product with an abnormal strand was sequenced directly. The p21WAF1/CIP1 gene mRNA and P21 protein of 45 cases of osteosarcoma were investigated by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results The occurrence of P21 protein in osteosarcoma was 17.78% (8/45), and p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA expression in osteosarcoma was 42.22% (19/45). The p21WAF1/CIP1 gene DNA sequencing of amplified production showed that in p21WAF1/CIP1 gene exon 3 of 36 cases of human osteosarcoma, there were 17 cases (47.22%) with C→T at position 609; 10 normal blood samples' DNA sequence analysis yielded 8 cases (80.00%) with C→T at the same position. Conclusions Along with the increase of malignancy, the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1mRNA and P21 protein in osteosarcoma tends to decrease. It is uncommon for the p21WAF1/CIP1 gene mutation to occur in human osteosarcoma. As a result, the possible existence of tumour subtypes of p21WAF1/CIP1 gene mutation should be investigated. Our research leads to the location of p21WAF1/CIP1 gene polymorphism of Chinese osteosarcoma patients, which can provide a basis for further research.

  20. A Hybrid Distance Measure for Clustering Expressed Sequence Tags Originating from the Same Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Keng-Hoong; Ho, Chin-Kuan; Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk

    2012-01-01

    Background Clustering is a key step in the processing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). The primary goal of clustering is to put ESTs from the same transcript of a single gene into a unique cluster. Recent EST clustering algorithms mostly adopt the alignment-free distance measures, where they tend to yield acceptable clustering accuracies with reasonable computational time. Despite the fact that these clustering methods work satisfactorily on a majority of the EST datasets, they have a commo...

  1. Expressed Sequence Tags as a Tool for Phylogenetic Analysis of Placental Mammal Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan Kullberg; Björn Hallström; Ulfur Arnason; Axel Janke

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigate the usefulness of expressed sequence tags, ESTs, for establishing divergences within the tree of placental mammals. This is done on the example of the established relationships among primates (human), lagomorphs (rabbit), rodents (rat and mouse), artiodactyls (cow), carnivorans (dog) and proboscideans (elephant). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have produced 2000 ESTs (1.2 mega bases) from a marsupial mouse and characterized the data for their use in phylogenetic...

  2. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia W Pridgeon; Phillip H Klesius; Gregory A Lewbart; Harry V Daniels; Megan Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify bacteria isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine whether they are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Methods:Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues of diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). The isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification followed by virulence study in fish. Results: Based on biochemical analysis, the 25 isolates were found to share homologies with either Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila). Based on sequencing results of partial 16S rRNA gene, 15 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified E. tarda strain TX1, whereas the other 10 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified A. hydrophila strain An4. When healthy fish were exposed to flounder isolate by intracoelomic injection, the LD50 values of flounder isolate E. tarda to channel catfish or Nile tilapia [(10±2) g] were 6.1í104 and 1.1í107 CFU/fish, respectively, whereas that of flounder isolate A. hydrophila to channel catfish and Nile tilapia were 1.4í107 and 5.6í107 CFU/fish, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first report that E. tarda and A. hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder are virulent to catfish and tilapia.

  3. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clem Rollie J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the genome sequences of lepidopteran insects, although this group of insects has been studied extensively in the fields of endocrinology, development, immunity, and pathogen-host interactions. In addition, cell lines derived from Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran insects are routinely used for baculovirus foreign gene expression. This study reports the results of an expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing project in cells from the lepidopteran insect S. frugiperda, the fall armyworm. Results We have constructed an EST database using two cDNA libraries from the S. frugiperda-derived cell line, SF-21. The database consists of 2,367 ESTs which were assembled into 244 contigs and 951 singlets for a total of 1,195 unique sequences. Conclusion S. frugiperda is an agriculturally important pest insect and genomic information will be instrumental for establishing initial transcriptional profiling and gene function studies, and for obtaining information about genes manipulated during infections by insect pathogens such as baculoviruses.

  4. Operator Sequence Alters Gene Expression Independently of Transcription Factor Occupancy in Bacteria

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    Hernan G. Garcia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A canonical quantitative view of transcriptional regulation holds that the only role of operator sequence is to set the probability of transcription factor binding, with operator occupancy determining the level of gene expression. In this work, we test this idea by characterizing repression in vivo and the binding of RNA polymerase in vitro in experiments where operators of various sequences were placed either upstream or downstream from the promoter in Escherichia coli. Surprisingly, we find that operators with a weaker binding affinity can yield higher repression levels than stronger operators. Repressor bound to upstream operators modulates promoter escape, and the magnitude of this modulation is not correlated with the repressor-operator binding affinity. This suggests that operator sequences may modulate transcription by altering the nature of the interaction of the bound transcription factor with the transcriptional machinery, implying a new layer of sequence dependence that must be confronted in the quantitative understanding of gene expression.

  5. Generation and analysis of the expressed sequence tags from the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is a medicinal mushroom renowned in East Asia for its potential biological effects. To enable a systematic exploration of the genes associated with the various phenotypes of the fungus, the genome consortium of G. lucidum has carried out an expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing project. Using a Sanger sequencing based approach, 47,285 ESTs were obtained from in vitro cultures of G. lucidum mycelium of various durations. These ESTs were further clustered and merged into 7,774 non-redundant expressed loci. The features of these expressed contigs were explored in terms of over-representation, alternative splicing, and natural antisense transcripts. Our results provide an invaluable information resource for exploring the G. lucidum transcriptome and its regulation. Many cases of the genes over-represented in fast-growing dikaryotic mycelium are closely related to growth, such as cell wall and bioactive compound synthesis. In addition, the EST-genome alignments containing putative cassette exons and retained introns were manually curated and then used to make inferences about the predominating splice-site recognition mechanism of G. lucidum. Moreover, a number of putative antisense transcripts have been pinpointed, from which we noticed that two cases are likely to reveal hitherto undiscovered biological pathways. To allow users to access the data and the initial analysis of the results of this project, a dedicated web site has been created at http://csb2.ym.edu.tw/est/.

  6. Bioinformatic identification of microRNAs and their target genes from Solanum tuberosum expressed sequence tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene post-transcriptional expression in plants and animals. Low levels of some miRNAs and time- and tissue-specific expression patterns lead to the difficulty for experimental identification of miRNAs. Here we present a bioinformatic approach for expressed sequence tags (ESTs) prediction of novel miRNAs as well as their targets in Solanum tuberosum. We blasted the databases of S. Tuberosum ESTs to search for potential miRNAs, using previously known miRNA sequences from Arabidopsis, rice and other plant species. By analyzing parameters of plant precursors, including secondary structure, stem length and conservation of miRNAs, and following a variety of filtering criteria, a total of 22 potential miRNAs were detected. Using the newly identified miRNA sequences, we were able to further blast the S. Tuberosum mRNA database and detected 75 potential targets of miRNAs in S. Tuberosum. According to the mRNA annotations provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), most of the miRNA target genes were predicted to encode transcription factors that regulate cell growth and development, signaling, and metabolism.

  7. Sequence, expression divergence, and complementation of homologous ALCATRAZ loci in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shuijin; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Guo, Yuan; Pak, Haksong; Chen, Mingxun; Shi, Congguang; Meng, Huabing; Jiang, Lixi

    2009-08-01

    The genomic era provides new perspectives in understanding polyploidy evolution, mostly on the genome-wide scale. In this paper, we show the sequence and expression divergence between the homologous ALCATRAZ (ALC) loci in Brassica napus, responsible for silique dehiscence. We cloned two homologous ALC loci, namely BnaC.ALC.a and BnaA.ALC.a in B. napus. Driven by the 35S promoter, both the loci complemented to the alc mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana, yet only the expression of BnaC.ALC.a was detectable in the siliques of B. napus. Sequence alignment indicated that BnaC.ALC.a and BolC.ALC.a, or BnaA.ALC.a and BraA.ALC.a, possess a high level of similarity. The understanding of the sequence and expression divergence among homologous loci of a gene is of due importance for an effective gene manipulation and TILLING (or ECOTILLING) analysis for the allelic DNA variation at a given locus. PMID:19504267

  8. Expression Divergence Is Correlated with Sequence Evolution but Not Positive Selection in Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Yeaman, Sam; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Aitken, Sally N

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary and genomic determinants of sequence evolution in conifers are poorly understood, and previous studies have found only limited evidence for positive selection. Using RNAseq data, we compared gene expression profiles to patterns of divergence and polymorphism in 44 seedlings of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and 39 seedlings of interior spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii) to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shape their genomes and their plastic responses to abiotic stress. We found that rapidly diverging genes tend to have greater expression divergence, lower expression levels, reduced levels of synonymous site diversity, and longer proteins than slowly diverging genes. Similar patterns were identified for the untranslated regions, but with some exceptions. We found evidence that genes with low expression levels had a larger fraction of nearly neutral sites, suggesting a primary role for negative selection in determining the association between evolutionary rate and expression level. There was limited evidence for differences in the rate of positive selection among genes with divergent versus conserved expression profiles and some evidence supporting relaxed selection in genes diverging in expression between the species. Finally, we identified a small number of genes that showed evidence of site-specific positive selection using divergence data alone. However, estimates of the proportion of sites fixed by positive selection (α) were in the range of other plant species with large effective population sizes suggesting relatively high rates of adaptive divergence among conifers. PMID:26873578

  9. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  10. Rice bicoid-related cDNA sequence and its expression during early embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bicoid is one of the important Drosophila maternal genes involved in the control of embryo polarity and larvae segmentation.To clone and characterize the rice bicoid-related genes,one cDNA clone,Rb24 (EMBL accession number: AJ2771380),was isolated by screening of rice unmature seed cDNA library.Sequence analysis indicates that Rb24 contains a putative amino acid sequence,which is homologous to unique 8 amino acids sequence within Drosophila bicoid homeodomain (50% identity,75% similarity) and involves a lys-9 in putative helix 3.Northern blot analysis of rice RNA has shown that this sequence is expressed in a tissue-specific manner.The transcript was detected strongly in young panicles,but less in young leaves and roots.This results are further confirmed with paraffin section in situ hybridization.The signal is intensive in rice globular embryo and located at the apical tip of the embryo,then,along with the development of embryo,the signal is getting reduced and transfers into both sides of embryo.The existence of bicoid-related sequence in rice embryo and the similarity of polar distribution of bicoid and Rb24 mRNA in early embryo development may implicates a conserved maternal regulation mechanism of body axis presents in Drosophila and in rice.

  11. Identification and Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Poplar Using Publicly Expressed Sequence Tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHANG; Yan ZHOU; Liang ZHANG; Qiang ZHUGE; Ming-Xiu WANG; Min-Ren HUANG

    2005-01-01

    By using assembled expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 14 different cDNA libraries that contain 84 132 sequences reads, 556 Populus candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Because traces were not available from dbEST (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/dbEST/index.html),stringent filters were used to identify reliable candidate SNPs. Sequences analysis indicated that the main types of substitutions among candidate SNPs were A/G and T/C transitions, which accounted for 22.0% and 30.8%, respectively. One hundred and ten candidate SNPs were tested. As a result, 38 candidate SNPs were confirmed by directed sequencing of PCR products amplified from six different individuals. Thirteen new SNPs in intron regions were found and multiple SNPs were found to be located in both intron and exon regions of four contigs. Heterozygosis was found in all 47 candidate sites and five SNP sites were heterozygous in all six samples. This is the first report of SNP identification in a tree species which reveals that assembled ESTs from multiple libraries of the public database may provide a rich source of comparative sequences for an SNP search in the poplar genome.

  12. Expression pattern analysis of transcribed HERV sequences is complicated by ex vivo recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengauer Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human genome comprises numerous human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs that formed millions of years ago in ancestral species. A number of loci of the HERV-K(HML-2 family are evolutionarily much younger. A recent study suggested an infectious HERV-K(HML-2 variant in humans and other primates. Isolating such a variant from human individuals would be a significant finding for human biology. Results When investigating expression patterns of specific HML-2 proviruses we encountered HERV-K(HML-2 cDNA sequences without proviral homologues in the human genome, named HERV-KX, that could very well support recently suggested infectious HML-2 variants. However, detailed sequence analysis, using the software RECCO, suggested that HERV-KX sequences were produced by recombination, possibly arising ex vivo, between transcripts from different HML-2 proviral loci. Conclusion As RT-PCR probably will be instrumental for isolating an infectious HERV-K(HML-2 variant, generation of "new" HERV-K(HML-2 sequences by ex vivo recombination seems inevitable. Further complicated by an unknown amount of allelic sequence variation in HERV-K(HML-2 proviruses, newly identified HERV-K(HML-2 variants should be interpreted very cautiously.

  13. Profiling of the dynamically alteredgene expression in peripheral nerve injury using NGS RNA sequencing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Duanyang; Chen, Yixun; Kou, Yuhui; Weng, Jian; Chen, Bo; Yu, Youlai; Zhang, Peixun; Jiang, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Functional recovery of peripheral nerve injuries is of major demand in clinical practice worldwide. Although, to some extent, peripheral nervous system can spontaneously regenerate, post-injury recovery is often associated with poor functional outcome. The molecular mechanism controlling the peripheral nerve repair process is still majorly unclear. In this study, by utilizing the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) RNA sequencing technique, we aim to profile the gene expression spectrum of the peripheral nerve repair. In total, we detected 2847 were differentially expressed at day 7 post crush nerve injury. The GO, Panther, IPA and GSEA analysis was performed to decipher the biological processes involving the differentially expressed genes. Collectively, our results highlighted the inflammatory response and related signaling pathway (NFkB and TNFa signaling) play key role in peripheral nerve repair regulation. Furthermore, Network analysis illustrated that the IL10, IL18, IFN-γ and PDCD1 were four key regulators with multiple participations in peripheral nerve repair and potentially exert influence to the repair process. The expression changes of IL10, IL18, IFN-γ, PDCD1 and TNFSF14 (LIGHT) were further validated by western blot analysis. Hopefully, the present study may provide useful platform to further reveal the molecular mechanism of peripheral nerve repair and discover promising treatment target to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27158375

  14. Sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of Giardia lamblia α-18 giardin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Hu, Wei; Pan, Weida; Shi, Xianli; Tan, Liping; Song, Meiran; Li, Guoqing

    2016-03-01

    To study the genetic variation and prokaryotic expression of α18 giardin gene of Giardia lamblia zoonotic assemblage A and host-specific assemblage F, the α18 genes were amplified from G. lamblia assemblages A and F by PCR and sequenced. The PCR product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) and the positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) strain for the expression. The expressed α18 giardin fusion protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis, and purified by Ni-Agarose resin. The putative sequence of α18 giardin amino acid was analyzed by bioinformatics software. Results showed that the α18 giardin gene was 861 bp in length, encoding 286 amino acids; it was 100% homologous between human-derived and dog-derived G. lamblia assemblage A, but it was 86.8% homologous with G. lamblia assemblage F (cat-derived). Giardin α18 was about 36 kDa in molecular weight, with good reactivity. Prediction based on in silico analyses: it had hydrophobicity, without signal peptide and transmembrane domain, and contained 11 alpha regions, 13 beta sheets, 1 beta turn and 7 random coils in secondary structure. The above information would lay the foundation for research about the subcellular localization and biological function of α18 giardin in G. lamblia. PMID:26656833

  15. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  16. Calling genotypes from public RNA-sequencing data enables identification of genetic variants that affect gene-expression levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, Patrick; Zhernakova, Daria V.; de Haan, Mark; van der Sijde, Marijke; Bonder, Marc Jan; Karjalainen, Juha; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Abbott, Kristin M.; Fu, Jingyuan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sinke, Richard J.; Swertz, Morris A.; Franke, Lude

    2015-01-01

    Background: RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful technique for the identification of genetic variants that affect gene-expression levels, either through expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping or through allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis. Given increasing numbers of RNA-seq samp

  17. Sequencing and functional expression of the malonyl-CoA-sensitive carnitine palmitoyltransferase from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, V N; Cameron, J M; Zammit, V A; Price, N T

    1999-01-01

    Using expressed sequence tag data, we obtained a cDNA for a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I)-like molecule from Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA encodes a 782-residue protein that shows 49% and 48% sequence identity with the rat liver and skeletal-muscle isoforms of CPT I respectively. The sequence has two predicted membrane-spanning regions, suggesting that it adopts the same topology as its mammalian counterparts. The sequence contains all the residues that have been shown to be characteristic of carnitine acetyltransferases. Expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris confirmed that the cDNA does encode a CPT enzyme. The activity was found to be associated with a mitochondria-enriched fraction. Kinetic analysis revealed a K(m) for carnitine of 406 microM and a K(m) for palmitoyl-CoA of 105 microM. The CPT activity was very sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA, with an IC(50) of 0.74 microM when the activity was assayed with 35 microM palmitoyl-CoA and 1% (w/v) albumin at pH 7.0. A histidine residue at position 140 in rat liver CPT I has been indicated to be important for inhibition by malonyl-CoA. The equivalent residue (position 136) in Drosophila CPT I is arginine, implying that any basic residue might be compatible with such sensitivity. Evidence is presented that, unlike in mammals, Drosophila has only a single CPT I gene. Sequences suggesting the existence of a splice variant in the 5' untranslated region were found; this was consistent with the existence of two promoters for the CPT I gene. PMID:10417309

  18. Effects of sequence variation on differential allelic transcription factor occupancy and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Timothy E; Gertz, Jason; Pauli, Florencia; Kucera, Katerina S; Varley, Katherine E; Newberry, Kimberly M; Marinov, Georgi K; Mortazavi, Ali; Williams, Brian A; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Wold, Barbara; Willard, Huntington F; Myers, Richard M

    2012-05-01

    A complex interplay between transcription factors (TFs) and the genome regulates transcription. However, connecting variation in genome sequence with variation in TF binding and gene expression is challenging due to environmental differences between individuals and cell types. To address this problem, we measured genome-wide differential allelic occupancy of 24 TFs and EP300 in a human lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. Overall, 5% of human TF binding sites have an allelic imbalance in occupancy. At many sites, TFs clustered in TF-binding hubs on the same homolog in especially open chromatin. While genetic variation in core TF binding motifs generally resulted in large allelic differences in TF occupancy, most allelic differences in occupancy were subtle and associated with disruption of weak or noncanonical motifs. We also measured genome-wide differential allelic expression of genes with and without heterozygous exonic variants in the same cells. We found that genes with differential allelic expression were overall less expressed both in GM12878 cells and in unrelated human cell lines. Comparing TF occupancy with expression, we found strong association between allelic occupancy and expression within 100 bp of transcription start sites (TSSs), and weak association up to 100 kb from TSSs. Sites of differential allelic occupancy were significantly enriched for variants associated with disease, particularly autoimmune disease, suggesting that allelic differences in TF occupancy give functional insights into intergenic variants associated with disease. Our results have the potential to increase the power and interpretability of association studies by targeting functional intergenic variants in addition to protein coding sequences. PMID:22300769

  19. The functional importance of sequence versus expression variability of MHC alleles in parasite resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2012-12-01

    Understanding selection processes driving the pronounced allelic polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and its functional associations to parasite load have been the focus of many recent wildlife studies. Two main selection scenarios are currently debated which explain the susceptibility or resistance to parasite infections either by the effects of (1) specific MHC alleles which are selected frequency-dependent in space and time or (2) a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage. So far, most studies have focused only on structural variance in co-evolutionary processes although this might not be the only trait subject to natural selection. In the present study, we analysed structural variance stretching from exon1 through exon3 of MHC class II DRB genes as well as genotypic expression variance in relation to the gastrointestinal helminth prevalence and infection intensity in wild yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). We found support for the functional importance of specific alleles both on the sequence and expression level. By resampling a previously investigated study population we identified specific MHC alleles affected by temporal shifts in parasite pressure and recorded associated changes in allele frequencies. The allele Apfl-DRB*23 was associated with resistance to infections by the oxyurid nematode Syphacia stroma and at the same time with susceptibility to cestode infection intensity. In line with our expectation, MHC mRNA transcript levels tended to be higher in cestode-infected animals carrying the allele Apfl-DRB*23. However, no support for a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage on the sequence or expression level was detected. The individual amino acid distance of genotypes did not explain individual differences in parasite loads and the genetic distance had no effect on MHC genotype expression. For ongoing studies on the functional importance of expression variance in parasite resistance, allele

  20. Three new shRNA expression vectors targeting the CYP3A4 coding sequence to inhibit its expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyun Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is useful for selective gene silencing. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, which metabolizes approximately 50% of drugs in clinical use, plays an important role in drug metabolism. In this study, we aimed to develop a short hairpin RNA (shRNA to modulate CYP3A4 expression. Three new shRNAs (S1, S2 and S3 were designed to target the coding sequence (CDS of CYP3A4, cloned into a shRNA expression vector, and tested in different cells. The mixture of three shRNAs produced optimal reduction (55% in CYP3A4 CDS-luciferase activity in both CHL and HEK293 cells. Endogenous CYP3A4 expression in HepG2 cells was decreased about 50% at both mRNA and protein level after transfection of the mixture of three shRNAs. In contrast, CYP3A5 gene expression was not altered by the shRNAs, supporting the selectivity of CYP3A4 shRNAs. In addition, HepG2 cells transfected with CYP3A4 shRNAs were less sensitive to Ginkgolic acids, whose toxic metabolites are produced by CYP3A4. These results demonstrate that vector-based shRNAs could modulate CYP3A4 expression in cells through their actions on CYP3A4 CDS, and CYP3A4 shRNAs may be utilized to define the role of CYP3A4 in drug metabolism and toxicity.

  1. Identification of novel highly expressed genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas through a bioinformatics analysis of expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dengfeng; Hustinx, Steven R; Sui, Guoping; Bala, P; Sato, Norihiro; Martin, Sean; Maitra, Anirban; Murphy, Kathleen M; Cameron, John L; Yeo, Charles J; Kern, Scott E; Goggins, Michael; Pandey, Akhilesh; Hruban, Ralph H

    2004-11-01

    In most microarray experiments, a significant fraction of the differentially expressed mRNAs identified correspond to expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and are generally discarded from further analyses. We used careful bioinformatics analyses to characterize those ESTs that were found to be highly overexpressed in a series of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. cDNA was prepared from 60 non-neoplastic samples (normal pancreas [n = 20], normal colon [n = 10], or normal duodenal mucosal [n = 30]) and from 64 pancreatic cancers (resected cancers [n = 50] or cancer cell lines [n = 14]) and hybridized to the complete Affymetrix Human Genome U133 GeneChip(R) set (arrays U133A and B) for simultaneous analysis of 45,000 fragments corresponding to 33,000 known genes and 6,000 ESTs. The GeneExpress(R) software system Fold Change Analysis Tool was used and 60 ESTs were identified that were expressed at levels at least 3-fold greater in the pancreatic cancers as compared to normal tissues. Searches against the human genomic sequence and comparative genomic analysis of human and mouse genomes was carried out using basic local alignment search tools (BLAST), BLASTN, and BLASTX, for identifying protein coding genes corresponding to the ESTs. Subsequently, in order to pick the most relevant candidate genes for a more detailed analysis, we looked for domains/motifs in the open reading frames using SMART and Pfam programs. We were able to definitively map 43 of the 60 ESTs to known or novel genes, and 15 of the ESTs could be localized in close proximity to a gene in the human genome although we were unable to establish that the EST was indeed derived from those genes. The differential expression of a subset of genes was confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemical labeling of tissue microarrays (inhibin beta A [INHBA] and CD29) and/or at the transcript level by RT-PCR (INHBA, AKAP12, ELK3, FOXQ1, EIF5A2, and EFNA5). We conclude that bioinformatics tools can be used to characterize

  2. Poly purine.pyrimidine sequences upstream of the beta-galactosidase gene affect gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmachari Samir K

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly purine.pyrimidine sequences have the potential to adopt intramolecular triplex structures and are overrepresented upstream of genes in eukaryotes. These sequences may regulate gene expression by modulating the interaction of transcription factors with DNA sequences upstream of genes. Results A poly purine.pyrimidine sequence with the potential to adopt an intramolecular triplex DNA structure was designed. The sequence was inserted within a nucleosome positioned upstream of the β-galactosidase gene in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, between the cycl promoter and gal 10Upstream Activating Sequences (UASg. Upon derepression with galactose, β-galactosidase gene expression is reduced 12-fold in cells carrying single copy poly purine.pyrimidine sequences. This reduction in expression is correlated with reduced transcription. Furthermore, we show that plasmids carrying a poly purine.pyrimidine sequence are not specifically lost from yeast cells. Conclusion We propose that a poly purine.pyrimidine sequence upstream of a gene affects transcription. Plasmids carrying this sequence are not specifically lost from cells and thus no additional effort is needed for the replication of these sequences in eukaryotic cells.

  3. Identification of drought-inducible genes and differentially expressed sequence tags in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Ayman A; Teulat-Merah, Béatrice; This, Dominique; Ozturk, Neslihan Z; Benscher, David; Sorrells, Mark E

    2004-11-01

    Drought limits cereal yields in several regions of the world and plant water status plays an important role in tolerance to drought. To investigate and understand the genetic and physiological basis of drought tolerance in barley, differentially expressed sequence tags (dESTs) and candidate genes for the drought response were mapped in a population of 167 F8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between "Tadmor" (drought tolerant) and "Er/Apm" (adapted only to specific dry environments). One hundred sequenced probes from two cDNA libraries previously constructed from drought-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var. Tokak) plants and 12 candidate genes were surveyed for polymorphism, and 33 loci were added to a previously published map. Composite interval mapping was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with drought tolerance including leaf relative water content, leaf osmotic potential, osmotic potential at full turgor, water-soluble carbohydrate concentration, osmotic adjustment, and carbon isotope discrimination. A total of 68 QTLs with a limit of detection score > or =2.5 were detected for the traits evaluated under two water treatments and the two traits calculated from both treatments. The number of QTLs identified for each trait varied from one to 12, indicating that the genome contains multiple genes affecting different traits. Two candidate genes and ten differentially expressed sequences were associated with QTLs for drought tolerance traits. PMID:15517148

  4. Sequence and expression analyses of the UL37 and UL38 genes of Aujeszky's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A; Kaliman, A; Boldogköi, Z; Aszódi, A; Fodor, I

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we sequenced the HSV-1 Ul39-Ul40 homologue genes of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), also designated as pseudorabies virus (Kaliman et al., 1994a, b). Now we report the nucleotide sequence of the adjacent DNA that encodes Ul38, the 5'-region (750 bp) of Ul37, and the promoter regions between these divergently arranged two genes. The ADV Ul38 gene encodes a protein of 368 amino acids. Amino acid sequence comparison of ADV Ul38 with that of other herpesviruses revealed significant structural homology. In a transcription study using RNase protection assay and Northern blot hybridization, we found that the Ul38 gene had one initiation site, but the Ul37 gene was initiated at two transcription sites with two potential initiator AUGs, one of which was dominant. Comparison of ADV Ul37, Ul38 and ribonucleotide reductase gene expression showed that these genes belong to the same temporal class with early kinetics. Data of structural and transcriptional studies suggest that regulation of the expression of these two ADV genes could differ from that of the HSV-1 virus. PMID:11402671

  5. Pyrosequence analysis of expressed sequence tags for Manduca sexta hemolymph proteins involved in immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhen; Najar, Fares; Wang, Yang; Roe, Bruce; Jiang, Haobo

    2008-06-01

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta is widely used as a model organism to investigate the biochemical basis of insect physiological processes but little transcriptome information is available. To get a broad view of the larval hemolymph proteins, particularly those related to immunity, we synthesized and sequenced cDNA fragments from a mixture of eight total RNA samples: fat body and hemocytes from larvae injected with killed bacteria, fat body, hemocytes, integument and trachea from naïve larvae, and fat body and hemocytes from wandering larvae. Using massively parallel pyrosequencing, we obtained 95,458 M. sexta expressed sequence tags (ESTs) at an average size of 185bp per read. A majority of the sequences (69,429 reads) could be assembled into 7231 contigs with an average size of 300bp, 1178 of which had significant similarity with Drosophila genes from various functional groups. Only approximately 8% (606) of the contigs matched known M. sexta cDNA sequences, representing 186 of the 375 unique NCBI entries. The remaining 6625 contigs represented newly discovered cDNA segments from this well studied biochemical model insect. A search of the 7231 contigs using Tribolium castaneum, Drosophila melanogaster, and Bombyx mori immunity-related sequences revealed 424 cDNA contigs with significant similarity (E-value <1 x 10(-5)). These included 218 previously unknown M. sexta sequences coding for putative defense molecules such as pattern recognition receptors, serine proteinases, serpins, Spätzle, Toll-like receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, and antimicrobial peptides. PMID:18510979

  6. Recent improvements in channel catfish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction in fish is a primary requisite for reliable, predictable and quality seed stock for aquaculture production or a stock enhancement program. Channel catfish is the leading aquaculture species in USA, accounting for 335 million pounds with a farm gate value of over $ 400 millio...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton, Sisoridae; Siluriformes) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish Bagarius bagarius, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red Listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,457 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.14% A, 27.72% C, 15.62% G and 25.50% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish, B. bagarius provides the basic genetic tools for breeding and conservation program to enhance aquaculture production. PMID:24660912

  8. Molecular cloning, sequence characteristics, and tissue expression analysis of ECE1 gene in Tibetan pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Chuan-Hao; Xu, Hai-Peng; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-25

    Low air pressure and low oxygen partial pressure at high altitude seriously affect the survival and development of human beings and animals. ECE1 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in anti-hypoxia, but the full-length cDNA sequence has not been obtained. For a better understanding of the structure and function of the ECE1 gene and to study its effect in Tibetan pig, the cDNA of the ECE1 gene from the muscle of Tibetan pig was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The ECE1 full-length cDNA sequence consists of 2262 bp coding sequence (CDS) that encodes 753 amino acids with a molecular mass of 85,449 kD, 2 bp 5'UTR and 1507 bp 3'UTR. In addition, the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Tibetan pig ECE1 has a closer genetic relationship and evolution distance with the land mammals ECE1. Furthermore, analysis by qPCR showed that the ECE1 transcript is constitutively expressed in the 10 tissues tested: the liver, subcutaneous fat, kidney, muscle, stomach, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, and lung. These results serve as a foundation for further insight into the Tibetan pig ECE1 gene. PMID:26115769

  9. Cloning, prokaryotic expression, purification and sequence analysis of 20S proteasome subunit gene from T. harzianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yan; Yang Qian

    2007-01-01

    The gene encoding the 20S proteasome subunit (PR29) was cloned from cDNA library of Trichoderma harzianum and expressed in Escherichia coll BL21 (D3) using a pET-28a expression system. The molecular weight of the protein was found to be approximately 29 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE on gels. The target protein was insoluble when induced at 22 Cwith 0.4 mmol/ L IPTG, while dissoluble if induced at 37℃ with 0.8mmol/ L IPTG. The expressed product was purified through Ni-magnetic beads His Bind. The purity of the fusion protein reached above 80% .The entire cDNA sequence consisted of 1094 bp with 173 and 135 bp in 5' and 3' untranslated regions respectively. The gene encoding 261 amino acids has no signal peptide sequence. These results could provide a basis for validating the functions of PR29. It also provided a preliminary indication for further study of the mechanism and function of proteasome, and more information of proteasome mechanism in T. harzianum could be obtained.

  10. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  11. Transcriptome expression profiling of fur color formation in domestic rabbits using Solexa sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L Z; Wang, W Z; Shi, L J; Wan, X Y; Yan, X R; Weng, Q Q; Wu, X S

    2016-01-01

    Fur color is an important, genetically determined characteristic of domestic rabbits, and rabbit furs are of great economic value. To investigate the molecular genetics associated with fur color determination in domestic rabbits, we used Solexa-sequencing technology to probe gene expression in dorsal skin tissues sampled from full-sibling Rex rabbits of different colors. The number of expressed genes in each sample was approximately 14,700. Among the top 30 genes and transcription factors with the highest reads per kilobase per million values, the elongation factor-alpha 1 gene was highly expressed in all samples, as were genes of the ribosomal protein and keratin gene families. Compared with the chinchilla (C) Rex rabbit control sample, the numbers of genes in the black (B) and white (W) rabbit samples were 1809 and 460, respectively, and the number of common differentially expressed genes was 257. Clustering analysis of these 257 genes revealed that 32 were up-regulated in sample B and down-regulated in sample W. Of these 32 genes, we identified some that are related to fur formation, including Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and Tyrosinase (TYR), as well as genes with unknown functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of those genes. The findings are expected to provide reference for the further study of fur color formation in rabbits. PMID:27173236

  12. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers based on expressed sequence tags in Populus cathayana (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z Z; Zhang, F Q; Cai, Z Y; Chen, S L

    2016-01-01

    Populus cathayana occupies a large area within the northern, central, and southwestern regions of China, and is considered to be an important reforestation species in western China. In order to investigate the population genetic structure of this species, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified based on expressed sequence tags from de novo sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. All microsatellite primers were tested on 48 P. cathayana individuals from four locations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 1.000, and the null-allele frequency ranged from 0.000 to 0.904. These microsatellite markers may be a useful tool in genetic studies on P. cathayana and closely related species. PMID:27525845

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags of the cyclically parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushirou Suga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rotifers are among the most common non-arthropod animals and are the most experimentally tractable members of the basal assemblage of metazoan phyla known as Gnathifera. The monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis is a developing model system for ecotoxicology, aquatic ecology, cryptic speciation, and the evolution of sex, and is an important food source for finfish aquaculture. However, basic knowledge of the genome and transcriptome of any rotifer species has been lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated and partially sequenced a cDNA library from B. plicatilis and constructed a database of over 2300 expressed sequence tags corresponding to more than 450 transcripts. About 20% of the transcripts had no significant similarity to database sequences by BLAST; most of these contained open reading frames of significant length but few had recognized Pfam motifs. Sixteen transcripts accounted for 25% of the ESTs; four of these had no significant similarity to BLAST or Pfam databases. Putative up- and downstream untranslated regions are relatively short and AT rich. In contrast to bdelloid rotifers, there was no evidence of a conserved trans-spliced leader sequence among the transcripts and most genes were single-copy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the small size of this EST project it revealed several important features of the rotifer transcriptome and of individual monogonont genes. Because there is little genomic data for Gnathifera, the transcripts we found with no known function may represent genes that are species-, class-, phylum- or even superphylum-specific; the fact that some are among the most highly expressed indicates their importance. The absence of trans-spliced leader exons in this monogonont species contrasts with their abundance in bdelloid rotifers and indicates that the presence of this phenomenon can vary at the subphylum level. Our EST database provides a relatively large quantity of transcript

  14. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Weidong Liu; Xianggang Gao; Yunfeng Li; Hao Su; Xueguang Liu; Chongbo He; Lei Gao

    2012-01-01

    Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptor...

  15. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  16. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwegiessen, van de, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 2) how age mediates the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 3) the potential effects of chemical ...

  17. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SPENCER; David; F

    2010-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.is a well-known traditional Chinese herb.Its roots have been formulated and used clinically for the treatment of various diseases.However,little genetic information has so far been available and this fact has become a major obstacle for molecular studies.To address this lack of genetic information,an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library from whole plantlets of S.miltiorrhiza was generated.From the 12959 cDNA clones that were randomly selected and subjected to single-pass sequencing from their 5′ ends,10288 ESTs (with sizes≥100 bp) were selected and assembled into 1288 contigs,leaving 2937 singletons,for a total of 4225 unigenes.These were analyzed using BLASTX (against protein databases),RPS-BLAST (against a conserved domain database) as well as the web-based KEGG Automatic Annotation Server for metabolic enzyme assignment.Based on the metabolic enzyme assignment,expression patterns of 14 secondary metabolic enzyme genes in different organs and under different treatments were verified using real-time PCR analysis.Additionally,a total of 122 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs,with 89 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design.This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the S.miltiorrhiza transcriptome,and gives preliminary insights into the gene complement of S.miltiorrhiza.They will prove useful for uncovering secondary metabolic pathways,analyzing cDNA-array based gene expression,genetic manipulation to improve yield of desirable secondary products,and molecular marker identification.

  18. A wing expressed sequence tag resource for Bicyclus anynana butterflies, an evo-devo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Jonathan D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butterfly wing color patterns are a key model for integrating evolutionary developmental biology and the study of adaptive morphological evolution. Yet, despite the biological, economical and educational value of butterflies they are still relatively under-represented in terms of available genomic resources. Here, we describe an Expression Sequence Tag (EST project for Bicyclus anynana that has identified the largest available collection to date of expressed genes for any butterfly. Results By targeting cDNAs from developing wings at the stages when pattern is specified, we biased gene discovery towards genes potentially involved in pattern formation. Assembly of 9,903 ESTs from a subtracted library allowed us to identify 4,251 genes of which 2,461 were annotated based on BLAST analyses against relevant gene collections. Gene prediction software identified 2,202 peptides, of which 215 longer than 100 amino acids had no homology to any known proteins and, thus, potentially represent novel or highly diverged butterfly genes. We combined gene and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP identification by constructing cDNA libraries from pools of outbred individuals, and by sequencing clones from the 3' end to maximize alignment depth. Alignments of multi-member contigs allowed us to identify over 14,000 putative SNPs, with 316 genes having at least one high confidence double-hit SNP. We furthermore identified 320 microsatellites in transcribed genes that can potentially be used as genetic markers. Conclusion Our project was designed to combine gene and sequence polymorphism discovery and has generated the largest gene collection available for any butterfly and many potential markers in expressed genes. These resources will be invaluable for exploring the potential of B. anynana in particular, and butterflies in general, as models in ecological, evolutionary, and developmental genetics.

  19. Influences on gene expression in vivo by a Shine-Dalgarno sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Haining; Zhao, Qing; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I;

    2006-01-01

    start sites compete for ribosomes that bind to an SD+ located between them. A minor positive contribution to upstream initiation resulting from 3' to 5' ribosomal diffusion along the mRNA is suggested. Analysis of the E. coli K12 genome suggests that the SD+ or SD-like sequences are systematically...... positive effect of an upstream SD+ is confirmed. A downstream SD+ gives decreased gene expression. This effect is also valid for appropriately modified natural Escherichia coli genes. If an SD+ is placed between two potential initiation codons, initiation takes place predominantly at the second start site...

  20. Rodent Aanat: Intronic E-box sequences control tissue specificity but not rhythmic expression in the pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Rodent Aanat: Intronic E-box sequences control tissue specificity but not rhythmic expression in the pineal gland UNITED KINGDOM (Humphries, Ann) UNITED KINGDOM Received: 2006-12-30 Revised: 2007-02-07 Accepted: 2007-02-07

  1. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, E.; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in...

  2. A Leukocyte Immune-Type Receptor Subset Is a Marker of Antiviral Cytotoxic Cells in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin B; Moulana, Mohadetheh; Stuge, Tor B; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Bengten, Eva; Wilson, Melanie

    2016-03-15

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes Ig superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. In this study, we demonstrate the use of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish and determine that CC41 binds to a subset of LITRs on the surface of catfish clonal CTLs. Homozygous gynogenetic catfish were immunized with channel catfish virus (CCV)-infected MHC-matched clonal T cells (G14D-CCV), and PBL were collected at various times after immunization for flow cytometric analyses. The percentage of CC41(+) cells was significantly increased 5 d after primary immunization with G14D-CCV and at 3 d after a booster immunization as compared with control fish only injected with G14D. Moreover, CC41(+) cells magnetically isolated from the PBL specifically killed CCV-infected targets as measured by (51)Cr release assays and expressed messages for CD3γδ, perforin, and at least one of the CD4-like receptors as analyzed by RNA flow cytometry. When MLC effector cells derived from a G14D-CCV-immunized fish were preincubated with CC41 mAb, killing of G14D-CCV targets was reduced by ∼40%, suggesting that at least some LITRs have a role in target cell recognition and/or cytotoxicity. The availability of a LITR-specific mAb has allowed, to our knowledge for the first time, functional characterization of LITRs in an autologous system. In addition, the identification of an LITR subset as a cytotoxic cell marker will allow for more effective monitoring of catfish immune responses to pathogens. PMID:26856701

  3. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 103.2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  4. [Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of N-acetylglutamate kinase gene in Corynebacterium crenatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ning; Zhao, Zhi; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Ying-zi; Ding, Jiu-yuan

    2006-02-01

    N-Acetylglutamate kinase (EC 2.7.2.8;NAGK) genes from wild-type Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 and a L-arginine-producing mutant C. crenatum 971.1 were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of argB sequences revealed that only one ORF existed, which used ATG as the initiation codon and coded a peptide of 317 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 33.6kDa. Only one nucleotide difference was found in the structure gene and the difference did not cause a change of amino acid by comparison of the gene sequences between the wild type C. crenatum AS 1.542 and the mutant 971.1. The ORF sequence of argB from C. crenatum AS 1.542 showed homologies of 99.89%, 76.62%, 37.94% to those from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, Corynebacterium efficient YS-314 and Escherichia coli k12. And the amino acid sequence deduced from ORF displayed homologies of 100%, 78.55%, 25.25% to those from microorganisms above, respectively. An internal promoter was found in the upstream of the argB gene from C. crenatum. The argB gene from C. crenatum AS 1.542 was expressed both in C. crenatum AS 1.542 and 971.1. The NAGK activity of transformed C. crenatum AS 1.542 was greatly increased by the induction of IPTG. The NAGK activity of transformed C. crenatum 971.1 was almost twice as much as that of C. crenatum 971.1 under the same induction. The amplification of the NAGK activity yielded 25% increase of L-arginine production in C. crenatum 971.1. PMID:16579472

  5. Enhancer sequences of a retroviral vector determine expression of a gene in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and committed erythroid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, C A; Anklesaria, P; Sakakeeny, M A; Greenberger, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    To analyze the transcriptional activity of retroviral enhancer sequences in hematopoietic lineages, we determined the effect of enhancer sequences on the expression of the neomycin resistance gene transferred by two retroviral vectors to primary hematopoietic lineages. We constructed the vector pFr-SV(X). The Moloney murine leukemia virus enhancer region of a vector, pZIP-SV(X), was replaced by a 380-nucleotide-long fragment containing the enhancer sequences of the Friend murine leukemia viru...

  6. Weight-Length Relationships in Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus) and Hardhead Catfish (Ariopsis felis) in Louisiana Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Klinkmann, Taylor; Torano, Joseph; 2; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the abundance and commercial importance of these two species, there is little published weight-length data for the gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis). For this study 84 catfish were caught (hook and line) from the Calcasieu Estuary in Southwest Louisiana near the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries and near shore waters close to bayou Lafourche. Using least squares regression, best fit curves were determined for weight (W) vs. total length (L) relat...

  7. Expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben; Frei, Ursula;

    2008-01-01

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) library of the key grassland species perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been exploited as a resource for microsatellite marker development. Out of 955 simple sequence repeat (SSR) containing ESTs, 744 were used for primer design. Primer amplification was te...

  8. Expression profiling without genome sequence information in a non-model species, Pandalid shrimp (Pandalus latirostris), by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Wada, Kenta; Azuma, Noriko; Chiba, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    While the study of phenotypic variation is a central theme in evolutionary biology, the genetic approaches available to understanding this variation are usually limited because of a lack of genomic information in non-model organisms. This study explored the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for studying phenotypic variations between 2 populations of a non-model species, the Hokkai shrimp (Pandalus latirostris; Decapoda, Pandalidae). Before we performed transcriptome analyses using NGS, we examined the genetic and phenotypic differentiation between the populations. Analyses using microsatellite DNA markers suggested that these populations genetically differed from one another and that gene flow is restricted between them. Moreover, the results of our 4-year field observations indicated that the egg traits varied genetically between the populations. Using mRNA extracted from the ovaries of 5 females in each population of Hokkai shrimp, we then performed a transcriptome analysis of the 2 populations. A total of 13.66 gigabases (Gb) of 75-bp reads was obtained. Further, 58,804 and 33,548 contigs for the first and second population, respectively, and 47,467 contigs for both populations were produced by de novo assembly. We detected 552 sequences with the former approach and 702 sequences with the later one; both sets of sequences showed greater than twofold differences in the expression levels between the 2 populations. Twenty-nine sequences were found in both approaches and were considered to be differentially expressed genes. Among them, 9 sequences showed significant similarity to functional genes. The present study showed a de novo assembly approach for the transcriptome of a non-model species using only short-read sequence data, and provides a strategy for identifying sequences showing significantly different expression levels between populations. PMID:22016807

  9. Expression profiling without genome sequence information in a non-model species, Pandalid shrimp (Pandalus latirostris, by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryouka Kawahara-Miki

    Full Text Available While the study of phenotypic variation is a central theme in evolutionary biology, the genetic approaches available to understanding this variation are usually limited because of a lack of genomic information in non-model organisms. This study explored the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies for studying phenotypic variations between 2 populations of a non-model species, the Hokkai shrimp (Pandalus latirostris; Decapoda, Pandalidae. Before we performed transcriptome analyses using NGS, we examined the genetic and phenotypic differentiation between the populations. Analyses using microsatellite DNA markers suggested that these populations genetically differed from one another and that gene flow is restricted between them. Moreover, the results of our 4-year field observations indicated that the egg traits varied genetically between the populations. Using mRNA extracted from the ovaries of 5 females in each population of Hokkai shrimp, we then performed a transcriptome analysis of the 2 populations. A total of 13.66 gigabases (Gb of 75-bp reads was obtained. Further, 58,804 and 33,548 contigs for the first and second population, respectively, and 47,467 contigs for both populations were produced by de novo assembly. We detected 552 sequences with the former approach and 702 sequences with the later one; both sets of sequences showed greater than twofold differences in the expression levels between the 2 populations. Twenty-nine sequences were found in both approaches and were considered to be differentially expressed genes. Among them, 9 sequences showed significant similarity to functional genes. The present study showed a de novo assembly approach for the transcriptome of a non-model species using only short-read sequence data, and provides a strategy for identifying sequences showing significantly different expression levels between populations.

  10. Comparative susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J; Reichley, Stephen R; Khoo, Lester H; Ware, Cynthia; Greenway, Terrence E; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David J

    2014-06-01

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Research supports anecdotal reports from the industry, suggesting that the hybrid of Channel Catfish×Blue Catfish I. furcatus is less susceptible to disease agents that have been historically prohibitive to Channel Catfish production, namely the gram-negative bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, as well as the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri. This current research compared the susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to an experimental challenge by B. damnificus. Fish were exposed to 0, 100, 200, and 400 B. damnificus cercariae per fish, and the numbers of metacercariae per fish were determined 14 d postchallenge. Metacercariae were recovered from all challenged fish. There were no significant differences among fish groups challenged with the same dose, suggesting Channel and Blue Catfish and their hybrid are comparably susceptible to B. damnificus infection. As such, it is recommended that producers raising hybrid catfish remain diligent in controlling populations of the snail intermediate host to prevent production losses attributed to B. damnificus, especially when loafing pelicans have been observed at the aquaculture operation. PMID:24895863

  11. Mining of expressed sequence tag libraries of cacao for microsatellite markers using five computational tools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aikkal Riju; M. K. Rajesh; P. T. P. Fasila Sherin; A. Chandrasekar; S. Elain Apshara; Vadivel Arunachalam

    2009-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide researchers with a quick and inexpensive route for discovering new genes, data on gene expression and regulation, and also provide genic markers that help in constructing genome maps. Cacao is an important perennial crop of humid tropics. Cacao EST sequences, as available in the public domain, were downloaded and made into contigs. Microsatellites were located in these ESTs and contigs using five softwares (MISA, TRA, TROLL, SSRIT and SSR primer). MISA gave maximum coverage of SSRs in cacao ESTs and contigs, although TRA was able to detect higher order (>5-mer) repeats. The frequency of SSRs was one per 26.9 kb in the known set of ESTs. One-third of the repeats in EST-contigs were found to be trimeric. A few rare repeats like 21-mer repeat were also located. A/T repeats were most abundant among the mononucleotide repeats and the AG/GA/TC/CT type was the most frequent among dimerics. Flanking primers were designed using Primer3 program and verified experimentally for PCR amplification. The results of the study are made available freely online database (http://riju.byethost31.com/cocoa/). Seven primer pairs amplified genomic DNA isolated from leaves were used to screen a representative set of 12 accessions of cacao.

  12. In silico identification of coffee genome expressed sequences potentially associated with resistance to diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mazzinghy Alvarenga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequences potentially associated with coffee resistance to diseases were identified by in silico analyses using the database of the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project (BCGP. Keywords corresponding to plant resistance mechanisms to pathogens identified in the literature were used as baits for data mining. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs related to each of these keywords were identified with tools available in the BCGP bioinformatics platform. A total of 11,300 ESTs were mined. These ESTs were clustered and formed 979 EST-contigs with similarities to chitinases, kinases, cytochrome P450 and nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR proteins, as well as with proteins related to disease resistance, pathogenesis, hypersensitivity response (HR and plant defense responses to diseases. The 140 EST-contigs identified through the keyword NBS-LRR were classified according to function. This classification allowed association of the predicted products of EST-contigs with biological processes, including host defense and apoptosis, and with molecular functions such as nucleotide binding and signal transducer activity. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the significance of differences in contig expression between libraries representing the responses to biotic stress challenges and other libraries from the BCGP. This analysis revealed seven contigs highly similar to catalase, chitinase, protein with a BURP domain and unknown proteins. The involvement of these coffee proteins in plant responses to disease is discussed.

  13. In silico identification of coffee genome expressed sequences potentially associated with resistance to diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Samuel Mazzinghy; Caixeta, Eveline Teixeira; Hufnagel, Bárbara; Thiebaut, Flávia; Maciel-Zambolim, Eunize; Zambolim, Laércio; Sakiyama, Ney Sussumu

    2010-10-01

    Sequences potentially associated with coffee resistance to diseases were identified by in silico analyses using the database of the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project (BCGP). Keywords corresponding to plant resistance mechanisms to pathogens identified in the literature were used as baits for data mining. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) related to each of these keywords were identified with tools available in the BCGP bioinformatics platform. A total of 11,300 ESTs were mined. These ESTs were clustered and formed 979 EST-contigs with similarities to chitinases, kinases, cytochrome P450 and nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins, as well as with proteins related to disease resistance, pathogenesis, hypersensitivity response (HR) and plant defense responses to diseases. The 140 EST-contigs identified through the keyword NBS-LRR were classified according to function. This classification allowed association of the predicted products of EST-contigs with biological processes, including host defense and apoptosis, and with molecular functions such as nucleotide binding and signal transducer activity. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the significance of differences in contig expression between libraries representing the responses to biotic stress challenges and other libraries from the BCGP. This analysis revealed seven contigs highly similar to catalase, chitinase, protein with a BURP domain and unknown proteins. The involvement of these coffee proteins in plant responses to disease is discussed. PMID:21637594

  14. Evasion of mucosal defenses during Aeromonas hydrophila infection of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Ruijia; Su, Baofeng; Luo, Yupeng; Terhune, Jeffery; Beck, Benjamin; Peatman, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The mucosal surfaces of fish serve as the first line of defense against the myriad of aquatic pathogens present in the aquatic environment. The immune repertoire functioning at these interfaces is still poorly understood. The skin, in particular, must process signals from several fronts, sensing and integrating environmental, nutritional, social, and health cues. Pathogen invasion can disrupt this delicate homeostasis with profound impacts on signaling throughout the organism. Here, we investigated the transcriptional effects of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish skin, Ictalurus punctatus. We utilized a new 8 × 60 K Agilent microarray for catfish to examine gene expression profiles at critical early timepoints following challenge--2 h, 8 h, and 12 h. Expression of a total of 2,168 unique genes was significantly perturbed during at least one timepoint. We observed dysregulation of genes involved in antioxidant, cytoskeletal, immune, junctional, and nervous system pathways. In particular, A. hydrophila infection rapidly altered a number of potentially critical lectins, chemokines, interleukins, and other mucosal factors in a manner predicted to enhance its ability to adhere to and invade the catfish host. PMID:23219904

  15. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the gene encoding human eosinophil differentiation factor (interleukin 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF) gene was cloned from a genomic library in λ phage EMBL3A by using a murine EDF cDNA clone as a probe. The DNA sequence of a 3.2-kilobase BamHI fragment spanning the gene was determined. The gene contains three introns. The predicted amino acid sequence of 134 amino acids is identical with that recently reported for human interleukin 5 but shows no significant homology with other known hemopoietic growth regulators. The amino acid sequence shows strong homology (∼ 70% identity) with that of murine EDF. Recombinant human EDF, expressed from the human EDF gene after transfection into monkey COS cells, stimulated the production of eosinophils and eosinophil colonies from normal human bone marrow but had no effect on the production of neutrophils or mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphoid cells). The apparent specificity of human EDF for the eosinophil lineage in myeloid hemopoiesis contrasts with the properties of human interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors but is directly analogous to the biological properties of murine EDF. Human EDF therefore represents a distinct hemopoietic growth factor that could play a central role in the regulation of eosinophilia

  16. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  17. Mining for single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions / deletions in expressed sequence tag libraries of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riju, Aykkal; Chandrasekar, Arumugam; Arunachalam, Vadivel

    2007-01-01

    The oil palm is a tropical oil bearing tree. Recently EST-derived SNPs and SSRs are a free by-product of the currently expanding EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) data bases. The development of high-throughput methods for the detection of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and small indels (insertion / deletion) has led to a revolution in their use as molecular markers. Available (5452) Oil palm EST sequences were mined from dbEST of NCBI. CAP3 program was used to assemble EST sequences into contigs. Candidate SNPs and Indel polymorphisms were detected using the perl script auto_snip version 1.0 which has used 576 ESTs for detecting SNPs and Indel sites. We found 1180 SNP sites and 137 indel polymorphisms with frequency 1.36 SNPs / 100 bp. Among the six tissues from which the EST libraries had been generated, mesocarp had high frequency of 2.91 SNPs and indels per 100 bp whereas the zygotic embryos had lowest frequency of 0.15 per 100 bp. We also used the Shannon index to analyze the proportion of ten possible types of SNP/indels. ESTs from tissues of normal apex showed highest values of Shannon index (0.60) whereas abnormal apex had least value (0.02). The present report deals the use of Shannon index for comparing SNP/ indel frequencies mined from ESTlibraries and also confirm that the frequency of SNP occurrence in oil palm to use them as markers for genetic studies. PMID:21670789

  18. Sequence elements controlling expression of Barley stripe mosaic virus subgenomic RNAs in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) contains three positive-sense, single-stranded genomic RNAs, designated α, β, and γ, that encode seven major proteins and one minor translational readthrough protein. Three proteins (αa, βa, and γa) are translated directly from the genomic RNAs and the remaining proteins encoded on RNAβ and RNAγ are expressed via three subgenomic messenger RNAs (sgRNAs). sgRNAβ1 directs synthesis of the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein. The TGB2 protein, the TGB2' minor translational readthrough protein, and the TGB3 protein are expressed from sgRNAβ2, which is present in considerably lower abundance than sgRNAβ1. A third sgRNA, sgRNAγ, is required for expression of the γb protein. We have used deletion analyses and site-specific mutations to define the boundaries of promoter regions that are critical for expression of the BSMV sgRNAs in infected protoplasts. The results reveal that the sgRNAβ1 promoter encompasses positions -29 to -2 relative to its transcription start site and is adjacent to a cis-acting element required for RNAβ replication that maps from -107 to -74 relative to the sgRNAβ1 start site. The core sgRNAβ2 promoter includes residues -32 to -17 relative to the sgRNAβ2 transcriptional start site, although maximal activity requires an upstream hexanucleotide sequence residing from positions -64 to -59. The sgRNAγ promoter maps from -21 to +2 relative to its transcription start site and therefore partially overlaps the γa gene. The sgRNAβ1, β2, and γ promoters also differ substantially in sequence, but have similarities to the putative homologous promoters of other Hordeiviruses. These differences are postulated to affect competition for the viral polymerase, coordination of the temporal expression and abundance of the TGB proteins, and constitutive expression of the γb protein

  19. Optimizing de novo transcriptome assembly and extending genomic resources for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Minh; Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E; Njaci, Isaac; Yoon, Byoung-Ha; Chand, Vincent; Tuan, Nguyen Viet; Thu, Vo Thi Minh; Mather, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a commercially important freshwater fish used in inland aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The culture industry is facing a significant challenge however from saltwater intrusion into many low topographical coastal provinces across the Mekong Delta as a result of predicted climate change impacts. Developing genomic resources for this species can facilitate the production of improved culture lines that can withstand raised salinity conditions, and so we have applied high-throughput Ion Torrent sequencing of transcriptome libraries from six target osmoregulatory organs from striped catfish as a genomic resource for use in future selection strategies. We obtained 12,177,770 reads after trimming and processing with an average length of 97bp. De novo assemblies were generated using CLC Genomic Workbench, Trinity and Velvet/Oases with the best overall contig performance resulting from the CLC assembly. De novo assembly using CLC yielded 66,451 contigs with an average length of 478bp and N50 length of 506bp. A total of 37,969 contigs (57%) possessed significant similarity with proteins in the non-redundant database. Comparative analyses revealed that a significant number of contigs matched sequences reported in other teleost fishes, ranging in similarity from 45.2% with Atlantic cod to 52% with zebrafish. In addition, 28,879 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 55,721 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the striped catfish transcriptome. The sequence collection generated in the current study represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for P. hypophthalmus available to date. Our results illustrate the utility of next-generation sequencing as an efficient tool for constructing a large genomic database for marker development in non-model species. PMID:25979246

  20. Functional analysis and comparative genomics of expressed sequence tags from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanurdzic Milos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii is a member of one of the oldest lineages of vascular plants on Earth. Fossil records show that the lycophyte clade arose 400 million years ago, 150–200 million years earlier than angiosperms, a group of plants that includes the well-studied flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. S. moellendorffii has a genome size of approximately 100 Mbp, as small or smaller than that of A. thaliana. S. moellendorffii has the potential to provide significant comparative information to better understand the evolution of vascular plants. Results We sequenced 2181 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from a S. moellendorffii cDNA library. One thousand three hundred and one non-redundant sequences were assembled, containing 291 contigs and 1010 singletons. Approximately 75% of the ESTs matched proteins in the non-redundant protein database. Among 1301 clusters, 343 were categorized according to Gene Ontology (GO hierarchy and were compared to the GO mapping of A. thaliana tentative consensus sequences. We compared S. moellendorffii ESTs to the A. thaliana and Physcomitrella patens EST databases, using the tBLASTX algorithm. Approximately 60% of the ESTs exhibited similarity with both A. thaliana and P. patens ESTs; whereas, 13% and 1% of the ESTs had exclusive similarity with A. thaliana and P. patens ESTs, respectively. A substantial proportion of the ESTs (26% had no match with A. thaliana or P. patens ESTs. Conclusion We discovered 1301 putative unigenes in S. moellendorffii. These results give an initial insight into its transcriptome that will aid in the study of the S. moellendorffii genome in the near future.

  1. Generation, analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Fiona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is caused by Psoroptes ovis and is arguably the most important ectoparasitic disease affecting sheep in the UK. The disease is highly contagious and causes and considerable pruritis and irritation and is therefore a major welfare concern. Current methods of treatment are unsustainable and in order to elucidate novel methods of disease control a more comprehensive understanding of the parasite is required. To date, no full genomic DNA sequence or large scale transcript datasets are available and prior to this study only 484 P. ovis expressed sequence tags (ESTs were accessible in public databases. Results In order to further expand upon the transcriptomic coverage of P. ovis thus facilitating novel insights into the mite biology we undertook a larger scale EST approach, incorporating newly generated and previously described P. ovis transcript data and representing the largest collection of P. ovis ESTs to date. We sequenced 1,574 ESTs and assembled these along with 484 previously generated P. ovis ESTs, which resulted in the identification of 1,545 unique P. ovis sequences. BLASTX searches identified 961 ESTs with significant hits (E-value P. ovis ESTs. Gene Ontology (GO analysis allowed the functional annotation of 880 ESTs and included predictions of signal peptide and transmembrane domains; allowing the identification of potential P. ovis excreted/secreted factors, and mapping of metabolic pathways. Conclusions This dataset currently represents the largest collection of P. ovis ESTs, all of which are publicly available in the GenBank EST database (dbEST (accession numbers FR748230 - FR749648. Functional analysis of this dataset identified important homologues, including house dust mite allergens and tick salivary factors. These findings offer new insights into the underlying biology of P. ovis, facilitating further investigations into mite biology and the identification of novel methods of intervention.

  2. Construction and characterization of a BAC library from a gynogenetic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Melanie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was constructed by cloning HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA from a gynogenetic channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, into the vector pBeloBAC11. Approximately 53 500 clones were arrayed in 384-well plates and stored at -80°C (CCBL1, while clones from a smaller insert size fraction were stored at -80°C without arraying (CCBL2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 100 clones after NotI digestion revealed an average insert size of 165 kb for CCBL1 and 113 kb for CCBL2. Further characterization of CCBL1 demonstrated that 10% of the clones did not contain an insert. CCBL1 provides a 7.2-fold coverage of the channel catfish haploid genome. PCR-based screening demonstrated that 68 out of 74 unique loci were present in the library. This represents a 92% chance to find a unique sequence. These libraries will be useful for physical mapping of the channel catfish genome, and identification of genes controlling major traits in this economically important species.

  3. Temperature influences on the expression of GFP promoted by the upstream sequence of cpcB from Arthrospira platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongzhong; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2007-07-01

    In order to investigate the regulation mechanism of the phycocyanin gene, a series of functional analyses of the upstream sequence of cpcB gene from Arthrospira platensis were conducted in E. coli with green fluorescent protein encoding gene (gfp) as the reporter. Results showed that the gfp gene could express at a high level under the promotion of the upstream sequence, suggesting the existence of some strong promoter elements in it. The expression of GFP was influenced by temperature. Higher temperature led to higher expression level. The bioinformatics analyses followed by mutation analyses on the secondary structure of translation initiation region (TIR) revealed that RNA thermosensor might account for the temperature regulation.

  4. Sequence, Expression and Phylogenetic Analysis of Immune Response Genes Related to Mastitis in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Banerjee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of several acute phase cytokines, such as IL1, IL8 and TNF-α, have been positively correlated with the most severe clinical symptoms often associated with coliform or endotoxin-induced mastitis. Very little information is available on buffalo transcriptome. No information is available on mastitis related genes in buffaloes thus, the main aim of the present study was to analyze the buffalo transcriptome for extracting sequence of mastitis related genes (IL-1B, IL6, IL8 and IL-12B, the expression of these genes across various tissues using RNA-Seq, analyse the functional pathways and confer the phylogenetic relationship of these Interleukin genes with other species. IL1B revealed high expression in lungs while IL8 in mammary gland and IL12B in kidney respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear homology between buffalo and cattle ILs. The results were confirmed by constructing gene and species tree. In species tree, Bos taurus was nearest to Bubalus bubalis followed by Ovis aries thereby grouping the whole Bovidae family together. The gene tree constructed with the help of Maximum likelihood methods clearly clustered IL1B and IL8 in one clade. This may be attributed to structural and functional relationship of IL8 induced after exposure to a variety of inflammatory stimuli including bacteria, oxidative stress, LPS, TNF and IL1B. Phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate IL genes provided insights into their patterns and process of gene evolution.

  5. Sequencing, Expression and Diagnostic Application of the Nucleoprotein Gene of Xinjiang Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马本江; 杭长寿; 解燕乡; 王世文

    2004-01-01

    In order to analyze the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), viral RNA was amplified by RT-PCR by using the proof-reading DNA polymerase to produce the complete NP gene. The PCR product was sequenced, analyzed for phylogenesis and cloned into the expression vector pE132a and the recombinant plasmid expressed in E. coil BL-21 with high yield. The primarily purified fused protein.was used to coat ELISA plates for the detect antibodies. It was found the similarities between NP gene of BA88166 and other XHFVs in nucleotide level and amino acid contents were very significant, and the NP gene of BA88166 encoded a nucleoprotein with 482 amino acid and a deduced molecular weight (MW) of 54 kDa. Western blot assay showed that the fusion protein expressed in bacteria possessed good antigenicity. The results with ELISA for the detection of the human and animal sera collected in endemic areas were found to be in good accordance to the clinical diagnosis. It concluded that the relations of NP genes of XHFV BA88166 and other XHFVs appeared to be evolutionally close. The methodologies established in this study were accurate, specific, rapid and reproducible for the clinical examinations and epidemiological survey.

  6. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  7. Pre-spawning carotenoid fortified diets improve reproductive traits of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and subsequent progeny performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Availability of consistent number of ovulatory competent channel catfish females is a pre-requisite for efficient production of channel catfish ' x blue catfish, I.furcatus ') hybrid in hatcheries. Raising hybrid catfish in production ponds enables the catfish farmer to harness improved growth rate...

  8. Sequencing, physical organization and kinetic expression of the patulin biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium expansum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patulin is a polyketide-derived mycotoxin produced by numerous filamentous fungi. Among them, Penicillium expansum is by far the most problematic species. This fungus is a destructive phytopathogen capable of growing on fruit, provoking the blue mold decay of apples and producing significant amounts of patulin. The biosynthetic pathway of this mycotoxin is chemically well-characterized, but its genetic bases remain largely unknown with only few characterized genes in less economic relevant species. The present study consisted of the identification and positional organization of the patulin gene cluster in P. expansum strain NRRL 35695. Several amplification reactions were performed with degenerative primers that were designed based on sequences from the orthologous genes available in other species. An improved genome Walking approach was used in order to sequence the remaining adjacent genes of the cluster. RACE-PCR was also carried out from mRNAs to determine the start and stop codons of the coding sequences. The patulin gene cluster in P. expansum consists of 15 genes in the following order: patH, patG, patF, patE, patD, patC, patB, patA, patM, patN, patO, patL, patI, patJ, and patK. These genes share 60–70% of identity with orthologous genes grouped differently, within a putative patulin cluster described in a non-producing strain of Aspergillus clavatus. The kinetics of patulin cluster genes expression was studied under patulin-permissive conditions (natural apple-based medium) and patulin-restrictive conditions (Eagle's minimal essential medium), and demonstrated a significant association between gene expression and patulin production. In conclusion, the sequence of the patulin cluster in P. expansum constitutes a key step for a better understanding of themechanisms leading to patulin production in this fungus. It will allow the role of each gene to be elucidated, and help to define strategies to reduce patulin production in apple-based products

  9. Nutritional Regulation of IGFs in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined changes in hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA, insulin like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2) mRNA, muscle IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in fed (fed daily for 45 days) and restricted (not fed for 30 days followed by feeding for 15 days) channel catfish. By day 30, liver IGF-I mRNA...

  10. Changes in Price Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Industry: Evidence Using Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    The implications of market development in the catfish industry on catfish price behavior are explored using cointegration. It is hypothesized that market development, through increases in competition between processors and shifts in consumer preferences toward fish, has caused changes in price behavior among levels of the catfish market. Using monthly catfish price data, a cointegration analysis of subsets of prices shows that price behavior has changed through time, with catfish prices becom...

  11. Identification and isolation of full-length cDNA sequences by sequencing and analysis of expressed sequence tags from guarana (Paullinia cupana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirêdo, L C; Faria-Campos, A C; Astolfi-Filho, S; Azevedo, J L

    2011-01-01

    The current intense production of biological data, generated by sequencing techniques, has created an ever-growing volume of unanalyzed data. We reevaluated data produced by the guarana (Paullinia cupana) transcriptome sequencing project to identify cDNA clones with complete coding sequences (full-length clones) and complete sequences of genes of biotechnological interest, contributing to the knowledge of biological characteristics of this organism. We analyzed 15,490 ESTs of guarana in search of clones with complete coding regions. A total of 12,402 sequences were analyzed using BLAST, and 4697 full-length clones were identified, responsible for the production of 2297 different proteins. Eighty-four clones were identified as full-length for N-methyltransferase and 18 were sequenced in both directions to obtain the complete genome sequence, and confirm the search made in silico for full-length clones. Phylogenetic analyses were made with the complete genome sequences of three clones, which showed only 0.017% dissimilarity; these are phylogenetically close to the caffeine synthase of Theobroma cacao. The search for full-length clones allowed the identification of numerous clones that had the complete coding region, demonstrating this to be an efficient and useful tool in the process of biological data mining. The sequencing of the complete coding region of identified full-length clones corroborated the data from the in silico search, strengthening its efficiency and utility. PMID:21732283

  12. Production Practices of Commercial Catfish Producers in Northeast Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letlow, Richard M.; Verma, Satish

    A study determined the yields obtained and the production practices followed by Louisiana commercial catfish farmers in Catahoula, Concordia, and Franklin Parishes. This information was used by the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (LCES) faculty to develop a catfish education program. The study: (1) determined use of selected recommended…

  13. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  14. A liquid oxygen calculator for fasted channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of scientific literature concerning channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus respiration resulted in development of a Microsoft Excel© spreadsheet for estimating the volume of oxygen consumed by a given fasted channel catfish biomass. Entry of ten variables into the spreadsheet provides estimate...

  15. Safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used in the catfish industry to control saprolegniasis (caused by watermolds) on eggs. This study was designed to establish the safety of CuSO4 when applied to hatching troughs containing channel catfish eggs in 26 degrees C flow-through well water at 10, 30, and ...

  16. Molecular identfication and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama (USA) in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  17. Molecular identification and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

  18. Effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding protein mRNA concentrations in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in channel catfish were examined. Fed control fish (Fed) were compared to fish that had been fasted for 30 days followed by 15 days of additional feeding (Restricted). Sequence alignment and similarity to orthologous protei...

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 applying high-throughput sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberg, Daniel; Jelonek, Lukas; Rupp, Oliver; Kröber, Magdalena; Goesmann, Alexander; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus of the phylum Basidiomycota. It affects a wide range of agriculturally important crops and hence is responsible for economically relevant crop losses. Transcriptome analysis of the bottom rot pathogen R. solani AG1-1B (isolate 7/3/14) by applying high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods addressing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data interpretation provided new insights in expressed genes of this fungus. Two normalized cDNA libraries representing different cultivation conditions of the fungus were sequenced on the 454 FLX (Roche) system. Subsequent to cDNA sequence assembly and quality control, ESTs were analysed applying advanced bioinformatics methods. More than 14 000 transcript isoforms originating from approximately 10 000 predictable R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 genes are represented in each dataset. Comparative analyses revealed several differentially expressed genes depending on the growth conditions applied. Determinants with predicted functions in recognition processes between the fungus and the host plant were identified. Moreover, many R. solani AG1-IB ESTs were predicted to encode putative cellulose, pectin, and lignin degrading enzymes. Furthermore, genes playing a possible role in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism, melanin synthesis, plant defence antagonism, phytotoxin, and mycotoxin synthesis were detected. PMID:25209639

  20. Development of microsatellite and amplicon length polymorphism markers for Camellia japonica L. from tea plant (Camellia sinensis) expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Saneyoshi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Simple sequence repeats and amplicon length polymorphism markers for Camellia japonica were developed, based on Camellia sinensis sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. In total, 2495 gene sequences were used to design 216 primer pairs. To identify amplicon length polymorphism markers, 61 gene loci in 16 Camellia individuals were re-sequenced. In total, 10 markers (three expressed sequence tags-simple sequence repeats and seven amplicon length polymorphisms) yielded polymerase chain reaction products with clear polymorphic patterns and were used for genotyping 22 C. japonica individuals from a population. Numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from two to 13 and from 0.28 to 0.90, respectively. PMID:21564753

  1. Expression in bacteria of gB-glycoprotein-coding sequences of Herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, S; Warner, S C; Bzik, D J; Debroy, C; Fox, B A

    1985-01-01

    A plasmid with an insert that encodes the glycoprotein B(gB) gene of Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been isolated. DNA sequences coding for a portion of the HSV-2 gB peptide were cloned into a bacterial lacZ alpha expression vector and used to transform Escherichia coli. Upon induction of lacZpo-promoted transcription, some of the bacteria became filamentous and produced inclusion bodies containing a large amount of a 65-kDal peptide that was shown to be precipitated by broad-spectrum antibodies to HSV-2 and HSV-1. The HSV-2 insert of one of these clones specifies amino acid residues corresponding to 135 through 629 of the gB of HSV-1 [Bzik et al., Virology 133 (1984) 301-314]. PMID:2412940

  2. Gene Expression Profiling of Development and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Based on Transcriptome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Li

    Full Text Available Red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. 'Hongyang' is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin C and anthocyanins. In this study, we obtained transcriptome data of 'Hongyang' from seven developmental stages using Illumina sequencing. We mapped 39-54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abundance at different developmental stages. The transcript profiles throughout red kiwifruit development were constructed and analyzed, with a focus on the biosynthesis and metabolism of compounds such as phytohormones, sugars, starch and L-ascorbic acid, which are indispensable for the development and formation of quality fruit. Candidate genes for these pathways were identified through MapMan and phylogenetic analysis. The transcript levels of genes involved in sucrose and starch metabolism were consistent with the change in soluble sugar and starch content throughout kiwifruit development. The metabolism of L-ascorbic acid was very active, primarily through the L-galactose pathway. The genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanin in red kiwifruit were identified, and their expression levels were investigated during kiwifruit development. This survey of gene expression during kiwifruit development paves the way for further investigation of the development of this uniquely colored and nutritious fruit and reveals which factors are needed for high quality fruit formation. This transcriptome data and its analysis will be useful for improving kiwifruit genome annotation, for basic fruit molecular biology research, and for kiwifruit breeding and improvement.

  3. CoffeebEST: an integrated resource for Coffea spp expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, A R; Fernandes, E D M; Silva, J C; Lopes, F M; Pereira, L F P; Domingues, D S

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important commodities in the world, and its production relies mainly on two species, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Although there are diverse transcriptome datasets available for coffee trees, few research groups have exploited the potential knowledge contained in these data, especially with respect to fruit and seed development. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora with a focus on fruit development using publicly available expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the fruit and seed EST data has been obtained from C. canephora. Therefore, we performed a fruit EST analysis of the 5 developmental stages of this species (18, 22, 30, 42, and 46 weeks after flowering) comprising 29,009 sequences. We compared C. canephora fruit ESTs to reference unigenes of C. canephora (7710 contigs and 8955 singletons) and C. arabica (15,656 contigs and 16,351 singletons). Additional analyses included functional annotation based on Gene Onthology, as well as an annotation using PlantCyc, a curated plant protein database. The Coffee Bean EST (CoffeebEST) is a public database available at http://bioinfo-02.cp.utfpr.edu.br/. This database represents an additional resource for the coffee scientific community, offering a user-friendly collection of information for non-specialists in coffee molecular biology to support experimental research on comparative and functional genomics. PMID:25526212

  4. Sequence and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of a human insulinoma and islet potassium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation of insulin secretion involves the coordinated control of ion channels in the β-cell membrane. The authors have isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones encoding a voltage-dependent K+ channel isoform expressed in human islets and in a human insulinoma. This K+ channel isoform, designated hPCN1, with a deduced amino acid sequence of 613 residues is related to the Shaker family of Drosophila K+ channels. hPCN1 is homologous to two other human K+ channel isoforms. They have isolated, hPCN2 and hPCN3, with 55% and 65% amino acid sequence identity, respectively. The electrophysiological characteristics of hPCN1 were determined after microinjuection of synthetic RNA into Xenopus oocytes. Two-microelectrode voltage-clamp recordings of oocytes injected with hPCN1 RNA revealed a voltage-dependent outward K+ current that inactivated slowly with time. Outward currents were inhibited by 4-aminopyridine with a Ki less that 0.01 mM and were relatively insensitive to tetraethylammonium ion or Ba2+. A delayed rectifier K+ channel such as hPCN1 could restore the resting membrane potential of β cells after depolarization and thereby contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion

  5. Reductions in Susceptibility of Channel Catfish (Ictalutus punctatus) to Enteric Septicemia of Catfish (ESC) Through Two Generations of Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of disease resistance in aquaculture species through selective breeding has had some success. At the USDA-ARS Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, a multitrait selection index was utilized to select for growth, carcass yield, and resistance to enteric septicemia of catfish (...

  6. 76 FR 26655 - Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... meetings, interested persons may submit comments on the proposed rule (76 FR 10434) on or before June 24..., 552, 555, 557, and 559-561 Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. First Season Catfish Farming. A Workbook for Beginning Pond and Cage Culture of Channel Catfish. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This workbook, comprised of both the teacher and student editions, presents guidelines useful for first-year catfish farmers in Oklahoma using pond or cage cultures to raise channel catfish. The teacher edition is a set of unit guidelines only. Contents include a list of suggested readings, important addresses with types of information available…

  8. Production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to compare the production and water quality responses of the channel x...

  9. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY CHANNEL CATFISH IMMUNE TO ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS ON COHABITED NON-IMMUNE CATFISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish recovered from sublethal ichthyophthiriasis acquire protective immunity against Ichthyophthirius (Ich). This study evaluated the protective effect of cutaneous antibody excreted by channel catfish immune to Ich on cohabited non-immune catfish. Non-immune and immune fish controls were separatel...

  10. Genome-wide analysis reveals diverged patterns of codon bias, gene expression, and rates of sequence evolution in Picea gene families

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Lin, Yao-Cheng; van de Peer, Yves; Pär K Ingvarsson

    2015-01-01

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (> 50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein l...

  11. Biochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory attributes of gutted and ungutted sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viji, P; Tanuja, S; Ninan, George; Lalitha, K V; Zynudheen, A A; Binsi, P K; Srinivasagopal, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (sutchi catfish) is a fresh water catfish extensively being cultured in the South East Asian countries in the recent years. The present study provides the first report on the effects of gutting on the quality characteristics of aquacultured sutchi catfish stored in ice. pH of whole ungutted and gutted catfish didn't show significant difference (p > 0.05) during ice storage period. Total Volatile Base Nitrogen (TVB-N), Alpha Amino Nitrogen (AAN), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) and Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) were lower in gutted fish compared to whole ungutted fish at any particular day during ice storage. However, gutted fish expressed higher rate of primary lipid oxidation than ungutted fish. Textural degradation of the fish muscle as indicated by hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness was lower in gutted fish. Results of sensory evaluation revealed that gutting has significantly improved the sensory quality of the fish. However, microbiological analysis revealed higher Total Plate Count (TPC) and Enterobactereaceae count in gutted fish. The shelf life of gutted and whole ungutted sutchi cat fish as determined by microbiological analysis was 16-18 days and 18-20 days respectively while storage in ice. PMID:26028712

  12. In vitro analysis of expression vectors for DNA vaccination of horses: the effect of a Kozak sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsteinsdóttir Sigurbjörg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the prerequisite for developing DNA vaccines for horses are vectors that are efficiently expressed in horse cells. We have analysed the ectopic expression of the human serum albumin gene in primary horse cells from different tissues. The vectors used are of pcDNA and pUC origin and include the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. The pUC vectors contain CMV intron A whereas the pcDNA vectors do not. Insertion of intron A diminished the expression from the pcDNA vectors whereas insertion of a Kozak sequence upstream of the gene in two types of pUC vectors increased significantly the in vitro expression in primary horse cells derived from skin, lung, duodenum and kidney. We report for the first time the significance of full consensus Kozak sequences for protein expression in horse cells in vitro.

  13. Gene Expression Versus Sequence for Predicting Function:Glia Maturation Factor Gamma Is Not A Glia Maturation Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelG.Walker

    2003-01-01

    It is standard practice,whenever a researcher finds a new gene,to search databases for genes that have a similar sequence.It is not standard practice,whenever a researcher finds a new gene,to search for genes that have similar expression(coexpression).Failure to perform co-expression searches has lead to incorrect conclusions about the likely function of new genes,and has lead to wasted laboratory attempts to confirm functions incorrectly predicted.We present here the example of Glia Maturation Factor gamma(GMF-gamma).Despite its name,it has not been shown to participate in glia maturation.It is a gene of unknown function that is similar in sequence to GMF-beta.The sequence homology and chromosomal location led to an unsuccessful searchfor GMF-gamma mutations in glioma.We examined GMF-gamma expression in 1432 human cDNA libraries.Highest expression occurs in phagocytic,antigen-presenting and other hematopoietic cells.We found GMF-gamma mRNA in almost every tissue examined,with expression in nervous tissue no higher than in any other tissue.Our evidence indicates that GMF-gamma participates in phagocytosis in antigen presenting cells.Searches for genes with similar sequences should be supplemented with searches for genes with similar expression to avoid incorrect predictions.

  14. Gene Expression Versus Sequence for Predicting Function: Glia Maturation Factor Gamma Is Not A Glia Maturation Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael G. Walker

    2003-01-01

    It is standard practice, whenever a researcher finds a new gene, to search databases for genes that have a similar sequence. It is not standard practice, whenever a researcher finds a new gene, to search for genes that have similar expression (coexpression). Failure to perform co-expression searches has lead to incorrect conclusions about the likely function of new genes, and has lead to wasted laboratory attempts to confirm functions incorrectly predicted. We present here the example of Glia Maturation Factor gamma (GMF-gamma). Despite its name, it has not been shown to participate in glia maturation. It is a gene of unknown function that is similar in sequence to GMF-beta. The sequence homology and chromosomal location led to an unsuccessful search for GMF-gamma mutations in glioma.We examined GMF-gamma expression in 1432 human cDNA libraries. Highest expression occurs in phagocytic, antigen-presenting and other hematopoietic cells.We found GMF-gamma mRNA in almost every tissue examined, with expression in nervous tissue no higher than in any other tissue. Our evidence indicates that GMF-gamma participates in phagocytosis in antigen presenting cells. Searches for genes with similar sequences should be supplemented with searches for genes with similar expression to avoid incorrect predictions.

  15. "No evidence for intercohort cannibalism in mixed-size cultures of food-size and fingerling hybrid catfish (channel catfish x blue catfish) grown in ponds in winter or summer."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) are normally harvested by seining single-batch pond production systems in fall or winter. Ponds are typically restocked without draining. There is concern that without completely draining the pond after harvest, food...

  16. Cloning and Sequencing of the Pokeweed Antiviral Protein Gene and Its Expression in E. coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ding-hu; WANG Xi-feng; LI Li; ZHOU Guang-he

    2002-01-01

    The total RNA was isolated from pokeweed (Phytolacca americana ) leaves using the method of guanidine isothiocyanite and used as a template to amplify the deleted mutant pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) gene by RT-PCR and then the gene was cloned into the pGEMR-T vector. The sequencing results showed that the PAP gene consisted of 711nt, which was 99.6% identical to the PAP gene reported by Lin et al (1991). The IPTG-inducible expression vector containing the PAP gene was constructed and transferred into the E. coli strain BL21 (DE3)-plysS. A specific protein was produced after induction with 0.4m mol/L IPTG and its molecular weight was 26ku. The results of the double diffusion on the agar plate and the western blotting test showed that the protein produced in E. coli was highly identical with the PAP extracted by a Frenchman from French pokeweed leaves. These revealed that PAP gene was actually achieved and exactly expressed in E . coli.

  17. Co-transcriptomic Analysis by RNA Sequencing to Simultaneously Measure Regulated Gene Expression in Host and Bacterial Pathogen

    KAUST Repository

    Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-24

    Intramacrophage pathogens subvert antimicrobial defence pathways using various mechanisms, including the targeting of host TLR-mediated transcriptional responses. Conversely, TLR-inducible host defence mechanisms subject intramacrophage pathogens to stress, thus altering pathogen gene expression programs. Important biological insights can thus be gained through the analysis of gene expression changes in both the host and the pathogen during an infection. Traditionally, research methods have involved the use of qPCR, microarrays and/or RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional changes in either the host or the pathogen. Here we describe the application of RNA sequencing using samples obtained from in vitro infection assays to simultaneously quantify both host and bacterial pathogen gene expression changes, as well as general approaches that can be undertaken to interpret the RNA sequencing data that is generated. These methods can be used to provide insights into host TLR-regulated transcriptional responses to microbial challenge, as well as pathogen subversion mechanisms against such responses.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery from expressed sequence tags in the waterflea Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souche Erika L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera plays a central role in standing aquatic ecosystems, has a well known ecology and is widely used in population studies and environmental risk assessments. Daphnia magna is, especially in Europe, intensively used to study stress responses of natural populations to pollutants, climate change, and antagonistic interactions with predators and parasites, which have all been demonstrated to induce micro-evolutionary and adaptive responses. Although its ecology and evolutionary biology is intensively studied, little is known on the functional genomics underpinning of phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to find genes expressed in presence of environmental stressors, and target such genes for single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP marker development. Results We developed three expressed sequence tag (EST libraries using clonal lineages of D. magna exposed to ecological stressors, namely fish predation, parasite infection and pesticide exposure. We used these newly developed ESTs and other Daphnia ESTs retrieved from NCBI GeneBank to mine for SNP markers targeting synonymous as well as non synonymous genetic variation. We validate the developed SNPs in six natural populations of D. magna distributed at regional scale. Conclusions A large proportion (47% of the produced ESTs are Daphnia lineage specific genes, which are potentially involved in responses to environmental stress rather than to general cellular functions and metabolic activities, or reflect the arthropod's aquatic lifestyle. The characterization of genes expressed under stress and the validation of their SNPs for population genetic study is important for identifying ecologically responsive genes in D. magna.

  19. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and engineered expression of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase, a homolog of Escherichia coli DNA ligase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, G; Rudd, E A; McKay, D L; Ally, A; Ally, D; Backman, K C

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the gene for DNA ligase from Thermus thermophilus. A comparison of this sequence and those of other ligases reveals significant homology only with that of Escherichia coli. The overall amino acid composition of the thermophilic ligase and the pattern of amino acid substitutions between the two proteins are consistent with compositional biases in other thermophilic enzymes. We have engineered the expression of the T. thermophilus gene in Escherichia coli, and we sh...

  20. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, G.; Vieille, C; Zeikus, J G

    1997-01-01

    The gene encoding the Pyrococcus furiosus hyperthermophilic amylopullulanase (APU) was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a single 827-residue polypeptide with a 26-residue signal peptide. The protein sequence had very low homology (17 to 21% identity) with other APUs and enzymes of the alpha-amylase family. In particular, none of the consensus regions present in the alpha-amylase family could be identified. P. furiosus APU showed similarity to three protei...

  1. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  2. Simple sequence repeats in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) expressed sequence tags: a new resource for evolutionary genetic studies of passerines

    OpenAIRE

    Birkhead Timothy R; Hale Matthew C; Slate Jon

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Passerines (perching birds) are widely studied across many biological disciplines including ecology, population biology, neurobiology, behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology. However, understanding the molecular basis of relevant traits is hampered by the paucity of passerine genomics tools. Efforts to address this problem are underway, and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) will be the first passerine to have its genome sequenced. Here we describe a bioinformatic...

  3. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and heterologous expression of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oviduct-specific glycoprotein in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Choudhary, Suman; Pradeep, Mangottil A; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kumaresan, A; Das, Subrata K; Kaushik, Jai K; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2012-12-01

    Oviductin is a high molecular weight oviduct-specific glycoprotein secreted by the non-ciliated epithelial cells of oviduct during estrous cycle and early pregnancy. It plays an important role during fertilization and early embryonic development. The oviductin gene from oviductal tissues of buffalo was successfully cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle oviductin share very high homology between their cDNA sequences. The predicted amino acid sequences of the buffalo oviductin exhibited the highest percent of identity of 97 % with bovine followed by 94 % with goat, 93 % with sheep, 78 % with porcine, 72 % with human, 67 % with hamster and rabbit and 65 % with mouse. Oviductin was also observed to share high similarity with the mammalian chitinase, however oviductins do not show chitinase activity due to Glu→Ile mutation in the active site responsible for chitinase activity. The phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of oviductin indicated that buffalo oviductin was closely related to its cattle counterpart, and this clustering is in accordance with the classic taxonomic relationship. Tissue specific expression of the transcripts for buffalo oviductin revealed a high level expression in oviduct and ovary followed by testis, mammary gland, kidney, while in mammary epithelial cells and liver its expression was very low. The full length matured oviductin and its domains constituting chitinase-like domain and mucin-like domain were cloned into pET and pGEX series of expression vectors and over expressed in E. coli. The soluble recombinant oviductin was successfully purified to homogeneity. Full length recombinant oviductin was expressed partially in soluble form, where as the chitinase-like and mucin-like domains of oviductin were expressed in insoluble form and aggregating to form inclusion bodies at both 37 and 16 °C induction temperatures. PMID:22782592

  4. The generation and utilization of a cancer-oriented representation of the human transcriptome by using expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brentani, Helena; Caballero, Otávia L; Camargo, Anamaria A;

    2003-01-01

    Whereas genome sequencing defines the genetic potential of an organism, transcript sequencing defines the utilization of this potential and links the genome with most areas of biology. To exploit the information within the human genome in the fight against cancer, we have deposited some two milli...... to be systematically explored, and that may further facilitate progress toward both the understanding and treatment of human cancers.......Whereas genome sequencing defines the genetic potential of an organism, transcript sequencing defines the utilization of this potential and links the genome with most areas of biology. To exploit the information within the human genome in the fight against cancer, we have deposited some two million...... expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from human tumors and their corresponding normal tissues in the public databases. The data currently define approximately 23,500 genes, of which only approximately 1,250 are still represented only by ESTs. Examination of the EST coverage of known cancer-related (CR) genes...

  5. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) constructed by using an interspecific hybrid resource family.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Karsi, Attila; Li, Ping; Cao, Dongfeng; Dunham, R

    2003-01-01

    Catfish is the major aquaculture species in the United States. The hybrid catfish produced by crossing channel catfish females with blue catfish males exhibit a number of desirable production traits, but their mass production has been difficult. To introduce desirable genes from blue catfish into channel catfish through introgression, a genetic linkage map is helpful. In this project, a genetic linkage map was constructed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A total of 607 AFL...

  6. 淮河野生鲇鱼线粒体Cyt b基因的序列变异与遗传结构分析%Genetic Structure and Variation of Wild Chinese Catfish from Huaihe River Based on Cytochrome b Gene Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明松; 崔峰; 康健; 张晓红

    2013-01-01

    本研究利用线粒体DNA细胞色素b(Cyt b)基因序列分析淮河信阳段、淮滨段、蚌埠段、洪泽湖及其支流颍河、淠河和池河的野生鲇鱼(Silurus asotus)种群遗传结构及种群历史.结果表明,在841 bp的同源序列中,7个种群共检测到变异位点40个,占全部序列的4.76%,121个个体共检测到32种单倍型;7个种群的平均单倍型多样性(h)、核甘酸多样性(Pi)分别为0.884 8、0.003 8,表明淮河野生鲇鱼种群的遗传多样性水平较高.7个种群间的遗传分化指数Fst为0.115 0,仅12.92%的变异来自种群间(AMOVA分析),基因交流值为3.85,种群间K2-P遗传距离为0.002 ~0.009,显示鲇鱼种群间没有发生明显的地理分化.NJ树揭示7个种群的个体组成2个谱系,但这2个谱系与地理分布并不相关.中性检验、错配分析和Network网络亲缘关系分析皆表明鲇鱼种群有过种群扩张,扩张时间约在0.17~0.29百万年前的中更新世中期和末期.%The Chinese Catfish Silurus asotus is a commercially valuable aquaculture fish in some regions of China and Japan, and it is widely distributed throughout the freshwater reservoirs, lakes and rivers of China. Due to overfishing, environmental pollution, water conservancy, human production activities and other causes, wild Chinese Catfish has declined rapidly. Its fishery resource has been gradually exhausted in the Huaihe River Basin in the past decades. In order to analyze the genetic structure and demographic history of S. asotus, the mitochondrial cytochrome b ( Cyt b) gene sequences were used in the study. The results showed that Cyt b gene sequence contained 841 bp nucleotides and the T, C, A and G contents were 28. 59% , 29. 55% , 27. 44% and 14. 42% , respectively. A total of 40 nucleotide sites and 32 haplotypes were obtained from 121 individuals collected in 7 different regions, including Xinyang, Huaibin, Bengbu, Hongze Lake, Yinghe River, Pihe River and Chihe River. The

  7. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C M R; Martins, N F; Hörberg, H M; de Almeida, E R P; Coelho, M C F; Togawa, R C; da Silva, F R; Caetano, A R; Miller, R N G; Souza, M T

    2005-05-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to 25 degrees C and from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C was used to produce a COLD and a HOT cDNA library, respectively. We sequenced 1,440 clones from each library. Following quality analysis and vector trimming, we assembled 2,286 sequences from both libraries into 1,019 putative transcripts, consisting of 217 clusters and 802 singletons, which we denoted Musa acuminata assembled expressed sequence tagged (EST) sequences (MaAES). Of these MaAES, 22.87% showed no matches with existing sequences in public databases. A global analysis of the MaAES data set indicated that 10% of the sequenced cDNAs are present in both cDNA libraries, while 42% and 48% are present only in the COLD or in the HOT libraries, respectively. Annotation of the MaAES data set categorized them into 22 functional classes. Of the 2,286 high-quality sequences, 715 (31.28%) originated from full-length cDNA clones and resulted in a set of 149 genes. PMID:15841358

  8. Identification of gyrB and rpoB gene mutations and differentially expressed proteins between a novobiocin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila catfish vaccine strain and its virulent parent strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequence comparison between the full-length 2412 bp DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene of a novobiocin resistant Aeromonas hydrophila AH11NOVO vaccine strain and that of its virulent parent strain AH11P revealed 10 missense mutations. Similarly, sequence comparison between the full-length 4092 bp RNA ...

  9. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides Y thioredoxin gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Pille, S.; Chuat, J C; Breton, A M; Clément-Métral, J D; Galibert, F

    1990-01-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probes based on the known amino acid sequence of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Y thioredoxin were used to identify, clone, and sequence the structural gene. The amino acid sequence derived from the DNA sequence of the R. sphaeroides gene was identical to the known amino acid sequence of R. sphaeroides thioredoxin. An NcoI site was created by directed mutagenesis at the beginning of the thioredoxin gene, inducing in the encoded protein the replacement of serine in posi...

  10. Generation of a large scale repertoire of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from normalised rainbow trout cDNA libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiguen Yann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a genomics project on livestock species (AGENAE, we initiated a high-throughput DNA sequencing program of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Results We constructed three cDNA libraries including one highly complex pooled-tissue library. These libraries were normalized and subtracted to reduce clone redundancy. ESTs sequences were produced, and 96 472 ESTs corresponding to high quality sequence reads were released on the international database, currently representing 42.5% of the overall sequence knowledge in this species. All these EST sequences and other publicly available ESTs in rainbow trout have been included on a publicly available Website (SIGENAE and have been clustered into a total of 52 930 clusters of putative transcripts groups, including 24 616 singletons. 57.1% of these 52 930 clusters are represented by at least one Agenae EST and 14 343 clusters (27.1% are only composed by Agenae ESTs. Sequence analysis also reveals that normalization and especially subtraction were effective in decreasing redundancy, and that the pooled-tissue library was representative of the initial tissue complexity. Conclusion Due to present work on the construction of rainbow trout normalized cDNA libraries and their extensive sequencing, along with other large scale sequencing programs, rainbow trout is now one of the major fish models in term of EST sequences available in a public database, just after Zebrafish, Danio rerio. This information is now used for the selection of a non redundant set of clones for producing DNA micro-arrays in order to examine global gene expression.

  11. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of AmpliSeq transcriptome, a novel targeted whole transcriptome RNA sequencing methodology for global gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenli; Turner, Amy; Aggarwal, Praful; Matter, Andrea; Storvick, Erin; Donna K Arnett; Broeckel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) represents a powerful approach for whole transcriptome gene expression analysis. However, RNA-seq carries a few limitations, e.g., the requirement of a significant amount of input RNA and complications led by non-specific mapping of short reads. The Ion AmpliSeq™ Transcriptome Human Gene Expression Kit (AmpliSeq) was recently introduced by Life Technologies as a whole-transcriptome, targeted gene quantification kit to overcome these limitati...

  13. In silico identification of miRNAs and their targets from the expressed sequence tags of Raphanus sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Muvva, Charuvaka; Tewari, Lata; Aruna, Kasoju; Ranjit, Pabbati; MD, Zahoorullah S; MD, K A Matheen; Veeramachaneni, Hemanth

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel growing family of endogenous, small, non- coding, single-stranded RNA molecules directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database of Raphanus sativus, and according to a series of filtering cr...

  14. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression of Cyathus bulleri laccase in Pichia pastoris and characterization of recombinant laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Neha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases and catalyze the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. There is considerable interest in using these enzymes for dye degradation as well as for synthesis of aromatic compounds. Laccases are produced at relatively low levels and, sometimes, as isozymes in the native fungi. The investigation of properties of individual enzymes therefore becomes difficult. The goal of this study was to over-produce a previously reported laccase from Cyathus bulleri using the well-established expression system of Pichia pastoris and examine and compare the properties of the recombinant enzyme with that of the native laccase. Results In this study, complete cDNA encoding laccase (Lac from white rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was amplified by RACE-PCR, cloned and expressed in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX1 promoter. The coding region consisted of 1,542 bp and encodes a protein of 513 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the matured protein displayed high homology with laccases from Trametes versicolor and Coprinus cinereus. The sequence analysis indicated the presence of Glu 460 and Ser 113 and LEL tripeptide at the position known to influence redox potential of laccases placing this enzyme as a high redox enzyme. Addition of copper sulfate to the production medium enhanced the level of laccase by about 12-fold to a final activity of 7200 U L-1. The recombinant laccase (rLac was purified by ~4-fold to a specific activity of ~85 U mg-1 protein. A detailed study of thermostability, chloride and solvent tolerance of the rLac indicated improvement in the first two properties when compared to the native laccase (nLac. Altered glycosylation pattern, identified by peptide mass finger printing, was proposed to contribute to altered properties of the rLac. Conclusion Laccase of C. bulleri was

  15. Efficient expression and secretion of recombinant hirudin III in E. coli using the L-asparaginase II signal sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuhua; Wu, Wutong; Liu, Jingjing; Kong, Yi; Pu, Yinghui; Yuan, Riying

    2002-08-01

    One of the hirudin variants HV3 was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli using the L-asparaginase II signal sequence and the product was secreted into the culture medium. For the secretory manufacture of HV3, the L-asparaginase II signal sequence containing a single NheI restriction site at its 3' end was designed using the degenerate codons and PCR-amplified from E. coli chromosomal DNA. The synthetic HV3 coding sequence was fused to the signal sequence in-frame by its 5' NheI restriction site. The above signal-HV3 fusion gene was inserted into an expression vector pTA, which was derived from pkk223-3 such that its expression was under the control of the tac promotor. The resulting HV3 secretion expression vector pTASH thus constructed was introduced into an E. coli host cell AS1.357 with high L-asparaginase II producing level. After inducing with IPTG, the expression product was efficiently secreted into the culture medium and shake-flask culturing gave a yield of approximately 5 x 10(5)ATU/L (approximately 60mg/L). The secreted HV3 was easily purified from culture supernatant using ultrafiltration, ion-exchange column chromatography, and FPLC reverse-phase chromatography. The purified rHV3 from the culture supernatant had the expected N-terminal amino sequence and strong antithrombin activity, suggesting that the signal sequence was completely removed and the product was processed accurately during the secretion process. PMID:12182823

  16. Analysis of a set of Australian northern brown bandicoot expressed sequence tags with comparison to the genome sequence of the South American grey short tailed opossum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert D

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tags (ESTs have been used for rapid gene discovery in a variety of organisms and provide a valuable resource for whole genome annotation. Although the genome of one marsupial, the opossum Monodelphis domestica, has now been sequenced, no EST datasets have been reported from any marsupial species. In this study we describe an EST dataset from the bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus, providing information on the transcriptional profile of the bandicoot thymus and the opportunity for a genome wide comparison between the bandicoot and opossum, two distantly related marsupial species. Results A set of 1319 ESTs was generated from sequencing randomly chosen clones from a bandicoot thymus cDNA library. The nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences were compared with sequences both in GenBank and the recently completed whole genome sequence of M. domestica. This study provides information on the transcriptional profile of the bandicoot thymus with the identification of genes involved in a broad range of activities including protein metabolism (24%, transcription and/or nucleic acid metabolism (10%, metabolism/energy pathways (9%, immunity (5%, signal transduction (5%, cell growth and maintenance (3%, transport (3%, cell cycle (0.7% and apoptosis (0.5% and a proportion of genes whose function is unknown (5.8%. Thirty four percent of the bandicoot ESTs found no match with annotated sequences in any of the public databases. Clustering and assembly of the 1319 bandicoot ESTs resulted in a set of 949 unique sequences of which 375 were unannotated ESTs. Of these, seventy one unannotated ESTs aligned to non-coding regions in the opossum, human, or both genomes, and were identified as strong non-coding RNA candidates. Eighty-four percent of the 949 assembled ESTs aligned with the M. domestica genome sequence indicating a high level of conservation between these two distantly related marsupials. Conclusion This study is among

  17. The Impact of Catfish Imports on the U.S. Wholesale and Farm Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; Neal, Sammy J.; Hanson, Terrill R.; Jones, Keithly G.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of catfish imports and tariffs on the U.S. catfish industry, with particular focus on the U.S. International Trade Commission ruling on Vietnam in 2003. Given the importance of Vietnam to the U.S. catfish market, it was assumed that catfish import prices would increase by 35 percent if the maximum tariff was imposed on catfish from Vietnam. With the tariff, domestic catfish prices at the wholesale level would increase by $0.06 per l...

  18. Transcriptome Sequencing, De Novo Assembly and Differential Gene Expression Analysis of the Early Development of Acipenser baeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms that drive the development of the endangered fossil fish species Acipenser baeri are difficult to study due to the lack of genomic data. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and the reducing cost of sequencing offer exclusive opportunities for exploring important molecular mechanisms underlying specific biological processes. This manuscript describes the large scale sequencing and analyses of mRNA from Acipenser baeri collected at five development time points using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. The sequencing reads were de novo assembled and clustered into 278167 unigenes, of which 57346 (20.62% had 45837 known homologues proteins in Uniprot protein databases while 11509 proteins matched with at least one sequence of assembled unigenes. The remaining 79.38% of unigenes could stand for non-coding unigenes or unigenes specific to A. baeri. A number of 43062 unigenes were annotated into functional categories via Gene Ontology (GO annotation whereas 29526 unigenes were associated with 329 pathways by mapping to KEGG database. Subsequently, 3479 differentially expressed genes were scanned within developmental stages and clustered into 50 gene expression profiles. Genes preferentially expressed at each stage were also identified. Through GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, relevant physiological variations during the early development of A. baeri could be better cognized. Accordingly, the present study gives insights into the transcriptome profile of the early development of A. baeri, and the information contained in this large scale transcriptome will provide substantial references for A. baeri developmental biology and promote its aquaculture research.

  19. Manipulating the Prion Protein Gene Sequence and Expression Levels with CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Mende, Ylva; Zevnik, Branko; Jackson, Walker S.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp) is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems. However, the Prnp locus is difficult to manipulate by homologous recombination, making modifications of the endogenous locus rarely attempted. Fortunately in recent years genome engineering technologies, like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 (CC9), have brought exceptional new possibilities for manipulating Prnp. Herein, we present our observations made during systematic experiments with the CC9 system targeting the endogenous mouse Prnp locus, to either modify sequences or to boost PrP expression using CC9-based synergistic activation mediators (SAMs). It is our hope that this information will aid and encourage researchers to implement gene-targeting techniques into their research program. PMID:27128441

  20. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic responses resulting from physiological changes that occur in plants displaying citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC symptoms, we adopted a strategy of comparing two EST libraries from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. One of them was prepared with plants showing typical CVC symptoms caused by Xylella fastidiosa and the other with non-inoculated plants. We obtained 15,944 ESTs by sequencing the two cDNA libraries. Using an in silico hybridization strategy, 37 genes were found to have significant variation at the transcriptional level. Within this subset, 21 were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in plants with CVC. The main functional categories of the down-regulated transcripts in plants with CVC were associated with metabolism, protein modification, energy and transport facilitation. The majority of the up-regulated transcripts were associated with metabolism and defense response. Some transcripts associated with adaptation to stress conditions were up-regulated in plants with CVC and could explain why plants remain alive even under severe water and nutritional stress. Others of the up-regulated transcripts are related to defense response suggesting that sweet orange plants activate their defense machinery. The genes associated with stress response might be expressed as part of a secondary response related to physiological alterations caused by the infection.

  1. Sequence Variation and Expression of the Gimap Gene Family in the BB Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Rutledge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional cloning of lymphopenia (lyp in the BB rat revealed a frameshift mutation in Gimap5, a member of at least seven related GTPase Immune Associated Protein genes located on rat chromosome 4q24. Our aim was to clone and sequence the cDNA of the BB diabetes prone (DP and diabetes resistant (DR alleles of all seven Gimap genes in the congenic DR.lyp rat line with 2 Mb of BB DP DNA introgressed onto the DR genetic background. All (100% DR.lyp/lyp rats are lymphopenic and develop type 1 diabetes (T1D by 84 days of age while DR.+/+ rats remain T1D and lyp resistant. Among the seven Gimap genes, the Gimap5 frameshift mutation, a mutant allele that produces no protein, had the greatest impact on lymphopenia in the DR.lyp/lyp rat. Gimap4 and Gimap1 each had one amino acid substitution of unlikely significance for lymphopenia. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in expression of all seven Gimap genes in DR.lyp/lyp spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to DR.+/+. Only four; Gimap1, Gimap4, Gimap5, and Gimap9 were reduced in thymus. Our data substantiates the Gimap5 frameshift mutation as the primary defect with only limited contributions to lymphopenia from the remaining Gimap genes.

  2. Manipulating the Prion Protein Gene Sequence and Expression Levels with CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Mende, Ylva; Zevnik, Branko; Jackson, Walker S

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp) is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems. However, the Prnp locus is difficult to manipulate by homologous recombination, making modifications of the endogenous locus rarely attempted. Fortunately in recent years genome engineering technologies, like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 (CC9), have brought exceptional new possibilities for manipulating Prnp. Herein, we present our observations made during systematic experiments with the CC9 system targeting the endogenous mouse Prnp locus, to either modify sequences or to boost PrP expression using CC9-based synergistic activation mediators (SAMs). It is our hope that this information will aid and encourage researchers to implement gene-targeting techniques into their research program. PMID:27128441

  3. Manipulating the Prion Protein Gene Sequence and Expression Levels with CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kaczmarczyk

    Full Text Available The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems. However, the Prnp locus is difficult to manipulate by homologous recombination, making modifications of the endogenous locus rarely attempted. Fortunately in recent years genome engineering technologies, like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 (CC9, have brought exceptional new possibilities for manipulating Prnp. Herein, we present our observations made during systematic experiments with the CC9 system targeting the endogenous mouse Prnp locus, to either modify sequences or to boost PrP expression using CC9-based synergistic activation mediators (SAMs. It is our hope that this information will aid and encourage researchers to implement gene-targeting techniques into their research program.

  4. Codon modification for the DNA sequence of a single-chain Fv antibody against clenbuterol and expression in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve expression efficiency of the recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against clenbuterol (CBL) obtained from mouse in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) GS115, the DNA sequence encoding for CBL-scFv was designed and synthesized based on the codon bias of P. p...

  5. Editing of the Luteinizing Hormone Gene to Sterilize Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Using a Modified Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology with Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Yun; Su, Baofeng; Cheng, Qi; Ye, Zhi; Perera, Dayan A; Fobes, Michael; Shang, Mei; Dunham, Rex A

    2016-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the most important freshwater aquaculture species in the USA. Genetically enhanced fish that are sterile could both profit the catfish industry and reduce potential environmental and ecological risks. As the first step to generate sterile channel catfish, three sets of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids targeting the luteinizing hormone (LH) gene were designed and electroporated into one-cell embryos, different concentrations were introduced, and the Cel-I assay was conducted to detect mutations. Channel catfish carrying the mutated LH gene were sterile, as confirmed by DNA sequencing and mating experiments. The overall mutation rate was 19.7 % for 66 channel catfish, and the best treatment was ZFN set 1 at the concentration 25 μg/ml. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of gene editing of fish via plasmid introduction instead of mRNA microinjection. The introduction of the ZFN plasmids may have reduced mosaicism, as mutated individuals were gene edited in every tissue evaluated. Apparently, the plasmids were eventually degraded without integration, as they were not detectable in mutated individuals using PCR. Carp pituitary extract failed to induce spawning and restoration of fertility, indicating the need for developing other hormone therapies to achieve reversal of sterility upon demand. This is the first sterilization achieved using ZFN technology in an aquaculture species and the first successful gene editing of channel catfish. Our results will help understand the roles of the LH gene, purposeful sterilization of teleost fishes, and is a step towards control of domestic, hybrid, exotic, invasive, and transgenic fishes. PMID:26846523

  6. Next generation sequencing for profiling expression of miRNAs: technical progress and applications in drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Jennings, Steven F.; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2011-01-01

    miRNAs are non-coding RNAs that play a regulatory role in expression of genes and are associated with diseases. Quantitatively measuring expression levels of miRNAs can help in understanding the mechanisms of human diseases and discovering new drug targets. There are three major methods that have been used to measure the expression levels of miRNAs: real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), microarray, and the newly introduced next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS is not only suitable fo...

  7. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family. PMID:27323082

  8. Identification and Characterization of Full-Length cDNAs in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Blue Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Liu, Hong; Liu, Shikai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Ke, Caihuan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. Methodology and Principal Findings Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding f...

  9. Characterization of pathogenic Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii associated with ulcerative syndrome from Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Günther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Hu Cai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 273 bacterial strains were isolated from 20 Chinese longsnout catfish samples. The biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii on the basis of Vitek GNI+ card. Furthermore, 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoD sequences of the representative strain PY50 were sequenced and showed high similarity with A. veronii bv. veronii in Genbank. Antibiotic-resistance of the representative strain PY50 was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was susceptible and moderately susceptible to 13 and 4 of the 21 antimicrobial agents tested. Extracellular products of strain PY50 contained gelatinase, lecithinase, elastase, most of lipase and lipopolysaccharide. Virulence of strain PY50 and extracellular products to Chinese longsnout catfish were also tested, and LD50 were about 3.47×10(4 CFU per fish and 11.22 μg per fish in intraperitoneal injection respectively. This is the first report that A. veronii bv. veronii was the pathogenic agent of ulcerative syndrome in Chinese longsnout catfish.

  10. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Six Catfish Species from an Altitude Gradient Reveals Adaptive Evolution in Tibetan Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhui Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyptosternoid fishes (Siluriformes, one of the three broad fish lineages (the two other are schizothoracines and Triplophysa, have a limited distribution in the rivers in the Tibetan Plateau and peripheral regions. To investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau in several fish species from gradient altitudes, a total of 20,659,183–37,166,756 sequence reads from six species of catfish were generated by Illumina sequencing, resulting in six assemblies. Analysis of the 1,656 orthologs among the six assembled catfish unigene sets provided consistent evidence for genome-wide accelerated evolution in the three glyptosternoid lineages living at high altitudes. A large number of genes refer to functional categories related to hypoxia and energy metabolism exhibited rapid evolution in the glyptosternoid lineages relative to yellowhead catfish living in plains areas. Genes showing signatures of rapid evolution and positive selection in the glyptosternoid lineages were also enriched in functions associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia. Our analyses provide novel insights into highland adaptation in fishes and can serve as a foundation for future studies aiming to identify candidate genes underlying the genetic basis of adaptation in Tibetan fishes.

  11. Expressed sequence tags from Atta laevigata and identification of candidate genes for the control of pest leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique-Silva Flávio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leafcutters are the highest evolved within Neotropical ants in the tribe Attini and model systems for studying caste formation, labor division and symbiosis with microorganisms. Some species of leafcutters are agricultural pests controlled by chemicals which affect other animals and accumulate in the environment. Aiming to provide genetic basis for the study of leafcutters and for the development of more specific and environmentally friendly methods for the control of pest leafcutters, we generated expressed sequence tag data from Atta laevigata, one of the pest ants with broad geographic distribution in South America. Results The analysis of the expressed sequence tags allowed us to characterize 2,006 unique sequences in Atta laevigata. Sixteen of these genes had a high number of transcripts and are likely positively selected for high level of gene expression, being responsible for three basic biological functions: energy conservation through redox reactions in mitochondria; cytoskeleton and muscle structuring; regulation of gene expression and metabolism. Based on leafcutters lifestyle and reports of genes involved in key processes of other social insects, we identified 146 sequences potential targets for controlling pest leafcutters. The targets are responsible for antixenobiosis, development and longevity, immunity, resistance to pathogens, pheromone function, cell signaling, behavior, polysaccharide metabolism and arginine kynase activity. Conclusion The generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from Atta laevigata have provided important genetic basis for future studies on the biology of leaf-cutting ants and may contribute to the development of a more specific and environmentally friendly method for the control of agricultural pest leafcutters.

  12. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Muscle Full-Length cDNA Library of Wujin Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Su-mei; LIU Yong-gang; PAN Hong-bing; ZHANG Xi; GE Chang-rong; JIA Jun-jing; GAO Shi-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Porcine skeletal muscle genes play a major role in determining muscle growth and meat quality. Construction of a full-length cDNA library is an effective way to understand the expression of functional genes in muscle tissues. In addition, novel genes for further research could be identiifed in the library. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA library from porcine muscle tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1076 bp, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 86.2%. A total of 1058 unique sequences with 342 contigs (32.3%) and 716 singleton (67.7%) expressed sequence tags (EST) were obtained by clustering and assembling. Meanwhile, 826 (78.1%) ESTs were categorized as known genes, and 232 (21.9%) ESTs were categorized as unknown genes. 65 novel porcine genes that exhibit no identity in the TIGR gene index ofSus scrofa and 124 full-length sequences with unknown functions were deposited in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: EU650784-EU650788, GE843306, GH228978-GH229100). The abundantly expressed genes in porcine muscle tissue were related to muscle ifber development, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis showed that sequences expressed in porcine muscle tissue contained a high percentage of binding activity, catalytic activity, structural molecule activity and motor activity, which involved mainly in metabolic, cellular and developmental process, distributed mainly in intracellular region. The sequence data generated in this study would provide valuable information for identifying porcine genes expressed in muscle tissue and help to advance the study on the structure and function of genes in pigs.

  13. AllelicImbalance: An R/ bioconductor package for detecting, managing, and visualizing allele expression imbalance data from RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gådin, Jesper R.; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Eriksson, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Background: One aspect in which RNA sequencing is more valuable than microarray-based methods is the ability to examine the allelic imbalance of the expression of a gene. This process is often a complex task that entails quality control, alignment, and the counting of reads over heterozygous single...... possible biases. Results: We present AllelicImblance, a software program that is designed to detect, manage, and visualize allelic imbalances comprehensively. The purpose of this software is to allow users to pose genetic questions in any RNA sequencing experiment quickly, enhancing the general utility of...... RNA sequencing. The visualization features can reveal notable, non-trivial allelic imbalance behavior over specific regions, such as exons. Conclusions: The software provides a complete framework to perform allelic imbalance analyses of aligned RNA sequencing data, from detection to visualization...

  14. DNA repair-related genes in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.A. Costa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much interest in the identification and characterization of genes involved in DNA repair because of their importance in the maintenance of the genome integrity. The high level of conservation of DNA repair genes means that these genetic elements may be used in phylogenetic studies as a source of information on the genetic origin and evolution of species. The mechanisms by which damaged DNA is repaired are well understood in bacteria, yeast and mammals, but much remains to be learned as regards plants. We identified genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms in sugarcane using a similarity search of the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST database against known sequences deposited in other public databases (National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana database. This search revealed that most of the various proteins involved in DNA repair in sugarcane are similar to those found in other eukaryotes. However, we also identified certain intriguing features found only in plants, probably due to the independent evolution of this kingdom. The DNA repair mechanisms investigated include photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, non-homologous end joining, homologous recombination repair and DNA lesion tolerance. We report the main differences found in the DNA repair machinery in plant cells as compared to other organisms. These differences point to potentially different strategies plants employ to deal with DNA damage, that deserve further investigation.A identificação e caracterização de genes envolvidos com reparo de DNA são de grande interesse, dada a sua importância na manutenção da integridade genômica. Além disso, a alta conservação dos genes de reparo de DNA faz com que possam ser utilizados como fonte de informação no que diz respeito à origem e evolução das esp

  15. ‘In silico expression analysis’, a novel PathoPlant web tool to identify abiotic and biotic stress conditions associated with specific cis-regulatory sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machens, Fabian; Brill, Yuri; Romanov, Artyom; Bülow, Lorenz; Hehl, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Using bioinformatics, putative cis-regulatory sequences can be easily identified using pattern recognition programs on promoters of specific gene sets. The abundance of predicted cis-sequences is a major challenge to associate these sequences with a possible function in gene expression regulation. To identify a possible function of the predicted cis-sequences, a novel web tool designated ‘in silico expression analysis’ was developed that correlates submitted cis-sequences with gene expression data from Arabidopsis thaliana. The web tool identifies the A. thaliana genes harbouring the sequence in a defined promoter region and compares the expression of these genes with microarray data. The result is a hierarchy of abiotic and biotic stress conditions to which these genes are most likely responsive. When testing the performance of the web tool, known cis-regulatory sequences were submitted to the ‘in silico expression analysis’ resulting in the correct identification of the associated stress conditions. When using a recently identified novel elicitor-responsive sequence, a WT-box (CGACTTTT), the ‘in silico expression analysis’ predicts that genes harbouring this sequence in their promoter are most likely Botrytis cinerea induced. Consistent with this prediction, the strongest induction of a reporter gene harbouring this sequence in the promoter is observed with B. cinerea in transgenic A. thaliana. Database URL: http://www.pathoplant.de/expression_analysis.php. PMID:24727366

  16. 'In silico expression analysis', a novel PathoPlant web tool to identify abiotic and biotic stress conditions associated with specific cis-regulatory sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Julio C; Machens, Fabian; Brill, Yuri; Romanov, Artyom; Bülow, Lorenz; Hehl, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Using bioinformatics, putative cis-regulatory sequences can be easily identified using pattern recognition programs on promoters of specific gene sets. The abundance of predicted cis-sequences is a major challenge to associate these sequences with a possible function in gene expression regulation. To identify a possible function of the predicted cis-sequences, a novel web tool designated 'in silico expression analysis' was developed that correlates submitted cis-sequences with gene expression data from Arabidopsis thaliana. The web tool identifies the A. thaliana genes harbouring the sequence in a defined promoter region and compares the expression of these genes with microarray data. The result is a hierarchy of abiotic and biotic stress conditions to which these genes are most likely responsive. When testing the performance of the web tool, known cis-regulatory sequences were submitted to the 'in silico expression analysis' resulting in the correct identification of the associated stress conditions. When using a recently identified novel elicitor-responsive sequence, a WT-box (CGACTTTT), the 'in silico expression analysis' predicts that genes harbouring this sequence in their promoter are most likely Botrytis cinerea induced. Consistent with this prediction, the strongest induction of a reporter gene harbouring this sequence in the promoter is observed with B. cinerea in transgenic A. thaliana. DATABASE URL: http://www.pathoplant.de/expression_analysis.php. PMID:24727366

  17. The Effect of Addition Vitamin E on Catfish Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Kusharto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids contained oils which sensitive to oxidation caused by heat, light and oxygen. The oxidized oil known harmful to the body. One of the effort to prevent the oxidation process is by adding antioxidants stability of oil catfish and shelf life of the oil. The experimental study was applied by adding vitamin E to the oil as much as 0.67 mg / g PUFA compared with the control oil. Oil was stored with the Schaal Oven Test method, which are stored at a temperature of 600C. The study showed that, based on the parameters of oxidation (free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidin numbers, and the number of total oxidation, catfish oil were added vitamin E more stabilized than the catfish oil without added vitamin E. The catfish fish oil in the form of soft gell capsules added vitamin E could maintain stability in appropriate with IFOS up to 23 months.

  18. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  19. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from a cDNA library of the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiwen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little genomic or trancriptomic information on Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi is known. This study aims to discover the transcripts involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and developmental regulation of G. lucidum using an expressed sequence tag (EST library. Methods A cDNA library was constructed from the G. lucidum fruiting body. Its high-quality ESTs were assembled into unique sequences with contigs and singletons. The unique sequences were annotated according to sequence similarities to genes or proteins available in public databases. The detection of simple sequence repeats (SSRs was preformed by online analysis. Results A total of 1,023 clones were randomly selected from the G. lucidum library and sequenced, yielding 879 high-quality ESTs. These ESTs showed similarities to a diverse range of genes. The sequences encoding squalene epoxidase (SE and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPS were identified in this EST collection. Several candidate genes, such as hydrophobin, MOB2, profilin and PHO84 were detected for the first time in G. lucidum. Thirteen (13 potential SSR-motif microsatellite loci were also identified. Conclusion The present study demonstrates a successful application of EST analysis in the discovery of transcripts involved in the secondary metabolite biosynthesis and the developmental regulation of G. lucidum.

  20. STRUCTURAL CHROMOSOME DIVERSIFICATION IN TWO SOUTHERN ATLANTIC MARINE CATFISHES (ARIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Candeia de Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Siluriforms is one of the most diverse groups of the Neotropical ichthyofauna. About 1,750 species occurs exclusively in the Americas. In view the high number of species, geographical widespread and morphological similarities, there are still many questions about the relationship among some families and species. One of the two families in this Order that inhabit the marine environment, Ariidae shows numerous taxonomic uncertainties. Cytogenetic analysis in Atlantic species are still incipient. To evaluate the karyotype diversity and infer the evolutionary history of this clade are presented here chromosomal data of species Cathorops spixii and Sciades sp. distributed in the northeastern Brazil coastline. Both species have the same diploid number 2n=56, but with marked differences between chromosomal formulas. In fact, C. spixii shows 12m+16sm+24st+4a (NF=108 and Sciades sp. presents 14m+10sm+22st+10a (NF=102. Both species have multiple NORs (nucleolar organizer regions, localized in the terminal portion of two chromosome pairs. The karyotypic patterns of these and other species of Ariidae indicates that pericentric inversion represent that the main mechanism involved in chromosomal diversity of the family. Taxonomic uncertainty in some taxa and the occurrence of interpopulational karyotypic variations in species Ariidae, raise detailed analyzes using the mapping of repetitive sequences in order to identify possible cryptic species in this family along the Brazilian coast. Keywords: Cathorops spixii, Sciades sp., pericentric inversions, fish cytogenetics, marine catfishes.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio ( Listonella) anguillarum from catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Rad, Mehrnaz; Shahsavani, Davar

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated from several organs of some aquarium catfish in a fish population with high mortality. Macroscopic examination of the affected catfish revealed ascites in the abdomen, site-petechiae, and dorsal erection. Although there are some variations in phenotypic characterization among different isolates of Vibrio anguillarum, the majority show a common biochemical profile with distinct microscopic appearance that can provide presumptive identification of Vibrio anguilla...

  2. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  3. Gene expression in Florida red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis: analysis of an expressed sequence tag library and development of DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidie, Kristy B; Ryan, James C; Barbier, Michele; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2005-01-01

    Karenia brevis (Davis) is the dinoflagellate responsible for nearly annual red tides in the Gulf of Mexico. Although the mechanisms regulating the growth and toxicity of this problematic organism are of considerable interest, little information is available on its molecular biology. We therefore constructed a complementary DNA library from which to gain insight into its expressed genome and to develop tools for studying its gene expression. Large-scale sequencing yielded 7001 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), which clustered into 5280 unique gene groups. The vast majority of genes expressed fell into a low-abundance class, with the highest expressed gene accounting for only 1% of the total ESTs. Approximately 29% of genes were found to have similarity to known sequences in other organisms after BLAST similarity comparisons to the GenBank public protein database using a cutoff of P < 10e(-4). We identified for the first time in a dinoflagellate a suite of conserved eukaryotic genes involved in cell cycle control, intracellular signaling, and the transcription and translation machinery. At least 40% of gene clusters displayed single nucleotide polymorphisms, suggesting the presence of multiple gene copies. The average GC content of ESTs was 51%, with a slight preference for G or C in the third codon position (53.5%). The ESTs were used to develop an oligonucleotide microarray containing 4629 unique features and 3462 replicate probes. Microarray labeling has been optimized, and the microarray has been validated for probe specificity and reproducibility. This is the first information to be developed on the expressed genome of K. brevis and provides the basis from which to begin functional genomic studies on this harmful algal bloom species. PMID:15976935

  4. Assembly and variation analyses of Clarias batrachus mitogenome retrieved from WGS data and its phylogenetic relationship with other catfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basdeo Kushwaha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing (WGS using next generation sequencing technologies paves the way to sequence the mitochondrial genomes with greater ease and lesser time. Here, we used the WGS data of Clarias batrachus, generated from Roche 454 and Ion Torrent sequencing platforms, to assemble the complete mitogenome using both de novo and reference based approaches. Both the methods yielded almost similar results and the best assembled mitogenome was of 16,510 bp size (GenBank Acc. No. KM259918. The mitogenome annotation resulted in 13 coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region, and the gene order was found to be identical with other catfishes. Variation analyses between assembled and the reference (GenBank Acc. No. NC_023923 mitogenome revealed 51 variations. The phylogenetic analysis of coding DNA sequences and tRNA supports the monophyly of catfishes. Two SSRs were identified in C. batrachus mitogenome, out of which one was unique to this species. Based on the relative rate of gene evolution, protein coding mitochondrial genes were found to evolve at a much faster pace than the d-loop, which in turn are followed by the rRNAs; the tRNAs showed wide variability in the rate of sequence evolution, and on average evolve the slowest. Among the coding genes, ND2 evolves most rapidly. The variations present in the coding regions of the mitogenome and their comparative analyses with other catfish species may be useful in species conservation and management programs.

  5. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica, which produces glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-07-15

    Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 secretes a large amount of biosurfactants (BS), mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), from different carbon sources such as hydrocarbons and vegetable oils. The detailed biosynthetic pathway of MEL remained unknown due to lack of genetic information on the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts, including the genus Pseudozyma. Here, in order to obtain genetic information on P. antarctica T-34, we constructed a cDNA library from yeast cells producing MEL from soybean oil and identified the genes expressed through the creation of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library. We generated 398 ESTs, assembled into 146 contiguous sequences. Based upon a BLAST search similarity cut-off of Esequences in the protein database; 60.3% of all contiguous sequences shared significant identities to hypothetical protein of Ustilago maydis, which is a smut fungus and BS producer. Based on the gene expression study using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, the predicted genes, such as mannosyltranferase and acyltransferase, were demonstrated to be highly involved in MEL biosynthesis in soybean oil-grown cells. PMID:16845679

  6. Sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Rose Lucia Braz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary wall of plant conductive systems where they play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water. Lignins are also responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall and are involved in mechanisms of resistance to pathogens. The metabolic routes and enzymes involved in synthesis of lignins have been largely characterized and representative genes that encode enzymes involved in these processes have been cloned from several plant species. The synthesis of lignins is liked to the general metabolism of the phenylpropanoids in plants, having enzymes (e.g. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT common to other processes as well as specific enzymes such as cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. Some maize and sorghum mutants, shown to have defective in CAD and/or COMT activity, are easier to digest because they have a reduced lignin content, something which has motivated different research groups to alter the lignin content and composition of model plants by genetic engineering try to improve, for example, the efficiency of paper pulping and digestibility. In the work reported in this paper, we have made an inventory of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST coding for enzymes involved in lignin metabolism which are present in the sugarcane EST genome project (SUCEST database. Our analysis focused on the key enzymes ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. The comparative analysis of these genes with those described in other species could be used as molecular markers for breeding as well as for the manipulation of lignin metabolism in sugarcane.

  7. A molecular analysis of desiccation tolerance mechanisms in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus using expressed sequenced tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering into a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. Panagrolaimus superbus is a free-living anhydrobiotic nematode that can survive rapid environmental desiccation. The mechanisms that P. superbus uses to combat the potentially lethal effects of cellular dehydration may include the constitutive and inducible expression of protective molecules, along with behavioural and/or morphological adaptations that slow the rate of cellular water loss. In addition, inducible repair and revival programmes may also be required for successful rehydration and recovery from anhydrobiosis. Results To identify constitutively expressed candidate anhydrobiotic genes we obtained 9,216 ESTs from an unstressed mixed stage population of P. superbus. We derived 4,009 unigenes from these ESTs. These unigene annotations and sequences can be accessed at http://www.nematodes.org/nembase4/species_info.php?species=PSC. We manually annotated a set of 187 constitutively expressed candidate anhydrobiotic genes from P. superbus. Notable among those is a putative lineage expansion of the lea (late embryogenesis abundant gene family. The most abundantly expressed sequence was a member of the nematode specific sxp/ral-2 family that is highly expressed in parasitic nematodes and secreted onto the surface of the nematodes' cuticles. There were 2,059 novel unigenes (51.7% of the total, 149 of which are predicted to encode intrinsically disordered proteins lacking a fixed tertiary structure. One unigene may encode an exo-β-1,3-glucanase (GHF5 family, most similar to a sequence from Phytophthora infestans. GHF5 enzymes have been reported from several species of plant parasitic nematodes, with horizontal gene transfer (HGT from bacteria proposed to explain their evolutionary origin. This P. superbus sequence represents another possible HGT event within the Nematoda. The expression of five of the 19

  8. Isolation of expressed sequences encoded by the human Xq terminal portion using microclone probes generated by laser microdissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Kang, X. (Univ. of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ontario (Canada)); Hadano, Shinji; Kogi, Mieko; Wakasa, Kyo (Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)); Ikeda, J.E. (Univ. of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ontario (Canada) Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan) National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    The genes that cause a variety of neurologic and neuromuscular disorders have been mapped to the distal region of Xq. In an effort to isolate genes from this area, a regional genomic library of the distal 30% of Xq was constructed from a single metaphase spread by means of laser microdissection and single unique primer-polymerase chain reaction. Using pooled probes of 1000 clones from the genomic library, human brain cDNA libraries were screened for expressed sequences encoded by this region. From the 250,000 cDNA clones screened so far, 10 nonoverlapping sequences that mapped back to the target portion were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequences of these cDNA clones have been determined. Analysis of the sequences indicates that none has significant similarity to previously characterized primate genes. One sequence mapping to Xq27.3-qter contained an open reading frame of 281 amino acids and was expressed in every tissue tested. This gene, as well as others isolated in this manner, may prove to be a candidate gene for heritable disorders mapping to this region. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Expression of cassini, a murine gamma-satellite sequence conserved in evolution, is regulated in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arutyunyan Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cells treated with drugs can become drug-tolerant if co-cultured with protective stromal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. Results We performed transcriptional profiling on these stromal fibroblasts to investigate if they were affected by the presence of drug-treated ALL cells. These mitotically inactivated MEFs showed few changes in gene expression, but a family of sequences of which transcription is significantly increased was identified. A sequence related to this family, which we named cassini, was selected for further characterization. We found that cassini was highly upregulated in drug-treated ALL cells. Analysis of RNAs from different normal mouse tissues showed that cassini expression is highest in spleen and thymus, and can be further enhanced in these organs by exposure of mice to bacterial endotoxin. Heat shock, but not other types of stress, significantly induced the transcription of this locus in ALL cells. Transient overexpression of cassini in human 293 embryonic kidney cells did not increase the cytotoxic or cytostatic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs but provided some protection. Database searches revealed that sequences highly homologous to cassini are present in rodents, apicomplexans, flatworms and primates, indicating that they are conserved in evolution. Moreover, CASSINI RNA was induced in human ALL cells treated with vincristine. Surprisingly, cassini belongs to the previously reported murine family of γ-satellite/major satellite DNA sequences, which were not known to be present in other species. Conclusions Our results show that the transcription of at least one member of these sequences is regulated, suggesting that this has a function in normal and transformed immune cells. Expression of these sequences may protect cells when they are exposed to specific stress stimuli.

  10. Gene expression profiling of coelomic cells and discovery of immune-related genes in the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, using expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Eun Sik; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Soon Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The coelomic cells of the earthworm consist of leukocytes, chlorogocytes, and coelomocytes, which play an important role in innate immunity reactions. To gain insight into the expression profiles of coelomic cells of the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, we analyzed 1151 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from the cDNA library of the coelomic cells. Among the 1151 ESTs analyzed, 493 ESTs (42.8%) showed a significant similarity to known genes and represented 164 unique genes, of which 93 ESTs were singletons and 71 ESTs manifested as two or more ESTs. From the 164 unique genes sequenced, we found 24 immune-related and cell defense genes. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that levels of lysenin-related proteins mRNA in coelomic cells of E. andrei were upregulated after the injection of Bacillus subtilis bacteria. This EST data-set would provide a valuable resource for future researches of earthworm immune system. PMID:25496401

  11. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and ...

  12. Efficient gusA Transient Expression in Porphyra yezoensis Protoplasts Mediated by Endogenous Beta-tubulin Flanking Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qianhong; YU Wengong; DAI Jixun; LIU Hongquan; XU Rifu; GUAN Huashi; PAN Kehou

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous tubulin promoter has been widely used for expressing foreign genes in green algae, but the efficiency and feasibility of endogenous tubulin promoter in the economically important Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) are tmknown. In this study, the flanking sequences of beta-tubulin gene from P. yezoensis were amplified and two transient expression vectors were constructed to determine their transcription promoting feasibility for foreign gene gusA. The testing vector pATubGUS was constructed by inserting 5'- and 3'-flanking regions (Tub5'and Tub3') up- and down-stream of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gusA), respectively,into pA, a derivative of pCAT(R)3-enhancer vector. The control construct, pAGUSTub3, contains only gusA and Tub3 '. These constructs were electroporated into P. yezoensis protoplasts and the GUS activities were quantitatively analyzed by spectrometry. The results demonstrated that gusA gene was efficiently expressed in P. yezoensis protoplasts under the regulation of 5'-flanking sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. More interestingly, the pATubGUS produced stronger GUS activity in P. yezoensis protoplasts when compared to the result from pBI221, in which the gusA gene was directed by a constitutive CaMV 35 S promoter. The data suggest that the integration of P. yezoensis protoplast and its endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences is a potential novel system for foreign gene expression.

  13. Efficient gusA transient expression in Porphyra yezoensis protoplasts mediated by endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong; Dai, Jixun; Liu, Hongquan; Xu, Rifu; Guan, Huashi; Pan, Kehou

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous tubulin promoter has been widely used for expressing foreign genes in green algae, but the efficiency and feasibility of endogenous tubulin promoter in the economically important Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) are unknown. In this study, the flanking sequences of beta-tubulin gene from P. yezoensis were amplified and two transient expression vectors were constructed to determine their transcription promoting feasibility for foreign gene gusA. The testing vector pATubGUS was constructed by inserting 5'-and 3'-flanking regions ( Tub5' and Tub3') up-and down-stream of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( gusA), respectively, into pA, a derivative of pCAT®3-enhancer vector. The control construct, pAGUSTub3, contains only gusA and Tub3'. These constructs were electroporated into P. yezoensis protoplasts and the GUS activities were quantitatively analyzed by spectrometry. The results demonstrated that gusA gene was efficiently expressed in P. yezoensis protoplasts under the regulation of 5'-flanking sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. More interestingly, the pATubGUS produced stronger GUS activity in P. yezoensis protoplasts when compared to the result from pBI221, in which the gusA gene was directed by a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. The data suggest that the integration of P. yezoensis protoplast and its endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences is a potential novel system for foreign gene expression.

  14. Parallel Faster-X Evolution of Gene Expression and Protein Sequences in Drosophila: Beyond Differences in Expression Properties and Protein Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Llopart

    2015-01-01

    Population genetics models predict that the X (or Z) chromosome will evolve at faster rates than the autosomes in XY (or ZW) systems. Studies of molecular evolution using large datasets in multiple species have provided evidence supporting this faster-X effect in protein-coding sequences and, more recently, in transcriptomes. However, X-linked and autosomal genes differ significantly in important properties besides hemizygosity in males, including gene expression levels, tissue specificity in...

  15. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) larvae by sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiago Collares; Vinicius Farias Campos; Fabiana Kömmling Seixas; Paulo V Cavalcanti; Odir A Dellagostin; Heden Luiz M Moreira; João Carlos Deschamps

    2010-03-01

    The silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) is an endemic American fish species. The sperm of each species has its own peculiarities and biological characteristics, which influence the success of mass DNA transfer methods. Our objective in this study was to evaluate different sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) methods to obtain transgenic silver catfish. Different treatments for the incorporation of a foreign pEGFP plasmid group were used: (1) dehydrated/rehydrated (DR), (2) dehydrated/rehydrated/electroporated (DRE), (3) electroporated (E), (4) incubated with seminal plasma (INC); and (5) incubated in the absence of seminal plasma (INCSP). Sperm motility, time of activity duration (TAD), fertilization rate (FR), hatching rate (HR) and sperm morphology were also evaluated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity rates for the presence of the transgene were: DRE 60%; DR 40%; E 25%; INC 5% and INCSP 25%. The rates of embryo EGFP expression were: DRE 63%; DR 44%; E 34%; INC 8% and INCSP 38%. The fertilization rate in the control and DRE treatments groups were higher than in the DR group, but the E, INC and INCSP treatment groups had the lowest rate. The hatching rates of the DRE, DR and control groups were higher than in the INCSP, INC and E treatment groups ( > 0.05). There were no differences among the DRE and DR, E and DR, E and INCSP groups in expression and PCR positivity rates of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in embryos. Scanning electron microscopy also did not show any change in sperm morphology among treatment groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on transgene transmission of exogenous DNA into silver catfish larvae through SMGT technology

  16. Expressed sequence tag analysis of khat (Catha edulis) provides a putative molecular biochemical basis for the biosynthesis of phenylpropylamino alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Raz Krizevski; Korey Kilpatrick; Yaron Sitrit; Frédéric Marsolais; Efraim Lewinsohn; Facchini, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) is a flowering perennial shrub cultivated for its neurostimulant properties resulting mainly from the occurrence of (S)-cathinone in young leaves. The biosynthesis of (S)-cathinone and the related phenylpropylamino alkaloids (1S,2S)-cathine and (1R,2S)-norephedrine is not well characterized in plants. We prepared a cDNA library from young khat leaves and sequenced 4,896 random clones, generating an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of 3,293 unigenes. Putative fun...

  17. The Arabidopsis Root Transcriptome by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression. Gene Identification Using the Genome Sequence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizames, Cécile; Muños, Stéphane; Cazettes, Céline; Nacry, Philippe; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Piquemal, David; Delorme, Valérie; Commes, Thérèse; Doumas, Patrick; Cooke, Richard; Marti, Jacques; Sentenac, Hervé; Gojon, Alain

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale identification of genes expressed in roots of the model plant Arabidopsis was performed by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), on a total of 144,083 sequenced tags, representing at least 15,964 different mRNAs. For tag to gene assignment, we developed a computational approach based on 26,620 genes annotated from the complete sequence of the genome. The procedure selected warrants the identification of the genes corresponding to the majority of the tags found experimentally, with a high level of reliability, and provides a reference database for SAGE studies in Arabidopsis. This new resource allowed us to characterize the expression of more than 3,000 genes, for which there is no expressed sequence tag (EST) or cDNA in the databases. Moreover, 85% of the tags were specific for one gene. To illustrate this advantage of SAGE for functional genomics, we show that our data allow an unambiguous analysis of most of the individual genes belonging to 12 different ion transporter multigene families. These results indicate that, compared with EST-based tag to gene assignment, the use of the annotated genome sequence greatly improves gene identification in SAGE studies. However, more than 6,000 different tags remained with no gene match, suggesting that a significant proportion of transcripts present in the roots originate from yet unknown or wrongly annotated genes. The root transcriptome characterized in this study markedly differs from those obtained in other organs, and provides a unique resource for investigating the functional specificities of the root system. As an example of the use of SAGE for transcript profiling in Arabidopsis, we report here the identification of 270 genes differentially expressed between roots of plants grown either with NO3- or NH4NO3 as N source. PMID:14730065

  18. Whole genome wide expression profiles of Vitis amurensis grape responding to downy mildew by using Solexa sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew (DM, caused by pathogen Plasmopara viticola (PV is the single most damaging disease of grapes (Vitis L. worldwide. However, the mechanisms of the disease development in grapes are poorly understood. A method for estimating gene expression levels using Solexa sequencing of Type I restriction-endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments was used for deep sequencing the transcriptomes resulting from PV infected leaves of Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. Zuoshan-1. Our goal is to identify genes that are involved in resistance to grape DM disease. Results Approximately 8.5 million (M 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the cDNA library derived from PV pathogen-infected leaves, and about 7.5 M were sequenced from the cDNA library constructed from the control leaves. When annotated, a total of 15,249 putative genes were identified from the Solexa sequencing tags for the infection (INF library and 14,549 for the control (CON library. Comparative analysis between these two cDNA libraries showed about 0.9% of the unique tags increased by at least five-fold, and about 0.6% of the unique tags decreased more than five-fold in infected leaves, while 98.5% of the unique tags showed less than five-fold difference between the two samples. The expression levels of 12 differentially expressed genes were confirmed by Real-time RT-PCR and the trends observed agreed well with the Solexa expression profiles, although the degree of change was lower in amplitude. After pathway enrichment analysis, a set of significantly enriched pathways were identified for the differentially expressed genes (DEGs, which associated with ribosome structure, photosynthesis, amino acid and sugar metabolism. Conclusions This study presented a series of candidate genes and pathways that may contribute to DM resistance in grapes, and illustrated that the Solexa-based tag-sequencing approach was a powerful tool for gene expression comparison between control and treated samples.

  19. Price Volatility Spillover in Agricultural Markets: An Examination of U.S. Catfish Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buguk, Cumhur; Hudson, Darren; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2003-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers in the U.S. catfish supply chain are analyzed based on monthly price data from 1980 through 2000 for catfish feed, its ingredients, and farm- and wholesale-level catfish. The exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) model was used to test univariate volatility spillovers for prices in the supply chain. Strong price volatility spillover from feeding material (corn, soybeans, menhaden) to catfish feed and farm- and wholesale-leve...

  20. EFFECTS OF GENERIC ADVERTISING ON PERCEPTIONS AND BEHAVIOR: THE CASE OF CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Venkateswaran, Meenakshi

    1990-01-01

    An eight equation partially-recursive econometric model is specified to indicate the effects of catfish advertising on product awareness, beliefs, attitude and consumption. Results indicate that the ad campaign in its first year (i) increased consumer's awareness on farm-raised catfish 15 percent, (ii) improved consumers' perceptions of and attitude toward catfish 3 to 6 percent, and (iii) increased at-home and restaurant purchases of catfish 12 to 13 percent. The response to the ad campaign ...

  1. Mapping the Transcription Start Points of the Staphylococcus aureus eap, emp, and vwb Promoters Reveals a Conserved Octanucleotide Sequence That Is Essential for Expression of These Genes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Harraghy, Niamh; Homerova, Dagmar; Herrmann, Mathias; Kormanec, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Mapping the transcription start points of the eap, emp, and vwb promoters revealed a conserved octanucleotide sequence (COS). Deleting this sequence abolished the expression of eap, emp, and vwb. However, electrophoretic mobility shift assays gave no evidence that this sequence was a binding site for SarA or SaeR, known regulators of eap and emp.

  2. Whole genome sequencing of sugarbeet and identification of differentially expressed genes regulating beet curly top resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of KDH13 doubled haploid line has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 NGS platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end and a 2kb-insert mate-pair genomic libraries, constructed from a leaf ...

  3. Protein identities from 'Graphocephala atropunctata' expressed sequence tags: Expanding leafhopper vector biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat shock proteins and 44 protein sequences from the blue-green sharpshooter, BGSS, were produced and identified. The sequences were submitted and published under accession numbers: DQ445499-DQ445542, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI, Public Database. The blue-green sharps...

  4. Cloning, sequencing and expression of a xylanase gene from the maize pathogen Helminthosporium turcicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degefu, Y.; Paulin, L.; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen

    2001-01-01

    A gene encoding an endoxylanase from the phytopathogenic fungus Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. was cloned and sequenced. The entire nucleotide sequence of a 1991 bp genomic fragment containing an endoxylanase gene was determined. The xylanase gene of 795 bp, interrupted by two introns of 52 and ...

  5. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  6. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  7. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  8. Breeding strategy of US farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus affects progeny production and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    catfish propagation for decades has been dependent on random mating of male and female channel catfish in ponds. It is simple and has been fairly successful in fulfilling the needs of the US farm-raised catfish industry. However, natural pond spawning is unreliable, unpredictable, and incurs 30 t...

  9. Diversity of Expressed vlhA Adhesin Sequences and Intermediate Hemagglutination Phenotypes in Mycoplasma synoviae▿

    OpenAIRE

    May, Meghan; Brown, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    A reservoir of pseudogene alleles encoding the primary adhesin VlhA occurs in the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae. Recombination between this reservoir and its single expression site was predicted to result in lineages of M. synoviae that each express a different vlhA allele as a consequence of host immune responses to those antigens. Such interstrain diversity at the vlhA expression site, including major differences in the predicted secondary structures of their expressed adhesins, was co...

  10. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags from three castes and two life stages of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steller Matthew M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termites (Isoptera are eusocial insects whose colonies consist of morphologically and behaviorally specialized castes of sterile workers and soldiers, and reproductive alates. Previous studies on eusocial insects have indicated that caste differentiation and behavior are underlain by differential gene expression. Although much is known about gene expression in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, termites remain relatively understudied in this regard. Therefore, our objective was to assemble an expressed sequence tag (EST data base for the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, for future gene expression studies. Results Soldier, worker, and alate caste and two larval cDNA libraries were constructed, and approximately 15,000 randomly chosen clones were sequenced to compile an EST data base. Putative gene functions were assigned based on a BLASTX Swissprot search. Categorical in silico expression patterns for each library were compared using the R-statistic. A significant proportion of the ESTs of each caste and life stages had no significant similarity to those in existing data bases. All cDNA libraries, including those of non-reproductive worker and soldier castes, contained sequences with putative reproductive functions. Genes that showed a potential expression bias among castes included a putative antibacterial humoral response and translation elongation protein in soldiers and a chemosensory protein in alates. Conclusions We have expanded upon the available sequences for R. flavipes and utilized an in silico method to compare gene expression in different castes of an eusocial insect. The in silico analysis allowed us to identify several genes which may be differentially expressed and involved in caste differences. These include a gene overrepresented in the alate cDNA library with a predicted function of neurotransmitter secretion or cholesterol absorption and a gene predicted to be involved in protein

  11. Global Identification of Significantly Expressed Genes in Developing Endosperm of Rice by Expression Sequence Tags and cDNA Array Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qichao Tu; Haitao Dong; Haigen Yao; Yongqi Fang; Cheng'en Dai; Hongmei Luo; Jian Yao; Dong Zhao; Debao Li

    2008-01-01

    Rice endosperm plays a very important role in seedling germination and determines the qualities of fice grain.Although studies on specific gene categories in endosperm have been carried out,global view of gene expression at a transcription level in rice endosperm is still limited.To gain a better understanding of the global and tissue-specific gene expression profiles in rice endosperm,a cDNA library from rice endosperm of immature seeds was sequenced.A cDNA array was constructed based on the tentative unique transcripts derived from expression sequence tag (EST) assembling results and then hybridized with cONAs from five different tissues or organs including endosperm,embryo,leaf,stem and root of rice.Significant redundancy was found for genes encoding prolamin,glutelin,allergen,and starch synthesis proteins,accounting for~34% of the total ESTs obtained.The cDNA array revealed 87 significantly expressed genes in endosperm compared with the other four organs or tissues.These genes included 13 prolamin family proteins,17 glutelin family proteins,12 binding proteins,nine catalytic proteins and four ribosomal proteins,indicating a complicated biological processing in rice endosperm.In addition,Northern verification of 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme detected two isoforms in rice endosperm,the larger one of which only existed in endosperm.

  12. Male-specific DNA markers from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, B; Egedi, S; Bártfai, R; Orbán, L

    2000-01-01

    We searched for sex-specific DNA sequences in the male and female genomes of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) by comparative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays performed on pooled DNA samples. Two sex-linked RAPD markers were identified from the male DNA pool and confirmed on individual samples, showing good agreement with phenotypic sex. Both markers were isolated, cloned and characterized. The first marker (CgaY1) was nearly 2.6 kb long, while the length of second one (CgaY2) was 458 bp. Southern blot analysis with a CgaY1 probe showed strong hybridizing fragments only in males and not in females under stringent conditions, indicating the presence of multiple copies of CgaY1 in the male genome. When tested by zoo blot on the genomes of two closely related species from the Clariidae family, CgaY1 hybridized to the DNA of Heterobranchus longifilis and generated a faint male-specific band at low stringency. CgaY2 produced similar hybridization pattern in both sexes of C. gariepinus, C. macrocephalus and H. longifilis. Specific primers were designed to the sequences and the markers were amplified in multiplex PCR reactions together with a control band common to all individuals. This allowed for rapid, molecular sexing of the species on the basis of a simple three band (male) versus one band (female) pattern. According to our knowledge these are the first sex-specific DNA markers isolated from a siluroid fish species. PMID:11766847

  13. Gene Expression Profiles in Paired Gingival Biopsies from Periodontitis-Affected and Healthy Tissues Revealed by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Davanian, Haleh; Stranneheim, Henrik; Båge, Tove; Lagervall, Maria; Jansson, Leif; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft tissue and bone that surrounds the teeth. Despite extensive research, distinctive genes responsible for the disease have not been identified. The objective of this study was to elucidate transcriptome changes in periodontitis, by investigating gene expression profiles in gingival tissue obtained from periodontitis-affected and healthy gingiva from the same patient, using RNA-sequencing. Gingival biopsies were obtained from a d...

  14. RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Labadorf, Adam; Hoss, Andrew G.; Lagomarsino, Valentina; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Hadzi, Tiffany C.; Bregu, Joli; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Akbarian, Schahram; Weng, Zhiping; Myers, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confident...

  15. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the streptococcus thermophilus histamine biosynthesis gene cluster: Factors that affect differential hdca expression

    OpenAIRE

    Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Hjort Eriksen, Benjamin; Skov Andersen, Pia; Rattray, F.; Johansen, Annette H.; Fernández García, María; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Histamine, a toxic compound that is formed by the decarboxylation of histidine through the action of microbial decarboxylases, can accumulate in fermented food products. From a total of 69 Streptococcus thermophilus strains screened, two strains, CHCC1524 and CHCC6483, showed the capacity to produce histamine. The hdc clusters of S. thermophilus CHCC1524 and CHCC6483 were sequenced, and the factors that affect histamine biosynthesis and histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) expression were st...

  16. Chasing Migration Genes: A Brain Expressed Sequence Tag Resource for Summer and Migratory Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    OpenAIRE

    Haisun Zhu; Amy Casselman; Reppert, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constr...

  17. Expression of cassini, a murine gamma-satellite sequence conserved in evolution, is regulated in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Arutyunyan Anna; Stoddart Sonia; Yi Sun-ju; Fei Fei; Lim Min; Groffen Paula; Feldhahn Niklas; Groffen John; Heisterkamp Nora

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells treated with drugs can become drug-tolerant if co-cultured with protective stromal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Results We performed transcriptional profiling on these stromal fibroblasts to investigate if they were affected by the presence of drug-treated ALL cells. These mitotically inactivated MEFs showed few changes in gene expression, but a family of sequences of which transcription is significantly increased was identif...

  18. Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yong-Jun; Dong Shuang-Lin; Fang Shao-Qing; Zhang Lan; He Peng; Xu Ya-Long; Li Fei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task. In recent years, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of many insect species have accumulated, thus providing a useful resource for gene discovery. Results We have developed a computational pipeline to identify OBP and CSP genes from insect ESTs. In total, 752,841 insect ESTs were examined ...

  19. Expressed sequence tags from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: annotation and utilization for discovery of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Hunter, Wayne B; Dang, Phat M; Pereira, Roberto M; Oi, David H; Williams, David F

    2008-09-01

    An expression library was created and 2304 clones sequenced from a monogyne colony of Solenopsis invicta. The primary intention of the project was to utilize homologous gene identification to facilitate discovery of viruses infecting this ant pest that could potentially be used in pest management. Additional genes were identified from the ant host and associated pathogens that serve as an important resource for studying these organisms. After assembly and removal of mitochondrial and poor quality sequences, 1054 unique sequences were yielded and deposited into the GenBank database under Accession Nos. EH412746 through EH413799. At least nine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified as possessing microsatellite motifs and 15 ESTs exhibited significant homology with microsporidian genes. These sequences most likely originated from Thelohania solenopsae, a well-characterized microsporidian that infects S. invicta. Six ESTs exhibited significant homology with single-stranded RNA viruses (3B4, 3F6, 11F1, 12G12, 14D5, and 24C10). Subsequent analysis of these putative viral ESTs revealed that 3B4 was most likely a ribosomal gene of S. invicta, 11F1 was a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus contaminant introduced into the colony from the cricket food source, 12G12 appeared to be a plant-infecting tenuivirus also introduced into the colony as a field contaminant, and 3F6, 14D5, and 24C10 were all from a unique ssRNA virus found to infect S. invicta. The sequencing project illustrates the utility of this method for discovery of viruses and pathogens that may otherwise go undiscovered. PMID:18329665

  20. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, C; Ohtake, H; Chu, L; Misra, T K; Silver, S

    1990-01-01

    The chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505 was cloned into broad-host-range vector pSUP104. The hybrid plasmid containing an 11.1-kilobase insert conferred chromate resistance and reduced uptake of chromate in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Resistance to chromate was not expressed in Escherichia coli. Contiguous 1.6- and 6.3-kilobase HindIII fragments from this plasmid hybridized to pUM505 but not to P. aeruginosa chromosomal DNA and only weakly to chromate resistance plasmids pLHB1 and pMG6. Further subcloning produced a plasmid with an insert of 2,145 base pairs, which was sequenced. Analysis of deletions revealed that a single open reading frame was sufficient to determine chromate resistance. This open reading frame encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide, ChrA, of 416 amino acid residues that appeared to be expressed in E. coli under control of the T7 promoter. No significant homology was found between ChrA and proteins in the amino acid sequence libraries, but 29% amino acid identity was found with the ChrA amino acid sequence for another chromate resistance determinant sequenced in this laboratory from an Alcaligenes eutrophus plasmid (A. Nies, D. Nies, and S. Silver, submitted for publication). Images FIG. 3 FIG. 5 PMID:2152903

  1. Sox9基因在黄颡鱼卵巢发育周期的表达及对热应激的响应%The expression of Sox9 during ovarian development and heat stress in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淼; 温海深; 何峰; 李吉方; 胡建; 张远青; 马瑞芹; 母伟杰; 祁保霞

    2012-01-01

    采用半定量PCR的方法,分别从时空表达、温度应激调控和血清雌二醇(Estradiol-17β,E2)水平3个方面,共同研究雌性黄颡鱼Sox9基因的功能.结果表明,Sox9a1基因在雌性黄颡鱼各组织中存在广泛的表达,而Sox9a2则在脑和卵巢中有高表达(脑>卵巢),胃中表达微弱.在卵巢年周期发育中,卵巢中Sox9a1在Ⅲ期时达到高峰,Sox9a2则在Ⅴ期时达到峰值;脑中Sox9a1和Sox9a2表达的最大值均在Ⅱ期,后随着卵巢的发育表达水平显著下降.在热应激调控试验中,卵巢中Sox9a1虽然对热应激存在响应,但并没有出现E2相一致的变化趋势,而Sox9a2的变化趋势与血浆中E2相同.虽然脑中Sox9a1和Sox9a2在卵巢年周期发育的表达变化出现下降的趋势,但在热应激条件下,脑中Sox9a1和Sox9a2在Ⅱ期与E2的变化相反,而Ⅲ期到Ⅵ期与E2的变化相一致.该实验结果表明,卵巢中Sox9a1可能不参与卵巢的年周期发育,Sox9a2则参与卵巢发育的调控和E2的合成;在脑中,我们推测热应激可能改变了Sox9与雌激素的负调控关系,但其机理需要更深入的研究.%Since the Sox9 plays a pivotal role during ovary development, the importance of two forms of Sox9 in the process of ovarian recrudescence in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco was analyzed. Tissue distribution pattern showed preferential expression of Sox9a2 in brain and ovary (brain>ovary) , and trace amounts was detected in stomach, while the extensive expression of Sox9al was observed in several tissues. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR was developed to measure the mRNA levels. The high transcript levels of both isoforms in ovary were found in the reproductive phase of ovarian cycle, with the highest level in stage Ⅲ for Sox9al and Ⅴ for Sox9a2. While the level of Sox9 in brain dropped significantly from stage Ⅱ. The phase-dependent rising of Sox9a2 and Estradiol-17β(E2)in fish exposed to higher temperature revealed the stimulatory

  2. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  3. Trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase: cDNA cloning and sequencing, and developmental pattern of mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, M; Jagielska, E; Cieśla, J; Płucienniczak, A; Kwiatowski, J; Wranicz, M; Boireau, P; Rode, W

    2004-02-01

    The persistent expression of thymidylate synthase activity has previously been demonstrated not only in adult forms, but also in non-developing muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, pointing to an unusual pattern of cell cycle regulation, and prompting further studies on the developmental pattern of T. spiralis thymidylate synthase gene expression. The enzyme cDNA was cloned and sequenced, allowing the characterization of a single open reading frame of 307 amino acids coding for a putative protein of 35,582 Da molecular weight. The amino acid sequence of the parasite enzyme was analysed, the consensus phylogenetic tree built and its stability assessed. The aa sequence identity with thymidylate synthase was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. As compared with the enzyme purified from muscle larvae, it showed apparently similar Vmax value, but higher Km(app) values desscribing interactions with dUMP (28.8 microM vs. 3.9 microM) and (6RS,alphaS)-N(5,10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate (383 microM vs. 54.7 microM). With the coding region used as a probe, thymidylate synthase mRNA levels, relative to 18S rRNA, were found to be similar in muscle larvae, adult forms and newborn larvae, in agreement with muscle larvae cells being arrested in the cell cycle. PMID:15030008

  4. ANALYSIS ON SEQUENCE POLYMORPHISM OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL DNA CONTROL REGION AND POPULATION GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE CULTIVATED AND NATURAL CHINESE LONGSNOUT CATFISH (LEIOCASSIS LONGIROSTRIS)%长吻(鱼危)养殖群体与野生群体遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明松; 崔峰; 康健; 马玉涵

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese longsnout catfish is a semi-migratory fish which is commercially valuable in China. Due to overfishing, environmental pollution, and other human disturbances, the populations of this species have declined rapidly and disappeared in many river systems in the past decades. Currently, the Chinese longsnout catfish mainly inhabits the main streams of the Yangtze River and rarely found in lakes. At present, the Chinese longsnout catfish achieved appropriate scale farming in Sichuan, Guangdong and other places. However, seldom study was reported about analysis of population genetic structure using molecular markers. To protect and exploit this rare species effectively, investigations on population structures, resources and artificial reproduction have been conducted. In this study, the mitochon-drial DNA control region were used to analyze genetic diversity and structure of 7 cultivated and natural populations of Chinese longsnout catfish collected from Meishan, Shishou, Huainan, Chongqing, Wuhan, Anqing and Nanjing named Meishan population, Shishou population, Huainan population, Chongqing population, Wuhan population, Anqing population and Nanjing population separately. The results showed the length of this region (D-loop) contained 790 bp nu-cleotides and the T, C, A and G contents were 31.5%, 25.3%, 29.1% and 14.1% respectively. Twenty-seven nucleotide sites and 18 haplotypes were found in 3 cultivated populations of Chinese longsnout catfish. Thirty-five nucleotide sites and 36 haplotypes were found in 4 natural populations of Chinese longsnout catfish. The average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of cultivated populations of Chinese longsnout catfish were relatively low (Hd=0.8867±0.0013, Pi =0.0056±0.0013). The level of genetic differentiation was relatively low (0.0014-0.1125). Molecular phylogenetic tree and statistical parsimony network constructed by NJ method and statistical parsimony principles showed individuals from the same stock

  5. In silico differential display of defense-related expressed sequence tags from sugarcane tissues infected with diazotrophic endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambais Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of 277 sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST-contigs encoding putative defense-related (DR proteins were evaluated using the Sugarcane EST database. The DR proteins evaluated included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chalcone synthases, chalcone isomerases, isoflavone reductases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, proline-rich glycoproteins, peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutases, WRKY-like transcription factors and proteins involved in cell death control. Putative sugarcane WRKY proteins were compared and their phylogenetic relationships determined. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to identify DR ESTs with similar expression profiles in representative cDNA libraries. To identify DR ESTs differentially expressed in sugarcane tissues infected with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus or Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, 179 putative DR EST-contigs expressed in non-infected tissues (leaves and roots and/or infected tissues were selected and arrayed by similarity of their expression profiles. Changes in the expression levels of 124 putative DR EST-contigs, expressed in non-infected tissues, were evaluated in infected tissues. Approximately 42% of these EST-contigs showed no expression in infected tissues, whereas 15% and 3% showed more than 2-fold suppression in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. Approximately 14 and 8% of the DR EST-contigs evaluated showed more than 2-fold induction in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. The differential expression of clusters of DR genes may be important in the establishment of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and diazotrophic endophytes. It is suggested that the hierarchical clustering approach can be used on a genome-wide scale to identify genes likely involved in controlling plant-microorganism interactions.

  6. Recoding method that removes inhibitory sequences and improves HIV gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabadan, Raul; Krasnitz, Michael; Robins, Harlan; Witten, Daniela; Levine, Arnold

    2016-08-23

    The invention relates to inhibitory nucleotide signal sequences or "INS" sequences in the genomes of lentiviruses. In particular the invention relates to the AGG motif present in all viral genomes. The AGG motif may have an inhibitory effect on a virus, for example by reducing the levels of, or maintaining low steady-state levels of, viral RNAs in host cells, and inducing and/or maintaining in viral latency. In one aspect, the invention provides vaccines that contain, or are produced from, viral nucleic acids in which the AGG sequences have been mutated. In another aspect, the invention provides methods and compositions for affecting the function of the AGG motif, and methods for identifying other INS sequences in viral genomes.

  7. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis of human class II molecules expressing the DQw3 determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, F; Endo, T; Yoshii, M; Otani, F; Igarashi, M; Takenouchi, T; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Kasahara, M; Wakisaka, A

    1985-09-01

    HLA-DQ molecules were isolated from DRw9-homozygous and DR4-homozygous cell lines by using a monoclonal antibody HU-18, which recognizes class II molecules carrying the conventional DQw3 determinant. The partial N-terminal sequence analysis of the DQw3 molecules revealed that they have sequences homologous to those of murine I-A molecules. Within the limits of our sequence analysis, the DQw3 molecules from the two cell lines are identical to each other in both the alpha and beta chains. The DQ alpha as well as DQ beta chains were found to have amino acid substitutions when compared to other I-A-like molecules whose sequences have been reported. These differences may contribute to the DQw supertypic specificity. The polymorphic nature of DQ molecules is in marked contrast to that of DR molecules where DR alpha chains are highly conserved while DR beta chains have easily detectable amino acid substitutions. PMID:2411700

  8. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanjie; Gao, Shan; Yang, Yingjie; Huang, Mingyun; Cheng, Lina; Wei, Qian; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Hong, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries const...

  9. Hypoxia influences expression profile of Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 in Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): A new candidate gene for hypoxia tolerance in fish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vindhya Mohindra; Ratnesh K Tripathi; Prabhaker Yadav; Rajeev K Singh; Kuldeep K Lal

    2014-06-01

    Several physiologically important genes were found to be regulated by hypoxia at the transcriptional level. The Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) gene was previously identified as an imprinted gene. The present study was aimed to determine the structure of complete cDNA and the deduced protein of PHLDA2 along with analysing the changes in its mRNA expression in Clarias batrachus tissues under hypoxic conditions. The complete cDNA of CbPHLDA2 gene consisted of 1009 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 417 nucleotides. The deduced CbPHLDA2 protein of 139 amino acids shared high homology with PHLD2A of other fishes as well as that of vertebrates. Importantly, a single amino acid (asparagine/lysine) insertion was identified in the PH domain of CbPHLDA2 and other fishes, which was absent in other vertebrates studied. Furthermore, under normoxic conditions, CbPHLDA2 was constitutively expressed with varying levels in analysed tissues. Short- and long-term hypoxia exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of CbPHLDA2 in liver, spleen, head kidney, brain and muscle in a time-dependent manner. The results suggested that CbPHLDA2 might play an important role for adaptive significance under hypoxia.

  10. Molecular immune response of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Hai; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Shoemaker, Craig A; Zhang, Dunhua; Moreira, Gabriel S A

    2016-07-01

    The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. The fish surviving natural infections or immunized with live theronts develop strong specific and non-specific immune responses. Little is known about how these immune genes are induced or how they interact and lead to specific immunity against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. This study evaluated the differential expression of immune-related genes, including immunoglobulin, immune cell receptor, cytokine, complement factor and toll-like receptors in head kidney from channel catfish at different time points after immunization with live theronts of I. multifiliis. The immunized fish showed significantly higher anti-Ich antibody expressed as immobilization titer and ELISA titer than those of control fish. The vast majority of immunized fish (95%) survived theront challenge. Expression of IgM and IgD heavy chain genes exhibited a rapid increase from 4 hour (h4) to 2 days (d2) post immunization. Expression of immune cell receptor genes (CD4, CD8-α, MHC I, MHC II β, TcR-α, and TcR-β) showed up-regulation from h4 to d6 post immunization, indicating that different immune cells were actively involved in cellular immune response. Cytokine gene expression (IL-1βa, IL-1βb, IFN-γ and TNF-α) increased rapidly at h4 post immunization and were at an up-regulated level until d2 compared to the bovine serum albumin control. Expression of complement factor and toll-like receptor genes exhibited a rapid increase from h4 to d2 post immunization. Results of this study demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in the specific or non-specific immune response post immunization and that the vaccination against Ich resulted in protection against infection by I. multifiliis. PMID:27044331

  11. Accurate Profiling of Gene Expression and Alternative Polyadenylation with Whole Transcriptome Termini Site Sequencing (WTTS-Seq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Li, Rui; Michal, Jennifer J; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhao, Hui; Xia, Yin; Du, Weiwei; Wildung, Mark R; Pouchnik, Derek J; Harland, Richard M; Jiang, Zhihua

    2016-06-01

    Construction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries involves RNA manipulation, which often creates noisy, biased, and artifactual data that contribute to errors in transcriptome analysis. In this study, a total of 19 whole transcriptome termini site sequencing (WTTS-seq) and seven RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) libraries were prepared from Xenopus tropicalis adult and embryo samples to determine the most effective library preparation method to maximize transcriptomics investigation. We strongly suggest that appropriate primers/adaptors are designed to inhibit amplification detours and that PCR overamplification is minimized to maximize transcriptome coverage. Furthermore, genome annotation must be improved so that missing data can be recovered. In addition, a complete understanding of sequencing platforms is critical to limit the formation of false-positive results. Technically, the WTTS-seq method enriches both poly(A)+ RNA and complementary DNA, adds 5'- and 3'-adaptors in one step, pursues strand sequencing and mapping, and profiles both gene expression and alternative polyadenylation (APA). Although RNA-seq is cost prohibitive, tends to produce false-positive results, and fails to detect APA diversity and dynamics, its combination with WTTS-seq is necessary to validate transcriptome-wide APA. PMID:27098915

  12. Accurate Profiling of Gene Expression and Alternative Polyadenylation with Whole Transcriptome Termini Site Sequencing (WTTS-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Li, Rui; Michal, Jennifer J.; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhao, Hui; Xia, Yin; Du, Weiwei; Wildung, Mark R.; Pouchnik, Derek J.; Harland, Richard M.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Construction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries involves RNA manipulation, which often creates noisy, biased, and artifactual data that contribute to errors in transcriptome analysis. In this study, a total of 19 whole transcriptome termini site sequencing (WTTS-seq) and seven RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) libraries were prepared from Xenopus tropicalis adult and embryo samples to determine the most effective library preparation method to maximize transcriptomics investigation. We strongly suggest that appropriate primers/adaptors are designed to inhibit amplification detours and that PCR overamplification is minimized to maximize transcriptome coverage. Furthermore, genome annotation must be improved so that missing data can be recovered. In addition, a complete understanding of sequencing platforms is critical to limit the formation of false-positive results. Technically, the WTTS-seq method enriches both poly(A)+ RNA and complementary DNA, adds 5′- and 3′-adaptors in one step, pursues strand sequencing and mapping, and profiles both gene expression and alternative polyadenylation (APA). Although RNA-seq is cost prohibitive, tends to produce false-positive results, and fails to detect APA diversity and dynamics, its combination with WTTS-seq is necessary to validate transcriptome-wide APA. PMID:27098915

  13. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE THREAT OF NAFTA ON U.S. CATFISH INDUSTRY USING A TRADITIONAL IMPORT DEMAND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ligeon, Carel; Jolly, Curtis M.; John D. Jackson

    1996-01-01

    The effects of increased exports from NAFTA member countries on the U.S. domestic catfish industry were evaluated. Results showed that the quantity of catfish imported will fall if the domestic price of catfish falls relative to the import price. Past imports have no effect on present imports. The income elasticity was negative indicating that imported catfish may be an inferior good. Doubling present levels of imports from NAFTA member countries is not a threat to the U.S. catfish industry.

  14. PCR primers to study the diversity of expressed fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes in soils using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, Florian; Bragalini, Claudia; Vallon, Laurent; Prudent, Elsa; Dubost, Audrey; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Marmeisse, Roland; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation in soil is one of the key steps of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Fungal saprotrophic communities play an essential role in this process by producing hydrolytic enzymes active on the main components of plant organic matter. Open questions in this field regard the diversity of the species involved, the major biochemical pathways implicated and how these are affected by external factors such as litter quality or climate changes. This can be tackled by environmental genomic approaches involving the systematic sequencing of key enzyme-coding gene families using soil-extracted RNA as material. Such an approach necessitates the design and evaluation of gene family-specific PCR primers producing sequence fragments compatible with high-throughput sequencing approaches. In the present study, we developed and evaluated PCR primers for the specific amplification of fungal CAZy Glycoside Hydrolase gene families GH5 (subfamily 5) and GH11 encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases and endo-β-1,4-xylanases respectively as well as Basidiomycota class II peroxidases, corresponding to the CAZy Auxiliary Activity family 2 (AA2), active on lignin. These primers were experimentally validated using DNA extracted from a wide range of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota species including 27 with sequenced genomes. Along with the published primers for Glycoside Hydrolase GH7 encoding enzymes active on cellulose, the newly design primers were shown to be compatible with the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from beech or spruce forest soils showed a high diversity and were uniformly distributed in gene trees featuring the global diversity of these gene families. This high-throughput sequencing approach using several degenerate primers constitutes a robust method, which allows the simultaneous characterization of the diversity of different fungal transcripts involved in plant organic matter degradation and may lead to the

  15. PCR primers to study the diversity of expressed fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes in soils using high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Barbi

    Full Text Available Plant biomass degradation in soil is one of the key steps of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Fungal saprotrophic communities play an essential role in this process by producing hydrolytic enzymes active on the main components of plant organic matter. Open questions in this field regard the diversity of the species involved, the major biochemical pathways implicated and how these are affected by external factors such as litter quality or climate changes. This can be tackled by environmental genomic approaches involving the systematic sequencing of key enzyme-coding gene families using soil-extracted RNA as material. Such an approach necessitates the design and evaluation of gene family-specific PCR primers producing sequence fragments compatible with high-throughput sequencing approaches. In the present study, we developed and evaluated PCR primers for the specific amplification of fungal CAZy Glycoside Hydrolase gene families GH5 (subfamily 5 and GH11 encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases and endo-β-1,4-xylanases respectively as well as Basidiomycota class II peroxidases, corresponding to the CAZy Auxiliary Activity family 2 (AA2, active on lignin. These primers were experimentally validated using DNA extracted from a wide range of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota species including 27 with sequenced genomes. Along with the published primers for Glycoside Hydrolase GH7 encoding enzymes active on cellulose, the newly design primers were shown to be compatible with the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from beech or spruce forest soils showed a high diversity and were uniformly distributed in gene trees featuring the global diversity of these gene families. This high-throughput sequencing approach using several degenerate primers constitutes a robust method, which allows the simultaneous characterization of the diversity of different fungal transcripts involved in plant organic matter degradation and may

  16. Sequence analysis and expression of the M1 and M2 matrix protein genes of hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, T.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a 2318 nucleotide region of the genomic RNA of hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV), an important viral pathogen of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. This region comprises approximately two-thirds of the 3' end of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene and the complete matrix protein (M1 and M2) genes with the associated intergenic regions. The partial N gene sequence was 812 nucleotides in length with an open reading frame (ORF) that encoded the carboxyl-terminal 250 amino acids of the N protein. The M1 and M2 genes were 771 and 700 nucleotides in length, respectively, with ORFs encoding proteins of 227 and 193 amino acids. The M1 gene sequence contained an additional small ORF that could encode a highly basic, arginine-rich protein of 25 amino acids. Comparisons of the N, M1, and M2 gene sequences of HIRRV with the corresponding sequences of the fish rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) indicated that HIRRV was more closely related to IHNV than to VHSV, but was clearly distinct from either. The putative consensus gene termination sequence for IHNV and VHSV, AGAYAG(A)(7), was present in the N-M1, M1-M2, and M2-G intergenic regions of HIRRV as were the putative transcription initiation sequences YGGCAC and AACA. An Escherichia coli expression system was used to produce recombinant proteins from the M1 and M2 genes of HIRRV. These were the same size as the authentic M1 and M2 proteins and reacted with anti-HIRRV rabbit serum in western blots. These reagents can be used for further study of the fish immune response and to test novel control methods.

  17. Conservation of the function counts: homologous neurons express sequence-related neuropeptides that originate from different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Susanne; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim; Predel, Reinhard

    2009-11-01

    By means of single-cell matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we analysed neuropeptide expression in all FXPRLamide/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide synthesizing neurons of the adult tobacco hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Mass spectra clearly suggest a completely identical processing of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide-precursor in the mandibular, maxillary and labial neuromeres of the subesophageal ganglion. Only in the pban-neurons of the labial neuromere, products of two neuropeptide genes, namely the pban-gene and the capa-gene, were detected. Both of these genes expressed, amongst others, sequence-related neuropeptides (extended WFGPRLamides). We speculate that the expression of the two neuropeptide genes is a plesiomorph character typical of moths. A detailed examination of the neuroanatomy and the peptidome of the (two) pban-neurons in the labial neuromere of moths with homologous neurons of different insects indicates a strong conservation of the function of this neuroendocrine system. In other insects, however, the labial neurons either express products of the fxprl-gene or products of the capa-gene. The processing of the respective genes is reduced to extended WFGPRLamides in each case and yields a unique peptidome in the labial cells. Thus, sequence-related messenger molecules are always produced in these cells and it seems that the respective neurons recruited different neuropeptide genes for this motif. PMID:19712058

  18. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FREQUENCY OF CATFISH CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Drammeh, Lamin; House, Lisa; Sureshwaran, Suresh; Selassie, Haile

    2002-01-01

    Consumption of seafood, including catfish, has become an important part of the diet for consumers in the United States. Per capita consumption of catfish increased from 0.41 pounds in 1985 to 0.90 pounds in 2001. The goal of this study is to investigate factors that influence the decisions to consume and frequency of consumption of catfish. One finding was the main emphasis of the Catfish Institute to market catfish as "farm-raised" and to increase preparation knowledge through distribution o...

  19. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  20. Sequence conservation, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles of nondigestive serine proteases and serine protease homologs in Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Zhang, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang; Zou, Zhen; Chen, Yunru; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Serine protease (SP) and serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in insects encode a large family of proteins involved in digestion, development, immunity, and other processes. While 68 digestive SPs and their close homologs are reported in a companion paper (Kuwar et al., in preparation), we have identified 125 other SPs/SPHs in Manduca sexta and studied their structure, evolution, and expression. Fifty-two of them contain cystine-stabilized structures for molecular recognition, including clip, LDLa, Sushi, Wonton, TSP, CUB, Frizzle, and SR domains. There are nineteen groups of genes evolved from relatively recent gene duplication and sequence divergence. Thirty-five SPs and seven SPHs contain 1, 2 or 5 clip domains. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modeling of the 54 clip domains have revealed structural diversity of these regulatory modules. Sequence comparison with their homologs in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Tribolium castaneum allows us to classify them into five subfamilies: A are SPHs with 1 or 5 group-3 clip domains, B are SPs with 1 or 2 group-2 clip domains, C, D1 and D2 are SPs with a single clip domain in group-1a, 1b and 1c, respectively. We have classified into six categories the 125 expression profiles of SP-related proteins in fat body, brain, midgut, Malpighian tubule, testis, and ovary at different stages, suggesting that they participate in various physiological processes. Through RNA-Seq-based gene annotation and expression profiling, as well as intragenomic sequence comparisons, we have established a framework of information for future biochemical research of nondigestive SPs and SPHs in this model species. PMID:25530503

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel sequence, vof-16, with enhanced expression in permanent ischemic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Michihisa; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2004-08-01

    We reported previously that chronic hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats caused progressive cognitive deficits and neuronal damage in the hippocampus and the white matter. These changes are similar to those observed in human dementia. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) differential display was carried out to identify mRNAs encoding the intrinsic factors involved in permanent ischemia from the 2VO rat brain. Over 20 clones which showed different expression levels in 2VO and sham-operated rats were isolated. One of these, named vof-16, was markedly enhanced the expression by 2VO. The whole sequence of vof-16 mRNA was 2098 nt. The distribution of vof-16 transcripts was examined by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The results revealed that vof-16 was abundant in the hippocampus, the tenia tecta, the piriform cortex and the area around the aorta. The expression levels of vof-16 in 2VO and sham-operated rat hippocampus were determined by a quantitative PCR method. The expression was abundant in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment induced by 2VO. In contrast, the expression levels of vof-16 were lower in the 2VO rats with no impairment and in sham-operated rats. These results suggest that the expression levels of vof-16 may be related to the cognitive impairment induced by chronic ischemia after 2VO. PMID:15305027

  2. Characterizing embryonic gene expression patterns in the mouse using nonredundant sequence-based selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa-Nunes, Rita; Rana, Amer Ahmed; Kettleborough, Ross;

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates the expression patterns of 160 genes that are expressed during early mouse development. The cDNAs were isolated from 7.5 d postcoitum (dpc) endoderm, a region that comprises visceral endoderm (VE), definitive endoderm, and the node-tissues that are required for the initial...

  3. Human liver type pyruvate kinase: Complete amino acid sequence and the expression in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) has four isozymes (L, R, M1, M2) that are encoded by two different genes. Among these isozymes, abnormalities of liver (L)-type PK is considered to be associated with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in humans. The authors isolated and determined the full-length sequence of human L-type PK cDNA. The cDNA contains 1,629 base pairs encoding 543 amino acids, 68 base pairs of 5'-noncoding sequence, and 734 base pairs of 3'-noncoding sequence. The similarity between human and rat L-type PK was 86.9% at the nucleotide sequence level and 92.4% at the amino acid sequence level. The full-length L-type PK cDNA was placed under the promoter of simian virus 40 and introduced into monkey COS cells. Human L-type PK activity was detected in the extract of COS cells by the classical PK electrophoresis method

  4. Analysis of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Sequence of Infectious Flacherie Virus Isolated in China and Its Expression in BmN Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-qian; LU Qi-neng; WU Xiao-Feng; MAN Nan-a; CHEN Xiao-xue; JIN Wei; LU Xing-meng

    2009-01-01

    Full gene sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from Bombyx mori infectious flacherie virus isolated in Zhejiang Province, China (Zhejiang01/CHN/2002) was cloned. The sequence was 1 920 nucleotides in length coding 639 amino acid residues. Sequences comparison of RdRp showed Zhejiang01/CHN/2002 was 99.7% nucleotide sequence and 99.1% amino acids sequence homology with Japanese strain. The RdRp sequence was aligned with 8 representative picorna(-like) viruses and 8 highly conserved regions were detected. The result indicated their relevance function. Phylogenetic tree of 14 picorna(-like) viruses which RdRp presumed protein sequences revealed that the viruses from Iflavirus genus formed an independent clade. The RdRp was successfully expressed in Bran cells using Bac-to-Bac expression system.

  5. Sequence and expression variation in SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1): homeolog evolution in Indian Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, Tanu; Mayee, Pratiksha; Singh, Anandita

    2015-09-01

    Whole genome sequence analyses allow unravelling such evolutionary consequences of meso-triplication event in Brassicaceae (∼14-20 million years ago (MYA)) as differential gene fractionation and diversification in homeologous sub-genomes. This study presents a simple gene-centric approach involving microsynteny and natural genetic variation analysis for understanding SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) homeolog evolution in Brassica. Analysis of microsynteny in Brassica rapa homeologous regions containing SOC1 revealed differential gene fractionation correlating to reported fractionation status of sub-genomes of origin, viz. least fractionated (LF), moderately fractionated 1 (MF1) and most fractionated (MF2), respectively. Screening 18 cultivars of 6 Brassica species led to the identification of 8 genomic and 27 transcript variants of SOC1, including splice-forms. Co-occurrence of both interrupted and intronless SOC1 genes was detected in few Brassica species. In silico analysis characterised Brassica SOC1 as MADS intervening, K-box, C-terminal (MIKC(C)) transcription factor, with highly conserved MADS and I domains relative to K-box and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analyses and multiple sequence alignments depicting shared pattern of silent/non-silent mutations assigned Brassica SOC1 homologs into groups based on shared diploid base genome. In addition, a sub-genome structure in uncharacterised Brassica genomes was inferred. Expression analysis of putative MF2 and LF (Brassica diploid base genome A (AA)) sub-genome-specific SOC1 homeologs of Brassica juncea revealed near identical expression pattern. However, MF2-specific homeolog exhibited significantly higher expression implying regulatory diversification. In conclusion, evidence for polyploidy-induced sequence and regulatory evolution in Brassica SOC1 is being presented wherein differential homeolog expression is implied in functional diversification. PMID:26276216

  6. Generation and analysis of expression sequence tags from haustoria of the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. Tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qingmei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. worldwide. In spite of its agricultural importance, the genomics and genetics of the pathogen are poorly characterized. Pst transcripts from urediniospores and germinated urediniospores have been examined previously, but little is known about genes expressed during host infection. Some genes involved in virulence in other rust fungi have been found to be specifically expressed in haustoria. Therefore, the objective of this study was to generate a cDNA library to characterize genes expressed in haustoria of Pst. Results A total of 5,126 EST sequences of high quality were generated from haustoria of Pst, from which 287 contigs and 847 singletons were derived. Approximately 10% and 26% of the 1,134 unique sequences were homologous to proteins with known functions and hypothetical proteins, respectively. The remaining 64% of the unique sequences had no significant similarities in GenBank. Fifteen genes were predicted to be proteins secreted from Pst haustoria. Analysis of ten genes, including six secreted protein genes, using quantitative RT-PCR revealed changes in transcript levels in different developmental and infection stages of the pathogen. Conclusions The haustorial cDNA library was useful in identifying genes of the stripe rust fungus expressed during the infection process. From the library, we identified 15 genes encoding putative secreted proteins and six genes induced during the infection process. These genes are candidates for further studies to determine their functions in wheat-Pst interactions.

  7. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat

  8. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R.; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P.; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C.; Kala, Yugal K.; Singh, Gyanendra P.; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat—a novel step toward the development of

  9. Book review: Conservation, ecology, and management of catfish: The second international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series published by the American Fisheries Society devoted to catfish research, biology, and management, which was organized as a symposium held in St. Louis Missouri, in 2010 and builds upon the first symposium that was held in Davenport, Iowa, in 1998 (Irwin et al. 1999).  The organizations of the second symposium stated that this was to "serve as an addendum to Catfish 2000" and "to cover the four corners of catfish science: catfish biology, ecology, management, and conservation" (p. xi).  The book meets this standard easily.  With 64 pages organized into nine sections (plenary, catfishes as sport fish, non-game catfishes, nonnative catfishes, movement and habitat use, sampling and population assessment, age and growth, behavior, and future directions), this publication covers these four corners and more.

  10. Comparative analysis of gene expression at early seedling stage between a rice hybrid and its parents using a cDNA microarray of 9198 uni-sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Yi; LI; Lihua; CHEN; Ying; LI; Xianghua; XU; Caiguo; WANG; Shiping; ZHANG; Qifa

    2006-01-01

    Using a cDNA microarray consisting of 9198 expressed sequence tags, we surveyed the gene expression profiles in shoots and roots of a rice hybrid, Liangyoupei 9 and its parents Peiai 64s and 93-11 at 72 h after germination. A total of 8587 sequences had detectable signals in both shoots and roots of the three genotypes. A total of 1571 sequences exhibited significant (P<0.01) expression differences in shoots or roots among the three genotypes, of which 121 showed expression polymorphisms in both shoots and roots, and 870 revealed significant expression differences between the hybrid and one of the parents. The expression polymorphism of the sequences was associated with the functional categories of the sequences. They occurred more frequently in categories of carbohydrate, energy and lipid metabolisms and stress response than expected, while less frequently in categories of amino acid metabolism, transcription and translation regulation, and signal transduction. A total of 214 sequences exhibited significant (P<0.05) mid-parent heterosis in expression, of which 117 had homology to genes with known functions, assigned in the categories of basic metabolism, genetic information processing, cell growth and death, signal transduction, transportation and stress response. The results may provide useful information for exploring the relationship between gene expression polymorphism and phenotypic variation, and for characterizing the molecular mechanism of seedling development and heterosis in rice.

  11. Bioinformatic prediction, deep sequencing of microRNAs and expression analysis during phenotypic plasticity in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leterme Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes can be operated through microRNA (miRNAs mediated gene silencing. MiRNAs are small (18-25 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that play crucial role in regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In insects, miRNAs have been shown to be involved in multiple mechanisms such as embryonic development, tissue differentiation, metamorphosis or circadian rhythm. Insect miRNAs have been identified in different species belonging to five orders: Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. Results We developed high throughput Solexa sequencing and bioinformatic analyses of the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum in order to identify the first miRNAs from a hemipteran insect. By combining these methods we identified 149 miRNAs including 55 conserved and 94 new miRNAs. Moreover, we investigated the regulation of these miRNAs in different alternative morphs of the pea aphid by analysing the expression of miRNAs across the switch of reproduction mode. Pea aphid microRNA sequences have been posted to miRBase: http://microrna.sanger.ac.uk/sequences/ Conclusions Our study has identified candidates as putative regulators involved in reproductive polyphenism in aphids and opens new avenues for further functional analyses.

  12. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding lytic functions of Bacteriophage phi g1e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, M; Kakikawa, M; Yamada, K; Taketo, A; Kodaira, K I

    1996-10-17

    The lysis genes of a Lactobacillus phage phi g1e were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 3813-bp phi g1e DNA revealed five successive open reading frames (ORF), Rorf50, Rorf118, hol, and lys and Rorf175, in the same DNA strand. By comparative analysis of the DNA sequence, the putative hol product (holin) has an estimated molecular weight is 14.2 kDa, and contains two potential transmembrane helices and highly charged N- and C-termini, resembling predicted holins (which are thought to be a cytoplasmic membrane-disrupting protein) encoded by other phages such as mv1 from Lactobacillus bulgaricus, phi adh from Lactobacillus gasseri, as well as monocins from Listeria. On the other hand, the putative phi g1e lys product (lysin) of 48.4 kDa shows significant similarity with presumed muramidase, known as a cell wall peptidoglycandegrading enzyme, encoded by the Lactobacillus phage mv1 and phi adh, the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3, and the Streptococcus pneumoniae phages Cp-1, Cp-7 and Cp-9. When expressed in E. coli, the phi g1e lysin and/or holin decreased the cell turbidity significantly, suggesting that the phi g1e hol-lys system is involved in cytolytic process. PMID:8918256

  13. Transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis in Viola yedoensis Makino (Fam. Violaceae) responsive to cadmium (Cd) pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Southwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Maize Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan (China); Luo, Mao [Drug Discovery Research Center of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan (China); Zhu, Ye; He, Ying; Wang, Qin [Department of Pharmacy of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Chun, E-mail: zc83good@126.com [Department of Pharmacy of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, Sichuan (China)

    2015-03-27

    Viola yedoensis Makino is an important Chinese traditional medicine plant adapted to cadmium (Cd) pollution regions. Illumina sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of V. yedoensis Makino. We sequenced Cd-treated (VIYCd) and untreated (VIYCK) samples of V. yedoensis, and obtained 100,410,834 and 83,587,676 high quality reads, respectively. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 109,800 unigenes were finally generated with an average length of 661 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning unigenes with public protein databases including NR, NT, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. In addition, 892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between the two libraries of untreated (VIYCK) and Cd-treated (VIYCd) plants. Moreover, 15 randomly selected DEGs were further validated with qRT-PCR and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. This study firstly generated a successful global analysis of the V. yedoensis transcriptome and it will provide for further studies on gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in Violaceae. - Highlights: • A de novo assembly generated 109,800 unigenes and 5,4479 of them were annotated. • 31,285 could be classified into 26 COG categories. • 263 biosynthesis pathways were predicted and classified into five categories. • 892 DEGs were detected and 15 of them were validated by qRT-PCR.

  14. Transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis in Viola yedoensis Makino (Fam. Violaceae) responsive to cadmium (Cd) pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola yedoensis Makino is an important Chinese traditional medicine plant adapted to cadmium (Cd) pollution regions. Illumina sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of V. yedoensis Makino. We sequenced Cd-treated (VIYCd) and untreated (VIYCK) samples of V. yedoensis, and obtained 100,410,834 and 83,587,676 high quality reads, respectively. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 109,800 unigenes were finally generated with an average length of 661 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning unigenes with public protein databases including NR, NT, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. In addition, 892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between the two libraries of untreated (VIYCK) and Cd-treated (VIYCd) plants. Moreover, 15 randomly selected DEGs were further validated with qRT-PCR and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. This study firstly generated a successful global analysis of the V. yedoensis transcriptome and it will provide for further studies on gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in Violaceae. - Highlights: • A de novo assembly generated 109,800 unigenes and 5,4479 of them were annotated. • 31,285 could be classified into 26 COG categories. • 263 biosynthesis pathways were predicted and classified into five categories. • 892 DEGs were detected and 15 of them were validated by qRT-PCR

  15. The venom composition of the parasitic wasp Chelonus inanitus resolved by combined expressed sequence tags analysis and proteomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezen Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic wasps constitute one of the largest group of venomous animals. Although some physiological effects of their venoms are well documented, relatively little is known at the molecular level on the protein composition of these secretions. To identify the majority of the venom proteins of the endoparasitoid wasp Chelonus inanitus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, we have randomly sequenced 2111 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a cDNA library of venom gland. In parallel, proteins from pure venom were separated by gel electrophoresis and individually submitted to a nano-LC-MS/MS analysis allowing comparison of peptides and ESTs sequences. Results About 60% of sequenced ESTs encoded proteins whose presence in venom was attested by mass spectrometry. Most of the remaining ESTs corresponded to gene products likely involved in the transcriptional and translational machinery of venom gland cells. In addition, a small number of transcripts were found to encode proteins that share sequence similarity with well-known venom constituents of social hymenopteran species, such as hyaluronidase-like proteins and an Allergen-5 protein. An overall number of 29 venom proteins could be identified through the combination of ESTs sequencing and proteomic analyses. The most highly redundant set of ESTs encoded a protein that shared sequence similarity with a venom protein of unknown function potentially specific of the Chelonus lineage. Venom components specific to C. inanitus included a C-type lectin domain containing protein, a chemosensory protein-like protein, a protein related to yellow-e3 and ten new proteins which shared no significant sequence similarity with known sequences. In addition, several venom proteins potentially able to interact with chitin were also identified including a chitinase, an imaginal disc growth factor-like protein and two putative mucin-like peritrophins. Conclusions The use of the combined approaches has allowed to

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Deinagkistrodon acutus venomous gland focusing on cellular structure and functional aspects using expressed sequence tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Pengxin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snake venom gland is a specialized organ, which synthesizes and secretes the complex and abundant toxin proteins. Though gene expression in the snake venom gland has been extensively studied, the focus has been on the components of the venom. As far as the molecular mechanism of toxin secretion and metabolism is concerned, we still knew a little. Therefore, a fundamental question being arisen is what genes are expressed in the snake venom glands besides many toxin components? Results To examine extensively the transcripts expressed in the venom gland of Deinagkistrodon acutus and unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 8696 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a non-normalized cDNA library. All ESTs were clustered into 3416 clusters, of which 40.16% of total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences; 39.85% are similar to cellular transcripts; and 20.00% have no significant similarity to any known sequences. By analyzing cellular functional transcripts, we found high expression of some venom related genes and gland-specific genes, such as calglandulin EF-hand protein gene and protein disulfide isomerase gene. The transcripts of creatine kinase and NADH dehydrogenase were also identified at high level. Moreover, abundant cellular structural proteins similar to mammalian muscle tissues were also identified. The phylogenetic analysis of two snake venom toxin families of group III metalloproteinase and serine protease in suborder Colubroidea showed an early single recruitment event in the viperids evolutionary process. Conclusion Gene cataloguing and profiling of the venom gland of Deinagkistrodon acutus is an essential requisite to provide molecular reagents for functional genomic studies needed for elucidating mechanisms of action of toxins and surveying physiological events taking place in the very specialized secretory tissue. So this study provides a first

  17. Development and evaluation of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers for hop genotyping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patzak, J.; Matoušek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2011), s. 761-765. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/08/0740; GA MZe QH81052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : cluster analysis * dendrogram * Humulus lupulus * simple sequence repeat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.974, year: 2011

  18. Effect of 5'-flanking sequence deletions on expression of the human insulin gene in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromont-Racine, M; Bucchini, D; Madsen, O;

    1990-01-01

    transcripts in pancreas, but not in other tissues, 3) the specific immunofluorescence staining of pancreatic islets for human C-peptide, and 4) the synthesis and accumulation of human (pro)insulin in isolated islets. Deletions in the injected DNA fragment of sequences upstream from positions -353, -258, and...

  19. Protein identities - Graphocephala atropunctata expressed sequenced tags: expanding leafhopper vector biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small heat shock protein was isolated and sequenced from the Blue-green sharpshooter, BGSS, Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The BGSS has been the native vector of Pierce’s disease in vineyards in California for nearly a century. The importance of this vector spec...

  20. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Sequence Variants of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Genes from Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very harmful to living organisms due to the potential oxidation of membrane lipids, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. Transformed E.coli strain QC 871, superoxide dismutase (SOD) double-mutant, with three sequence variant MnSOD1, MnSOD2, and MnSOD3 manganese supero...

  1. Regulation of expression of an auxin-induced soybean sequence by cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, G.; Uhrhammer, N.; Guilfoyle, T.J.

    1988-05-05

    An auxin-regulated soybean sequence has been characterized and shown to be induced by the heavy metals cadmium, silver, and copper. Cadmium induces the accumulation of two size classes of mRNA: a 1-kilobase (kb) RNA class, which is the same size as the RNA class induced by auxin, silver, and copper, and a 1.4-kb RNA class. DNA sequences analysis of cDNA clones and a soybean genomic fragment has shown the presence of an intron in this gene. A restriction fragment probe isolated from the intron segment hybridizes specifically to the 1.4-kb mRNA. The transcription rate of this sequences is rapidly increased following exposure of soybean primary leaves to cadmium, as assayed by nuclear run-off transcription experiments. These results suggest that cadmium not only induces the transcription of a specific soybean sequences, but interferes with the processing of the precursor mRNA, resulting in the accumulation of the 1.4-kb mRNA precursor species.

  2. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from immune tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus challenged with pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Manuel L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Scophthalmidae; Pleuronectiformes is a flatfish species of great relevance for marine aquaculture in Europe. In contrast to other cultured flatfish, very few genomic resources are available in this species. Aeromonas salmonicida and Philasterides dicentrarchi are two pathogens that affect turbot culture causing serious economic losses to the turbot industry. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms for disease resistance and host-pathogen interactions in this species. In this work, thousands of ESTs for functional genomic studies and potential markers linked to ESTs for mapping (microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are provided. This information enabled us to obtain a preliminary view of regulated genes in response to these pathogens and it constitutes the basis for subsequent and more accurate microarray analysis. Results A total of 12584 cDNAs partially sequenced from three different cDNA libraries of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus infected with Aeromonas salmonicida, Philasterides dicentrarchi and from healthy fish were analyzed. Three immune-relevant tissues (liver, spleen and head kidney were sampled at several time points in the infection process for library construction. The sequences were processed into 9256 high-quality sequences, which constituted the source for the turbot EST database. Clustering and assembly of these sequences, revealed 3482 different putative transcripts, 1073 contigs and 2409 singletons. BLAST searches with public databases detected significant similarity (e-value ≤ 1e-5 in 1766 (50.7% sequences and 816 of them (23.4% could be functionally annotated. Two hundred three of these genes (24.9%, encoding for defence/immune-related proteins, were mostly identified for the first time in turbot. Some ESTs showed significant differences in the number of transcripts when comparing the three libraries, suggesting regulation in response to these

  3. Integration of Expressed Sequence Tag Data Flanking Predicted RNA Secondary Structures Facilitates Novel Non-Coding RNA Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Paul M.; Price, Feodor D.; Muro, Enrique M.; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Many computational methods have been used to predict novel non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), but none, to our knowledge, have explicitly investigated the impact of integrating existing cDNA-based Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data that flank structural RNA predictions. To determine whether flanking EST data can assist in microRNA (miRNA) prediction, we identified genomic sites encoding putative miRNAs by combining functional RNA predictions with flanking ESTs data in a model consistent with miRNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. In both human and mouse genomes, we observed that the inclusion of flanking ESTs adjacent to and not overlapping predicted miRNAs significantly improved the performance of various methods of miRNA prediction, including direct high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. We analyzed the expression of hundreds of miRNAs predicted to be expressed during myogenic differentiation using a customized microarray and identified several known and predicted myogenic miRNA hairpins. Our results indicate that integrating ESTs flanking structural RNA predictions improves the quality of cleaved miRNA predictions and suggest that this strategy can be used to predict other non-coding RNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. PMID:21698286

  4. Versatile Cosmid Vectors for the Isolation, Expression, and Rescue of Gene Sequences: Studies with the Human α -globin Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yun-Fai; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1983-09-01

    We have developed a series of cosmids that can be used as vectors for genomic recombinant DNA library preparations, as expression vectors in mammalian cells for both transient and stable transformations, and as shuttle vectors between bacteria and mammalian cells. These cosmids were constructed by inserting one of the SV2-derived selectable gene markers-SV2-gpt, SV2-DHFR, and SV2-neo-in cosmid pJB8. High efficiency of genomic cloning was obtained with these cosmids and the size of the inserts was 30-42 kilobases. We isolated recombinant cosmids containing the human α -globin gene cluster from these genomic libraries. The simian virus 40 DNA in these selectable gene markers provides the origin of replication and enhancer sequences necessary for replication in permissive cells such as COS 7 cells and thereby allows transient expression of α -globin genes in these cells. These cosmids and their recombinants could also be stably transformed into mammalian cells by using the respective selection systems. Both of the adult α -globin genes were more actively expressed than the embryonic zeta -globin genes in these transformed cell lines. Because of the presence of the cohesive ends of the Charon 4A phage in the cosmids, the transforming DNA sequences could readily be rescued from these stably transformed cells into bacteria by in vitro packaging of total cellular DNA. Thus, these cosmid vectors are potentially useful for direct isolation of structural genes.

  5. Intronic Sequence Regulates Sugar-Dependent Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1/MYB75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckling, Bettina E.; Watson, Ruth A.; Steinwand, Blaire; Bush, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose-specific regulation of gene expression is recognized as an important signaling response, distinct from glucose, which serves to modulate plant growth, metabolism, and physiology. The Arabidopsis MYB transcription factor Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1 (PAP1) plays a key role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and expression of PAP1 is known to be regulated by sucrose. Sucrose treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings led to a 20-fold induction of PAP1 transcript, which represented a 6-fold increase over levels in glucose-treated seedlings. The PAP1 promoter was not sufficient for conferring a sucrose response to a reporter gene and did not correctly report expression of PAP1 in plants. Although we identified 3 putative sucrose response elements in the PAP1 gene, none were found to be necessary for this response. Using deletion analysis, we identified a 90 bp sequence within intron 1 of PAP1 that is necessary for the sucrose response. This sequence was sufficient for conferring a sucrose response to a minimal promoter: luciferase reporter when present in multiple copies upstream of the promoter. This work lays the foundation for dissecting the sucrose signaling pathway of PAP1 and contributes to understanding the interplay between sucrose signaling, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and stress responses. PMID:27248141

  6. Flavonoid Biosynthesis Genes Putatively Identified in the Aromatic Plant Polygonum minus via Expressed Sequences Tag (EST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamri Zainal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P. minus is an aromatic plant, the leaf of which is widely used as a food additive and in the perfume industry. The leaf also accumulates secondary metabolites that act as active ingredients such as flavonoid. Due to limited genomic and transcriptomic data, the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids is currently unclear. Identification of candidate genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway will significantly contribute to understanding the biosynthesis of active compounds. We have constructed a standard cDNA library from P. minus leaves, and two normalized full-length enriched cDNA libraries were constructed from stem and root organs in order to create a gene resource for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, especially flavonoid biosynthesis. Thus, large‑scale sequencing of P. minus cDNA libraries identified 4196 expressed sequences tags (ESTs which were deposited in dbEST in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI. From the three constructed cDNA libraries, 11 ESTs encoding seven genes were mapped to the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Finally, three flavonoid biosynthetic pathway-related ESTs chalcone synthase, CHS (JG745304, flavonol synthase, FLS (JG705819 and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, LDOX (JG745247 were selected for further examination by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR in different P. minus organs. Expression was detected in leaf, stem and root. Gene expression studies have been initiated in order to better understand the underlying physiological processes.

  7. Expression and clinical significance of genes frequently mutated in small cell lung cancers defined by whole exome/RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Reika; Kohno, Takashi; Totoki, Yasushi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Mimaki, Sachiyo; Tsuta, Koji; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Ryo; Noguchi, Masayuki; Harris, Curtis C; Robles, Ana I; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Yokota, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive type of lung cancer. Only 15% of SCLC patients survive beyond 2 years after diagnosis. Therefore, for the improvement of patients' outcome in this disease, it is necessary to identify genetic alterations applicable as therapeutic targets in SCLC cells. The purpose of this study is the identification of genes frequently mutated and expressed in SCLCs that will be targetable for therapy of SCLC patients. Exome sequencing was performed in 28 primary tumors and 16 metastatic tumors from 38 patients with SCLCs. Expression of mutant alleles was verified in 19 cases by RNA sequencing. TP53, RB1 and PTEN were identified as being significantly mutated genes. Additional 36 genes were identified as being frequently (≥10%) mutated in SCLCs by combining the results of this study and two recent studies. Mutated alleles were expressed in 8 of the 36 genes, TMEM132D, SPTA1, VPS13B, CSMD2, ANK2, ASTN1, ASPM and FBN3. In particular, the TMEM132D, SPTA1 and VPS13B genes were commonly mutated in both early and late stage tumors, primary tumors and metastases, and tumors before and after chemotherapy, as in the case of the TP53 and RB1 genes. Therefore, in addition to TP53, RB1 and PTEN, TMEM132D, SPTA1 and VPS13B could be also involved in SCLC development, with the products from their mutated alleles being potential therapeutic targets in SCLC patients. PMID:25863124

  8. Expression and DNA sequence analysis of a human embryonic skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Karsch-Mizrachi, I; M. Travis; Blau, H; Leinwand, L A

    1989-01-01

    Vertebrate myosin heavy chains (MHC) are represented by multiple genes that are expressed in a spatially and temporally distinct pattern during development. In order to obtain molecular probes for developmentally regulated human MHC isoforms, we used monoclonal antibodies to screen an expression cDNA library constructed from primary human myotube cultures. A 3.4 kb cDNA was isolated that encodes one of the first MHCs to be transcribed in human skeletal muscle development. A portion of the cor...

  9. Differentially displayed expressed sequence tags in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) development

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia A. Santana; Nunes, Francis M F; Vieira, Carlos U.; Maria Alice M.S. Machado; Kerr, Warwick E.; Silva Jr., Wilson A.; Ana Maria Bonetti

    2006-01-01

    We have compared gene expression, using the Differential Display Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction (DDRT-PCR) technique, by means of mRNA profile in Melipona scutellaris during ontogenetic postembryonic development, in adult worker, and in both Natural and Juvenile Hormone III-induced adult queen. Six, out of the nine ESTs described here, presented differentially expressed in the phases L1 or L2, or even in both of them, suggesting that key mechanisms to the development of Mel...

  10. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  11. Comprehensive profiling of EBV gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma through paired-end transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lijuan; Lin, Zhirui; Wu, Yanheng; Dong, Juqin; Zhao, Bo; Cheng, Yanbing; Huang, Peiyu; Xu, Lihua; Xia, Tianliang; Xiong, Dan; Wang, Hongbo; Li, Manzhi; Guo, Ling; Kieff, Elliott; Zeng, Yixin; Zhong, Qian; Zeng, Musheng

    2016-03-01

    The latent expression pattern of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been extensively investigated, and the expression of several lytic genes in NPC has been reported. However, comprehensive information through EBV transcriptome analysis in NPC is limited. We performed paired-end RNA-seq to systematically and comprehensively characterize the expression of EBV genes in NPC tissue and C666-1 NPC cell line, which consistently carries EBV. In addition to the transcripts restricted to type II latency infection, the type III latency EBNA3s genes and a substantial number of lytic genes, such as BZLF1, BRLF1, and BMRF1, were detected through RNA-seq and were further verified in C666-1 cells and NPC tissue through realtime PCR.We also performed clustering analysis to classify NPC patient groups in terms of EBV gene expression, which presented two subtypes of NPC samples. Results revealed interesting patterns of EBV gene expression in NPC patients. This clustering was correlated with many signaling pathways, such as those related to heterotrimeric G-protein signaling, inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling, ribosomes, protein metabolism, influenza infection, and ECM-receptor interaction. Our combined findings suggested that the expression of EBV genes in NPC is restricted not only to type II latency genes but also to type III latency and lytic genes. This study provided further insights into the potential role of EBV in the development of NPC. PMID:26969667

  12. Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression by deep sequencing in early somatic embryogenesis of endangered medicinal Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lei; Zhao, Yue; Wu, Ying; Wang, Qiuyu; Yuan, Hongmei; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Wendong; You, Xiangling

    2016-03-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been studied as a model system to understand molecular events in physiology, biochemistry, and cytology during plant embryo development. In particular, it is exceedingly difficult to access the morphological and early regulatory events in zygotic embryos. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating early SE in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., we used high-throughput RNA-Seq technology to investigate its transcriptome. We obtained 58,327,688 reads, which were assembled into 75,803 unique unigenes. To better understand their functions, the unigenes were annotated using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Digital gene expression libraries revealed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (embryogenic callus, yellow embryogenic callus, global embryo). We obtained a sequencing depth of >5.6 million tags per sample and identified many differentially expressed genes at various stages of SE. The initiation of SE affected gene expression in many KEGG pathways, but predominantly that in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction. This information on the changes in the multiple pathways related to SE induction in E. senticosus Maxim. embryogenic tissue will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in early SE. Additionally, the differentially expressed genes may act as molecular markers and could play very important roles in the early stage of SE. The results are a comprehensive molecular biology resource for investigating SE of E. senticosus Maxim. PMID:26657036

  13. Expressed sequence tag analysis of khat (Catha edulis) provides a putative molecular biochemical basis for the biosynthesis of phenylpropylamino alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Krizevski, Raz; Kilpatrick, Korey; Sitrit, Yaron; Marsolais, Frédéric; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) is a flowering perennial shrub cultivated for its neurostimulant properties resulting mainly from the occurrence of (S)-cathinone in young leaves. The biosynthesis of (S)-cathinone and the related phenylpropylamino alkaloids (1S,2S)-cathine and (1R,2S)-norephedrine is not well characterized in plants. We prepared a cDNA library from young khat leaves and sequenced 4,896 random clones, generating an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of 3,293 unigenes. Putative functions were assigned to > 98% of the ESTs, providing a key resource for gene discovery. Candidates potentially involved at various stages of phenylpropylamino alkaloid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine to (1S,2S)-cathine were identified. PMID:22215969

  14. Expressed sequence tag analysis of khat (Catha edulis provides a putative molecular biochemical basis for the biosynthesis of phenylpropylamino alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Hagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. is a flowering perennial shrub cultivated for its neurostimulant properties resulting mainly from the occurrence of (S-cathinone in young leaves. The biosynthesis of (S-cathinone and the related phenylpropylamino alkaloids (1S,2S-cathine and (1R,2S-norephedrine is not well characterized in plants. We prepared a cDNA library from young khat leaves and sequenced 4,896 random clones, generating an expressed sequence tag (EST library of 3,293 unigenes. Putative functions were assigned to > 98% of the ESTs, providing a key resource for gene discovery. Candidates potentially involved at various stages of phenylpropylamino alkaloid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine to (1S,2S-cathine were identified.

  15. Transient and Stable GFP Expression in Germ Cells by the vasa Regulatory Sequences from the Red Seabream (Pagrus major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Lin, Qinghua Liu, Mingyou Li, Zhendong Li, Ni Hong, Jun Li, Yunhan Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the precursors of gametes responsible for genetic transmission to the next generation. They provide an ideal system for cryopreservation and restoration of biodiversity. Recently, considerable attention has been raised to visualize, isolate and transplant PGCs within and between species. In fish, stable PGC visualization in live embryo and individual has been limited to laboratory fish models such as medaka and zebrafish. One exception is the rainbow trout, which represents the only species with aquaculture importance and has GFP-labeled germ cells throughout development. PGCs can be transiently labeled by embryonic injection of mRNA containing green fluorescence protein gene (GFP and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of a maternal germ gene such as vasa, nos1, etc. Stable PGC labeling can be achieved through production of transgenic animals by some transcriptional regulatory sequences from germ genes, such as the vasa promoter and 3'-UTR. In this study, we reported the functional analyses of the red seabream vasa (Pmvas regulatory sequences, using medaka as a model system. It was showed that injection of GFP-Pmvas3'UTR mRNA was able to label medaka PGCs during embryogenesis. Besides, we have constructed pPmvasGFP transgenic vector, and established a stable transgenic medaka line exhibiting GFP expression in germ cells including PGCs, mitotic and meiotic germ cells of both sexes, under control of the Pmvas transcriptional regulatory sequences. It is concluded that the Pmvas regulatory sequences examined in this study are sufficient for germ cell expression and labeling.

  16. Early mucosal responses in blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) skin to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin; Su, Baofeng; Terhune, Jeffery; Peatman, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens are well-equipped to detect, adhere to, and initiate infection in their finfish hosts. The mucosal surfaces of fish, such as the skin, function as the front line of defense against such bacterial insults that are routinely encountered in the aquatic environment. While recent progress has been made, and despite the obvious importance of mucosal surfaces, the precise molecular events that occur soon after encountering bacterial pathogens remain unclear. Indeed, these early events are critical in mounting appropriate responses that ultimately determine host survival or death. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional consequences of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in the skin of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus. We utilized an 8×60K Agilent microarray to examine gene expression profiles at key early timepoints following challenge (2 h, 12 h, and 24 h). A total of 1155 unique genes were significantly altered during at least one timepoint. We observed dysregulation in a number of genes involved in diverse pathways including those involved in antioxidant responses, apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, immunity, and extracellular matrix protein diversity and regulation. Taken together, A. hydrophila coordinately modulates mucosal factors across numerous cellular pathways in a manner predicted to enhance its ability to adhere to and infect the blue catfish host. PMID:23337110

  17. Identification of Molecular Tumor Markers in Renal Cell Carcinomas with TFE3 Protein Expression by RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Pflueger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC is defined by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 transcription factor at chromosome Xp11.2. Genetically proven TFE3 tRCCs have a broad histologic spectrum with overlapping features to other renal tumor subtypes. In this study,we aimed for characterizing RCC with TFE3 protein expression. Using next-generation whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq as a discovery tool, we analyzed fusion transcripts, gene expression profile, and somatic mutations in frozen tissue of one TFE3 tRCC. By applying a computational analysis developed to call chimeric RNA molecules from paired-end RNA-Seq data, we confirmed the known TFE3 translocation. Its fusion partner SFPQ has already been described as fusion partner in tRCCs. In addition, an RNAread-through chimera between TMED6 and COG8 as well as MET and KDR (VEGFR2 point mutations were identified. An EGFR mutation, but no chromosomal rearrangements, was identified in a control group of five clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs. The TFE3 tRCC could be clearly distinguished from the ccRCCs by RNA-Seq gene expression measurements using a previously reported tRCC gene signature. In validation experiments using reverse transcription-PCR, TMED6-COG8 chimera expression was significantly higher in nine TFE3 translocated and six TFE3-expressing/non-translocated RCCs than in 24 ccRCCs (P<.001 and 22 papillaryRCCs (P<.05-.07. Immunohistochemical analysis of selected genes from the tRCC gene signature showed significantly higher eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (EEF1A2 and Contactin 3 (CNTN3 expression in 16 TFE3 translocated and six TFE3-expressing/non-translocated RCCs than in over 200 ccRCCs (P < .0001, both.

  18. Geometric Feature-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Image Sequences Using Multi-Class AdaBoost and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonwhoan Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are widely used in the behavioral interpretation of emotions, cognitive science, and social interactions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition in facial image sequences. As the facial expression evolves over time facial landmarks are automatically tracked in consecutive video frames, using displacements based on elastic bunch graph matching displacement estimation. Feature vectors from individual landmarks, as well as pairs of landmarks tracking results are extracted, and normalized, with respect to the first frame in the sequence. The prototypical expression sequence for each class of facial expression is formed, by taking the median of the landmark tracking results from the training facial expression sequences. Multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping similarity distance between the feature vector of input facial expression and prototypical facial expression, is used as a weak classifier to select the subset of discriminative feature vectors. Finally, two methods for facial expression recognition are presented, either by using multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping, or by using support vector machine on the boosted feature vectors. The results on the Cohn-Kanade (CK+ facial expression database show a recognition accuracy of 95.17% and 97.35% using multi-class AdaBoost and support vector machines, respectively.

  19. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the Streptococcus thermophilus histamine biosynthesis gene cluster: factors that affect differential hdcA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Andersen, Pia Skov;

    2010-01-01

    produce histamine. The hdc clusters of S. thermophilus CHCC1524 and CHCC6483 were sequenced, and the factors that affect histamine biosynthesis and histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) expression were studied. The hdc cluster began with the hdcA gene, was followed by a transporter (hdcP), and ended with...... the hdcB gene, which is of unknown function. The three genes were orientated in the same direction. The genetic organization of the hdc cluster showed a unique organization among the lactic acid bacterial group and resembled those of Staphylococcus and Clostridium species, thus indicating possible...

  20. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C R; Martins, N.F.; Horberg, H.M.; Almeida, E.R.P.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Togawa, R.; F. R. Silva; Caetano, A.R.; Miller, R.N.G.; de Souza, M T

    2005-01-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and from 25°C to 45°C was used to produce a COLD and a HOT cDNA library, respectively. We sequenced 1,440 clones from each library. Following quality analysis and vector trimming, we assembled 2,286 se...

  1. Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (δ) viral genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Sheng; Choo, Qui-Lim; Weiner, Amy J.; Ou, Jing-Hsiung; Najarian, Richard C.; Thayer, Richard M.; Mullenbach, Guy T.; Denniston, Katherine J.; Gerin, John L.; Houghton, Michael

    1986-10-01

    Biochemical and electron microscopic data indicate that the human hepatitis δ viral agent contains a covalently closed circular and single-stranded RNA genome that has certain similarities with viroid-like agents from plants. The sequence of the viral genome (1,678 nucleotides) has been determined and an open reading frame within the complementary strand has been shown to encode an antigen that binds specifically to antisera from patients with chronic hepatitis δ viral infections.

  2. Splicing Express: a software suite for alternative splicing analysis using next-generation sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Jose E.; Kim, JiHoon; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; de Souza, Sandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation. Alternative splicing events (ASEs) are prevalent in the transcriptome of eukaryotic species and are known to influence many biological phenomena. The identification and quantification of these events are crucial for a better understanding of biological processes. Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have allowed deep characterization of transcriptomes and made it possible to address these issues. ASEs analysis, however, represents a challenging task especially when many dif...

  3. Pyrosequence analysis of expressed sequence tags for Manduca sexta hemolymph proteins involved in immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Zhen; Najar, Fares; Wang, Yang; Roe, Bruce; Jiang, Haobo

    2008-01-01

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta is widely used as a model organism to investigate the biochemical basis of insect physiological processes but little transcriptome information is available. To get a broad view of the larval hemolymph proteins, particularly those related to immunity, we synthesized and sequenced cDNA fragments from a mixture of eight total RNA samples: fat body and hemocytes from larvae injected with killed bacteria, fat body, hemocytes, integument and trachea from naïve lar...

  4. Differentially displayed expressed sequence tags in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Flávia A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compared gene expression, using the Differential Display Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction (DDRT-PCR technique, by means of mRNA profile in Melipona scutellaris during ontogenetic postembryonic development, in adult worker, and in both Natural and Juvenile Hormone III-induced adult queen. Six, out of the nine ESTs described here, presented differentially expressed in the phases L1 or L2, or even in both of them, suggesting that key mechanisms to the development of Melipona scutellaris are regulated in these stages. The combination HT11G-AP05 revealed in L1 and L2 a product which matches to thioredoxin reductase protein domain in the Clostridium sporogenes, an important protein during cellular oxidoreduction processes. This study represents the first molecular evidence of differential gene expression profiles toward a description of the genetic developmental traits in the genus Melipona.

  5. ADAR2 affects mRNA coding sequence edits with only modest effects on gene expression or splicing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Allissa A; Cookson, Mark R; Galter, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases bind double stranded RNA and convert adenosine to inosine. Editing creates multiple isoforms of neurotransmitter receptors, such as with Gria2. Adar2 KO mice die of seizures shortly after birth, but if the Gria2 Q/R editing site is mutated to mimic the edited version then the animals are viable. We performed RNA-Seq on frontal cortices of Adar2(-/-) Gria2(R/R) mice and littermates. We found 56 editing sites with significantly diminished editing levels in Adar2 deficient animals with the majority in coding regions. Only two genes and 3 exons showed statistically significant differences in expression levels. This work illustrates that ADAR2 is important in site-specific changes of protein coding sequences but has relatively modest effects on gene expression and splicing in the adult mouse frontal cortex. PMID:26669816

  6. Heme regulates the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chimaeric genes containing 5'-flanking soybean leghemoglobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A; Villadsen, IS

    1986-01-01

    The TM1 yeast mutant was transformed with a 2 micron-derived plasmid (YEp24) which carries a chimaeric gene containing the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene fused to the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the soybean leghemoglobin (Lb) c3 gene. Expression of the chimaeric...... CAT gene is controlled specifically by heme at a post-transcriptional level, most likely by regulating the efficiencies of translation. Expression of another chimaeric gene consisting of the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene fused to only the 5'-flanking region of the Lbc3 gene is regulated by...

  7. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells...... of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created and...

  8. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jacob; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Panitz, Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Scheibye-Knudsen, Karsten; Arvin, Troels; Lumholdt, Steen; Sawera, Milena; Green, Trine; Nielsen, Bente J.; Havgaard, Jacob H.; Rosenkilde, Carina; Wang, Jun; Li, Heng; Li, Ruiqiang; Liu, Bin; Hu, Songnian; Dong, Wei; Li, Wei; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Wernersson, Rasmus; Madsen, Lone B.; Thomsen, Bo; Hornhoj, Henrik; Zhan, Bujie; Wang, Xuegang; Wang, Xuefei; Bolund, Lars; Brunak, Søren; Yang, Huanming; Bendixen, Christian; Fredholm, Merete

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from ......: This EST collection, the largest to date in pig, represents an essential resource for annotation, comparative genomics, assembly of the pig genome sequence, and further porcine transcription studies....

  9. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jacob;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from ......: This EST collection, the largest to date in pig, represents an essential resource for annotation, comparative genomics, assembly of the pig genome sequence, and further porcine transcription studies....

  10. Structure, sequence, expression, and chromosomal localization of the human V{sub 1a} vasopressin receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibonnier, M.; Graves, M.K.; Wagner, M.S. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    We recently reported the structure and functional expression of a human V{sub 1a} vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1a}R) cDNA isolated from human liver cDNA libraries. To understand further the expression and regulation of the V{sub 1a}R, we now describe the genomic characteristics, tissue expression, chromosomal localization, and regional mapping of the human V{sub 1a}R gene, AVPR1A. Tissue distribution of the human V{sub 1a}R mRNA explored by Northern blot analysis of various human tissues or organs revealed the presence of a 5.5-kb mRNA transcript expressed in the liver and to a lesser degree in the heart, the kidney, and skeletal muscle. Screening of human genomic libraries revealed that the human AVPR1A gene is included entirely within a 6.4-kb rated by a 2.2-kb intron located before the corresponding seventh transmembrane domain of the receptor sequence. The first exon also contains 2 kb of 5{prime}-untranslated region, and the second exon includes 1 kb of 3{prime}-untranslated region. 5{prime}-RACE analysis of human liver mRNA by PCR localized the V{sub 1a}R mRNA transcription start site 1973 bp upstream of the translation the intron sequence were used as primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids. AVPR1A was localized by PCR analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel to chromosome 12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a yeast artificial chromosome physically mapped AVPR1A to region 12q14-q15. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  11. High-throughput sequencing reveals differential expression of miRNAs in intestine from sea cucumber during aestivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyan Chen

    Full Text Available The regulatory role of miRNA in gene expression is an emerging hot new topic in the control of hypometabolism. Sea cucumber aestivation is a complicated physiological process that includes obvious hypometabolism as evidenced by a decrease in the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia nitrogen excretion, as well as a serious degeneration of the intestine into a very tiny filament. To determine whether miRNAs play regulatory roles in this process, the present study analyzed profiles of miRNA expression in the intestine of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus, using Solexa deep sequencing technology. We identified 308 sea cucumber miRNAs, including 18 novel miRNAs specific to sea cucumber. Animals sampled during deep aestivation (DA after at least 15 days of continuous torpor, were compared with animals from a non-aestivation (NA state (animals that had passed through aestivation and returned to the active state. We identified 42 differentially expressed miRNAs [RPM (reads per million >10, |FC| (|fold change| ≥ 1, FDR (false discovery rate <0.01] during aestivation, which were validated by two other miRNA profiling methods: miRNA microarray and real-time PCR. Among the most prominent miRNA species, miR-200-3p, miR-2004, miR-2010, miR-22, miR-252a, miR-252a-3p and miR-92 were significantly over-expressed during deep aestivation compared with non-aestivation animals. Preliminary analyses of their putative target genes and GO analysis suggest that these miRNAs could play important roles in global transcriptional depression and cell differentiation during aestivation. High-throughput sequencing data and microarray data have been submitted to GEO database.

  12. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library from developing fruits of an Hawaiian endemic mint (Stenogyne rugosa, Lamiaceae): characterization and microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Leebens-Mack James H; Oppenheimer David G; Yoo Mi-Jeong; Grey Paris; Scheen Anne-Cathrine; Lindqvist Charlotte; Soltis Douglas E; Soltis Pamela S; Albert Victor A

    2006-01-01

    Background The endemic Hawaiian mints represent a major island radiation that likely originated from hybridization between two North American polyploid lineages. In contrast with the extensive morphological and ecological diversity among taxa, ribosomal DNA sequence variation has been found to be remarkably low. In the past few years, expressed sequence tag (EST) projects on plant species have generated a vast amount of publicly available sequence data that can be mined for...

  13. Analyzing Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 gene expression by a next generation sequencing based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob S.; Petersen, Bent; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine;

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most cases of severe malaria and causes >1 million deaths every year. The particular virulence of this Plasmodium species is highly associated with the expression of certain members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1(PfEMP1) family...

  14. Gene expression analysis of starch metabolism using mRNAseq and the potato genome sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderkær, Mads; Kloosterman, Bjorn; Bachem, Christian; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2010-01-01

    Crops such as potatoes that have storage organs (tubers) placed in the soil produce twice the amount of energy per area unit compared to cereals. This makes these kinds of crops well suited as a starting point for future crops for food and energy production. In order to develop a potato with higher......, starch synthesis takes place not only in tubers but also in leaves in the form of transient starch during the day, which is consumed in the absence of photosynthesis during the night. This poster will present the results of a transcriptome analysis based on the draft potato genome sequence v3. Samples...

  15. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Bacillus subtilis lon gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Riethdorf, S.; Völker, U; Gerth, U.; Winkler, A; Engelmann, S; Hecker, M.

    1994-01-01

    The lon gene of Escherichia coli encodes the ATP-dependent serine protease La and belongs to the family of sigma 32-dependent heat shock genes. In this paper, we report the cloning and characterization of the lon gene from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The nucleotide sequence of the lon locus, which is localized upstream of the hemAXCDBL operon, was determined. The lon gene codes for an 87-kDa protein consisting of 774 amino acid residues. A comparison of the deduced amino ac...

  16. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in Catharanthus roseus expressed sequence tags

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, Alok; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta

    2013-01-01

    No study has been performed on identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets in the medicinal plant, Catharanthus roseus. In the present study, using the comparative genomics approach, we have predicted two potential C. roseus miRNAs. Furthermore, twelve potential mRNA targets were identified in C. roseus genome based on the characteristics that miRNAs exhibit perfect or nearly perfect complementarity with their targeted mRNA sequences. Among them many of the targets were predicted to enco...

  17. Sequence and gene expression of chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt in the association of in vitro drugs resistance of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray Patrick G

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (CQR transporter protein (PfCRT is known to be the important key of CQR. Recent studies have definitively demonstrated a link between mutations in the gene pfcrt and resistance to chloroquine in P. falciparum. Although these mutations are predictive of chloroquine resistance, they are not quantitatively predictive of the degree of resistance. Methods In this study, a total of 95 recently adapted P. falciparum isolates from Thailand were included in the analysis. Parasites were characterized for their drug susceptibility phenotypes and genotypes with respect to pfcrt. From the original 95 isolates, 20 were selected for complete pfcrt sequence analysis. Results Almost all of the parasites characterized carried the previously reported mutations K76T, A220S, Q271E, N326S, I356T and R371I. On complete sequencing, isolates were identified with novel mutations at K76A and E198K. There was a suggestion that parasites carrying E198K were less resistant than those that did not. In addition, pfcrt and pfmdr1 gene expression were investigated by real-time PCR. No relationship between the expression level of either of these genes and response to drug was observed. Conclusion Data from the present study suggest that other genes must contribute to the degree of resistance once the resistance phenotype is established through mutations in pfcrt.

  18. Cloning & sequence identification of Hsp27 gene and expression analysis of the protein on thermal stress in Lucilia cuprina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish K; Tiwari, Pramod K

    2016-08-01

    Hsp27, a highly conserved small molecular weight heat shock protein, is widely known to be developmentally regulated and heat inducible. Its role in thermotolerance is also implicated. This study is a sequel of our earlier studies to understand the molecular organization of heat shock genes/proteins and their role in development and thermal adaptation in a sheep pest, Lucilia cuprina (blowfly), which exhibits unusually high adaptability to a variety of environmental stresses, including heat and chemicals. In this report our aim was to understand the evolutionary relationship of Lucilia hsp27 gene/protein with those of other species and its role in thermal adaptation. We sequence characterized the Lchsp27 gene (coding region) and analyzed its expression in various larval and adult tissues under normal as well as heat shock conditions. The nucleotide sequence analysis of 678 bps long-coding region of Lchsp27 exhibited closest evolutionary proximity with Drosophila (90.09%), which belongs to the same order, Diptera. Heat shock caused significant enhancement in the expression of Lchsp27 gene in all the larval and adult tissues examined, however, in a tissue specific manner. Significantly, in Malpighian tubules, while the heat-induced level of hsp27 transcript (mRNA) appeared increased as compared to control, the protein level remained unaltered and nuclear localized. We infer that Lchsp27 may have significant role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, particularly, during summer months, when the fly remains exposed to high heat in its natural habitat. PMID:25755181

  19. Identification of genes in longissimus dorsi muscle differentially expressed between Wannanhua and Yorkshire pigs using RNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X-J; Zhou, J; Liu, L-Q; Qian, K; Wang, C-L

    2016-06-01

    Western commercial pig breeds have been intensively selected, resulting in a sizeable, rapid and efficient accretion of muscle but a reduction in meat quality. When compared with Western commercial pig breeds, Chinese indigenous pig breeds exhibited slower growth rates and reduced lean meat content but superior perceived meat quality. To study the factors that determine meat quality, we examined piglets of one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire) and one Chinese indigenous breed (Wannanhua) and sequenced the longissimus dorsi muscle using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We analyzed their transcriptomes, focusing on identifying candidate genes that may influence porcine muscle growth, meat quality and adipose deposition. Gene Ontology functional enrichment and pathway enrichment analyses identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) primarily associated with glycolytic metabolism, biological processes of muscle development and signaling pathways related to fatty acid metabolism, growth and carcass traits. This finding suggests that the DEGs may play important roles in determining meat quality traits. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the differential expression of 12 selected DEG. This study identified a number of novel candidate genes for porcine meat quality and carcass traits that merit further investigation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle growth and fat deposition. PMID:27038141

  20. Overcoming the toxicity of membrane peptide expression in bacteria by upstream insertion of Asp-Pro sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Cédric; Penin, François; Lethias, Claire; Falson, Pierre

    2004-01-28

    Transmembrane (TM) peptides often induce toxic effects when expressed in bacteria, probably due to membrane destabilization. We report here that in the case of the TM domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E1 and E2 envelope proteins, which are both particularly toxic for the bacteria, the insertion of the Asp-Pro (DP) sequence dramatically reduced their toxicities and promoted their expressions when produced as glutathione S-transferase (GST) GST-DP-TM chimeras. Subcellular fractionation showed that these chimeras co-sediment with the membrane fraction and contain active GST that could be solubilized with a mild detergent. Surprisingly, immuno-gold electron microscopy clearly showed that such chimeras are not localized in the membrane but in the cytosol. We thus postulate that they likely form proteo-lipidic aggregates, which prevent the bacteria from toxicity by sequestering the TM part of the chimeras. The reduction of toxicity in the presence of the Asp-Pro sequence is possibly due to Asp's negative charge that probably disadvantages the binding of the TM peptides to the membrane. In addition, the structural features of Pro residue could promote the formation of chimera aggregates. PMID:14757220

  1. Focal expression of mutant huntingtin in the songbird basal ganglia disrupts cortico-basal ganglia networks and vocal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masashi; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Murugan, Malavika; Mooney, Richard

    2016-03-22

    The basal ganglia (BG) promote complex sequential movements by helping to select elementary motor gestures appropriate to a given behavioral context. Indeed, Huntington's disease (HD), which causes striatal atrophy in the BG, is characterized by hyperkinesia and chorea. How striatal cell loss alters activity in the BG and downstream motor cortical regions to cause these disorganized movements remains unknown. Here, we show that expressing the genetic mutation that causes HD in a song-related region of the songbird BG destabilizes syllable sequences and increases overall vocal activity, but leave the structure of individual syllables intact. These behavioral changes are paralleled by the selective loss of striatal neurons and reduction of inhibitory synapses on pallidal neurons that serve as the BG output. Chronic recordings in singing birds revealed disrupted temporal patterns of activity in pallidal neurons and downstream cortical neurons. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the cortical neurons rescued the disorganized vocal sequences in transfected birds. These findings shed light on a key role of temporal patterns of cortico-BG activity in the regulation of complex motor sequences and show how a genetic mutation alters cortico-BG networks to cause disorganized movements. PMID:26951661

  2. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  3. Development of expressed sequence tag resources for Vanda Mimi Palmer and data mining for EST-SSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Seow-Ling; Chan, Wai-Sun; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2011-08-01

    Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP) is a highly sought as fragrant-orchid hybrid in Malaysia. It is economically important in cosmetic and beauty industries and also a famous potted ornamental plant. To date, no work on fragrance-related genes of vandaceous orchids has been reported from other research groups although the analysis of floral fragrance or volatiles have been extensively studied. An expressed sequence tag (EST) resource was developed for VMP principally to mine any potential fragrance-related expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) for future development as markers in the identification of fragrant vandaceous orchids endemic to Malaysia. Clustering, annotation and assembling of the ESTs identified 1,196 unigenes which defined 966 singletons and 230 contigs. The VMP dbEST was functionally classified by gene ontology (GO) into three groups: molecular functions (51.2%), cellular components (16.4%) and biological processes (24.6%) while the remaining 7.8% showed no hits with GO identifier. A total of 112 EST-SSR (9.4%) was mined on which at least five units of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexa-nucleotide repeats were predicted. The di-nucleotide motif repeats appeared to be the most frequent repeats among the detected SSRs with the AT/TA types as the most abundant among the dimerics, while AAG/TTC, AGA/TCT-type were the most frequent trimerics. The mined EST-SSR is believed to be useful in the development of EST-SSR markers that is applicable in the screening and characterization of fragrance-related transcripts in closely related species. PMID:21116862

  4. Dissection of two soybean QTL conferring partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae through sequence and gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hehe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae ( Rps genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified in the soybean cultivar ‘Conrad’ that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates. Results In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad and susceptible (‘Sloan’ genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance. Conclusions These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of three novel sheep (Ovis aries) genes - BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G Y; Gao, S Z

    2009-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of three sheep genes- BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), based on the conserved sequence information of the mouse or other mammals. The nucleotide sequences of these three genes revealed that the sheep BCKDHA gene encodes a protein of 313 amino acids which has high homology with the BCKDHA gene that encodes a protein of 447 amino acids that has high homology with the Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase El, alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA) of five species chimpanzee (93%), human (96%), crab-eating macaque (93%), bovine (98%) and mouse (91%). The sheep NAGA gene encodes a protein of 411 amino acids that has high homology with the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) of five species human (85%), bovine (94%), mouse (91%), rat (83%) and chicken (74%). The sheep HEXA gene encodes a protein of 529 amino acids that has high homology with the hexosaminidase A(HEXA) of five species bovine (98%), human (84%), Bornean orangután (84%), rat (80%) and mouse (81%). Finally these three novel sheep genes were assigned to GenelDs: 100145857, 100145858 and 100145856. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the sheep BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA all have closer genetic relationships to the BCKDHA, NAGA, and HEXA of bovine. Tissue expression profile analysis was also carried out and results revealed that sheep BCKDHA, NAGA and HEXA genes were differentially expressed in tissues including muscle, heart, liver, fat, kidney, lung, small and large intestine. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on these three sheep genes. PMID:19621134

  6. Effect of temperature on symptom expression and sequence polymorphism of grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Thaeer M; Habili, Nuredin; Shi, Bujun

    2014-08-30

    Symptom expression of yellow speckle disease was studied in a row of 32 individual Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay vines in the warmer summer of 2009/2010 as compared with the cooler summer of 2011/2012 in South Australia. RT-PCR analysis showed that all these vines were positive for hop stunt viroid, grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) and grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus. Four vines named Vines 1, 8, 11 and 15 were selected for further analyses. Vines 1 and 8 had never shown yellow speckle (YS) symptoms, Vine 11 had always been symptomatic, and Vine 15 showed YS symptoms only in the summer of 2009/2010, but not in 2011/2012. Analysis of partial nucleotide (nt) sequence of GYSVd-1 from these vines showed two major sequence polymorphisms in the pathogenicity domain coinciding with the YS symptoms and the prevailing temperature in each season. One group designated UA group had a uridine (U) at position 309 and an adenine (A) at position 311, while another group designated AU group had the other way around: an "A" at position 309 and a "U" at position 311. The AU group had never been reported before. The AU group was a minor variant in the GYSVd-1 population and not present in symptomatic Vine 11. In contrast, the UA group was dominant and present in all the vine samples. Surprisingly, all the asymptomatic vines, but not symptomatic vines, had the signature of the AU group. Whether the AU group is associated with the YS symptom expression is interesting. Our result provides a new insight into the sequence variability of viroid-inducing symptoms during two significantly different growing seasons. PMID:24905287

  7. Expressed sequence tag analysis in Cycas, the most primitive living seed plant

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Eric D; Stevenson, Dennis W.; McCombie, Richard W.; Katari, Manpreet S; Rudd, Stephen A; Mayer, Klaus FX; Palenchar, Peter M; Runko, Suzan J.; Twigg, Richard W; Dai, Guangwei; Martienssen, Rob A; Benfey, Phillip N; Coruzzi, Gloria M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Cycads are ancient seed plants (living fossils) with origins in the Paleozoic. Cycads are sometimes considered a 'missing link' as they exhibit characteristics intermediate between vascular non-seed plants and the more derived seed plants. Cycads have also been implicated as the source of 'Guam's dementia', possibly due to the production of S(+)-beta-methyl-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (BMAA), which is an agonist of animal glutamate receptors. Results A total of 4,200 expresse...

  8. Repurposing CRISPR as an RNA-Guided Platform for Sequence-Specific Control of Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Lei S.; Larson, Matthew H.; Gilbert, Luke A.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Arkin, Adam P; Lim, Wendell A.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted gene regulation on a genome-wide scale is a powerful strategy for interrogating, perturbing, and engineering cellular systems. Here, we develop a method for controlling gene expression based on Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease from a type II CRISPR system. We show that a catalytically dead Cas9 lacking endonuclease activity, when coexpressed with a guide RNA, generates a DNA recognition complex that can specifically interfere with transcriptional elongation, RNA polymerase bindin...

  9. Characterization of Shigella type 1 fimbriae: expression, FimA sequence, and phase variation.

    OpenAIRE

    Snellings, N J; Tall, B D; Venkatesan, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    This study documents the presence of type 1 fimbriae on Shigella and confirms these mannose-sensitive adherence structures to be bona fide components of the Shigella surface. While laboratory-passaged Shigella strains and lyophilized clinical isolates failed to express type 1 fimbriae, 6 of 20 recent clinical isolates, including 4 Shigella flexneri strains, 1 Shigella boydii strain, and 1 Shigella dysenteriae strain, produced type 1 fimbriae as detected by mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (...

  10. Temporal patterns of gene expression in developing maize endosperm identified through transcriptome sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guosheng; Wang, Dongfang; Yang, Ruolin; Logan, Kyle; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shanshan; Skaggs, Megan I.; Lloyd, Alan; Burnett, William J.; Laurie, John D.; Hunter, Brenda G.; Dannenhoffer, Joanne M.; Larkins, Brian A; Drews, Gary N.; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    In flowering plants, double fertilization gives rise to an embryo and the endosperm, an absorptive storage structure that supports embryogenesis and seedling germination. In cereal grains, endosperm comprises a large proportion of the mature seed, contains large amounts of carbohydrates and proteins, and is an important source of food, feed, and industrial raw materials. This study provides a comprehensive profile of the genes expressed in the early developing endosperm in maize. We also show...

  11. Regulation of gene expression in Mycoplasmas: contribution from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Maciel França Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the transcription apparatus of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (strains J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae, using a comparative genomics approach to summarize the main features related to transcription and control of gene expression in mycoplasmas. Most of the transcription-related genes present in the three strains are well conserved among mycoplasmas. Some unique aspects of transcription in mycoplasmas and the scarcity of regulatory proteins in mycoplasma genomes are discussed.

  12. Temporal patterns of gene expression in developing maize endosperm identified through transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Wang, Dongfang; Yang, Ruolin; Logan, Kyle; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shanshan; Skaggs, Megan I; Lloyd, Alan; Burnett, William J; Laurie, John D; Hunter, Brenda G; Dannenhoffer, Joanne M; Larkins, Brian A; Drews, Gary N; Wang, Xiangfeng; Yadegari, Ramin

    2014-05-27

    Endosperm is a filial structure resulting from a second fertilization event in angiosperms. As an absorptive storage organ, endosperm plays an essential role in support of embryo development and seedling germination. The accumulation of carbohydrate and protein storage products in cereal endosperm provides humanity with a major portion of its food, feed, and renewable resources. Little is known regarding the regulatory gene networks controlling endosperm proliferation and differentiation. As a first step toward understanding these networks, we profiled all mRNAs in the maize kernel and endosperm at eight successive stages during the first 12 d after pollination. Analysis of these gene sets identified temporal programs of gene expression, including hundreds of transcription-factor genes. We found a close correlation of the sequentially expressed gene sets with distinct cellular and metabolic programs in distinct compartments of the developing endosperm. The results constitute a preliminary atlas of spatiotemporal patterns of endosperm gene expression in support of future efforts for understanding the underlying mechanisms that control seed yield and quality. PMID:24821765

  13. Characterization of expressed sequence tags obtained by SSH during somatic embryogenesis in Cichorium intybus L

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    Quillet Marie-Christine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic embryogenesis (SE is an asexual propagation pathway requiring a somatic-to-embryonic transition of differentiated somatic cells toward embryogenic cells capable of producing embryos in a process resembling zygotic embryogenesis. In chicory, genetic variability with respect to the formation of somatic embryos was detected between plants from a population of Cichorium intybus L. landrace Koospol. Though all plants from this population were self incompatible, we managed by repeated selfing to obtain a few seeds from one highly embryogenic (E plant, K59. Among the plants grown from these seeds, one plant, C15, was found to be non-embryogenic (NE under our SE-inducing conditions. Being closely related, we decided to exploit the difference in SE capacity between K59 and its descendant C15 to study gene expression during the early stages of SE in chicory. Results Cytological analysis indicated that in K59 leaf explants the first cell divisions leading to SE were observed at day 4 of culture. In contrast, in C15 explants no cell divisions were observed and SE development seemed arrested before cell reactivation. Using mRNAs isolated from leaf explants from both genotypes after 4 days of culture under SE-inducing conditions, an E and a NE cDNA-library were generated by SSH. A total of 3,348 ESTs from both libraries turned out to represent a maximum of 2,077 genes. In silico subtraction analysis sorted only 33 genes as differentially expressed in the E or NE genotype, indicating that SSH had resulted in an effective normalisation. Real-time RT-PCR was used to verify the expression levels of 48 genes represented by ESTs from either library. The results showed preferential expression of genes related to protein synthesis and cell division in the E genotype, and related to defence in the NE genotype. Conclusion In accordance with the cytological observations, mRNA levels in explants from K59 and C15 collected at day 4 of SE

  14. Utilization of a rapid DNA-based assay for molecular verification of channel catfish, blue catfish, F1 hybrid, and backcross offspring at serveral life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The F1 hybrid offspring of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, females mated with blue catfish, I. furcatus, males contain many desirable traits for commercial production such as enhanced growth and increased survivability. Although at a low efficiency, hybrids can be produced by pond spawning, b...

  15. Generation of a Transcriptome in a Model Lepidopteran Pest, Heliothis virescens, Using Multiple Sequencing Strategies for Profiling Midgut Gene Expression.

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    Omaththage P Perera

    Full Text Available Heliothine pests such as the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F., pose a significant threat to production of a variety of crops and ornamental plants and are models for developmental and physiological studies. The efforts to develop new control measures for H. virescens, as well as its use as a relevant biological model, are hampered by a lack of molecular resources. The present work demonstrates the utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for rapid molecular resource generation from this species for which lacks a sequenced genome. In order to amass a de novo transcriptome for this moth, transcript sequences generated from Illumina, Roche 454, and Sanger sequencing platforms were merged into a single de novo transcriptome assembly. This pooling strategy allowed a thorough sampling of transcripts produced under diverse environmental conditions, developmental stages, tissues, and infections with entomopathogens used for biological control, to provide the most complete transcriptome to date for this species. Over 138 million reads from the three platforms were assembled into the final set of 63,648 contigs. Of these, 29,978 had significant BLAST scores indicating orthologous relationships to transcripts of other insect species, with the top-hit species being the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus and silkworm (Bombyx mori. Among identified H. virescens orthologs were immune effectors, signal transduction pathways, olfactory receptors, hormone biosynthetic pathways, peptide hormones and their receptors, digestive enzymes, and insecticide resistance enzymes. As an example, we demonstrate the utility of this transcriptomic resource to study gene expression profiling of larval midguts and detect transcripts of putative Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxin receptors. The substantial molecular resources described in this study will facilitate development of H. virescens as a relevant biological model for functional genomics and for new

  16. Gene sequencing, cloning, and expression of the recombinant L- Asparaginase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa SN4 strain in Escherichia coli

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    Arastoo Badoei-dalfard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: L- asparaginase is in an excessive demand in medical applications and in food treating industries, the request for this therapeutic enzyme is growing several folds every year. Materials and methods: In this study, a L- asparaginase gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SN4 was sequenced and cloned in E. coli. Primers were designed based on L- asparaginase from P. aeruginosa DSM 50071, which show high similarity to SN4 strain, according to 16S rRNA sequence. The L- asparaginase gene was exposed to restriction digestion with NdeI and XhoI enzymes and then ligated into pET21a plasmid. The ligated sample was transformed into competent E. coli (DE3 pLysS DH5a cells, according to CaCl2 method. The transformed E. coli cells were grown into LB agar plate containing 100 µg/ml ampicillin, IPTG (1 mM. Results: Recombinant L- asparaginase from E. coli BL21 induced after 9 h of incubation and showed high L- asparaginase activity about 93.4 IU/ml. Recombinant L- asparaginase sequencing and alignments showed that the presumed amino acid sequence composed of 350 amino acid residues showed high similarity with P. aeruginosa L- asparaginases about 99%. The results also indicated that SN4 L- asparaginase has the catalytic residues and conserve region similar to other L- asparaginases. Discussion and conclusion: This is the first report on cloning and expression of P. aeruginosa L- asparaginases in Escherichia coli. These results indicated a potent source of L- asparaginase for in vitro and in vivio anticancer consideration. 

  17. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  18. Temperature Cycles Induce Early Maturation in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major impediment in improvement of channel catfish by selective breeding is that a high percent of fish do not spawn until the third year. If the generation time could be shortened, genetic improvement could be achieved at a faster rate. The conditions that lead to sexual maturation in fish have...

  19. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and redu...

  20. TOXAPHENE: CHRONIC TOXICITY TO FATHEAD MINNOWS AND CHANNEL CATFISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were continuously exposed to several toxaphene concentrations (13-630 ng) in flow-through diluter systems for 8 to 10 months. Growth and backbone quality of adult fathead minnows were decreased at 97 ...

  1. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepin

  2. Can We Improve Catfish Growth and FCR Through Oxygen Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of channel catfish. Control ponds in each study were maintained with a minimum D...

  3. Prevalence and enumeration of microorganisms on catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish nuggets, either fresh or pre-packed frozen, were purchased from local retailers in the northeast United States (NJ, NY, PA, DE, and MD) and tested for microbiological quality. The microbiological background including total aerobic plate counts (APC) at 22 and 37 deg C, Enterbacteriacea, Esc...

  4. The pathology associated with visceral toxicosis of catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC) syndrome was recognized in the late 1990s and recently has been associated with exposure to Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin. Tentative diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and ross findings, and is confirmed by bioassay. In April 2009, channel cat...

  5. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behaviou

  6. A tandem-repeat galectin-9 involved in immune response of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Ke, Fei; Ma, Jingjing; Zhou, Shuaibang

    2016-04-01

    Galectins exclusively recognize and bind β-galactoside on cell surface by carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of extensive study of mammalian galectin importance in immune system, little is known about that of fish. To study the immune response of yellow catfish to pathogens, a tandem-repeat galectin-9 from yellow catfish was identified and named PfGAL9. Its full-length cDNA was 1314 bp, including a 117 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 951 bp of open reading frame (ORF), and a 246 bp of 3' UTR. The ORF encoded 316 amino acids (35.12 KDa), shared the highest 78% identity with the predicted galectin-9 of Ictalurus punctatus. This protein possessed two distinct CRDs with two highly conserved sugar binding motifs. Quantitative PCR showed that PfGAL9 was lowly expressed in skin, gill, fin, muscle, heart, and intestine, highly expressed in tested immune tissues (head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, spleen, and blood) in normal body. After inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, PfGAL9 was remarkably increased in head kidney and liver in a time-dependent manner. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, which not only agglutinated but also bond all examined bacteria. The binding activities are consistent with the size of aggregates formed by agglutinated bacteria. The agglutination must depend on its direct interaction with bacteria. These results suggested that PfGAL9 was involved in the innate immune response against bacterial infection and clearance of pathogens in yellow catfish. PMID:26892795

  7. Expression differentiation of CYC-like floral symmetry genes correlated with their protein sequence divergence in Chirita heterotricha (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiu; Tao, Ju-Hong; Yan, Dan; Wang, Yin-Zheng; Li, Zhen-Yu

    2008-07-01

    CYCLOIDIEA (CYC) and its homologues have been studied intensively in the model organism Antirrhinum majus and related species regarding their function in controlling floral dorsoventral (adaxial-abaxial) asymmetry, including aborting the adaxial and lateral stamens. This raises the question whether the same mechanism underlies the great morphological diversity of zygomorphy in angiosperms, especially in Lamiales sensu lato, a major clade predominantly with zygomorphic flowers. To address this, we selected a representative in Gesneriaceae, the sister to the remainder of Lamiales s.l., to isolate CYC homologues and further investigate their expression patterns using locus-specific semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that four CYC homologues in Chirita heterotricha differentiated spatially and temporally in expression, in which ChCYC1D was only expressed in the adaxial regions, and transcripts of ChCYC1C were distributed in both the adaxial and lateral regions, while ChCYC2A and ChCYC2B transcripts were only detected in the young inflorescences. ChCYC1C expression in the lateral regions correlated with abortion of the lateral stamens in C. heterotricha hinted at its gain of function, i.e., expanding from the adaxial to the lateral regions in expression. Correlatively, the protein sequences of ChCYC genes exhibited remarkable divergences, in which some lineage-specific amino acids between GCYC1 and GCYC2 in conserved functional domains and two sublineage-specific motifs between GCYC1C and GCYC1D in GCYC1 genes had further been identified. Our results indicated that ChCYC genes had probably undergone an expressional differentiation and specialization in establishing the floral dorsoventral asymmetry in C. heterotricha responding to different selective pressure after gene duplication. PMID:18592267

  8. Retinoic acid triggers meiosis initiation via stra8-dependent pathway in Southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Feng, Ruijuan; Ma, He; Dong, Ranran; Liu, Zhilong; Jiang, Wentao; Tao, Wenjing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-06-01

    Existing studies demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA) regulates meiotic initiation via stra8-independent pathway in teleosts which lack stra8 in their genomes. However, stra8 was recently identified from several fish species including Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis). To explore the existence of stra8-dependent pathway in RA mediated meiotic initiation in fishes, in the present study, the genes encoding RA synthase aldh1a2 and catabolic enzyme cyp26a1 and cyp26b1 were cloned from the Southern catfish. By immunohistochemistry, Aldh1a2 signal was observed in gonads of both sexes during the meiotic initiation period. By real-time PCR, differentially expressed gene was observed for cyp26a1, but not for cyp26b1, in gonads during the meiotic initiation. Administration of exogenous RA or inhibition of endogenous RA degradation by either KET (RA catabolic enzyme inhibitor) or cyp26a1 knockdown using CRISPR/Cas9 induced advanced meiotic initiation in the ovaries as demonstrated by increased Stra8/stra8 expression and appearance of oocytes. In contrast, treatment with RA synthase inhibitor DEAB resulted in delayed meiotic initiation and Stra8/stra8 expression in the ovaries, which was rescued by exogenous RA administration. These results indicated that (1) RA triggers the onset of meiosis via stra8-dependent pathway in stra8 existing teleosts, as it does in tetrapods; (2) exogenous RA can rescue the endogenous RA deficiency; (3) Cyp26a1, instead of Cyp26b1, is the key catabolic enzyme involved in meiosis initiation in teleosts. Taken together, RA might trigger meiotic initiation via stra8-dependent and -independent pathway in different teleosts. PMID:26764212

  9. Expression strategies of the yeast retrotransposon Ty: a short sequence directs ribosomal frameshifting.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, W; Malim, M H; Mellor, J; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1986-01-01

    The Ty element of yeast is a member of a class of eukaryotic transposons which bear a striking resemblance to retroviral proviruses in their structure and expression strategies (1,2). A direct comparison can be drawn between the production of a fusion protein encoded by Ty, resulting from a frameshift event which fuses two out-of-phase open reading frames TYA and TYB, and the production of Pr180gag-pol in a retrovirus such as Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) (3,4). We present data which shows, defini...

  10. Expressed sequence tags for bovine muscle satellite cells, myotube formed-cells and adipocyte-like cells.

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    Eun Ju Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle satellite cells (MSCs represent a devoted stem cell population that is responsible for postnatal muscle growth and skeletal muscle regeneration. An important characteristic of MSCs is that they encompass multi potential mesenchymal stem cell activity and are able to differentiate into myocytes and adipocytes. To achieve a global view of the genes differentially expressed in MSCs, myotube formed-cells (MFCs and adipocyte-like cells (ALCs, we performed large-scale EST sequencing of normalized cDNA libraries developed from bovine MSCs. RESULTS: A total of 24,192 clones were assembled into 3,333 clusters, 5,517 singletons and 3,842contigs. Functional annotation of these unigenes revealed that a large portion of the differentially expressed genes are involved in cellular and signaling processes. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID functional analysis of three subsets of highly expressed gene lists (MSC233, MFC258, and ALC248 highlighted some common and unique biological processes among MSC, MFC and ALC. Additionally, genes that may be specific to MSC, MFC and ALC are reported here, and the role of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase2 (DDAH2 during myogenesis and hemoglobin subunit alpha2 (HBA2 during transdifferentiation in C2C12 were assayed as a case study. DDAH2 was up-regulated during myognesis and knockdown of DDAH2 by siRNA significantly decreased myogenin (MYOG expression corresponding with the slight change in cell morphology. In contrast, HBA2 was up-regulated during ALC formation and resulted in decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and CD36 mRNA expression upon knockdown assay. CONCLUSION: In this study, a large number of EST sequences were generated from the MSC, MFC and ALC. Overall, the collection of ESTs generated in this study provides a starting point for the identification of novel genes involved in MFC and ALC formation, which in turn offers a fundamental resource to

  11. A ribosome binding site sequence is necessary for efficient expression of the distal gene of a translationally-coupled gene pair.

    OpenAIRE

    Das, A.; Yanofsky, C

    1984-01-01

    Expression of trpB and trpA of the Escherichia coli tryptophan operon is shown to be "translationally coupled", i.e., efficient translation of the trpA coding region is dependent on prior translation of the trpB coding region and termination of translation at the trpB stop codon. To examine the dependence of trpA expression on the ribosome binding site sequence in the distal segment of trpB, deletions were produced that replaced this trpB sequence. Analysis of trpA expression in these deletio...

  12. A simple and accurate two-step long DNA sequences synthesis strategy to improve heterologous gene expression in pichia.

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    Jiang-Ke Yang

    Full Text Available In vitro gene chemical synthesis is a powerful tool to improve the expression of gene in heterologous system. In this study, a two-step gene synthesis strategy that combines an assembly PCR and an overlap extension PCR (AOE was developed. In this strategy, the chemically synthesized oligonucleotides were assembled into several 200-500 bp fragments with 20-25 bp overlap at each end by assembly PCR, and then an overlap extension PCR was conducted to assemble all these fragments into a full length DNA sequence. Using this method, we de novo designed and optimized the codon of Rhizopus oryzae lipase gene ROL (810 bp and Aspergillus niger phytase gene phyA (1404 bp. Compared with the original ROL gene and phyA gene, the codon-optimized genes expressed at a significantly higher level in yeasts after methanol induction. We believe this AOE method to be of special interest as it is simple, accurate and has no limitation with respect to the size of the gene to be synthesized. Combined with de novo design, this method allows the rapid synthesis of a gene optimized for expression in the system of choice and production of sufficient biological material for molecular characterization and biotechnological application.

  13. Sequence and expression analysis of the AMT gene family in poplar

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    Guanjun eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium transporters (AMTs are plasma membrane proteins that exclusively transport ammonium/ammonia. These proteins are encoded by an ancient gene family with many members. The molecular characteristics and evolutionary history of AMTs in woody plants are still poorly understood. We comprehensively evaluated the AMT gene family in the latest release of the Populus trichocarpa genome (version 3.0; Phytozome 9.0, and identified 16 AMT genes. These genes formed four clusters; AMT1 (7 genes, AMT2 (2 genes, AMT3 (2 genes, and AMT4 (5 genes. Evolutionary analyses suggested that the Populus AMT gene family has expanded via whole-genome duplication events. Among the 16 AMT genes, 15 genes are located on 11 chromosomes of Populus. Expression analyses showed that 14 AMT genes were vegetative organs expressed; AMT1;1/1;3/1;6/3;2 and AMT1;1/1;2/2;2/3;1 had high transcript accumulation level in the leaves and roots, respectively and strongly changes under the nitrogen-dependent experiments. The results imply the functional roles of AMT genes in ammonium absorption in poplar.

  14. Geometric Feature-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Image Sequences Using Multi-Class AdaBoost and Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Joonwhoan Lee; Deepak Ghimire

    2013-01-01

    Facial expressions are widely used in the behavioral interpretation of emotions, cognitive science, and social interactions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition in facial image sequences. As the facial expression evolves over time facial landmarks are automatically tracked in consecutive video frames, using displacements based on elastic bunch graph matching displacement estimation. Feature vectors from individual landmarks, as well as pa...

  15. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling.

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    Nerea Irigoyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV, are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global "snap-shot" of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59, a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the

  16. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua D.; Chung, Betty Y.-W.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Brierley, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global “snap-shot” of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  17. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, Nerea; Firth, Andrew E; Jones, Joshua D; Chung, Betty Y-W; Siddell, Stuart G; Brierley, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global "snap-shot" of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  18. Analysis of a Blue Catfish Population in a Southeastern Reservoir: Lake Norman, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Grist, Joseph Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This investigation examined the diet, growth, movement, population genetics, and possible consumption demands of an introduced blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus population in Lake Norman, North Carolina. Clupeids, Corbicula fluminea, and Chara were the predominant food items (percent stomach contents by weight) found in blue catfish, and varied by season, lake-region, and fish size-class. Lake Norman blue catfish grow at a slower rate than has been reported for other reservoir populations, wi...

  19. Genomic organization of the channel catfish CD45 functional gene and CD45 pseudogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kountikov, Evgueni; Wilson, Melanie; Miller, Norman; Clem, William; Bengtén, Eva; Quiniou, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, which in mammals plays an important role in T and B cell receptor and cytokine signaling. Recently, a catfish cDNA was shown to contain all characteristic CD45 features: an alternatively spliced amino-terminus, a cysteine-rich region, three fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region, and two phosphotyrosine phosphatase domains. However, analyses of CD45 cDNAs from various catfish lymphoid cell lines demonstrated that catfish CD45 is uniqu...

  20. INTRA-PROCESSOR PRICE-SPREAD BEHAVIOR: IS THE U.S. CATFISH PROCESSING INDUSTRY COMPETITIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of price-spread behavior in the catfish-processing sector of the United States. A model of imperfect competition using conjectural variations was used to test for significant deviations from competition. Results show no significant deviation from competitive behavior, suggesting that catfish processor behave competitively. However, this result is limited by the assumption of equal market shares by each catfish-processing firm.