WorldWideScience

Sample records for catchment basin actors

  1. The radioactivity measurement in the Loire catchment basin. Actors, networks, data inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report on the Loire watershed was to broaden at all the nuclear installations of the watershed the method of synthesis made for Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear power plant, by resting on the whole of actors doing the radioactivity measurements in environment. This report shows that these actors are numerous. The measurement plans implemented have for objective to establish the radiological situation of environment, near or not the nuclear facilities, to detect the abnormal increase of radioactivity, to evaluate the exposure of populations to the ambient radioactivity, or to check the conformity of practices (nuclear activities) and products. This assessment enlightens the lack of a real global strategy in the organisation of the radioactivity measurement at the level of the watershed. The inventory of available data for the Loire watershed allowed to show the diversity of measurements realised. The I.R.S.N. is face to a complex situation of data return in the frame of the implementation of an information system of the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment. (N.C.)

  2. Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlenbrook

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling has been conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. Accordingly, the catchment of the Gilgel Abay has been divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga and the un-gauged part of the catchment. All available data sets were tested for stationarity, consistency and homogeneity and the data limitations (quality and quantity are discussed. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations, i.e. (i lumped, (ii lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii semi-distributed with multiple vegetation and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performances with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies Reff > 0.75 and > 0.6 for the Upper Gilgel Abay and Koga sub-catchments, respectively. Better model results could not be obtained with manual calibration, very likely due to the limited data quality and model insufficiencies. Increasing the computation time step to 15 and 30 days improved the model performance in both sub-catchments to Reff > 0.8. Model parameter transferability tests have been conducted by interchanging parameters sets between the two gauged sub-catchments. Results showed poor performances for the daily models (0.30 < Reff < 0.67, but better performances for the 15 and 30 days models, Reff > 0.80. The transferability tests together with a sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations (more than 1 million

  3. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    also be treated as a mostly closed system for mass balance considerations. It is the near closure of the system that permits well- constrained chemical mass balance calculations to be made. These calculations generally focus of lithogenic solutes, and therefore in our discussions of lithogenic nuclides in the paper, the concept of chemical mass balance in a nearly dosed system will play an important role. Examination of the isotopic compositions of solutes provides a better understanding of the variety of processes controlling mass balance. It is with this approach that we examined the variety of processes occurring within the catchment system, such as weathering and soil production, generation of stormflow and streamflow (hydrograph separation), movement of soil pore water, groundwater flow, and the overall processes involved with basinal water balance. In this paper, the term `nuclide` will be used when referring to a nuclear species that contains a particular number of protons and neutrons. The term is not specific to any element. The term `isotope` will be used to distinguish nuclear species of a given element (atoms with the same number of protons). That is to say, there are many nuclides in nature - for example, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 238}U; the element has four naturally-occurring isotopes - {sup 87}Sr, and {sup 88}Sr. This paper will first discuss the general principles that underlie the study of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides in hydrology, and provide references to some of the more important studies applying these principles and nuclides. We then turn in the second section to a discussion of their specific applications in catchment- scale systems. The final section of this paper discusses new directions in the application of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides to catchment hydrology, with some thoughts concerning possible applications that still remain unexplored.

  4. Governing Congo Basin forests in a changing climate: actors, discourses and institutions for adaptation and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Governing Congo Basin Forests in a Changing Climate: Actors, Discourses and Institutions for Adaptation and Mitigation

    OA Somorin

    Abstract

    The thesis deals with the central question of the governance processes of making

  5. Direct runoff assessment using modified SME method in catchments in the Upper Vistula River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęga, A.; Rutkowska, A.; Grzebinoga, M.

    2017-04-01

    Correct determination of direct runoff is crucial for proper and safe dimensioning of hydroengineering structures. It is commonly assessed using SCS-CN method developed in the United States. However, due to deficiencies of this method, many improvements and modifications have been proposed. In this paper, a modified Sahu-Mishra-Eldo (SME) method was introduced and tested for three catchments located in the upper Vistula basin. Modification of SME method involved a determination of maximum potential retention S based on CN parameter derived from SCS-CN method. The modified SME method yielded direct runoff values very similar to those observed in the investigated catchments. Moreover, it generated significantly smaller errors in the direct runoff estimation as compared with SCS-CN and SME methods in the analyzed catchments. This approach may be used for estimating the runoff in uncontrolled catchments.

  6. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F.

    2006-01-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  7. Multiscale investigation of catchment functioning using environmental tracers: Insights from the mesoscale Attert basin in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.; Krein, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-04-01

    Experimental hydrology focuses traditionally on field investigations at smaller spatial and temporal scales and research is driven by small-scale, detailed and complex investigations of densely instrumented research sites. However, to improve operational water management and protection of water resources at the river basin scale, it is necessary to study the hydrological processes across a range of scales. Empirical studies investigating catchment structure and functioning across multiple scales are still rare and urgently needed. Besides geomorphologic and climatic catchment descriptors, environmental tracers have been recognized as a fundamental tool in experimental hydrology to assess the scaling gap, as they provide an independent and integrative perspective of catchment functioning and scaling. A three year tracer study is being carried out in the Attert river basin in Luxembourg to identify how major controls of runoff generation change across scales and to investigate the spatial and temporal functioning of larger basins. The mesoscale (300 km²) Attert catchment is located in the Midwestern part of Luxembourg and lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology that is a major control for runoff generation: The Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the Southern part of the basin. Major hydrochemical tracers including stable water isotopes were grab sampled fortnightly and, where possible, also event-based at 13 nested stream locations ranging in size from 0.5 to 300 km² throughout the basin. Results using Deuterium and a range of hydrochemical tracers confirm the major role of bedrock lithology for runoff response of different geological parts of the basins: Hydrological response of schistose basins is characterized by seasonal variation and a delayed shallow groundwater component originating from a saprolitic zone, sandstone basins exhibit a

  8. Nonstationarities in Catchment Response According to Basin and Rainfall Characteristics: Application to Korean Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyun-Han; Kim, Jin-Guk; Jung, Il-Won

    2015-04-01

    It must be acknowledged that application of rainfall-runoff models to simulate rainfall-runoff processes are successful in gauged watershed. However, there still remain some issues that will need to be further discussed. In particular, the quantitive representation of nonstationarity issue in basin response (e.g. concentration time, storage coefficient and roughness) along with ungauged watershed needs to be studied. In this regard, this study aims to investigate nonstationarity in basin response so as to potentially provide useful information in simulating runoff processes in ungauged watershed. For this purpose, HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was mainly utilized. In addition, this study combined HEC-1 model with Bayesian statistical model to estimate uncertainty of the parameters which is called Bayesian HEC-1 (BHEC-1). The proposed rainfall-runofall model is applied to various catchments along with various rainfall patterns to understand nonstationarities in catchment response. Further discussion about the nonstationarity in catchment response and possible regionalization of the parameters for ungauged watershed are discussed. KEYWORDS: Nonstationary, Catchment response, Uncertainty, Bayesian Acknowledgement This research was supported by a Grant (13SCIPA01) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) of Korea government and the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA).

  9. Soil map, area and volume calculations in Orrmyrberget catchment basin at Gideaa, Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, T.; Tammela, P.T.; Gustafsson, E.

    1991-06-01

    Fallout studies in the Gideaa study site after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986, has come to the point that a more exact surface mapping of the studied catchment basin is needed. This surface mapping is mainly made for area calculations of different soil types within the study site. The mapping focus on the surface, as the study concerns fallout redistribution and it is extended to also include materials down to a depth of 0.5 meter. Volume calculations are made for the various soil materials within the top 0.5 m. These volume and area calculations will then be used in the modelling of the migration and redistribution of the fallout radionuclides within the studied catchment basin. (au)

  10. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    central institutions and are implemented in different ways at subordinate levels. Commonly, communities make their own decisions regarding the use of natural resources within the framework of statutory and traditional governance and national legislation. The Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission (OKACOM) has been created between Angola, Namibia and Botswana to deal with transboundary subjects and facilitate informed policies. Developing such informed policies is even more urgent given demographic and climatological predictions. The African population is expected to almost double by the end of this century (Haub 2012), while climate predictions indicate an overall increase in average temperatures, added to by an increase in dry spells during the wet season and overall decreases in precipitation (IPCC 2013). This will result in increasing demands for food, paralleled by less favorable production conditions. The appropriation of resources in the wider region is therefore characterized by various, potentially conflicting demands that are likely to accumulate in space and time (Röder, Stellmes et al. 2013). A particular constraint draws from upstream-downstream issues, with a predicted increase in upstream water utilization for drinking and irrigation, while the Delta region relies on regular flood pulses of clean water to sustain its biodiversity, to which the tourist sector as a major source of national income is linked. This is threatened by the increasing concentrations of pesticides and herbicides used in the frame of irrigation schemes lowering water quality, and the change of flood pulse cycles through damming projects (Lindemann 2009). Besides national policies and regional planning programs, an equally important element in understanding the utilization of natural resources is the individual perspective of actors that may range from the conservation of traditions and cultures to stronger market integration and consumerism (Pröpper, Falk et al. 2013) that

  11. Determinism Of Hydrological Recession Processes On Oueme Basin Catchment And Application Of Least Actions Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avahounlin Ringo F.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aim to analyze the hydrodynamic process of oueme basin catchment basin located in Benin between 758N and 1012N latitude and 135 and 305E longitude. From rainfall and discharge data chronic rates over the period 2000-2009 empirical hydrological modeling based on linearization of Boussinesqs equation and least actions principle methods were used to predict the mechanism of the water drain to determine the streamflow recession curves to the watershed scale and compare the modeling findings with hygrogram obtained by applied of principle of the least actions. An analysis of drying up showed a varied trend in four sub-basins. At Beterou and Bonou sub-basin the non-linear character observed reflects a succession of phases of drying up. A conceptual linearization formulation of the basic equations of Boussinesq considering the non-linear character of the drying up of the two sub-basins helped simulate low flow rates with high efficiency and to determine the types low flow curves. Successfully comparing analyzed of modeling findings with recession curves obtained by least actions principle confirm the heterogeneity of recession nature at oueme basin scale.

  12. Catchment Restoration in the Tweed UNESCO-IHP HELP Basin - Eddleston Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    The EU Water Frame Work Directive (WFD) requires member states to work towards the achievement of 'good ecological status' for water bodies, through a 6 year cycle of river basin management plans (RBMPs). Within these RBMPs, states must develop and implement programmes of measures designed to improve the quality of individual water bodies at risk of failing to achieve this status. These RBMPS must not only be focussed on the key causes of failure, but increasingly look to deliver multiple benefits, such as flood risk reduction and improvement to biodiversity from such catchment interventions, and to involve communities and other stakeholders in restoration of their local environment. This paper reports on progress of a detailed study of the restoration of the Eddleston Water, a typical 'failing' water body in Scotland, the monitoring and governance arrangements behind this, and implications for rehabilitation of river systems elsewhere. Within UK rivers, the main causes of failure to achieve good ecological status are historical morphological changes to river courses, diffuse agricultural pollution and invasive non-native species. The Eddleston Water is a 70 sq kms sub-catchment of the Tweed, an UNESCO IHP-HELP basin in the Scottish : English borders, and is currently classified as 'bad' status, due largely to morphological changes to the course and structure of the river over the past 200 years. The main challenge therefor is physical restoration of the river to achieve functional connectivity with the flood plain. At the same time however, the two communities within the catchment suffer from flooding, so a second priority is to intervene within the catchment to reduce the risk of flooding through the use of "natural flood management" measures and, underlying both these two aspects a whole catchment approach to community participation and the achievement of a range of other ecosystem service benefits, including conservation of biodiversity. We report on the

  13. Intra-basin variability of snowmelt water balance calculations in a subarctic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Stephen E.; Carey, Sean K.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2006-03-01

    The intra-basin variability of snowmelt and melt-water runoff hydrology in an 8 km2 subarctic alpine tundra catchment was examined for the 2003 melt period. The catchment, Granger Creek, is within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, which is typical of mountain subarctic landscapes in northwestern Canada. The study catchment was segmented into nine internally uniform zones termed hydrological response units (HRUs) based on their similar hydrological, physiographic, vegetation and soil properties. Snow accumulation exhibited significant variability among the HRUs, with greatest snow water equivalent in areas of tall shrub vegetation. Melt began first on southerly exposures and at lower elevations, yet average melt rates for the study period varied little among HRUs with the exception of those with steep aspects. In HRUs with capping organic soils, melt water first infiltrated this surface horizon, satisfying its storage capacity, and then percolated into the frozen mineral substrate. Infiltration and percolation into frozen mineral soils was restricted where melt occurred rapidly and organic soils were thin; in this case, melt-water delivery rates exceeded the frozen mineral soil infiltration rate, resulting in high runoff rates. In contrast, where there were slower melt rates and thick organic soils, infiltration was unlimited and runoff was suppressed. The snow water equivalent had a large impact on runoff volume, as soil storage capacity was quickly surpassed in areas of deep snow, diverting the bulk of melt water laterally to the drainage network. A spatially distributed water balance indicated that the snowmelt freshet was primarily controlled by areas with tall shrub vegetation that accumulate large quantities of snow and by alpine areas with no capping organic soils. The intra-basin water balance variability has important implications for modelling freshet in hydrological models.

  14. An appraisal of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of the Indus basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahri, Zakir Hussain; Ludwig, Fulco; Moors, Eddy; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Asif; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in-situ observations coupled with high orographic influences has prevented a comprehensive assessment of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of Indus basin. Available data are generally fragmented and scattered with different organizations and mostly cover the valleys. Here, we combine most of the available station data with the indirect precipitation estimates at the accumulation zones of major glaciers to analyse altitudinal dependency of precipitation in the high-altitude Indus basin. The available observations signified the importance of orography in each sub-hydrological basin but could not infer an accurate distribution of precipitation with altitude. We used Kriging with External Drift (KED) interpolation scheme with elevation as a predictor to appraise spatiotemporal distribution of mean monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation for the period of 1998-2012. The KED-based annual precipitation estimates are verified by the corresponding basin-wide observed specific runoffs, which show good agreement. In contrast to earlier studies, our estimates reveal substantially higher precipitation in most of the sub-basins indicating two distinct rainfall maxima; 1st along southern and lower most slopes of Chenab, Jhelum, Indus main and Swat basins, and 2nd around north-west corner of Shyok basin in the central Karakoram. The study demonstrated that the selected gridded precipitation products covering this region are prone to significant errors. In terms of quantitative estimates, ERA-Interim is relatively close to the observations followed by WFDEI and TRMM, while APHRODITE gives highly underestimated precipitation estimates in the study area. Basin-wide seasonal and annual correction factors introduced for each gridded dataset can be useful for lumped hydrological modelling studies, while the estimated precipitation distribution can serve as a basis for bias correction of any gridded precipitation products for the study area

  15. Implementing integrated catchment management in the Limpopo River Basin Phase 1: Situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reaches of the main stem of the Limpopo River. Much of the surface water exploitation in the basin states relies on storage reservoirs built on tributary rivers. Surface water use is directed primarily to irrigated agriculture, afforestation... and the pool storages located in the A63E and A71L catchments. The riverine gallery forest (Figure 6) is an aquifer-dependent ecosystem situated on the same aquifer used by the Venetia Mine and recharged by the Limpopo River main stem. The isolated...

  16. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A

    2017-02-01

      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  17. Estimation of Catchment Transit Time in Fuji River Basin by using an improved Tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchao, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Wang, P.

    2013-12-01

    As an important parameter that reflects the characteristics of catchments, the catchment transit time (CTT) has been given much more widely attentions especially in recent years. The CTT is defined as the time water spends travelling through a catchment to the stream network [1], and it describes how catchments retain and release water and solutes and thus control geochemical and biogeochemical cycling and contamination persistence [2]. The objectives of the present study are to develop a new approach for estimating CTT without prior information on such TTD functions and to apply it to the Fuji River basin in the Central Japan Alps Region. In this study, an improved Tank model was used to compute mean CTT and TTD functions simultaneously. It involved water fluxes and isotope mass balance. Water storage capacity in the catchment, which strongly affects CTT, is reflected in isotope mass balance more sensitively than in water fluxes. A model calibrated with observed discharge and isotope data is used for virtual age tracer computation to estimate CTT. This model does not only consider the hydrological data and physical process of the research area but also reflects the actual TTD with considering the geological condition, land use and the other catchment-hydrological conditions. For the calibration of the model, we used river discharge record obtained by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, and are collecting isotope data of precipitation and river waters monthly or semi-weekly. Three sub-catchments (SC1~SC3) in the Fuji River basin was selected to test the model with five layers: the surface layer, upper-soil layer, lower-soil layer, groundwater aquifer layer and bedrock layer (Layer 1- Layer 5). The evaluation of the model output was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), and percent bias (PBIAS). Using long time-series of discharge records for calibration, the simulated

  18. Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya

    2014-05-01

    Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ñ over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to

  19. Hydro-meteorological trends in the Gidabo catchment of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Mamuye; Abate, Brook; Tekleab, Sirak; Bewket, Woldeamlak

    2018-04-01

    The global and regional variability and changes of climate and stream flows are likely to have significant influence on water resource availability. The magnitude and impacts of climate variability and change differs spatially and temporally. This study examines the long term hydroclimatic changes, analyses of the hydro-climate variability and detect whether there exist significant trend or not in the Gidabo catchment, rift valley lakes basin of Ethiopia. Precipitation, temperature and stream flow time series data were used in monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. The precipitation and temperature data span is between 1982 and 2014 and that of stream flow is between 1976 and 2006. To detect trends the analysis were done by using Mann Kendal (MK), Sen's graphical method and to detect change point using the Pettit test. The comparison of trend analysis between MK trend test and Sen graphical method results depict mostly similar pattern. The annual rainfall trends exhibited a significant decrease by about 12 mm per year in the upstream, which is largely driven by the significant decrease in the peak season rainfall. The Pettit test revealed that the years 1997 and 2007 were the change points. It is noted that the rise of temperature over a catchment might have decreased the availability of soil moisture which resulted in less runoff. The temperature analyses also revealed that the catchment was getting warmer; particularly in the upstream. The minimum temperature trend showed a significant increase about 0.08°c per annum. There is generally a decreasing trend in stream flow. The monthly stream flow also exhibited a decreasing trend in February, March and September. The decline in annual and seasonal rainfall and the increase in temperature lead to more evaporation and directly affecting the stream flow negatively. This trend compounded with the growth of population and increasing demand for irrigation water exacerbates the competing demand for water resources. It

  20. Transient catchment hydrology after wildfires in a Mediterranean basin: runoff, sediment and woody debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient effect of forest fires on runoff, erosion and yield of woody biomass has been investigated by combining the experimental approach with mathematical models of hydrological processes. The case study is the Branega creek in Liguria, Italy, where a forest fire in August 2003 caused substantial changes to soil and vegetation, and left a considerable amount of woody debris on the ground. Immediately after the fire, rainfall simulator experiments in adjacent burned and unburned plots showed the extent to which fire had increased runoff and erosion rates. A distributed hydrological model using the tube-flux approach, calibrated on experimental measurements, has been used to investigate hill slope and channel erosion in a small sub-catchment, 1.5 ha in area, nested in the Branega basin. Simulation runs show that the model accommodates the observed variability of runoff and erosion under disturbed and undisturbed conditions. A model component describing the delivery of wood from hill slopes to the channel in post-fire conditions, validated against local survey data, showed that the removal and transport of woody biomass can be reproduced using an integrated hydrological approach. Hence, transient complexity after wildfires can be addressed by such an approach with empirically determined physically-based parameters.

  1. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as

  2. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  3. Geo-referenced modelling of metal concentrations in river basins at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffmeyer, N.; Berlekamp, J.; Klasmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction The European Water Framework Directive demands the good ecological and chemical state of surface waters [1]. This implies the reduction of unwanted metal concentrations in surface waters. To define reasonable environmental target values and to develop promising mitigation strategies a detailed exposure assessment is required. This includes the identification of emission sources and the evaluation of their effect on local and regional surface water concentrations. Point source emissions via municipal or industrial wastewater that collect metal loads from a wide variety of applications and products are important anthropogenic pathways into receiving waters. Natural background and historical influences from ore-mining activities may be another important factor. Non-point emissions occur via surface runoff and erosion from drained land area. Besides deposition metals can be deposited by fertilizer application or the use of metal products such as wires or metal fences. Surface water concentrations vary according to the emission strength of sources located nearby and upstream of the considered location. A direct link between specific emission sources and pathways on the one hand and observed concentrations can hardly be established by monitoring alone. Geo-referenced models such as GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) deliver spatially resolved concentrations in a whole river basin and allow for evaluating the causal relationship between specific emissions and resulting concentrations. This study summarizes the results of investigations for the metals zinc and copper in three German catchments. 2. The model GREAT-ER The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER has originally been developed to simulate and assess chemical burden of European river systems from multiple emission sources [2]. Emission loads from private households and rainwater runoff are individually estimated based on average consumption figures, runoff rates

  4. Rainfall-interception-evaporation-runoff relationships in a semi-arid catchment, northern Limpopo basin, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, D.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Corzo Perez, G.; Twomlow, S.; Zaag, van der P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the response of a catchment to rainfall, in terms of the production of runoff vs the interception, transpiration and evaporation of water, is the first important step in understanding water resource availability in a catchment. This is particularly important in small semi-arid

  5. Export of nutrients and major ionic solutes from a rain forest catchment in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesack, Lance F. W.

    1993-03-01

    The relative roles of base flow runoff versus storm flow runoff versus subsurface outflow in controlling total export of solutes from a 23.4-ha catchment of undisturbed rain forest in the central Amazon Basin were evaluated from water and solute flux measurements performed over a 1 year period. Solutes exported via 173 storms during the study were estimated from stream water samples collected during base flow conditions and during eight storms, and by utilizing a hydrograph separation technique in combination with a mixing model to partition storm flow from base flow fluxes. Solutes exported by subsurface outflow were estimated from groundwater samples from three nests of piezometers installed into the streambed, and concurrent measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head gradients. Base flow discharge represented 92% of water outflow from the basin and was the dominant pathway of solute export. Although storm flow discharge represented only 5% of total water outflow, storm flow solute fluxes represented up to 25% of the total annual export flux, though for many solutes the portion was less. Subsurface outflow represented only 2.5% of total water outflow, and subsurface solute fluxes never represented more than 5% of the total annual export flux. Measurement errors were relatively high for storm flow and subsurface outflow fluxes, but cumulative measurement errors associated with the total solute fluxes exported from the catchment, in most cases, ranged from only ±7% to 14% because base flow fluxes were measured relatively well. The export fluxes of most solutes are substantially less than previously reported for comparable small catchments in the Amazon basin, and these differences cannot be reconciled by the fact that storm flow and subsurface outflows were not appropriately measured in previous studies.

  6. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lijuan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  7. Simulation of nitrate reduction in groundwater - An upscaling approach from small catchments to the Baltic Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. L.; Donnelly, C.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Karlsson, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach proposed to simulate the impact of local-scale, spatially targeted N-mitigation measures for the Baltic Sea Basin. Spatially targeted N-regulations aim at exploiting the considerable spatial differences in the natural N-reduction taking place in groundwater and surface water. While such measures can be simulated using local-scale physically-based catchment models, use of such detailed models for the 1.8 million km2 Baltic Sea basin is not feasible due to constraints on input data and computing power. Large-scale models that are able to simulate the Baltic Sea basin, on the other hand, do not have adequate spatial resolution to simulate some of the field-scale measures. Our methodology combines knowledge and results from two local-scale physically-based MIKE SHE catchment models, the large-scale and more conceptual E-HYPE model, and auxiliary data in order to enable E-HYPE to simulate how spatially targeted regulation of agricultural practices may affect N-loads to the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the use of E-HYPE with this upscaling methodology enables the simulation of the impact on N-loads of applying a spatially targeted regulation at the Baltic Sea basin scale to the correct order-of-magnitude. The E-HYPE model together with the upscaling methodology therefore provides a sound basis for large-scale policy analysis; however, we do not expect it to be sufficiently accurate to be useful for the detailed design of local-scale measures.

  8. Applicability of TOPMODEL in the mountainous catchments in the upper Nysa Kłodzka river basin (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorska, Justyna; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    River basins located in the Central Sudetes (SW Poland) demonstrate a high vulnerability to flooding. Four mountainous basins and the corresponding outlets have been chosen for modeling the streamflow dynamics using TOPMODEL, a physically based semi-distributed topohydrological model. The model has been calibrated using the Monte Carlo approach—with discharge, rainfall, and evapotranspiration data used to estimate the parameters. The overall performance of the model was judged by interpreting the efficiency measures. TOPMODEL was able to reproduce the main pattern of the hydrograph with acceptable accuracy for two of the investigated catchments. However, it failed to simulate the hydrological response in the remaining two catchments. The best performing data set obtained Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.78. This data set was chosen to conduct a detailed analysis aiming to estimate the optimal timespan of input data for which TOPMODEL performs best. The best fit was attained for the half-year time span. The model was validated and found to reveal good skills.

  9. Changes in land cover, rainfall and stream flow in Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment, Blue Nile basin – Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Rientjes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated changes in land cover and rainfall in the Upper Gilgel Abbay catchment in the Upper Blue Nile basin and how changes affected stream flow in terms of annual flow, high flows and low flows. Land cover change assessment was through classification analysis of remote sensing based land cover data while assessments on rainfall and stream flow data are by statistical analysis. Results of the supervised land cover classification analysis indicated that 50.9 % and 16.7 % of the catchment area was covered by forest in 1973 and 2001, respectively. This significant decrease in forest cover is mainly due to expansion of agricultural land.

    By use of a change detection procedure, three periods were identified for which changes in rainfall and stream flow were analyzed. Rainfall was analyzed at monthly base by use of the Mann-Kendall test statistic and results indicated a statistically significant, decreasing trend for most months of the year. However, for the wet season months of June, July and August rainfall has increased. In the period 1973–2005, the annual flow of the catchment decreased by 12.1 %. Low flow and high flow at daily base were analyzed by a low flow and a high flow index that is based on a 95 % and 5 % exceedance probability. Results of the low flow index indicated decreases of 18.1 % and 66.6 % for the periods 1982–2000 and 2001–2005 respectively. Results of high flows indicated an increase of 7.6 % and 46.6 % for the same periods. In this study it is concluded that over the period 1973–2005 stream flow has changed in the Gilgel Abbay catchment by changes in land cover and changes in rainfall.

  10. Testing a river basin model with sensitivity analysis and autocalibration for an agricultural catchment in SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TATTARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling tools are needed to assess (i the amounts of loading from agricultural sources to water bodies as well as (ii the alternative management options in varying climatic conditions. These days, the implementation of Water Framework Directive (WFD has put totally new requirements also for modeling approaches. The physically based models are commonly not operational and thus the usability of these models is restricted for a few selected catchments. But the rewarding feature of these process-based models is an option to study the effect of protection measures on a catchment scale and, up to a certain point, a possibility to upscale the results. In this study, the parameterization of the SWAT model was developed in terms of discharge dynamics and nutrient loads, and a sensitivity analysis regarding discharge and sediment concentration was made. The SWAT modeling exercise was carried out for a 2nd order catchment (Yläneenjoki, 233 km2 of the Eurajoki river basin in southwestern Finland. The Yläneenjoki catchment has been intensively monitored during the last 14 years. Hence, there was enough background information available for both parameter setup and calibration. In addition to load estimates, SWAT also offers possibility to assess the effects of various agricultural management actions like fertilization, tillage practices, choice of cultivated plants, buffer strips, sedimentation ponds and constructed wetlands (CWs on loading. Moreover, information on local agricultural practices and the implemented and planned protective measures were readily available thanks to aware farmers and active authorities. Here, we studied how CWs can reduce the nutrient load at the outlet of the Yläneenjoki river basin. The results suggested that sensitivity analysis and autocalibration tools incorporated in the model are useful by pointing out the most influential parameters, and that flow dynamics and annual loading values can be modeled with reasonable

  11. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RUNOFF AND ITS COMPONENTS IN TWO CATCHMENTS OF UPPER INDUS BASIN BY USING A SEMI DISTRIBUTED GLACIO-HYDROLOGICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrology of Upper Indus basin is not recognized well due to the intricacies in the climate and geography, and the scarcity of data above 5000 m a.s.l where most of the precipitation falls in the form of snow. The main objective of this study is to measure the contributions of different components of runoff in Upper Indus basin. To achieve this goal, the Modified positive degree day model (MPDDM was used to simulate the runoff and investigate its components in two catchments of Upper Indus basin, Hunza and Gilgit River basins. These two catchments were selected because of their different glacier coverage, contrasting area distribution at high altitudes and significant impact on the Upper Indus River flow. The components of runoff like snow-ice melt and rainfall-base flow were identified by the model. The simulation results show that the MPDDM shows a good agreement between observed and modeled runoff of these two catchments and the effects of snow and ice are mainly reliant on the catchment characteristics and the glaciated area. For Gilgit River basin, the largest contributor to runoff is rain-base flow, whereas large contribution of snow-ice melt observed in Hunza River basin due to its large fraction of glaciated area. This research will not only contribute to the better understanding of the impacts of climate change on the hydrological response in the Upper Indus, but will also provide guidance for the development of hydropower potential and water resources assessment in these catchments.

  12. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report; Entrainement et redistribution des radionucleides sur le bassin versant de la Peyne. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F

    2006-07-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  13. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the river Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR), weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD) and

  14. Understanding Catchment Processes and Hydrological Modelling in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrekristos, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    The water resources in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin are the source of life for the several hundred million people living in the basin and further downstream. It provides more than 60% of the total Nile water. Intensive farming in unfavourable soils and slopes, overgrazing and soil erosion is among

  15. Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available mechanisms for implementing water stewardship schemes to mitigate the shared water risks. Analysis of the social-ecological system (hydrological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and governance systems) of the Limpopo River basin indicates...

  16. Managing salinity in Upper Colorado River Basin streams: Selecting catchments for sediment control efforts using watershed characteristics and random forests models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Anning, David W.; Heilman, Julian A.; Buto, Susan G.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of dissolved-solids (salinity) including calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride, among others, in the Colorado River cause substantial problems for its water users. Previous efforts to reduce dissolved solids in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) streams often focused on reducing suspended-sediment transport to streams, but few studies have investigated the relationship between suspended sediment and salinity, or evaluated which watershed characteristics might be associated with this relationship. Are there catchment properties that may help in identifying areas where control of suspended sediment will also reduce salinity transport to streams? A random forests classification analysis was performed on topographic, climate, land cover, geology, rock chemistry, soil, and hydrologic information in 163 UCRB catchments. Two random forests models were developed in this study: one for exploring stream and catchment characteristics associated with stream sites where dissolved solids increase with increasing suspended-sediment concentration, and the other for predicting where these sites are located in unmonitored reaches. Results of variable importance from the exploratory random forests models indicate that no simple source, geochemical process, or transport mechanism can easily explain the relationship between dissolved solids and suspended sediment concentrations at UCRB monitoring sites. Among the most important watershed characteristics in both models were measures of soil hydraulic conductivity, soil erodibility, minimum catchment elevation, catchment area, and the silt component of soil in the catchment. Predictions at key locations in the basin were combined with observations from selected monitoring sites, and presented in map-form to give a complete understanding of where catchment sediment control practices would also benefit control of dissolved solids in streams.

  17. URBANIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISRUPTION OF CATCHMENT BASINS AS A RESULT OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT AT CIDADE OPERARIA AND ADJACENCIES, MARANHAO ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izis Deise Silva de Sousa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution was followed by an increase in the rates of urbanization, particularlyafter the second-half of the 20th century. In this context, Sao Luis, the capital city ofMaranhao State, adopted a housing development policy that was aimed at reducing thehousing deficit in the municipality. The construction of the Cidade Operaria housing complexwas a response to these explicit social needs, which have intensified since the 1970s. Theoccupation of the complex, however, resulted in considerable damage to the ecologicalintegrity of the adjacent habitats. The complex is located in the catchment basin of thePaciencia and Santo Antonio rivers, at the center of the Maranhao Island. This study analyzesthe spatial and temporal dynamics of the area’s urbanization process, which occurred in threephases: the period between 1976 and 1981 saw the removal of the original vegetation cover insome areas, as a result of the first settlement in Parque Zelandia. During that period,subsistence agriculture was common practice along the margins of streams and rivers. Thesecond phase corresponds to the construction of the Cidade Operaria housing complex, whichoccurred between 1981 and 1988. During that time, 860 ha of land were cleared andurbanized, resulting in considerable environmental damage. Changes of relief, due to gradingand earthmoving activities, lead to irreversible modifications in the course of rivers andstreams; many tributaries of the rivers Paciencia and Santo Antonio had theirs springssmothered by earthfills; construction of houses and the use of asphalt on roads reduced soilpermeability, increasing the depth of the water table; the release of untreated sewagecontaminated the drainage basins. During the third phase, which started in 1988, theenvironmental degradation was intensified by the occupation of areas adjacent to the housingcomplex. This model of urbanization has caused irreversible damage to the hydrology andwater quality in the

  18. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  19. Actores Secundarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gárate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cámara digital en mano y provistos de los recuerdos y una sesuda investigación de 3 años, los realizadores de “Actores Secundarios” nos transportan al último periodo de la dictadura militar chilena. Pero esta vez no se trata de un relato épico sobre los actores tradicionales de la lucha por la democracia, sino de una generación prácticamente olvidada y que movilizó a miles de adolescentes contra un régimen que los ahogaba. “Actores Secundarios” es una crónica construida de los fragmentos de ...

  20. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: STATSGO Soil Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents estimated soil variables compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The variables included are cation exchange capacity, percent calcium carbonate, slope, water-table depth, soil thickness, hydrologic soil group, soil erodibility (k-factor), permeability, average water capacity, bulk density, percent organic material, percent clay, percent sand, and percent silt. The source data set is the State Soil ( STATSGO ) Geographic Database (Wolock, 1997). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Mean Annual R-factor, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average annual R-factor, rainfall-runoff erosivity measure, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data are from Christopher Daly of the Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University, and George Taylor of the Oregon Climate Service, Oregon State University (2002). The ERF1_2 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  2. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Nitrate (NO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Nitrate (NO3) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NO3 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  3. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  4. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  5. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  6. Adequacy of TRMM satellite rainfall data in driving the SWAT modeling of Tiaoxi catchment (Taihu lake basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Christakos, George; Ding, Xinxin; Wu, Jiaping

    2018-01-01

    Spatial rainfall data is an essential input to Distributed Hydrological Models (DHM), and a significant contributor to hydrological model uncertainty. Model uncertainty is higher when rain gauges are sparse, as is often the case in practice. Currently, satellite-based precipitation products increasingly provide an alternative means to ground-based rainfall estimates, in which case a rigorous product assessment is required before implementation. Accordingly, the twofold objective of this work paper was the real-world assessment of both (a) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall product using gauge data, and (b) the TRMM product's role in forcing data for hydrologic simulations in the area of the Tiaoxi catchment (Taihu lake basin, China). The TRMM rainfall products used in this study are the Version-7 real-time 3B42RT and the post-real-time 3B42. It was found that the TRMM rainfall data showed a superior performance at the monthly and annual scales, fitting well with surface observation-based frequency rainfall distributions. The Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE) and the relative bias ratio (BIAS) were used to evaluate hydrologic model performance. The satisfactory performance of the monthly runoff simulations in the Tiaoxi study supports the view that the implementation of real-time 3B42RT allows considerable room for improvement. At the same time, post-real-time 3B42 can be a valuable tool of hydrologic modeling, water balance analysis, and basin water resource management, especially in developing countries or at remote locations in which rainfall gauges are scarce.

  7. Hydrogeology and water chemistry of Infranz catchment springs, Bahir Dar Area, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    The major springs in the Infranz catchment are a significant source of water for Bahir city and nearby villages, while they help to sustain Infranz River and the downstream wetlands. The aim of the research was to understand the hydrogeological conditions of these high-discharge springs, and to explain the hydrochemical composition of spring waters. Water samples from rainwater and springs were collected and analyzed and compared for major cations and anions. The hydrochemical data analysis showed that all water samples of the springs have freshwater chemistry, Ca-HCO3 type, while deep groundwater shows more evolved types. This indicates limited water-rock interaction and short residence time for the spring waters. The rise of NO3- and PO43- may indicate future water quality degradation unless the anthropogenic activities upgradient and nearby are restricted. The uptake of 75% of spring water for water supply of Bahir Dar results in wetland degradation. Key words: Spring water, Infranz River, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, hydrochemistry

  8. Flood frequency approach in a Mediterranean Flash Flood basin. A case study in the Besòs catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, D.; Zanon, F.; Corral, C.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Borga, M.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods are one of the most devastating natural disasters in the Mediterranean areas. In particular, the region of Catalonia (North-East Spain) is one of the most affected by flash floods in the Iberian Peninsula. The high rainfall intensities generating these events, the specific terrain characteristics giving rise to very fast hydrological responses and the high variability in space and time of both rain and land surface, are the main features of FF and also the main cause of their extreme complexity. Distributed hydrological models have been developed to increase the flow forecast resolution in order to implement effective operational warning systems. Some studies have shown how the distributed-models accuracy is highly sensitive to reduced computational grid scale, so, hydrological model uncertainties must be studied. In these conditions, an estimation of the modeling uncertainty (whatever the accuracy is) becomes highly valuable information to enhance our ability to predict the occurrence of flash flooding. The statistical-distributed modeling approach (Reed, 2004) is proposed in the present study to simulate floods on a small basin and account for hydrologic modeling uncertainty. The Besòs catchment (1020 km2), near Barcelona, has been selected in this study to apply the proposed flood frequency methodology. Hydrometeorological data is available for 11 rain-gauges and 6 streamflow gauges in the last 12 years, and a total of 9 flood events have been identified and analyzed in this study. The DiCHiTop hydrological model (Corral, 2004) was developed to fit operational requirements in the Besòs catchment: distributed, robust and easy to implement. It is a grid-based model that works at a given resolution (here at 1 × 1 km2, the hydrological cell), defining a simplified drainage system at this scale. A loss function is applied at the hydrological cell resolution, provided by a coupled storage model between the SCS model (Mockus, 1957) in urban areas and

  9. Catchment-scale contaminant transport under changing hydro-climatic conditions in the Aral Sea Drainage Basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsjö, Jerker; Törnqvist, Rebecka; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Dependable projections of future water availability and quality are essential in the management of water resources. Changes in land use, water use and climate can have large impacts on water and contaminant flows across extensive catchments that may contain different administrative regions where shared water resources must be managed. We consider the extensive Aral Sea Drainage Basin (ASDB) and the Amu Darya River Delta in Central Asia, which are currently under severe water stress due to large-scale irrigation expansion. We interpret data on hydro-climatic conditions, main contaminants of surface water and shallow groundwater systems, location of rivers and canal networks, and groundwater flow directions. The data are used together with climate change projections from general circulation models (GCMs) as input to hydrological and (advective) transport modelling. The main goal is to assess how regional transport pathways and travel times have changed, and are likely to change further, in response to past and projected future hydro-climatic changes. More specifically, the hydrological modelling was based on temperature and precipitation change (ΔT and ΔP) results from 65 GCM projections of 21st century conditions (specifically considering time periods around 2025, 2050, and 2100), relative to reference conditions around 1975 (taken from the reference period 1961-1990). Whereas ΔT is robustly projected to increase with time, the projected magnitude of ΔP differs more among projections for the distant future (2100) than for the near future (2025), with uncertainty remaining even about the direction of change (i.e., positive or negative ΔP). However, mainly due to the projected temperature-driven increases in evapotranspiration, ensemble average results show that the Amu Darya river discharge Q in the downstream ASDB is likely to show a decreasing trend throughout the 21st century. Notably, projected changes in the upstream, mountainous regions have a relatively

  10. Producing landslide susceptibility maps by utilizing machine learning methods. The case of Finikas catchment basin, North Peloponnese, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Papadakis, Michalis; Karimalis, Antonios

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of the present study was to apply two machine learning methods for the production of a landslide susceptibility map in the Finikas catchment basin, located in North Peloponnese, Greece and to compare their results. Specifically, Logistic Regression and Random Forest were utilized, based on a database of 40 sites classified into two categories, non-landslide and landslide areas that were separated into a training dataset (70% of the total data) and a validation dataset (remaining 30%). The identification of the areas was established by analyzing airborne imagery, extensive field investigation and the examination of previous research studies. Six landslide related variables were analyzed, namely: lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to rivers and distance to faults. Within the Finikas catchment basin most of the reported landslides were located along the road network and within the residential complexes, classified as rotational and translational slides, and rockfalls, mainly caused due to the physical conditions and the general geotechnical behavior of the geological formation that cover the area. Each landslide susceptibility map was reclassified by applying the Geometric Interval classification technique into five classes, namely: very low susceptibility, low susceptibility, moderate susceptibility, high susceptibility, and very high susceptibility. The comparison and validation of the outcomes of each model were achieved using statistical evaluation measures, the receiving operating characteristic and the area under the success and predictive rate curves. The computation process was carried out using RStudio an integrated development environment for R language and ArcGIS 10.1 for compiling the data and producing the landslide susceptibility maps. From the outcomes of the Logistic Regression analysis it was induced that the highest b coefficient is allocated to lithology and slope, which was 2.8423 and 1.5841, respectively. From the

  11. How accurately are climatological characteristics and surface water and energy balances represented for the Colombian Caribbean Catchment Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Isabel; Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    In Colombia, the access to climate related observational data is restricted and their quantity is limited. But information about the current climate is fundamental for studies on present and future climate changes and their impacts. In this respect, this information is especially important over the Colombian Caribbean Catchment Basin (CCCB) that comprises over 80 % of the population of Colombia and produces about 85 % of its GDP. Consequently, an ensemble of several datasets has been evaluated and compared with respect to their capability to represent the climate over the CCCB. The comparison includes observations, reconstructed data (CPC, Delaware), reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR), and simulated data produced with the regional climate model REMO. The capabilities to represent the average annual state, the seasonal cycle, and the interannual variability are investigated. The analyses focus on surface air temperature and precipitation as well as on surface water and energy balances. On one hand the CCCB characteristics poses some difficulties to the datasets as the CCCB includes a mountainous region with three mountain ranges, where the dynamical core of models and model parameterizations can fail. On the other hand, it has the most dense network of stations, with the longest records, in the country. The results can be summarised as follows: all of the datasets demonstrate a cold bias in the average temperature of CCCB. However, the variability of the average temperature of CCCB is most poorly represented by the NCEP/NCAR dataset. The average precipitation in CCCB is overestimated by all datasets. For the ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, and REMO datasets, the amplitude of the annual cycle is extremely high. The variability of the average precipitation in CCCB is better represented by the reconstructed data of CPC and Delaware, as well as by NCEP/NCAR. Regarding the capability to represent the spatial behaviour of CCCB, temperature is better represented by Delaware and REMO, while

  12. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  13. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  14. Estimation of design floods in ungauged catchments using a regional index flood method. A case study of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobert, Joel; Mugo, Margaret; Gadain, Hussein

    Reliable estimation of flood magnitudes corresponding to required return periods, vital for structural design purposes, is impacted by lack of hydrological data in the study area of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya. Use of regional information, derived from data at gauged sites and regionalized for use at any location within a homogenous region, would improve the reliability of the design flood estimation. Therefore, the regional index flood method has been applied. Based on data from 14 gauged sites, a delineation of the basin into two homogenous regions was achieved using elevation variation (90-m DEM), spatial annual rainfall pattern and Principal Component Analysis of seasonal rainfall patterns (from 94 rainfall stations). At site annual maximum series were modelled using the Log normal (LN) (3P), Log Logistic Distribution (LLG), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and Log Pearson Type 3 (LP3) distributions. The parameters of the distributions were estimated using the method of probability weighted moments. Goodness of fit tests were applied and the GEV was identified as the most appropriate model for each site. Based on the GEV model, flood quantiles were estimated and regional frequency curves derived from the averaged at site growth curves. Using the least squares regression method, relationships were developed between the index flood, which is defined as the Mean Annual Flood (MAF) and catchment characteristics. The relationships indicated area, mean annual rainfall and altitude were the three significant variables that greatly influence the index flood. Thereafter, estimates of flood magnitudes in ungauged catchments within a homogenous region were estimated from the derived equations for index flood and quantiles from the regional curves. These estimates will improve flood risk estimation and to support water management and engineering decisions and actions.

  15. Mass balance and decontamination times of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in rural nested catchments of an early industrialized region (Seine River basin, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and their subsequent release in rivers constitute a major environmental and public health problem in industrialized countries. In the Seine River basin (France), some PAHs exceed the target concentrations, and the objectives of good chemical status required by the European Water Framework Directive might not be achieved. This investigation was conducted in an upstream subcatchment where atmospheric fallout (n=42), soil (n=33), river water (n=26) and sediment (n=101) samples were collected during one entire hydrological year. PAH concentrations in atmospheric fallout appeared to vary seasonally and to depend on the distance to urban areas. They varied between 60 ng·L(-1) (in a remote site during autumn) and 2,380 ng·L(-1) (in a built-up area during winter). PAH stocks in soils of the catchment were estimated based on land use, as mean PAH concentrations varied between 110 ng·g(-1) under woodland and 2,120 ng·g(-1) in built-up areas. They ranged from 12 to 220 kg·km(-2). PAH contamination in the aqueous phase of rivers remained homogeneous across the catchment (72 ± 38 ng·L(-1)). In contrast, contamination of suspended solid was heterogeneous depending on hydrological conditions and population density in the drainage area. Moreover, PAH concentrations appeared to be higher in sediment (230-9,210 ng·g(-1)) than in the nearby soils. Annual mass balance calculation conducted at the catchment scale showed that current PAH losses were mainly due to dissipation (biodegradation, photo-oxidation and volatilization) within the catchments (about 80%) whereas exports due to soil erosion and riverine transport appeared to be of minor importance. Based on the calculated fluxes, PAHs appeared to have long decontamination times in soils (40 to 1,850 years) thereby compromising the achievement of legislative targets. Overall, the study highlighted the major role of legacy contamination that supplied the bulk of

  16. Evaluation of precipitation input for SWAT modeling in Alpine catchment: A case study in the Adige river basin (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Ye; Duan, Zheng; Disse, Markus; Chiogna, Gabriele

    2016-12-15

    Precipitation is often the most important input data in hydrological models when simulating streamflow. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a widely used hydrological model, only makes use of data from one precipitation gauge station that is nearest to the centroid of each subbasin, which is eventually corrected using the elevation band method. This leads in general to inaccurate representation of subbasin precipitation input data, particularly in catchments with complex topography. To investigate the impact of different precipitation inputs on the SWAT model simulations in Alpine catchments, 13years (1998-2010) of daily precipitation data from four datasets including OP (Observed precipitation), IDW (Inverse Distance Weighting data), CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) has been considered. Both model performances (comparing simulated and measured streamflow data at the catchment outlet) as well as parameter and prediction uncertainties have been quantified. For all three subbasins, the use of elevation bands is fundamental to match the water budget. Streamflow predictions obtained using IDW inputs are better than those obtained using the other datasets in terms of both model performance and prediction uncertainty. Models using the CHIRPS product as input provide satisfactory streamflow estimation, suggesting that this satellite product can be applied to this data-scarce Alpine region. Comparing the performance of SWAT models using different precipitation datasets is therefore important in data-scarce regions. This study has shown that, precipitation is the main source of uncertainty, and different precipitation datasets in SWAT models lead to different best estimate ranges for the calibrated parameters. This has important implications for the interpretation of the simulated hydrological processes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of the geomorphological factors on the relief modelling within Eselnita hydrographic basin (Danube catchment/Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V – NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton-Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Developed in a mountain landscape, the basin presents different levels held between minimum altitude of 64 m at the confluence with the Danube and maximum altitude of 1107 m, thus presenting a difference of 1043 m. Geological formations within the basin belong predominant to the Danubian Domain, so in central and upper courses, these are represented by a crystalline foundation and by magmatic rocks of intrusive nature covered by very small areas of sediment located in the northwest (belong to the Lower Jurassic and in the south-eastern (belongs to the Upper Cretaceous of the basin. But in the lower course, there are both crystalline and the sedimentary formations, last being integrated to Orşova depression and whose presence is related to the evolution of the Danube. Morphometric indices of Eşelniţa basin allows the distinction of a higher sector, mountainous terrain with high energy under a relatively increased fragmentation and depression sector with low relief energy and also with an intense fragmentation of the existing sedimentary rocks wich favors erosion manifestation in the context of deforestation action.

  18. Use of Isotopes in Assessing the Response of Groundwater to Cross-Catchments Water Diversion in the Tarim Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Z.; Huang, T.; Kong, Y. [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2013-07-15

    Since 2000, more than 2 billion m{sup 3} of water has been diverted from the Peacock River to the neighbouring Lower Tarim River in NW China via a 900 km canal for ecosystem rescue by cross-catchment water diversion. Isotope techniques have been used in the riparian groundwater- river interactions along the 350 km long river channel through sampling of monitoring wells and river stream as well as soil profiles. Stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 2}H, {delta} {sup 18}O) show that groundwater is enriched in heavy isotopes, attributed to evaporation during recharge. Tritium data show that the extent of modern recharge is limited to 600-1500 m from the riverbank in the middle reaches and 200-600 m in the lower reaches. The salinity of groundwater is affected by river recharge, residence time and evapotranspiration. The zone of appropriate water table for arid plants is confined to a narrow scope. The assessment calls for a more favourable water allocation and management scheme catchment wide. (author)

  19. Impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows in 134 catchments in the River Rhine basin using an ensemble of bias-corrected regional climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Demirel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on the seasonality of low flows were analysed for 134 sub-catchments covering the River Rhine basin upstream of the Dutch-German border. Three seasonality indices for low flows were estimated, namely the seasonality ratio (SR, weighted mean occurrence day (WMOD and weighted persistence (WP. These indices are related to the discharge regime, timing and variability in timing of low flow events respectively. The three indices were estimated from: (1 observed low flows; (2 simulated low flows by the semi-distributed HBV model using observed climate as input; (3 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs and Regional Climate Models (RCMs for the current climate (1964–2007; (4 simulated low flows using simulated inputs from seven combinations of GCMs and RCMs for the future climate (2063–2098 including three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. These four cases were compared to assess the effects of the hydrological model, forcing by different climate models and different emission scenarios on the three indices. Significant differences were found between cases 1 and 2. For instance, the HBV model is prone to overestimate SR and to underestimate WP and simulates very late WMODs compared to the estimated WMODs using observed discharges. Comparing the results of cases 2 and 3, the smallest difference was found for the SR index, whereas large differences were found for the WMOD and WP indices for the current climate. Finally, comparing the results of cases 3 and 4, we found that SR decreases substantially by 2063–2098 in all seven sub-basins of the River Rhine. The lower values of SR for the future climate indicate a shift from winter low flows (SR > 1 to summer low flows (SR < 1 in the two Alpine sub-basins. The WMODs of low flows tend to be earlier than for the current climate in all sub-basins except for the Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine sub-basins

  20. Comparison of direct outflow calculated by modified SCS-CN methods for mountainous and highland catchments in upper Vistula Basin, Poland and lowland catchment in South Carolina, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Walega; A. Cupak; D.M. Amatya; E. Drozdzal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare direct outflow from storm events estimated using modifications of original SCS-CN procedure. The study was conducted in a mountainous catchment of Kamienica River and a highland catchment draining Stobnica River located in Upper Vistula water region, both in Poland, and a headwater lowland watershed WS80 located at the Santee...

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for MRB_E2RF1 catchments for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  2. Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of climate change on water resources are primarily constrained by uncertainty in climate projections from GCMs. In this study we assess uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in two catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins that feature contrasting climate regimes (humid and semi-arid. Specifically we quantify uncertainty associated with GCM structure from a subset of CMIP3 AR4 GCMs (HadCM3, HadGEM1, CCSM3.0, IPSL, ECHAM5, CSIRO, CGCM3.1, SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, B2 and prescribed increases in global mean air temperature (1 °C to 6 °C. Climate projections, applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (SWAT 2005 in both catchments, indicate trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. For prescribed warming scenarios of 1 °C to 6 °C, linear increases in mean annual river discharge, relative to baseline (1961–1990, for the River Xiangxi and River Huangfuchuan are +9% and 11% per +1 °C respectively. Intra-annual changes include increases in flood (Q05 discharges for both rivers as well as a shift in the timing of flood discharges from summer to autumn and a rise (24 to 93% in dry season (Q95 discharge for the River Xiangxi. Differences in projections of mean annual river discharge between SRES emission scenarios using HadCM3 are comparatively minor for the River Xiangxi (13 to 17% rise from baseline but substantial (73 to 121% for the River Huangfuchuan. With one minor exception of a slight (−2% decrease in river discharge projected using HadGEM1 for the River Xiangxi, mean annual river discharge is projected to increase in both catchments under both the SRES A1B emission scenario and 2° rise in global mean air temperature using all AR4 GCMs on the CMIP3 subset. For the River Xiangxi, there is substantial uncertainty associated with GCM structure in the magnitude of the rise in flood (Q05 discharges (−1 to 41% under SRES A1B and −3 to 41% under 2

  3. REACH-ER: a tool to evaluate river basin remediation measures for contaminants at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Ann; Haest, Pieter Jan; Broekx, Steven; Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Ducos, Geraldine; Blaha, Ludek; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in 2000 ensuring that all aquatic ecosystems meet ‘good status' by 2015. However, it is a major challenge for river basin managers to meet this requirement in river basins with a high population density as well as intensive agricultural and industrial activities. The EU financed AQUAREHAB project (FP7) specifically examines the ecological and economic impact of innovative rehabilitation technologies for multi-pressured degraded water bodies. For this purpose, a generic collaborative management tool ‘REACH-ER' is being developed that can be used by stakeholders, citizens and water managers to evaluate the ecological and economical effects of different remedial actions on waterbodies. The tool is built using databases from large scale models simulating the hydrological dynamics of the river basing and sub-basins, the costs of the measures and the effectiveness of the measures in terms of ecological impact. Knowledge rules are used to describe the relationships between these data in order to compute the flux concentrations or to compute the effectiveness of measures. The management tool specifically addresses nitrate pollution and pollution by organic micropollutants. Detailed models are also used to predict the effectiveness of site remedial technologies using readily available global data. Rules describing ecological impacts are derived from ecotoxicological data for (mixtures of) specific contaminants (msPAF) and ecological indices relating effects to the presence of certain contaminants. Rules describing the cost-effectiveness of measures are derived from linear programming models identifying the least-cost combination of abatement measures to satisfy multi-pollutant reduction targets and from multi-criteria analysis.

  4. Long-term integrated river basin planning and management of water quantity and water quality in mining impacted catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Zimmermann, Kai; Claus, Thomas; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Uhlmann, Wilfried; Kaltofen, Michael; Müller, Fabian; Redetzky, Michael; Schramm, Martina; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, socioeconomic change in the catchment of the Spree River, a tributary of the Elbe, has been to a large extent associated with lignite mining activities and the rapid decrease of these activities in the 1990s. There are multiple interconnections between lignite mining and water management both in terms of water quantity and quality. During the active mining period a large-scale groundwater depression cone has been formed while river discharges have been artificially increased. Now, the decommissioned opencast mines are being transformed into Europe's largest man-made lake district. However, acid mine drainage causes low pH in post mining lakes and high concentrations of iron and sulphate in post mining lakes and the river system. Next to potential changes in mining activities, also the potential impacts of climate change (increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation) on water resources of the region are of major interest. The fundamental question is to what extent problems in terms of water quantity and water quality are exacerbated and whether they can be mitigated by adaptation measures. In consequence, long term water resource planning in the region has to formulate adaptation measures to climate change and socioeconomic change in terms of mining activities which consider both, water quantity and water quality aspects. To assess potential impacts of climate and socioeconomic change on water quantity and water quality of the Spree River catchment up to the Spremberg reservoir in the scenario period up to 2052, we used a model chain which consists of (i) the regional climate model STAR (scenarios with a further increase in temperature of 0 and 2 K), (ii) mining scenarios (mining discharges, cooling water consumption of thermal power plants), (iii) the ecohydrological model SWIM (natural water balance), (iv) the long term water management model WBalMo (managed discharges, withdrawal of water users, reservoir operation) and (v) the

  5. The Kara Bogaz Gol Bay, Lake Issyk Kul and Aral Sea sediments as archives of climate change in the Aral-Caspian catchment basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferronsky, V.I.; Brezgunov, V.S.; Vlasova, L.S.; Karpychev, Y.A.; Polyakov, V.A.; Bobkov, A.F.; Romanovsky, V.V.; Johnson, T.; Ricketts, D.; Rasmussen, K.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-m long core of bottom sediments from the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay of the Caspian Sea, 4- m and 2-m cores from the Issyk Kul Lake of the Thian Shan Mountains, and a 4-m core from the Aral Sea were examined for evidence of climatic and environmental changes in the catchment basin of the Central Asia Region. The distribution of 18 O and 13 C in the bulk carbonates, 2 H in the pore water, radiocarbon age, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the lake water, abundance of CaCO 3 , MgCO 3 , and the basic salt ions of Na + , K + , Cl - , SO 4 2- in the cores were measured. The isotope and hydrogeochemical data of the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay sediments prove a historical scenario for the basin which suggests that fresh water has been discharged to the Caspian Sea during the Bay's humid episode across the Central Asia Region (∼ 9 Ka BP). Isotope and geochemical evidence indicate that the sedimentation of the upper core segment has taken place during the last ∼2.2 Ka BP in the environment of sea water recharged from the Central Caspian Basin. The period of between 4.3 and 6 Ka BP, which relates to the core depth interval of between 170 cm and 260 cm, demonstrates the most dramatic change in the sedimentation rate in the Issyk Kul Lake. It means that active melting of the mountain glaciers and warming of climate has happened just in this period. The swamp plant peat layers at depths of 230 cm and 130 cm indicate that during 3.5-3.7 Ka BP and 1.6-1.8 Ka BP the Aral Sea dried and broke up into a number of lakes and swamps. Sediment cores taken from the bottom of the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay, Lake Issyk Kul and Aral Sea show periodic rise and fall in water levels during the last ∼10 000 years. Two peat layers within the sediment core of the Aral Sea and dated at 1.6-1.8 Ka BP and 3.5-3.7 Ka BP demonstrate that this reservoir also periodically dried. (author)

  6. Streamflow predictions in Alpine Catchments by using artificial neural networks. Application in the Alto Genil Basin (South Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Pegalajar-Cuellar, Manuel; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2017-04-01

    This study explores techniques of modeling water inflow series, focusing on techniques of short-term steamflow prediction. An appropriate estimation of streamflow in advance is necessary to anticipate measures to mitigate the impacts and risks related to drought conditions. This study analyzes the prediction of future streamflow of nineteen subbasins in the Alto-Genil basin in Granada (Southeast of Spain). Some of these basin streamflow have an important component of snowmelt due to part of the system is located in Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, the highest mountain of continental Spain. Streamflow prediction models have been calibrated using time series of historical natural streamflows. The available streamflow measurements have been downloaded from several public data sources. These original data have been preprocessed to turn them to the original natural regime, removing the anthropic effects. The missing values in the adopted horizon period to calibrate the prediction models have been estimated by using a Temez hydrological balance model, approaching the snowmelt processes with a hybrid degree day method. In the experimentation, ARIMA models are used as baseline method, and recurrent neural networks ELMAN and nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NAR) to test if the prediction accuracy can be improved. After performing the multiple experiments with these models, non-parametric statistical tests are applied to select the best of these techniques. In the experiments carried out with ARIMA, it is concluded that ARIMA models are not adequate in this case study due to the existence of a nonlinear component that cannot be modeled. Secondly, ELMAN and NAR neural networks with multi-start training is performed with each network structure to deal with the local optimum problem, since in neural network training there is a very strong dependence on the initial weights of the network. The obtained results suggest that both neural networks are efficient for the short

  7. Hydrological Modeling of the Upper Indus Basin: A Case Study from a High-Altitude Glacierized Catchment Hunza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Garee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT model combined with a temperature index and elevation band algorithm was applied to the Hunza watershed, where snow and glacier-melt are the major contributor to river flow. This study’s uniqueness is its use of a snow melt algorithm (temperature index with elevation bands combined with the SWAT, applied to evaluate the performance of the SWAT model in the highly snow and glacier covered watershed of the Upper Indus Basin in response to climate change on future streamflow volume at the outlet of the Hunza watershed, and its contribution to the Indus River System in both space and time, despite its limitation; it is not designed to cover the watershed of heterogeneous mountains. The model was calibrated for the years 1998–2004 and validated for the years 2008–2010. The model performance is evaluated using the four recommended statistical coefficients with uncertainty analysis (p-factor and r-factor. Simulations generated good calibration and validation results for the daily flow gauge. The model efficiency was evaluated, and a strong relationship was observed between the simulated and observed flows. The model results give a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.82 and a Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency index (NS of 0.80 for the daily flow with values of p-factor (79% and r-factor (76%. The SWAT model was also used to evaluate climate change impact on hydrological regimes, the target watershed with three GCMs (General Circulation Model of the IPCC fifth report for 2030–2059 and 2070–2099, using 1980–2010 as the control period. Overall, temperature (1.39 C to 6.58 C and precipitation (31% indicated increased variability at the end of the century with increasing river flow (5%–10%; in particular, the analysis showed smaller absolute changes in the hydrology of the study area towards the end of the century. The results revealed that the calibrated model was more sensitive towards temperature and

  8. Rainfall and runoff regime trends in mountain catchments (Case study area: the upper Hron River basin, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahušiaková Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of trends and causes of changes of selected hydroclimatic variables influencing the runoff regime in the upper Hron River basin (Slovakia. Different methods for identifying trends in data series are evaluated and include: simple mass curve analysis, linear regression, frequency analysis of flood events, use of the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration software, and the Mann-Kendall test. Analyses are performed for data from two periods (1931-2010 and 1961-2010. The changes in runoff are significant, especially in terms of lower QMax and 75 percentile values. This fact is also confirmed by the lower frequency and extremity of flood events. The 1980s are considered a turning point in the development of all hydroclimatic variables. The Mann-Kendall test shows a significant decrease in runoff in the winter period. The main causes of runoff decline are: the considerable increase in air temperature, the decrease in snow cover depth and changes in seasonal distribution of precipitation amounts.

  9. Numerical groundwater flow modeling of the northern river catchment of the Lake Tana, Upper Blue Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigussie Ayehu Asrie

    2016-06-01

    decreased by 32% and the simulation results showed on average head decrease of 8.06m over the whole area; with the highest fall 32m in wells to north and a minimum of about 1m in wells to the south of the catchment. In addition, the stream leakage, compared to the simulated steady state value and it was decreased by 75.36%. The simulated value showed an average 2.74m increased head over the whole area. High difference values were observed at Tseda (7.83m and Koladiba (7.3m. The minimum difference 1.08m was recorded at Angereb well field (observation 94. In addition, the stream leakage compared with the steady state value the change was about 87.43%. Keywords: MODFLOW 2000, Groundwater, Modelling, Sensitivity analysis, Simulation, Recharge

  10. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  11. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  12. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  13. Actor-Network Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension

  14. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  15. Water quality assessment and catchment-scale nutrient flux modeling in the Ramganga River Basin in north India: An application of INCA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Devanshi; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Sinha, Rajiv

    2018-03-07

    The present study analyzes the water quality characteristics of the Ramganga (a major tributary of the Ganga river) using long-term (1991-2009) monthly data and applies the Integrated Catchment Model of Nitrogen (INCA-N) and Phosphorus (INCA-P) to the catchment. The models were calibrated and validated using discharge (1993-2011), phosphate (1993-2010) and nitrate (2007-2010) concentrations. The model results were assessed based on Pearson's correlation, Nash-Sutcliffe and Percentage bias statistics along with a visual inspection of the outputs. The seasonal variation study shows high nutrient concentrations in the pre-monsoon season compared to the other seasons. High nutrient concentrations in the low flows period pose a serious threat to aquatic life of the river although the concentrations are lowered during high flows because of the dilution effect. The hydrological model is satisfactorily calibrated with R 2 and NS values ranging between 0.6-0.8 and 0.4-0.8, respectively. INCA-N and INCA-P successfully capture the seasonal trend of nutrient concentrations with R 2 >0.5 and PBIAS within ±17% for the monthly averages. Although, high concentrations are detected in the low flows period, around 50% of the nutrient load is transported by the monsoonal high flows. The downstream catchments are characterized by high nutrient transport through high flows where additional nutrient supply from industries and agricultural practices also prevail. The seasonal nitrate (R 2 : 0.88-0.94) and phosphate (R 2 : 0.62-0.95) loads in the catchment are calculated using model results and ratio estimator load calculation technique. On average, around 548tonnes of phosphorus (as phosphate) and 77,051tonnes of nitrogen (as nitrate) are estimated to be exported annually from the Ramganga River to the Ganga. Overall, the model has been able to successfully reproduce the catchment dynamics in terms of seasonal variation and broad-scale spatial variability of nutrient fluxes in the

  16. Impacts of Rainfall and Land Use on Sediment Regime in a Semi-Arid Region: Case Study of the Wuqi Catchment in the Upper Beiluo River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.; Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Maroulis, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. With recent land use and land cover change, the

  17. Actors at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobakht, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    The core contributions of this thesis target the intersection of object orientation, actor model, and concurrency. We choose Java as the main target programming language and as one of the mainstream object-oriented languages. We formalize a subset of Java and its concurrency API to facilitate formal

  18. Characterizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Tianmuhu and its catchment basin using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yin, Yan; Feng, Longqing; Zhu, Guangwei; Shi, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yuanzhi

    2011-10-15

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important optically active substance that transports nutrients, heavy metals, and other pollutants from terrestrial to aquatic systems and is used as a measure of water quality. To investigate how the source and composition of CDOM changes in both space and time, we used chemical, spectroscopic, and fluorescence analyses to characterize CDOM in Lake Tianmuhu (a drinking water source) and its catchment in China. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified three individual fluorophore moieties that were attributed to humic-like and protein-like materials in 224 water samples collected between December 2008 and September 2009. The upstream rivers contained significantly higher concentrations of CDOM than did the lake water (a(350) of 4.27±2.51 and 2.32±0.59 m(-1), respectively), indicating that the rivers carried a substantial load of organic matter to the lake. Of the three main rivers that flow into Lake Tianmuhu, the Pingqiao River brought in the most CDOM from the catchment to the lake. CDOM absorption and the microbial and terrestrial humic-like components, but not the protein-like component, were significantly higher in the wet season than in other seasons, indicating that the frequency of rainfall and runoff could significantly impact the quantity and quality of CDOM collected from the catchment. The different relationships between the maximum fluorescence intensities of the three PARAFAC components, CDOM absorption, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in riverine and lake water indicated the difference in the composition of CDOM between Lake Tianmuhu and the rivers that feed it. This study demonstrates the utility of combining excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and PARAFAC to study CDOM dynamics in inland waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    There are several high level {sup 137}Cs anomaly zones detected in the deposits of the SW part of the Kara Sea. These anomaly zones were formed in the Ob' and the Enisey river estuaries due to the geochemical 'river-sea' boarder barrier. Level of radiocaesium specific activity reaches 120 Bq*kg{sup -1} in the deposits from these zones. Radiochemical enterprises occur in the both river basins. Their activity results in caesium-137 transfer into the river net. Vast area is contaminated by {sup 137}Cs after nuclear weapons in Semipalatinsk test-site and Kyshtym disaster in the Ob' river basin. Moreover, caesium comes to the Ob' and the Enisey river basins with global atmospheric fallout. The inflow of global fallout caesium-137 to the catchments is 660 kCi (320 kCi including radioactive decay) that is 4 times higher than {sup 137}Cs emission due to Fukushima disaster. Therefore, these river basins as any other huge catchment are an important sources of radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. The aim of our research is to study behavior of global fallout caesium-137 in the landscapes of the Ob and the Enisey river basins. We studied caesium-137 behavior on the example of first order catchments in taiga, wetland, forest-steppe, steppe, and semi-arid landscapes. Geographic information system (GIS) was made. The tenth-order catchments (n=154, Horton coding system) shape 20-groups due to topsoil properties controlling cesium mobility. Eleven first-order basins, characterized 7 groups of tenth order catchments, were studied. And 700 bulk-core soil samples were collected in 2011-2013. Cesium runoff is calculated for 3 first-order river basins in taiga and forest-steppe landscapes. Storage of global fallout caesium-137 declines from undisturbing taiga first-order river basin (90% of cumulative fallout including radioactive decay)> arable steppe and fores-steppe (70 - 75%)> undisturbing wetland (60%). Caesium-137 transfer is high in arable lands

  20. Seasonal rainfall predictability over the Lake Kariba catchment area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muchuru, S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Kariba catchment area in southern Africa has one of the most variable climates of any major river basin, with an extreme range of conditions across the catchment and through time. Marked seasonal and interannual fluctuations in rainfall...

  1. Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga basin (Benin, West Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryDuring the last quarter of the 20th century, West Africa underwent a particularly intense and generalized drought. During this period, the biggest drops in streamflow were observed in the Sudanian zone rather than in the Sahelian zone, but the reasons are still poorly understood. In 2000, a meso-scale hydrological observatory was set up in the sub-humid Sudanian zone of the Upper Ouémé Valley (Benin). Three embedded catchments of 12-586 km 2 located on a crystalline bedrock were intensively instrumented to document the different terms of the water budget and to identify the main streamflow generating processes and base-flow mechanisms at different scales. Geophysical, hydrological and geochemical data were collected throughout the catchments from 2002 to 2006. Crossing these data helped define their hydrological functioning. The region has seasonal streamflow, and the permanent groundwater in the weathered mantle does not drain to rivers, instead, seasonal perched groundwaters are the major contributor to annual streamflow. The perched groundwaters are mainly located in seasonally waterlogged sandy layers in the headwater bottom-lands called bas-fonds in French-speaking West Africa of 1st order streams. During the period 2003-2006, regolith groundwater recharge ranged between 10% and 15% of the annual rainfall depth. Depletion of permanent groundwater during the dry season is probably explained by local evapotranspiration which was seen not to be limited to gallery forests. During the 4-year study period, a reduction of 20% in annual rainfall led to a 50% reduction in streamflow. This reduction was observed in the two components of the flow: direct runoff and drainage of perched groundwater. Thanks to the comprehensive dataset obtained, the results obtained for the Donga experimental catchment are now being extrapolated to the whole upper Ouémé valley, which can be considered as representative of sub-humid Sudanian rivers flowing on a crystalline

  2. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  3. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to gain new insights into seasonal patterns of stream DOC concentrations in an alpine, headwater catchment underlain by discontinuous permafrost in Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian subarctic is experiencing rapid climate warming resulting in decreased depth and duration of snowcover, decreased permafrost extent and time span of seasonal frozen ground resulting in increased active layer depth, and increased frequency and magnitude of rainfall events during the growing season. These changes challenge our conceptual models of permafrost hydrology as comparisons between recent and historical streamflow records show an emerging secondary post-freshet peak in flow in recent years along with enhanced winter flows. Long-term monitoring of Granger Creek (7.6km2), an alpine watershed underlain by discontinuous permafrost located within Wolf Creek Research Basin (176km2) in Yukon Territory, Canada provided a multi-decadal record of hydro-meteorological measurements. Granger Creek experienced warmer and wetter summers in 2015-6 compared to 2001-8, and an altered streamflow pattern with an earlier spring freshet and peak in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC concentrations post-freshet remained low at both the headwater and meso-catchment scale, which contradicts trends of increasing DOC concentrations observed in larger river systems. Hysteresis loops of sub-hourly measurements of streamflow, salinity and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were analyzed to provide new insights into how hydrological connectivity at the headwater scale affected the timing of solute release with supporting information from optical indices calculated from fluorescence spectroscopy. These indices provided a more nuanced view of catchment dynamics than the DOC concentrations. The composition and quality of DOM varied throughout the growing season with the delivery of older, terrestrially-derived material corresponding to high DOC concentrations at the onset of spring freshet when the catchment was initially being flushed. The origin and quality of stream DOM shifted throughout the rest of the season to newer, more easily mobilized DOM

  4. Managing the impact of gold panning activities within the context of integrated water resources management planning in the Lower Manyame Sub-Catchment, Zambezi Basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Nonhlanhla; Love, David; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Shoko, Dennis

    Riverbed alluvial gold panning activities are a cause for degradation of river channels and banks as well as water resources, particularly through accelerated erosion and siltation, in many areas of Zimbabwe. The lower Manyame sub-catchment located in the Northern part of the country is one such area. This study analysed the implications of cross-sectoral coordination of the management of panning and its impacts. This is within the context of conflicts of interests and responsibilities. A situational analysis of different stakeholders from sectors that included mining, environment, water, local government and water users who were located next to identified panning sites, as well as panners was carried out. Selected sites along the Dande River were observed to assess the environmental effects. The study determined that all stakeholder groups perceived siltation and river bank degradation as the most severe effect of panning on water resources, yet there were divergent views with regards to coordination of panning management. The Water Act of 1998 does not give enough power to management institutions including the Lower Manyame Sub-catchment Council to protect water resources from the impacts of panning, despite the fact that the activities affect the water resource base. The Mines and Minerals Act of 1996 remains the most powerful legislation, while mining sector activities adversely affect environmental resources. Furthermore, complexities were caused by differences in the definition of water resources management boundaries as compared to the overall environmental resources management boundaries according to the Environmental Management Act (EMA) of 2000, and by separate yet parallel water and environmental planning processes. Environmental sector institutions according to the EMA are well linked to local government functions and resource management is administrative, enhancing efficient coordination.

  5. Actors and Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Lars

    Actors and practices – An institutional study on management accounting change in Air Greenland My former CEO was one of the first executives in Greenland to formally implement an extensive commercial strategy to identify the contradictory forces of social obligations and commercial strivings...... societal obligation. He noted that: “…there is some inherent conflict in having the type of ownership we have, one in which the commercial owner demands higher profits or they will sell their shares, and the other two government owners, where one wishes to have the lowest possible fares and better...... infrastructure and the other one just wants less trouble. Well! This is the ongoing inherent conflict of the owner composition we just have to deal with.” He emphasized that SAS, the more “commercial oriented” owner and private shareholder, wanted higher profits and gains, whereas the Government of Greenland...

  6. A new perspective on catchment storage gained from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Gourdol, Laurent; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2014-05-01

    Recent hydrological process research focussed on how much water a catchment can store and how these catchments store and release water. Storage can be a valuable metric for catchment description, inter-comparison, and classification. Further storage controls catchment mixing, non-linearities in rainfall-runoff transformation and eco-hydrological processes. Various methods exist to determine catchment storage (e.g. natural tracer, soil moisture and groundwater data, hydrological models). Today it remains unclear what parts of the catchment storage are measured with the different models. Here we present a new hydrometric approach to answer the question how much water a catchment can store. We tested our approach in a dense hydro-climatological monitoring network that encompasses 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). Catchment scales are ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2 and they have clean- and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Previous investigations in the area of interest have shown that geology largely controls winter runoff coefficients. Here, we focus at how catchment geology is ultimately affecting catchment storage. We used the approach of Sayama et al. (2011) to compute catchment dynamic storage changes for each winter season over the period 2002-2012 (based on precipitation as input; discharge and evapotranspiration as output). We determined dynamic storage changes for each winter semester (October to March) in all 16 catchments over the period 2002-2012. At the beginning of each hydrological winter season, all catchments showed similar trends in storage change. A few weeks into the winter season, catchments with lowest permeability (e.g. marls) started to plateau. The highest storage values were reached several months later in the season in catchments dominated by permeable substrate (e.g. sandstone). For most catchments, we found

  7. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  8. The evolution and performance of river basin management in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore bioregional management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB in Australia through the institutional design characteristics of the MDB River Basin Organization (RBO, the actors and organizations who supported and resisted the establishment of the RBO, and the effectiveness of the RBO. During the last 25 years, there has been a major structural reform in the MDB RBO, which has changed from an interstate coordinating body to an Australian government agency. Responsibility for basin management has been centralized under the leadership of the Australian government, and a comprehensive integrated Basin plan has been adopted. The driving forces for this centralization include national policy to restore river basins to sustainable levels of extraction, state government difficulties in reversing overallocation of water entitlements, the millennium drought and its effects, political expediency on the part of the Australian government and state governments, and a major injection of Australian government funding. The increasing hierarchy and centralization of the MDB RBO does not follow a general trend toward multilevel participative governance of RBOs, but decentralization should not be overstated because of the special circumstances at the time of the centralization and the continuing existence of some decentralized elements, such as catchment water plans, land use planning, and water quality. Further swings in the centralization-decentralization pendulum could occur. The MDB reform has succeeded in rebalancing Basin water allocations, including an allocation for the environment and reduced diversion limits. There are some longer term risks to the implementation of reform, including lack of cooperation by state governments, vertical coordination difficulties, and perceived reductions in the accountability and legitimacy of reform at the local level. If implementation of the Basin plan is diverted or delayed, a new institution, the Commonwealth

  9. Catchment Classification: Connecting Climate, Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrology does not yet possess a generally accepted catchment classification framework. Such a classification framework needs to: [1] give names to things, i.e. the main classification step, [2] permit transfer of information, i.e. regionalization of information, [3] permit development of generalizations, i.e. to develop new theory, and [4] provide a first order environmental change impact assessment, i.e., the hydrologic implications of climate, land use and land cover change. One strategy is to create a catchment classification framework based on the notion of catchment functions (partitioning, storage, and release). Results of an empirical study presented here connects climate and structure to catchment function (in the form of select hydrologic signatures), based on analyzing over 300 US catchments. Initial results indicate a wide assortment of signature relationships with properties of climate, geology, and vegetation. The uncertainty in the different regionalized signatures varies widely, and therefore there is variability in the robustness of classifying ungauged basins. This research provides insight into the controls of hydrologic behavior of a catchment, and enables a classification framework applicable to gauged and ungauged across the study domain. This study sheds light on what we can expect to achieve in mapping climate, structure and function in a top-down manner. Results of this study complement work done using a bottom-up physically-based modeling framework to generalize this approach (Carrillo et al., this session).

  10. A multi-proxy lake core record from Lago Lungo, Rieti Basin, Lazio, Italy and its relation to human activities in the catchment during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Paula; Tunno, Irene; Mensing, Scott; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The lakes of the Rieti Basin have experienced extensive human modification dating back to pre-Roman times, yet lake archives indicate that the most profound changes to the aquatic ecosystem have occurred during the last century. Analysis of the upper ˜120 cm segment of a sediment core from Lago Lungo, dating back to ˜1830 CE, show changes in water quality and hydrologic inflow largely attributed to 20th century reclamation and land use activities. Lago Lungo is a shallow, small, eutrophic, hard water lake situated in an intermontaine alluvial plain ˜90 km NE of Rome. It is one of several remnant lakes in a poorly drained wetland area fed by numerous springs. Reclamation activities over the last century have substantially altered the drainage network affecting water delivery to the lakes and their connectivity. There are 3 interesting signals in the core. First, small Stephanodiscus species, associated with hypereutrophic conditions, appear after 1950, peak ˜1990, and may be attributed to increased use of chemical fertilizers and intensification of local agriculture. Elemental proxies from scanning XRF data (abundances of Ti, Si/Ti, and Ca) are consistent with increased eutrophication starting ˜1950. A decline in Stephanodicsus after 1990 reflects some improvement to the water quality following the lake's incorporation into a nature preserve and creation of a narrow vegetation buffer. Intermittent water quality measurements from 1982 onward corroborate the changes in trophic status interpreted from the core record. Second, a large change in the core stratigraphy, elemental geochemistry, and diatom composition occurs ˜1940 and is associated with several major reclamation efforts, including the rerouting of the Santa Susanna channel, which redirected large volumes of artesian inflows away from the lakes and estuarine system. Upstream, dams on the Turano and Salto rivers were also constructed, further affecting hydrological inflows into the basin. From ˜1900

  11. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  12. Catchment-coastal zone interaction based upon scenario and model analysis: Elbe and the German Bight case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, J.; Behrendt, H.; Gilbert, A.J.; Janssen, R.; Kannen, A.; Kappenberg, J.W.; Lenhart, H.; Lise, W.; Nunneri, C.; Windhorst, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic strategy on the interaction of activities in the Elbe river basin and their effects on eutrophication in the coastal waters of the German Bight. This catchment-coastal zone interaction is the main target of the EUROCAT (EUROpean CATchments, catchment changes and their

  13. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  14. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  15. Efficient Actor Recovery Paradigm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Reem K; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-04-14

    The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an Efficient Actor Recovery (EAR) paradigm to guarantee the contention-free traffic-forwarding capacity. The EAR paradigm consists of a Node Monitoring and Critical Node Detection (NMCND) algorithm that monitors the activities of the nodes to determine the critical node. In addition, it replaces the critical node with backup node prior to complete node-failure which helps balancing the network performance. The packets are handled using Network Integration and Message Forwarding (NIMF) algorithm that determines the source of forwarding the packets; either from actor or sensor. This decision-making capability of the algorithm controls the packet forwarding rate to maintain the network for a longer time. Furthermore, for handling the proper routing strategy, Priority-Based Routing for Node Failure Avoidance (PRNFA) algorithm is deployed to decide the priority of the packets to be forwarded based on the significance of information available in the packet. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed EAR paradigm, the proposed algorithms were tested using OMNET++ simulation.

  16. Diatoms as a fingerprint of sub-catchment contributions to meso-scale catchment runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Wetzel, Carlos E.; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Ector, Luc; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, calls were made for new eco-hydrological approaches to improve understanding of hydrological processes. Recently diatoms, one of the most common and diverse algal groups that can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 µm), were used to detect the onset and cessation of surface runoff to small headwater streams and constrain isotopic and hydro-chemical hydrograph separation methods. While the method showed its potential in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum of headwater catchments, the behavior of diatoms and their use for hydrological process research in meso-scale catchments remains uncertain. Diatoms can be a valuable support for isotope and hydro-chemical tracer methods when these become ambiguous with increasing scale. Distribution and abundance of diatom species is controlled by various environmental factors (pH, soil type, moisture conditions, exposition to sunlight, etc.). We therefore hypothesize that species abundance and composition can be used as a proxy for source areas. This presentation evaluates the potential for diatoms to trace source-areas in the nested meso-scale Attert River basin (250 km2, Luxembourg, Europe). We sampled diatom populations in streamwater during one flood event in Fall 2011 in 6 sub-catchments and the basin outlet - 17 to 28 samples/catchment for the different sampling locations. Diatoms were classified and counted in every individual sample. In total more than 400 diatom species were detected. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities sampled in different sub-catchments. The species composition at the catchment outlet reflects a mixing of the diatom composition originating from different sub-catchments. This data suggests that diatoms indeed can reflect the geographic origin of stream water at the catchment outlet. The centroids of the ordination analysis might be linked to the physiographic characteristics (geology and land use) of the

  17. Observed precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment from 1951 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUBuda; JIANGTong; SHIYafeng; StefanBECKER; MracoGEMMER

    2004-01-01

    The monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment have been detected through analysis of 51 meteorological stations' data between 1950-2002 provided by National Meteorological Administration. Results reveal that: 1) Summer precipitation in the Yangtze river catchment shows significant increasing tendency. The Poyanghu lake basin, Dongtinghu lake basin and Taihu lake basin in the middle and lower reaches are the places showing significant positive trends. Summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches experienced an abrupt change in the year 1992; 2) The monthly precipitation in months just adjoining to summer shows decreasing tendency in the Yangtze river catchment. The upper and middle reaches in Jialingjiang river basin and Hanshui river basin are the places showing significant negative trends; 3) Extreme precipitation events show an increasing tendency in most places, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river catchment.

  18. Large catchment area recharges Titan's Ontario Lacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.; Yanites, Brian J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2018-01-01

    We seek to address the question of what processes are at work to fill Ontario Lacus while other, deeper south polar basins remain empty. Our hydrological analysis indicates that Ontario Lacus has a catchment area spanning 5.5% of Titan's surface and a large catchment area to lake surface area ratio. This large catchment area translates into large volumes of liquid making their way to Ontario Lacus after rainfall. The areal extent of the catchment extends to at least southern mid-latitudes (40°S). Mass conservation calculations indicate that runoff alone might completely fill Ontario Lacus within less than half a Titan year (1 Titan year = 29.5 Earth years) assuming no infiltration. Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of clouds over the southern mid and high-latitudes are consistent with precipitation feeding Ontario's large catchment area. This far-flung rain may be keeping Ontario Lacus filled, making it a liquid hydrocarbon oasis in the relatively dry south polar region.

  19. Modeling of facade leaching in urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Del Giudice, D.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Building facades are protected from microbial attack by incorporation of biocides within them. Flow over facades leaches these biocides and transports them to the urban environment. A parsimonious water quantity/quality model applicable for engineered urban watersheds was developed to compute biocide release from facades and their transport at the urban basin scale. The model couples two lumped submodels applicable at the basin scale, and a local model of biocide leaching at the facade scale. For the facade leaching, an existing model applicable at the individual wall scale was utilized. The two lumped models describe urban hydrodynamics and leachate transport. The integrated model allows prediction of biocide concentrations in urban rivers. It was applied to a 15 km2urban hydrosystem in western Switzerland, the Vuachère river basin, to study three facade biocides (terbutryn, carbendazim, diuron). The water quality simulated by the model matched well most of the pollutographs at the outlet of the Vuachère watershed. The model was then used to estimate possible ecotoxicological impacts of facade leachates. To this end, exceedance probabilities and cumulative pollutant loads from the catchment were estimated. Results showed that the considered biocides rarely exceeded the relevant predicted no-effect concentrations for the riverine system. Despite the heterogeneities and complexity of (engineered) urban catchments, the model application demonstrated that a computationally "light" model can be employed to simulate the hydrograph and pollutograph response within them. It thus allows catchment-scale assessment of the potential ecotoxicological impact of biocides on receiving waters.

  20. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  1. Multicultural Monologues for Young Actors. The Young Actors Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.; Sharrar, Jack, Ed.

    This book presents 62 monologue selections from diverse cultures for young actors to perform. The book's selections offer "quality literature by significant writers." Some of the writers represented in the book are George C. Wolfe, Miguel Pinero, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), John M. Synge, Yukio Mishima, Reynolds…

  2. An Actor and His Suitcase

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    The idea of the actor as journeyman is as old as the profession itself. The travel troupes of yesteryear laid the groundwork for the theatres of Shakespeare and the regional theatre circuit here in America. So if there is one thing an actor must have: it's a good suitcase. Or two. One for the rags and trinkets he, or she, holds dear; and another for all the skills he, or she, brings to every project.When I left the east coast for San Diego I brought with me those two suitcases. Luckily for me...

  3. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  4. Guide Actor-Critic for Continuous Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkaratt, Voot; Abdolmaleki, Abbas; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Actor-critic methods solve reinforcement learning problems by updating a parameterized policy known as an actor in a direction that increases an estimate of the expected return known as a critic. However, existing actor-critic methods only use values or gradients of the critic to update the policy parameter. In this paper, we propose a novel actor-critic method called the guide actor-critic (GAC). GAC firstly learns a guide actor that locally maximizes the critic and then it updates the polic...

  5. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  6. Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile Basin, Western Ethiopia. ... In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the morphometric characteristics of Didessa ... Stream networks and watersheds were delineated in ArcGIS 10.1 software environment by utilizing ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Estimating runoff from ungauged catchments for reservoir water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lower Middle Zambezi Basin is sandwiched between three hydropower ... This study applied a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-HMS) and GIS techniques to ... Missing data were generated using the mean value infilling method. ... A hydrological model, HEC- HMS, was used to simulate runoff from the ungauged catchments.

  8. Prediction of Baseflow Index of Catchments using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, B.; Hatfield, K.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of eight machine learning techniques for predicting the baseflow index (BFI) of ungauged basins using a surrogate of catchment scale climate and physiographic data. The tested algorithms include ordinary least squares, ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), elasticnet, support vector machine, gradient boosted regression trees, random forests, and extremely randomized trees. Our work seeks to identify the dominant controls of BFI that can be readily obtained from ancillary geospatial databases and remote sensing measurements, such that the developed techniques can be extended to ungauged catchments. More than 800 gauged catchments spanning the continental United States were selected to develop the general methodology. The BFI calculation was based on the baseflow separated from daily streamflow hydrograph using HYSEP filter. The surrogate catchment attributes were compiled from multiple sources including digital elevation model, soil, landuse, climate data, other publicly available ancillary and geospatial data. 80% catchments were used to train the ML algorithms, and the remaining 20% of the catchments were used as an independent test set to measure the generalization performance of fitted models. A k-fold cross-validation using exhaustive grid search was used to fit the hyperparameters of each model. Initial model development was based on 19 independent variables, but after variable selection and feature ranking, we generated revised sparse models of BFI prediction that are based on only six catchment attributes. These key predictive variables selected after the careful evaluation of bias-variance tradeoff include average catchment elevation, slope, fraction of sand, permeability, temperature, and precipitation. The most promising algorithms exceeding an accuracy score (r-square) of 0.7 on test data include support vector machine, gradient boosted regression trees, random forests, and extremely randomized

  9. How old is upland catchment water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  10. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  11. Nested Tracer Studies In Catchment Hydrology: Towards A Multiscale Understanding of Runoff Generation and Catchment Funtioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Rodgers, P.; Malcolm, I. A.; Dunn, S.

    Geochemical and isotopic tracers have been shown to have widespread utility in catch- ment hydrology in terms of identifying hydrological source areas and characterising residence time distributions. In many cases application of tracer techniques has pro- vided insights into catchment functioning that could not be obtained from hydromet- ric and/or modelling studies alone. This paper will show how the use of tracers has contributed to an evolving perceptual model of hydrological pathways and runoff gen- eration processes in catchments in the Scottish highlands. In particular the paper will focus on the different insights that are gained at three different scales of analysis; (a) nested sub-catchments within a mesoscale (ca. 200 square kilometers) experimen- tal catchment; (b) hillslope-riparian interactions and (c) stream bed fluxes. Nested hydrometric and hydrochemical monitoring within the mesoscale Feugh catchment identified three main hydrological response units: (i) plateau peatlands which gener- ated saturation overland flow in the catchment headwaters, (ii) steep valley hillslopes which drain from the plateaux into (iii) alluvial and drift aquifers in the valley bottoms. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) in 8 nested sub-catchments indicated that that stream water tracer concentrations can be modelled in terms of 2 dominant runoff pro- cesses; overland flow from the peat and groundwater from the drift aquifers. Ground- water contributions generally increased with catchment size, though this was moder- ated by the characteristics of individual sub-basins, with drift cover being particularly important. Hillslope riparian interactions were also examined using tracers, hydromet- ric data and a semi-distributed hydrological model. This revealed that in the glaciated, drift covered terrain of the Scottish highlands, extensive valley bottom aquifers effec- tively de-couple hillslope waters from the river channel. Thus, riparian groundwater appears to significantly

  12. Surveillance of the radioactivity in the environment of the Loire basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The surveillance of the radioactivity in environment in the Loire catchment basin rests on the measurement of radioactivity in atmosphere, in the rain waters and continental waters as well as the follow up of radioactivity in food chain. Concerning the air radiation monitoring, that is the dose rate measurement of ambient gamma radiation, the radon measurement and the measurement of particulates and radioactive aerosols. Concerning the food chain, the follow up is made on drinking water, milk, fishes and the special case of strontium 90. The actors of this campaign are the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.), Electricite de France (E.D.F.) Areva NC, the associations qualified for the surveillance of air quality (A.A.S.Q.A.) and the government services. (N.C.)

  13. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between actors. Our formalization is done using the theorem prover in the RODIN platform.

  14. Understanding catchment dynamics through a Space-Society-Water trialectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Catherine; Jewitt, Graham; Risko, Susan; Hay, Ducan; Stuart-Hill, Sabine; Browne, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Can healthy catchments be utilized to secure water for the benefit of society? This is a complex question as it requires an understanding of the connections and relations between biophysical, social, political, economic and governance dimensions over space and time in the catchment and must interrogate whether there is 'value' in investing in the catchment natural or ecological infrastructure (EI), how this should be done, where the most valuable EI is located, and whether an investment in EI will generate co-benefits socially, environmentally and economically. Here, we adopt a social ecological relations rather than systems approach to explore these interactions through development of a space-society-water trialectic. Trialectic thinking is challenging as it requires new epistemologies and it challenges conventional modes of thought. It is not ordered or fixed, but rather is constantly evolving, revealing the dynamic relations between the elements under exploration. The construction of knowledge, through detailed scientific research and social learning, which contributes to the understanding and achievement of sustainable water supply, water related resilient economic growth, greater social equity and justice in relation to water and the reduction of environmental risk is illustrated through research in the uMngeni Catchment, South Africa. Using four case studies as a basis, we construct the catchment level society-water-space trialectic as a way of connecting, assembling and comparing the understanding and knowledge that has been produced. The relations in the three elements of the trialectic are constructed through identifying, understanding and analysing the actors, discourses, knowledge, biophysical materialities, issues and spatial connections in the case studies. Together these relations, or multiple trajectories, are assembled to form the society-water-space trialectic, which illuminates the dominant relations in the catchment and hence reveal the leverage

  15. Statistical analysis of hydrological response in urbanising catchments based on adaptive sampling using inter-Amount times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Schleiss, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Urban catchments are typically characterised by a more flashy nature of the hydrological response compared to natural catchments. Predicting flow changes associated with urbanisation is not straightforward, as they are influenced by interactions between impervious cover, basin size, drainage

  16. Hydrologic comparison between a lowland catchment (Kielstau, Germany and a mountainous catchment (XitaoXi, China using KIDS model in PCRaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fohrer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The KIDS model (Kielstau Discharge Simulation model is a simple rainfall-runoff model developed originally for the Kielstau catchment. To extend its range of application we applied it to a completely different catchment, the XitaoXi catchment in China. Kielstau is a small (51 km2 lowland basin in Northern Germany, with large proportion of wetland area. And XitaoXi is a mesoscale (2271 km2 mountainous basin in the south of China. Both catchments differ greatly in size, topography, landuse, soil properties, and weather conditions. We compared two catchments in these features and stress on the analysis how the specific catchment characteristics could guide the adaptation of KIDS model and the parameter estimation for streamflow simulation. The Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.73 for Kielstau and 0.65 for XitaoXi. The results suggest that the application of KIDS model may require adjustments according to the specific physical background of the study basin.

  17. Representing macropore flow at the catchment scale: a comparative modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Li, H. Y.; Tian, F.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Macropore flow is an important hydrological process that generally enhances the soil infiltration capacity and velocity of subsurface water. Up till now, macropore flow is mostly simulated with high-resolution models. One possible drawback of this modeling approach is the difficulty to effectively represent the overall typology and connectivity of the macropore networks. We hypothesize that modeling macropore flow directly at the catchment scale may be complementary to the existing modeling strategy and offer some new insights. Tsinghua Representative Elementary Watershed model (THREW model) is a semi-distributed hydrology model, where the fundamental building blocks are representative elementary watersheds (REW) linked by the river channel network. In THREW, all the hydrological processes are described with constitutive relationships established directly at the REW level, i.e., catchment scale. In this study, the constitutive relationship of macropore flow drainage is established as part of THREW. The enhanced THREW model is then applied at two catchments with deep soils but distinct climates, the humid Asu catchment in the Amazon River basin, and the arid Wei catchment in the Yellow River basin. The Asu catchment has an area of 12.43km2 with mean annual precipitation of 2442mm. The larger Wei catchment has an area of 24800km2 but with mean annual precipitation of only 512mm. The rainfall-runoff processes are simulated at a hourly time step from 2002 to 2005 in the Asu catchment and from 2001 to 2012 in the Wei catchment. The role of macropore flow on the catchment hydrology will be analyzed comparatively over the Asu and Wei catchments against the observed streamflow, evapotranspiration and other auxiliary data.

  18. Contributions of climate change and human activities to runoff change in seven typical catchments across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ran; Tao, Fulu

    2017-12-15

    Climate change and human activities are two major factors affecting water resource change. It is important to understand the roles of the major factors in affecting runoff change in different basins for watershed management. Here, we investigated the trends in climate and runoff in seven typical catchments in seven basins across China from 1961 to 2014. Then we attributed the runoff change to climate change and human activities in each catchment and in three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000s), using the VIC model and long-term runoff observation data. During 1961-2014, temperature increased significantly, while the trends in precipitation were insignificant in most of the catchments and inconsistent among the catchments. The runoff in most of the catchments showed a decreasing trend except the Yingluoxia catchment in the northwestern China. The contributions of climate change and human activities to runoff change varied in different catchments and time periods. In the 1980s, climate change contributed more to runoff change than human activities, which was 84%, 59%, -66%, -50%, 59%, 94%, and -59% in the Nianzishan, Yingluoxia, Xiahui, Yangjiaping, Sanjiangkou, Xixian, and Changle catchment, respectively. After that, human activities had played a more essential role in runoff change. In the 1990s and 2000s, human activities contributed more to runoff change than in the 1980s. The contribution by human activities accounted for 84%, -68%, and 67% in the Yingluoxia, Xiahui, and Sanjiangkou catchment, respectively, in the 1990s; and -96%, -67%, -94%, and -142% in the Nianzishan, Yangjiaping, Xixian, and Changle catchment, respectively, in the 2000s. It is also noted that after 2000 human activities caused decrease in runoff in all catchments except the Yingluoxia. Our findings highlight that the effects of human activities, such as increase in water withdrawal, land use/cover change, operation of dams and reservoirs, should be well managed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  19. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  20. The Management of Political Actors in Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Odion Omoijiade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The argument that the minimization of the dysfunctional consequences of organizational politics is no longer dependent on self-equilibrating mechanism remains valid. This inquiry is therefore framed with a view to establishing suitable strategies for managing political actors. There is a nexus between the diagnosis typology of political actors and the qualitative classes of political actors and their management strategies. In the management of mixed blessing, supportive, non-supportive and marginal political actors; collaborative, involvement, defensive and information strategies respectively were found suitable. This research is based on existing theoretical knowledge on organizational politics and stakeholders management. Data was collected from the literature by means of critical analysis and dialectic reflection on the emerging themes. The study will enhance capability in contexts where the scientific management of political actors is yet to be exemplified.

  1. Water and salt balance modelling to predict the effects of land-use changes in forested catchments. 1. Small catchment water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ruprecht, John K.; Viney, Neil R.

    1996-03-01

    A long-term water balance model has been developed to predict the hydrological effects of land-use change (especially forest clearing) in small experimental catchments in the south-west of Western Australia. This small catchment model has been used as the building block for the development of a large catchment-scale model, and has also formed the basis for a coupled water and salt balance model, developed to predict the changes in stream salinity resulting from land-use and climate change. The application of the coupled salt and water balance model to predict stream salinities in two small experimental catchments, and the application of the large catchment-scale model to predict changes in water yield in a medium-sized catchment that is being mined for bauxite, are presented in Parts 2 and 3, respectively, of this series of papers.The small catchment model has been designed as a simple, robust, conceptually based model of the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments. The responses of the catchment to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three interdependent subsurface stores A, B and F. Store A depicts a near-stream perched aquifer system; B represents a deeper, permanent groundwater system; and F is an intermediate, unsaturated infiltration store. The responses of these stores are characterized by a set of constitutive relations which involves a number of conceptual parameters. These parameters are estimated by calibration by comparing observed and predicted runoff. The model has performed very well in simulations carried out on Salmon and Wights, two small experimental catchments in the Collie River basin in south-west Western Australia. The results from the application of the model to these small catchments are presented in this paper.

  2. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...... transport where the level of detail can be suited to the purpose....

  3. A method to employ the spatial organization of catchments into semi-distributed rainfall–runoff models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oppel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A distributed or semi-distributed deterministic hydrological model should consider the hydrologically most relevant catchment characteristics. These are heterogeneously distributed within a watershed but often interrelated and subject to a certain spatial organization which results in archetypes of combined characteristics. In order to reproduce the natural rainfall–runoff response the reduction of variance of catchment properties as well as the incorporation of the spatial organization of the catchment are desirable. In this study the width-function approach is utilized as a basic characteristic to analyse the succession of catchment characteristics. By applying this technique we were able to assess the context of catchment properties like soil or topology along the streamflow length and the network geomorphology, giving indications of the spatial organization of a catchment. Moreover, this information and this technique have been implemented in an algorithm for automated sub-basin ascertainment, which included the definition of zones within the newly defined sub-basins. The objective was to provide sub-basins that were less heterogeneous than common separation schemes. The algorithm was applied to two parameters characterizing the topology and soil of four mid-European watersheds. Resulting partitions indicated a wide range of applicability for the method and the algorithm. Additionally, the intersection of derived zones for different catchment characteristics could give insights into sub-basin similarities. Finally, a HBV96 case study demonstrated the potential benefits of modelling with the new subdivision technique.

  4. Understanding Regional Actors: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harden, James

    2002-01-01

    .... It is possible the estimation process could improve if greater attention was given to the interests, challenges, and opportunities of the regional actors involved, rather than concentrating on U.S. interests...

  5. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins – the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater

  6. Environmental care in agricultural catchments: Toward the communicative catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    1991-11-01

    Substantial land degradation of agricultural catchments in Australia has resulted from the importation of European farming methods and the large-scale clearing of land. Rural communities are now being encouraged by government to take responsibility for environmental care. The importance of community involvement is supported by the view that environmental problems are a function of interactions between people and their environment. It is suggested that the commonly held view that community groups cannot care for their resources is due to inappropriate social institutions rather that any inherent disability in people. The communicative catchment is developed as a vision for environmental care into the future. This concept emerges from a critique of resource management through the catchment metaphors of the reduced, mechanical, and the complex, evolving catchment, which reflect the development of systemic and people-centered approaches to environmental care. The communicative catchment is one where both community and resource managers participate collaboratively in environmental care. A methodology based on action research and systemic thinking (systemic action research) is proposed as a way of moving towards the communicative catchment of the future. Action research is a way of taking action in organizations and communities that is participative and informed by theory, while systemic thinking takes into account the interconnections and relationships between social and natural worlds. The proposed vision, methodology, and practical operating principles stem from involvement in an action research project looking at extension strategies for the implementation of total catchment management in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales.

  7. ACTOR`S EXPRESSIVENESS: PHYSICAL ACTION AS A LANGUAGE OF ARCHETYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATEREVA IRINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the main element of the nonverbal expressiveness of the actor. Th e nonpsychological theatre of Europe in the second half of the 20th century was looking for the actor`s possibility of physical action for revealing the archetypal image of the character. Expressing the meanings similar among themselves in diff erent Nations, they connect the actors and spectators at the level of feelings, of the subconscious. Destroying the barriers in people’s minds which divides them into Europeans and Asians, or French and Germans, they are understandable to any audience regardless of their cultural or linguistic affiliation.

  8. Vulnerability of European freshwater catchments to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Danijela; Carrizo, Savrina F; Kärcher, Oskar; Walz, Ariane; David, Jonathan N W

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the current threats to freshwater ecosystems, yet multifaceted studies on the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity at scales that inform management planning are lacking. The aim of this study was to fill this void through the development of a novel framework for assessing climate change vulnerability tailored to freshwater ecosystems. The three dimensions of climate change vulnerability are as follows: (i) exposure to climate change, (ii) sensitivity to altered environmental conditions and (iii) resilience potential. Our vulnerability framework includes 1685 freshwater species of plants, fishes, molluscs, odonates, amphibians, crayfish and turtles alongside key features within and between catchments, such as topography and connectivity. Several methodologies were used to combine these dimensions across a variety of future climate change models and scenarios. The resulting indices were overlaid to assess the vulnerability of European freshwater ecosystems at the catchment scale (18 783 catchments). The Balkan Lakes Ohrid and Prespa and Mediterranean islands emerge as most vulnerable to climate change. For the 2030s, we showed a consensus among the applied methods whereby up to 573 lake and river catchments are highly vulnerable to climate change. The anthropogenic disruption of hydrological habitat connectivity by dams is the major factor reducing climate change resilience. A gap analysis demonstrated that the current European protected area network covers climate change. Priority should be placed on enhancing stakeholder cooperation at the major basin scale towards preventing further degradation of freshwater ecosystems and maintaining connectivity among catchments. The catchments identified as most vulnerable to climate change provide preliminary targets for development of climate change conservation management and mitigation strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  10. The relative influence of climate and catchment properties on hydrological drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne; Laaha, Gregor; Koffler, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Studying hydrological drought (a below-normal water availability in groundwater, lakes and streams) is important to society and the ecosystem, but can also reveal interesting information about catchment functioning. This information can later be used for predicting drought in ungauged basins and to inform water management decisions. In this study, we used an extensive Austrian dataset of discharge measurements in clusters of catchments and combine this dataset with thematic information on climate and catchment properties. Our aim was to study the relative effects of climate and catchment characteristics on drought duration and deficit and on hydrological drought typology. Because the climate of the region is roughly uniform, our hypothesis was that the effect of differences of catchment properties would stand out. From time series of precipitation and discharge we identified droughts with the widely-used threshold level approach, defining a drought when a variable falls below a pre-defined threshold representing the regime. Drought characteristics that were analysed are drought duration and deficit. We also applied the typology of Van Loon & Van Lanen (2012). To explain differences in drought characteristics between catchments we did a correlation analysis with climate and catchment characteristics, based on Pearson correlation. We found very interesting patterns in the correlations of drought characteristics with climate and catchment properties: 1) Droughts with long duration (mean and maximum) and composite droughts are related to catchments with a high BFI (high baseflow) and a high percentage of shallow groundwater tables. 2) The deficit (mean and maximum) of both meteorological droughts and hydrological droughts is strongly related to catchment humidity, in this case quantified by average annual precipitation. 3) The hydrological drought types that are related to snow, i.e. cold snow season drought and snow melt drought, occur in catchments that are have a

  11. Non-state actors in control of territory as 'actors of protection' in international refugee law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the concept of non-state ‘actors of protection’ in international refugee law. This concept breaks with traditional State-centric readings of international law, as it connotes that a non-state actor may offer ‘protection’ against persecution, comparable to that normally offered

  12. Postdecisional counterfactual thinking by actors and readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Vittorio; Ferrante, Donatella; Pighin, Stefania; Gonzalez, Michel

    2007-06-01

    How do individuals think counterfactually about the outcomes of their decisions? Most previous studies have investigated how readers think about fictional stories, rather than how actors think about events they have actually experienced. We assumed that differences in individuals' roles (actor vs. reader) can make different information available, which in turn can affect counterfactual thinking. Hence, we predicted an effect of role on postdecisional counterfactual thinking. Reporting the results of eight studies, we show that readers undo the negative outcome of a story by undoing the protagonist's choice to tackle a given problem, rather than the protagonist's unsuccessful attempt to solve it. But actors who make the same choice and experience the same negative outcome as the protagonist undo this outcome by altering features of the problem. We also show that this effect does not depend on motivational factors. These results contradict current accounts of counterfactual thinking and demonstrate the necessity of investigating the counterfactual thoughts of individuals in varied roles.

  13. ACToR - Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, Richard; Richard, Ann; Dix, David; Houck, Keith; Elloumi, Fathi; Martin, Matthew; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas R.; Spencer, Richard; Wolf, Maritja

    2008-01-01

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a database and set of software applications that bring into one central location many types and sources of data on environmental chemicals. Currently, the ACToR chemical database contains information on chemical structure, in vitro bioassays and in vivo toxicology assays derived from more than 150 sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), state agencies, corresponding government agencies in Canada, Europe and Japan, universities, the World Health Organization (WHO) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology, ACToR helps manage large data sets being used in a high-throughput environmental chemical screening and prioritization program called ToxCast TM

  14. Lone Actors: Challenges and Opportunities for Countering Violent Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Richman, A.; Sharan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores some of the key challenges and opportunities concerning the prevention and control of lone actor terrorism. It is argued that lone actors do not operate in a social vacuum and that the interaction points between lone actors and their social environments can render lone actors

  15. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    ‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... a changing set of key relations and alliances in development – those between business and consumers; ngos and celebrities; philanthropic organisations and the state; diaspora groups and transnational advocacy networks; ruling elites and productive capitalists; and ‘new donors’ and developing country...

  16. The politics of establishing catchment management agencies in South Africa: the case of the Breede-Overberg Catchment Management Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meissner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We reflect on the politics of establishing catchment management agencies in South Africa with a specific focus on the Breede-Overberg Catchment Management Agency (BOCMA, which was recently replaced by the Breede-Gouritz Catchment Management Agency (BGCMA. We do so by applying the framework of adaptive comanagement and its institutional prescriptions: collaboration, experimentation, and a bioregional approach. We start by introducing the history of this catchment management agency (CMA and then describe the establishment of CMAs in South Africa in general and that of BOCMA in particular. We follow the framework for rule types and types of river basin organizations set out by the editors of this special feature with reference to adaptive comanagement where applicable. We then discuss the politics and strategies involved in the introduction of the CMA concept to the National Water Act and the latest developments around these institutions in South Africa. This is followed by reflections on what can be surmised about BOCMA's democratic functioning and performance to date. We conclude by reflecting on the future of operations of the new BGCMA and CMAs in South Africa in general. While our research shows that BOCMA's establishment process has featured several elements of adaptive comanagement and its institutional prescriptions, it remains to be seen to what extent it is possible to continue implementing this concept when further developing and operationalizing the BGCMA and the country's other CMAs.

  17. A simple distributed sediment delivery approach for rural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of sediments from source areas to surface waters is a complex process. In process based erosion models sediment input is thus quantified by representing all relevant sub processes such as detachment, transport and deposition of sediment particles along the flow path to the river. A successful application of these models requires, however, a large amount of spatially highly resolved data on physical catchment characteristics, which is only available for a few, well examined small catchments. For the lack of appropriate models, the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely applied to quantify the sediment production in meso to large scale basins. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). In these models, the SDR is related to data on morphological characteristics of the catchment such as average local relief, drainage density, proportion of depressions or soil texture. Some approaches include the relative distance between sediment source areas and the river channels. However, several studies showed that spatially lumped parameters describing the morphological characteristics are only of limited value to represent the factors of influence on sediment transport at the catchment scale. Sediment delivery is controlled by the location of the sediment source areas in the catchment and the morphology along the flow path to the surface water bodies. This complex interaction of spatially varied physiographic characteristics cannot be adequately represented by lumped morphological parameters. The objective of this study is to develop a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in a catchment. We selected a small catchment located in in an intensively cultivated loess region in Southwest Germany as study area for the development of the SDR approach. The

  18. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of ..... with equilibrium profile, where driving force is equivalent to the .... need attention for revival and sustenance by taking suitable artificial ...

  19. Iranian Sanctions: An Actor-Centric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    cultivated to counterbalance other actors in the system who opposed Khamenei’s ascension, based on his weak religious credentials.42 These security...trumped up religious infraction.256 The bonyads are the Iranian economy’s dominating revenue generating entity outside the oil sector,257 mushrooming in

  20. Political actors playing games: Theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamm, A.

    2015-01-01

    Political actors exert enormous influence over our daily lives. Their influence on economic activities cannot be underestimated. Voters determine the distribution of political power, political candidates choose policy platforms that they intend to enact if elected, and legislators bargain to arrive

  1. An Erlang Implementation of Multiparty Session Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fowler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By requiring co-ordination to take place using explicit message passing instead of relying on shared memory, actor-based programming languages have been shown to be effective tools for building reliable and fault-tolerant distributed systems. Although naturally communication-centric, communication patterns in actor-based applications remain informally specified, meaning that errors in communication are detected late, if at all. Multiparty session types are a formalism to describe, at a global level, the interactions between multiple communicating entities. This article describes the implementation of a prototype framework for monitoring Erlang/OTP gen_server applications against multiparty session types, showing how previous work on multiparty session actors can be adapted to a purely actor-based language, and how monitor violations and termination of session participants can be reported in line with the Erlang mantra of "let it fail". Finally, the framework is used to implement two case studies: an adaptation of a freely-available DNS server, and a chat server.

  2. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content

  3. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  4. Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red. Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  5. The moral problem of worse actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  6. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  7. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  8. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  9. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    -human entities to the explanatory repertoire of strategy research, another line of inquiry is pursued. The performative perspective thus proposed, is inspired by the classical work of Von Clausewitz and the recent anthropology of science, technology and organizational identities. In the proposed perspective...... case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the reflective...... outcomes, as providers of explanations and observations. The expression `technological strategy as macro-actor' summarizes these findings and the associated implications for research and practice....

  10. African Initiated Churches’ potential as development actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Öhlmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available African Initiated Churches (AICs are not yet recognised as relevant actors of community development interventions. While it has been acknowledged that many of them provide coping mechanisms in adverse environments, support in social transformation and social capital, little information is available on their role as development actors. In this article, we evaluate the potential of AICs as partners of international development agencies for community development. We draw on interviews and focus group discussions with leaders of various AICs conducted in South Africa in February and March 2016. In particular, we examine the churches’ understanding of development, their view on the separation of spiritual and development activities and their priorities. Moreover, we outline the development activities which they are currently engaged in and analyse the structures they have in place to do so. Our findings indicate that AICs are increasingly active in community development and offer various entry points for possible cooperation.

  11. Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment, Tigray, ... using geological and hydrogeological methods in Ellala catchment (296.5km. 2. ) ... Current estimates put the available groundwater ... Aquifer characterization takes into.

  12. Spatial Analysis for Potential Water Catchment Areas using GIS: Weighted Overlay Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awanda, Disyacitta; Anugrah Nurul, H.; Musfiroh, Zahrotul; Dinda Dwi, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The development of applied GIS is growing rapidly and has been widely applied in various fields. Preparation of a model to obtain information is one of the benefits of GIS. Obtaining information for water resources such as water catchment areas is one part of GIS modelling. Water catchment model can be utilized to see the distribution of potential and ability of a region in water absorbing. The use of overlay techniques with the weighting obtained from the literature from previous research is used to build the model. Model builder parameters are obtained through remote sensing interpretation techniques such as land use, landforms, and soil texture. Secondary data such as rock type maps are also used as water catchment model parameters. The location of this research is in the upstream part of the Opak river basin. The purpose of this research is to get information about potential distribution of water catchment area with overlay technique. The results of this study indicate the potential of water catchment areas with excellent category, good, medium, poor and very poor. These results may indicate that the Upper river basin is either good or in bad condition, so it can be used for better water resources management policy determination.

  13. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    2005-01-31

    Jan 31, 2005 ... to trace relationships, actors, actants and actor/actant-networks .... associated with a particular type of social theory (Latour, 1987; ..... the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Organised Business and Organised.

  14. Identifying residence times and streamflow generation processes using ?18O and ?2H in meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklaeb, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin.

  15. Geological controls on isotopic signatures of streamflow: results from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Hissler, Christophe; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, François; Stewart, Mike K.

    2014-05-01

    Controls of geology and topography on hydrological metrics, like summer low flow (Grant and Tague, 2004) or dynamic storage (Sayama et al., 2011), have been identified in nested catchment experiments. However, most tracer-based studies on streamflow generation have been carried out in small (10 km2) homogenous catchments (Klaus and McDonnell, 2013). The controlling effects of catchment physiography on how catchments store and release water, and how this eventually controls stream isotope behaviour over a large range of scale are poorly understood. Here, we present results from a nested catchment analysis in the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe). Our hydro-climatological network consists of 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs. Catchment areas range from 0.47 to 285 km2, with clean and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Our objective was to identify geological controls on (i) winter runoff ratios, (ii) maximum storage and (iii) isotopic signatures in streamflow. For each catchment we determined average runoff ratios from winter season precipitation-discharge double-mass curves. Maximum catchment storage was based on the dynamic storage change approach of Sayama et al. (2011). Changes in isotopic signatures of streamflow were documented along individual catchment flow duration curves. We found strong correlations between average winter runoff ratios, maximum storage and the prevailing geological settings. Catchments with impermeable bedrock (e.g. marls or schists) were characterised by small storage potential and high average filling ratios. As a consequence, these catchments also exhibited the highest average runoff ratios. In catchments underlain by permeable bedrock (e.g. sandstone), storage potential was significantly higher and runoff ratios were considerably smaller. The isotopic signatures of streamflow showed large differences between catchments. In catchments dominated by

  16. An Actor's Approach to Management Conceptual framework and company practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of Contents Foreword: Actor-based managemet - long-term and sustainable management (Bo Prangsgaard) Chapter 1. Introduction (Morten Jakobsen, Inga-Lill Johansson & Hanne Nørreklit) Chapter 2. Actors and reality: a conceptual framework for creative governance (Lennart Nørreklit) Chapter 3. An actor...

  17. Co-evolution of social networks and continuous actor attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezink, Nynke M.D.; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Social networks and the attributes of the actors in these networks are not static; they may develop interdependently over time. The stochastic actor-oriented model allows for statistical inference on the mechanisms driving this co-evolution process. In earlier versions of this model, dynamic actor

  18. Hydrological Response of Semi-arid Degraded Catchments in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Daniel; Van Wesemael, Bas; Vanacker, Veerle; Hallet, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    To address water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid part of developing countries, accurate estimation of surface runoff is an essential task. In semi-arid catchments runoff data are scarce and therefore runoff estimation using hydrological models becomes an alternative. This research was initiated in order to characterize runoff response of semi-arid catchments in Tigray, North Ethiopia to evaluate SCS-CN for various catchments. Ten sub-catchments were selected in different river basins and rainfall and runoff were measured with automatic hydro-monitoring equipments for 2-3 years. The Curve Number was estimated for each Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) in the sub-catchments and runoff was modeled using the SCS-CN method at λ = 0.05 and λ = 0.20. The result showed a significant difference between the two abstraction ratios (P =0.05, df = 1, n= 132) and reasonable good result was obtained for predicted runoff at λ = 0.05 (NSE = -0.69; PBIAS = 18.1%). When using the CN values from literature runoff was overestimated compared to the measured value (e= -11.53). This research showed the importance of using measured runoff data to characterize semi-arid catchments and accurately estimate the scarce water resource. Key words: Hydrological response, rainfall-runoff, degraded environments, semi-arid, Ethiopia, Tigray

  19. Comparison of Water Flows in Four European Lagoon Catchments under a Set of Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hesse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is supposed to remarkably affect the water resources of coastal lagoons as they are highly vulnerable to changes occurring at their catchment and/or ocean or sea boundaries. Probable impacts of projected climate changes on catchment hydrology and freshwater input were assessed using the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal, Mar Menor (Spain, Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia under a set of 15 climate scenarios covering the time period until the year 2100. Climate change signals for all regions show continuously increasing trends in temperature, but various trends in precipitation. Precipitation is projected to decrease in two catchments on the Iberian Peninsula and increase in the Baltic region catchment, and does not show a clear trend in the catchment located near the Black Sea. The average projected changes in freshwater inputs reflect these changes in climate conditions, but often show variability between the scenarios, in future periods, and within the catchments. According to the individual degrees of water management influences in the four drainage basins, the climate sensitivity of river inflows is differently pronounced in each.

  20. Potential possibilities of water retention in agricultural loess catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubala Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing water deficit and the increased demand for water, as well as economic problems and inadequate spatial planning in many regions indicate a necessity of developing more effective rules of programming and realisation of works concerning the water management in small catchments. The paper presents a sample analysis of the possibilities of increasing water retention in the agricultural loess catchments with periodic streams. The scope of the study included the determination of physical parameters of selected sub-catchments (geometry, soil cover, land use, etc. and of the sources of threat to water resources, resulting from construction and geomorphological conditions. Pre-design assumptions of dammings were developed, taking into account anti-erosion protective measures, and treatments increasing the landscape retention of water were proposed. Creating surface retention objects should be an important source of water in simplified agroecosystems, especially in regions, where productivity to a great extent depends on natural weather conditions. Proper management of the fourth-order loess basin of the Ciemięga River (area of about 150 km2, the presence of 50 lateral valleys could give a temporary reservoir retention reaching 500 thousand m3. Farmers should be encouraged to seek “own water sources” (including the accumulation of water within wasteland, using appropriate economic instruments (tax reliefs for the documented volume of retained water, e.g. in small retention reservoirs.

  1. Neoliberalism and political actors in contemporary Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Reynares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set out a critical reading of the literature on political neoliberal actors in Argentina. We consider that the concentration of these studies in the national level has to do with a definition of neoliberalism as a set of economical and structural macro politics. We propose to define neoliberalism as a technology of government that intends to hegemonize an “enterprise form” in different social spheres, articulating a symbolical framework in a contingent and contentious way. This insight allows analyzing neoliberal identification processes as heterogeneous trajectories with diverse geographic and temporal scopes.

  2. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  3. THE FORMATION OF THE OUTFLOW IN THE URBANISED CATCHMENT AREA ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF STRZYŻA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sikora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża, quickly react to any excess water. Heavy rain combined with the discharge of water through the storm sewer system results of increasing the flow and runoff in streams, among others, Strzyża river.

  4. Climate-vegetation-soil interactions and long-term hydrologic partitioning: signatures of catchment co-evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Troch

    2013-06-01

    subsurface storage release time scales produce significantly more E/P. Vegetation in these catchments have longer access to this additional groundwater source and thus are less prone to water stress. Further analysis reveals that climates that give rise to more (less E/P are associated with catchments that have vegetation with less (more efficient water use parameters. In particular, the climates with tendency to produce more E/P have catchments that have lower % root fraction and less light use efficiency. Our results suggest that their exists strong interactions between climate, vegetation and soil properties that lead to specific hydrologic partitioning at the catchment scale. This co-evolution of catchment vegetation and soils with climate needs to be further explored to improve our capabilities to predict hydrologic partitioning in ungauged basins.

  5. Catchment Morphing (CM): A Novel Approach for Runoff Modeling in Ungauged Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Han, Dawei

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of the catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. As a proof of concept, a case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Comparing the predicted with measured runoff, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) varies from 0.03 to 0.69 in six catchments. Moreover, NSEs are significantly improved (up to 0.81) when considering the discrepancy of percentage runoff between the target and baseline catchments. A distinct advantage has been experienced by comparing the CM with a traditional method for ungauged catchments. The advantages are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially widely applicable in varied catchments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme as a potentially powerful alternative to the conventional methods in runoff predictions of ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  6. THE CONFLUENCE RATIO OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞIAN GH.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many possibilities to assess the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of a territory. Among them, one remarks the confluence ratio of the rivers belonging to different catchment areas. The values of this indicator may provide information regarding the stage of evolution of the fluvial landforms in the Transylvanian Basin. Also, the values may serve for the calculation of other parameters of catchment areas like: the degree of finishing of the drainage basin for its corresponding order, the density of river segments within a catchment area etc. To calculate the confluence ratio, 35 catchment areas of different orders have been selected. The confluence ratio varies between 3.04 and 6.07. The large range of values demonstrates the existence of a heterogeneous lithology and of morphological and hydrographical contrasts from one catchment area to the other. The existence of values above 5, correlated also with observations in the field, reveals an accelerated dynamics of the geomorphological processes in those catchment areas. This dynamic is mainly supported by the high landform fragmentation due to the first order rivers. In contrast, the catchment areas that have a confluence ratio below 5 are in a more advanced stage of evolution with stable slopes, unable to initiate new first order river segments.

  7. Nociones del conflicto en actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Valderrama H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca contribuir a la reflexión sobre la problemática del conflicto escolar a partir de algunas nociones que ciertos actores escolares tienen sobre el mismo, sus manifestaciones, sus causas u orígenes y las maneras como afirman se resuelve en sus instituciones. Desde una perspectiva que pretende inscribirse en el campo de la comunicación-educación, se describe la heterogeneidad de las posturas manifestadas por estudiantes, docentes y directivos y se intentan comprender éstas a partir de algunos postulados teóricos planteados por la sociología del conflicto y la pedagogía crítica.This essay contributes to an ongoing debate on the problematic of school conflict, working from certain concepts that some of the actors in schools have about conflict, its manifestations, causes or origins, and the manners in which they manifest that they are resolved. From a perspective that wants to inscribe itself in the field of communication-education, it describes the heterogeneity of the different views put forward by students, teaches, and school directors, and searches to understand these based on certain theoretical postulates derived from the fields of sociology of conflict and critical pedagogy.

  8. Global Drainage Patterns to Modern Terrestrial Sedimentary Basins and its Influence on Large River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, B.; Helland-Hansen, W.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term preservation of alluvial sediments is dependent on the hydrological processes that deposit sediments solely within an area that has available accomodation space and net subsidence know as a sedimentary basin. An understanding of the river processes contributing to terrestrial sedimentary basins is essential to fundamentally constrain and quantify controls on the modern terrestrial sink. Furthermore, the terrestrial source to sink controls place constraints on the entire coastal, shelf and deep marine sediment routing systems. In addition, the geographical importance of modern terrestrial sedimentary basins for agriculture and human settlements has resulted in significant upstream anthropogenic catchment modification for irrigation and energy needs. Yet to our knowledge, a global catchment model depicting the drainage patterns to modern terrestrial sedimentary basins has previously not been established that may be used to address these challenging issues. Here we present a new database of 180,737 global catchments that show the surface drainage patterns to modern terrestrial sedimentary basins. This is achieved by using high resolution river networks derived from digital elevation models in relation to newly acquired maps on global modern sedimentary basins to identify terrestrial sinks. The results show that active tectonic regimes are typically characterized by larger terrestrial sedimentary basins, numerous smaller source catchments and a high source to sink relief ratio. To the contrary passive margins drain catchments to smaller terrestrial sedimentary basins, are composed of fewer source catchments that are relatively larger and a lower source to sink relief ratio. The different geomorphological characteristics of source catchments by tectonic setting influence the spatial and temporal patterns of fluvial architecture within sedimentary basins and the anthropogenic methods of exploiting those rivers. The new digital database resource is aimed to help

  9. Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we used computer tools to examine the spatial patterns of fluvial landscapes that are associated with five domains of hydro-geomorphic processes and landforms. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to hillslope and valley topography, river network structure, and channel elevation profiles. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  10. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  11. Hydrological simulation of the Brahmaputra basin using global datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Conway, Crystal; Craven, Joanne; Masih, Ilyas; Mazzolini, Maurizio; Shrestha, Shreedeepy; Ugay, Reyne; van Andel, Schalk Jan

    2017-04-01

    Brahmaputra River flows through China, India and Bangladesh to the Bay of Bengal and is one of the largest rivers of the world with a catchment size of 580K km2. The catchment is largely hilly and/or forested with sparse population and with limited urbanisation and economic activities. The catchment experiences heavy monsoon rainfall leading to very high flood discharges. Large inter-annual variation of discharge leading to flooding, erosion and morphological changes are among the major challenges. The catchment is largely ungauged; moreover, limited availability of hydro-meteorological data limits the possibility of carrying out evidence based research, which could provide trustworthy information for managing and when needed, controlling, the basin processes by the riparian countries for overall basin development. The paper presents initial results of a current research project on Brahmaputra basin. A set of hydrological and hydraulic models (SWAT, HMS, RAS) are developed by employing publicly available datasets of DEM, land use and soil and simulated using satellite based rainfall products, evapotranspiration and temperature estimates. Remotely sensed data are compared with sporadically available ground data. The set of models are able to produce catchment wide hydrological information that potentially can be used in the future in managing the basin's water resources. The model predications should be used with caution due to high level of uncertainty because the semi-calibrated models are developed with uncertain physical representation (e.g. cross-section) and simulated with global meteorological forcing (e.g. TRMM) with limited validation. Major scientific challenges are seen in producing robust information that can be reliably used in managing the basin. The information generated by the models are uncertain and as a result, instead of using them per se, they are used in improving the understanding of the catchment, and by running several scenarios with varying

  12. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Hydrometeorological variability in three neighbouring catchments with different forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz H.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-09-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are found in a narrow elevation range and are characterized by persistent fog. Their water balance depends on local and upwind temperatures and moisture, therefore, changes in these parameters will alter TMCF hydrology. Until recently the hydrological functioning of TMCFs was mainly studied in coastal regions, while continental TMCFs were largely ignored. This study contributes to fill this gap by focusing on a TMCF which is located on the northern eastern Andes at an elevation of 1550-2300 m asl, in the Orinoco river basin highlands. In this study, we describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability, analyse the corresponding catchment hydrological response to different land cover, and perform a sensitivity analysis on uncertainties related to rainfall interpolation, catchment area estimation and streamflow measurements. Hydro-meteorological measurements, including hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and streamflow, were collected from June 2013 to May 2014 at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover and less than 250 m elevation difference. We found wetter and less seasonally contrasting conditions at higher elevations, indicating a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. This pattern is similar to that of other eastern Andean TMCFs, however, the study site had higher wet season rainfall and lower dry season rainfall suggesting that upwind contrasts in land cover and moisture can influence the meteorological conditions at eastern Andean TMCFs. Contrasting streamflow dynamics between the studied catchments reflect the overall system response

  13. Benefits of incorporating spatial organisation of catchments for a semi-distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andreas; Oppel, Henning

    2017-04-01

    To represent the hydrological behaviour of catchments a model should reproduce/reflect the hydrologically most relevant catchment characteristics. These are heterogeneously distributed within a watershed but often interrelated and subject of a certain spatial organisation. Since common models are mostly based on fundamental assumptions about hydrological processes, the reduction of variance of catchment properties as well as the incorporation of the spatial organisation of the catchment is desirable. We have developed a method that combines the idea of the width-function used for determination of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph with information about soil or topography. With this method we are able to assess the spatial organisation of selected catchment characteristics. An algorithm was developed that structures a watershed into sub-basins and other spatial units to minimise its heterogeneity. The outcomes of this algorithm are used for the spatial setup of a semi-distributed model. Since the spatial organisation of a catchment is not bound to a single characteristic, we have to embed information of multiple catchment properties. For this purpose we applied a fuzzy-based method to combine the spatial setup for multiple single characteristics into a union, optimal spatial differentiation. Utilizing this method, we are able to propose a spatial structure for a semi-distributed hydrological model, comprising the definition of sub-basins and a zonal classification within each sub-basin. Besides the improved spatial structuring, the performed analysis ameliorates modelling in another way. The spatial variability of catchment characteristics, which is considered by a minimum of heterogeneity in the zones, can be considered in a parameter constrained calibration scheme in a case study both options were used to explore the benefits of incorporating the spatial organisation and derived parameter constraints for the parametrisation of a HBV-96 model. We use two benchmark

  14. Soil erosion and sediment delivery issues in a large hydro-electric power reservoir catchment, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebiyu, Amsalu; Dume, Bayu; Bode, Samuel; Ram, Hari; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation and associated processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are among the developmental challenges in many countries and HEP reservoirs in the Gilgel Gibe catchment, Ethiopia, are under threat from siltation. Soil erosion is one of the biggest global environmental problems resulting in both on-site and offsite effects which have economic implications and an essential actor in assessing ecosystem health and function. Sediment supply in a catchment is heterogeneous in time and space depending on climate, land use and a number of landscape characteristics such as slope, topography, soil type, vegetation and drainage conditions. In the Ethiopian highlands, sediment delivery depends on discharge, the onset of rainfall, land use and land cover, which varies between rainfall seasons. There is also a variation among catchments in suspended sediment concentration due to the variation in the catchments characteristics in Ethiopia. Rainfall-runoff relationship, sediment production and delivery to rivers or dams is variable and poorly understood; due to heterogeneous lithology; various climatic conditions across small spatial scales; land use and land management practices in Ethiopia. Spatial variation in sediment yield in Africa varies to differences in seismic activity, topography, vegetation cover and annual runoff depth. In the Gilgel-Gibe catchment, the annual sediment load of the Gilgel-Gibe River has been estimated to be about 4.5×107 tons taking the contribution of sheet erosion alone. Also, the suspended sediment yield of the tributaries in Gilgel-Gibe catchment has been estimated to be in the range of 0.4-132.1 tons per hectare per year. The soil loss due to landslide alone in the past 20 years in the catchment was about 11 t/ha/yr. Heavy rainfall, bank erosion and river incisions have been indicated as the main triggering factors for landslides and the associated sediment delivery in the Gilgel-Gibe catchment. Approaches for catchment

  15. Oleotourism: Local Actors for Local Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tregua

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil consumption has grown substantially in recent years, due in part to the fact that olive oil is healthy. Much of the global olive oil production comes from the rural areas of Jaén in southern Spain. Surrounding this industry, services such as oleotourism are increasing. This paper aims to identify the key elements supporting the development of oleotourism. After a preliminary exploratory analysis of the existing data, a qualitative analysis was performed with actors directly involved in the industry in Jaén. The results helped us define the level of the stakeholders’ involvement and the sustainability, the opportunities, and the constraints affecting oleotourism in this area. The practical implications of this investigation can be useful for governing agencies, local firms, and the tourism industry in support of oleotourism development.

  16. Lone-actor Terrorism and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2017-11-01

    In some recent cases of lone-actor terrorism, there is evidence the subject acted impulsively, often in response to a triggering event which contained a loss and humiliation. Evidence suggests the subjects acted precipitously, despite planning and preparation carried out in the preceding weeks or months, and their attacks failed to include the often considerable preparation that had been done. The pathway became a runway. The authors recommend the traditional assessment of impulsivity in persons of concern for lone acts of terrorism, as well as other proximal warning behaviors for targeted violence. Both indirect and direct assessment guidelines are proposed, with an emphasis upon self-report, psychological testing, collateral data gathering, and historical records. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts both......This article distinguishes two approaches to study the political role of corporations. On the one hand, North American scholars have primarily understood the link between business and politics through the lens of corporate political activity (CPA) looking at how firms influence government policy...... approaches and suggests that differences in the way the political role of corporations are understood can at least, in part, be explained by the distinct nature of European/North American management scholarship as well as by the political environment in both regions. It is also suggested that both...

  18. Geomorphological characterization of endorheic basins in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsaz, J.; Gironas, J. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative geomorphology regroups a large number of interesting tools to characterize natural basins across scales. The application of these tools to several river basins allows the description and comparison of geomorphological properties at different spatial scales as oppose to more traditional descriptors that are typically applied at a single scale, meaning the catchment scale. Most of the recent research using these quantitative geomorphological tools has focused on open catchments and no specific attention has been given to endorheic basins, and the possibility of having particular features that distinguish them from exorheic catchments. The main objective of our study is to characterize endorheic basins and investigate whether these special geomorphological features can be identified. Because scaling invariance is a widely observed and relatively well quantified property of open basins, it provides a suitable tool to characterize differences between the geomorphology of closed and open basins. Our investigation focuses on three closed basins located in northern Chile which describe well the diversity in the geomorphology and geology of this arid region. Results show that endhoreic basins exhibit different slope-area and flow paths sinuosity regimes compared to those observed in open basins. These differences are in agreement with the particular self-similar behavior across spatial scales of the Euclidean length of subcatchments, as well as the Hack's law and Horton's ratios. These regimes imply different physical processes inside the channel network regardless of the basin area, and they seem to be related to the endorheic character of these basins. The analysis of the probability density functions of contributing areas and lengths to the lower region shows that the hypothesis of self-similarity can also be applied to closed basins. Theoretical expressions for these distributions were derived and validated by the data. Future research will focus on (1

  19. Final report on impact of catchment scale processes and climate change on cause-effect and recovery-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Spears, B.; Brucet, S.; Johnson, R.; Feld, C.; Kernan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Catchment wide integrated basin management requires knowledge on cause-effect and recovery chains within water bodies as well as on the interactions between water bodies and categories. In the WISER WP6.4 recovery processes in rivers, lakes and estuarine and coastal waters were evaluated. The major

  20. Spatial patterns of stream temperatures and electric conductivity in a mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Ernestine; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2017-04-01

    Stream temperature and electric conductivity (EC) are both relatively easily measured and can provide valuable information on runoff generation processes and catchment storage.This study investigates the spatial variability of stream temperature and EC in a mesoscale basin. We focus on the mesoscale (sub-catchments and reach scale), and long term (seasonal / annual) stream temperature and EC patterns. Our study basin is the Attert catchment in Luxembourg (288km2), which contains multiple sub-catchments of different geology, topography and land use patterns. We installed 90 stream temperature and EC sensors at sites across the basin in summer 2015. The collected data is complemented by land use and discharge data and an extensive climate data set. Thermal sensitivity was calculated as the slope of daily air temperature-water-temperature regression line and describes the sensitivity of stream temperature to long term environmental change. Amplitude sensitivity was calculated as slope of the daily air and water temperature amplitude regression and describes the short term warming capacity of the stream. We found that groups with similar long term thermal and EC patterns are strongly related to different geological units. The sandstone reaches show the coldest temperatures and lowest annual thermal sensitivity to air temperature. The slate reaches are characterized by comparably low EC and high daily temperature amplitudes and amplitude sensitivity. Furthermore, mean annual temperatures and thermal sensitivities increase exponentially with drainage area, which can be attributed to the accumulation of heat throughout the system. On the reach scale, daily stream temperature fluctuations or sensitivities were strongly influenced by land cover distribution, stream shading and runoff volume. Daily thermal sensitivities were low for headwater streams; peaked for intermediate reaches in the middle of the catchment and then decreased again further downstream with increasing

  1. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  2. Multi-actor decision making using mixed reality technologies Urban projects and multi-actor collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Basile,, Maria; Ozdirlik, Burcu; Terrin,, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper is based on the results of an ongoing research project, IPCity, on the application of mixed reality technologies in urban environments. It questions the relevance of traditional language and communication medium such as drawings, perspectives and 3D models in the co-production of urban projects in multi-actor working environments. It then discusses the possible use of “mixed reality technologies” as alternative medium through five workshops organised within ...

  3. Isotope techniques in catchment behaviour studies with particular emphasis on snowmelt runoff investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Y.

    1984-05-01

    The dynamics of runoff occurring mainly by snowmelt have been investigated by the aid of environmental isotopes. Regular samples collected from river water and snow cover throughout 1978 to 1981 at two selected catchment basins in eastern Turkey were analysed for their oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium contents. The tritium results together with detailed hydrological and hydro-meteorological data have enabled to study the time distribution of various component flow systems involved in the total runoff resulting from snowmelt

  4. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia – status and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Chen; W. Li; G. Fang; Z. Li

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeli...

  5. Dissolved and particulate nutrient export from rural catchments: a case study from Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Castellví, Mercè; Iffly, Jean François; Borght, Paul Vander; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2005-05-15

    Nutrient enrichment of freshwaters continues to be one of the most serious problems facing the management of surface waters. Effective remediation/conservation measures require accurate qualitative and quantitative knowledge of nutrient sources, transport mechanisms, transformations and annual dynamics of different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forms. In this paper, nitrate (NO3-N), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and loads are presented for two adjacent rural basins of 306 km2 and 424 km2, and for five sub-basins differing in size (between 1 km2 and 33 km2), land use (extent of forest cover between 20% and 93%) and household pressure (from 0 to 40 people/km2) with the aim of studying the influence of land use and catchment size on nutrient exports. The studied catchments are all situated on Devonian schistous substrates in the Ardennes region (Belgium-Luxembourg), and therefore have similar hydrological regimes. As the study period could not be the same for all basins, annual export coefficients were corrected with the 25 years normalized discharge of the Sure River: two regression analyses (for dry and humid periods) relating monthly nutrient loads to monthly runoff were used to determine correction factors to be applied to each parameter and each basin. This procedure allows for the comparing annual export coefficients from basins sampled in different years. Results show a marked seasonal response and a large variability of NO3-N export loads between forested (4 kg N ha-1 year-1), agricultural (27-33 kg N ha-1 year-1) and mixed catchments (17-22 kg N ha-1 year-1). For SRP and TP, no significant agricultural impact was found. Land and bank erosion control the total P massflow in the studied catchments (0.4-1.3 kg P ha-1 year-1), which is mostly in a particulate form, detached and transported during storm events. Soluble reactive P fluxes ranged between 10% and 30% of the TP mass, depending on the importance of point

  6. The frequency of precipitation days in the Yangtze Catchment from 1950 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yijin; Becker, Stefan; Jiang Tong; Harmann, Heike; Su Bu Da

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the frequency of precipitation days by using different percentiles in the Yangtze River catchment from 1950 to 2000. Some interesting facts have been revealed through the present study. The positive (increasing) trends of the yearly precipitation days at the 75 th percentile appears in most of the Yangtze River catchment, especially in the northern regions of the upper and the middle reaches of the catchment. The Sichuan basin is the only region with negative trends. The transitional area from negative to positive trends is found east of the Sichuan basin in the Three Gorges area. For the 95 th percentile, the negative trend regions are still mainly in Sichuan basin but extend to northern regions and there are also obviously increasing trend centers in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river catchment. On the decadal time scale, the most significant positive trends at the 75th percentiles are in the middle reaches in 1980s and 1990s. The lower reaches show significant positive trends in 1980s. Those positive phases greatly contribute to the positive trends of the whole catchment during the last two decades. The most significant negative phase also occurs in the middle reaches during the earlier three decades. For this case, it seems that the precipitation days in the middle reaches are more sensitive to changes than other regions in the Yangtze River catchment. Take the Yangtze River catchment as a whole, a positive trend is very obvious for this percentile. For the 95 th percentile, the trends between the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River catchment are coherent: after two decades (1960s and 1970s) of negative phases, the most significant increasing trend is shown in the last two decades. On the other side, the fluctuation of the precipitation days in the catchment of the upper reaches over the 50 years is somewhat smoother than for other regions. For the whole catchment, the precipitation days in the 1950s and in the 1990s are

  7. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  8. Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Miller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu–Natal Midlands of eastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses.

    The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants.

    Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits of the upper and upper-mid subcatchments are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within these wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from upper to lower catchment areas was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from

  9. Los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje como estrategia de aprendizaje desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Cano, José Manuel; Cejas León, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende visualizar los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje desde el punto de vista de la Teoría del Actor-Red. En primer lugar, se describen los elementos centrales de la Teoría del Actor-Red, la visión de aprendizaje desde este enfoque, así como el concepto de actante y de simetría generalizada. Posteriormente se exponen los elementos clave de las definiciones sobre Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje y la visión del aprendizaje que defienden, centrada principalmente en el estudi...

  10. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  11. Modeling flash floods in ungauged mountain catchments of China: A decision tree learning approach for parameter regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.; Liu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods in small mountain catchments are one of the most frequent causes of loss of life and property from natural hazards in China. Hydrological models can be a useful tool for the anticipation of these events and the issuing of timely warnings. Since sub-daily streamflow information is unavailable for most small basins in China, one of the main challenges is finding appropriate parameter values for simulating flash floods in ungauged catchments. In this study, we use decision tree learning to explore parameter set transferability between different catchments. For this purpose, the physically-based, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model PRMS-OMS is set up for 35 catchments in ten Chinese provinces. Hourly data from more than 800 storm runoff events are used to calibrate the model and evaluate the performance of parameter set transfers between catchments. For each catchment, 58 catchment attributes are extracted from several data sets available for whole China. We then use a data mining technique (decision tree learning) to identify catchment similarities that can be related to good transfer performance. Finally, we use the splitting rules of decision trees for finding suitable donor catchments for ungauged target catchments. We show that decision tree learning allows to optimally utilize the information content of available catchment descriptors and outperforms regionalization based on a conventional measure of physiographic-climatic similarity by 15%-20%. Similar performance can be achieved with a regionalization method based on spatial proximity, but decision trees offer flexible rules for selecting suitable donor catchments, not relying on the vicinity of gauged catchments. This flexibility makes the method particularly suitable for implementation in sparsely gauged environments. We evaluate the probability to detect flood events exceeding a given return period, considering measured discharge and PRMS-OMS simulated flows with regionalized parameters

  12. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Loic; Dupain, Julien; Descamps, Olivier; Blosseville, Thomas; Connors, Anne; Canto, Albane; Robischon, Christian; Boedec, Morgan; Tubiana, Fabian; Bomstein, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  13. Private actor accountability on international regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs have emerged along with the growing role of corporations in global development. One of the largest forms of PPP today is the UN Global Compact. The UN Global Compact involves of companies, NGOs, IGOs and state governments. All of them are trying to realize globalization with a more humanist face with attention to the protection of human rights, environment, labor standards and anti-corruption. Engaging private actors in global governance, The UN Global Compact raises many issues such as power, authority, and legitimacy. The effort to tackle it all is to increase PPP accountability. This research seeks to describe what efforts can be made to enhance private accountability within the international regime. The research undertaken is a descriptive study, focuses on public-private partnerships in the UN Global Compact regime. The study found that there were two attempts that could be done. First, by involving the stakeholders in the development of procedures, mechanisms, reporting and monitoring associated with trying to improve the company’s reputation. Second, by looking at corporate relations as agent and UN Global Compact as principal in principal-agent relation in the international regime.

  14. Attributes for NHDplus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Population Density, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMottem, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5

  15. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (Version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: STATSGO soil characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents estimated soil variables compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The variables included are cation exchange capacity, percent calcium carbonate, slope, water-table depth, soil thickness, hydrologic soil group, soil erodibility (k-factor), permeability, average water capacity, bulk density, percent organic material, percent clay, percent sand, and percent silt. The source data set is the State Soil ( STATSGO ) Geographic Database (Wolock, 1997). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee

  16. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This dataset represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data are from Fenneman and Johnson's Physiographic Provinces of the United States, which is based on 8 major divisions, 25 provinces, and 86 sections representing distinctive areas having common topography, rock type and structure, and geologic and geomorphic history (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins

  17. A novel approach for runoff modelling in ungauged catchments by Catchment Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Han, D.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of hydrological catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. The advantages of CM are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially applicable in varied catchments. A case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. To comprehensively examine the CM approach, distributed rainfall inputs are utilised in the model, and fractal landscapes are used to morph the land surface from the baseline model to the target model. The preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, which is promising in runoff simulation for ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  18. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Retention Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Neerup-Jensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Solid seperation in retention basins is strongly non-linear and depends significantly on the flow rate and the settling characteristics of the particles. Accordingly the calculation of the annual loads of pollutants from storm overflows including basins is rather complex and time consuming...... in order to calculate annual loads of pollutants from urban catchments. The study cover Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and PAH....

  19. Guess Where? Actor-Supervision for Spatiotemporal Action Localization

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2018-04-05

    This paper addresses the problem of spatiotemporal localization of actions in videos. Compared to leading approaches, which all learn to localize based on carefully annotated boxes on training video frames, we adhere to a weakly-supervised solution that only requires a video class label. We introduce an actor-supervised architecture that exploits the inherent compositionality of actions in terms of actor transformations, to localize actions. We make two contributions. First, we propose actor proposals derived from a detector for human and non-human actors intended for images, which is linked over time by Siamese similarity matching to account for actor deformations. Second, we propose an actor-based attention mechanism that enables the localization of the actions from action class labels and actor proposals and is end-to-end trainable. Experiments on three human and non-human action datasets show actor supervision is state-of-the-art for weakly-supervised action localization and is even competitive to some fully-supervised alternatives.

  20. The Political Context for Transnational Actor Soft Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness and understanding of the role of non-state actors for the smart power of states. However, there is not yet a clear understanding of the impact of the political context and the state for non-state actors and their soft power. We look at American missionary universities...

  1. Guess Where? Actor-Supervision for Spatiotemporal Action Localization

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor; Dao, Cuong D.; Jain, Mihir; Ghanem, Bernard; Snoek, Cees

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of spatiotemporal localization of actions in videos. Compared to leading approaches, which all learn to localize based on carefully annotated boxes on training video frames, we adhere to a weakly-supervised solution that only requires a video class label. We introduce an actor-supervised architecture that exploits the inherent compositionality of actions in terms of actor transformations, to localize actions. We make two contributions. First, we propose actor proposals derived from a detector for human and non-human actors intended for images, which is linked over time by Siamese similarity matching to account for actor deformations. Second, we propose an actor-based attention mechanism that enables the localization of the actions from action class labels and actor proposals and is end-to-end trainable. Experiments on three human and non-human action datasets show actor supervision is state-of-the-art for weakly-supervised action localization and is even competitive to some fully-supervised alternatives.

  2. Using social network analysis to understand actor participation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peripheral actors advocate issues of compensation and land grabbing from buffer zone establishment and wetland resources uses for livelihoods, but are unable to influence the central actors's agenda. SNA E-I Index reveals that government organisations are more cohesive and able to form strong ties with donors to ...

  3. Linkage Mechanisms among key Actors in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In assessment of linkage mechanisms among key actors in rice innovation system in southeast Nigeria, actors were classified into six major groups according to their main activity in the system namely research agency, policy personnel, technology transfer agencies, farmers, marketers and consumers. These constituted the ...

  4. Identifying and Mapping Linkages between Actors in the Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting innovations in climate change requires innovation partnerships and linkages and also creating an enabling environment for actors. The paper reviewed available information on the identification and mapping of linkages between actors in the climate change innovation system. The findings showed different ...

  5. The semiotic actor : From signs to socially constructed meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, M.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.; Gazendam, H.W.M.

    A semiotic actor creates, uses and transfers or communicates meaning with the help of signs in order to interact with other actors and society. For a complete understanding of the cognitive and social phenomena related to this process, we state that social science and cognitive science cannot stay

  6. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  7. Exploration of a Vision for Actor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek

    of these services. Existing popular approaches to building these services either use an in-memory database system or an actor runtime. We observe that these approaches have complementary strengths and weaknesses. In this dissertation, we propose the integration of actor programming models in database systems....... In doing so, we lay down a vision for a new class of systems called actor database systems. To explore this vision, this dissertation crystallizes the notion of an actor database system by defining its feature set in light of current application and hardware trends. In order to explore the viability...... of the outlined vision, a new programming model named Reactors has been designed to enrich classic relational database programming models with logical actor programming constructs. To support the reactor programming model, a high-performance in-memory multi-core OLTP database system named REACTDB has been built...

  8. Quantification and Postglacial evolution of an inner alpine sedimentary basin (Gradenmoos Basin, Hohe Tauern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is the quantification of sediment storage and the reconstruction of postglacial landscape evolution within the glacially overdeepened Gradenmoos Basin (subcatchment size: 4.1 km 2 ; basin floor elevation: 1920 m) in the central Gradenbach catchment (Schober Range, Hohe Tauern, Austrian Alps). Following the approach of denudation-accumulation-systems, most reliable results are obtained (1) if sediment output of a system can be neglected for an established period of time, (2) if sediment storage can be assessed with a high level of accuracy, (3) if the onset of sedimentation and amounts of initially stored sediments are known, and (4) if sediment contributing areas can be clearly delimited. Due to spatial scale and topographic characteristics, all mentioned aspects are fulfilled to a high degree within the studied basin. Applied methods include surface, subsurface and temporal investigations. Digital elevation data is derived from terrestrial laserscanning and geomorphologic mapping. The quantification of sediment storage is based on core drillings, geophysical methods (DC resistivity, refraction seismic, and ground penetrating radar), as well as GIS and 3D modelling. Radiocarbon dating and palynological analyses are additionally used to reconstruct the postglacial infilling progress of the basin. The study reveals that a continuous postglacial stratigraphic record is archived in the basin. As proposed by Lieb (1987) timing of basin deglaciation could be verified to late-Egesen times by means of radiocarbon ages (oldest sample just above basal till: 10.4 ka cal. BP) and first palynologic results. Lateglacial oscillations seem to have effectively scoured the basin, leaving only a shallow layer of basal till. The analysis of postglacial sedimentation in the basin is further improved by the existence of a former lake in the basin lasting for up to 7500 years until approx. 3.7 ka cal. BP. Both, the stratigraphic (fine, partly

  9. SOILS VULNERABILITY OF CATCHMENT ALMAŞ AT GEOMORPHOLOGIC CONTEMPORARY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA-IOANA RUS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soils vulnerability of the Catchment Almas geomorphologic processes. Almas Basin, signed lower lithologic Miocene soils deposits, shows six classes: Cernisols, Cambisols, Luvisols, Hydrosols, Pelisols, Protosols (after SRTS, 2003. The largest share is attributed to Luvisols class (60%, followed by undeveloped soil represented by Protosols and Antrisols (15%, followed by the remaining classes with lower weights: Cambisols (13%, Cernisols (7%, Pelisols (4%, Hydrosols (1%. Contemporary geomorphological processes (surface and deep erosion, mass movements change agricultural areas and forest ratio or flow out of economic network tens of hectares annually. Soil vulnerability to the manifestation of these processes is expressed by disturbing soil horizons, coastal springs appearance and growth of the adjoining excess moisture, soil sealing productive by dropping or by alienation.

  10. Two dimensions of nitrate pollution management in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachniew, Przemysław; Martinez, Grit; Bar-Michalczyk, Dominika; Kania, Jarosław; Malina, Grzegorz; Michalczyk, Tomasz; Różański, Kazimierz; Witczak, Stanisław; Zięba, Damian; Żurek, Anna J.; Berrini, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The Kocinka River catchment underlain by the karstic-fissured upper Jurrasic Częstochowa aquifer in Southern Poland is the site of an interdisciplinary research aimed at finding solutions to pollution of water resources with nutrients. These efforts are conducted in the framework of the BONUS Soils2Sea project that deals with the development of differentiated environmental management measures based on utilization of the natural ability of soils, groundwater and surface water to remove surplus nutrients. Implementation of these or any other measures for the improvement of water quality depends primarily on the perceptions and attitudes of the major actors, which in turn are a product of the socio-economic, cultural-historical and political development spanning many generations. The problem of the deteriorating water quality is therefore twofold. Understanding the complex natural system consisting of the coupled groundwater and surface water component with a wide spectrum of time lags of pollution transport is only the beginning of the solution. The mitigation policies and measures based on this scientific knowledge have to recognize the equally complex nature of social factors and interactions. Implementation of the European and national policies and legislations has to take into account the regional perspective. Identification of the key stakeholders is in this regard a first step followed by an inquiry into their values, perceptions and motivations through interviews, workshops, etc. Understanding of the socio-cultural, historical, economic and political factors that shape stakeholder actions is a prerequisite for the development of the successful management and mitigation schemes. The process of gaining insights into the environmental and social aspects of nutrient pollution in the Kocinka catchment is partly presented by the documentary film "Soils2Sea: Reducing nutrient loadings into the Baltic Sea" (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUouES4SeJk).

  11. Water quantity and quality optimization modeling of dams operation based on SWAT in Wenyu River Catchment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-02-01

    Water quantity and quality joint operation is a new mode in the present dams' operation research. It has become a hot topic in governmental efforts toward integrated basin improvement. This paper coupled a water quantity and quality joint operation model (QCmode) and genetic algorithm with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Together, these tools were used to explore a reasonable operation of dams and floodgates at the basin scale. Wenyu River Catchment, a key area in Beijing, was selected as the case study. Results showed that the coupled water quantity and quality model of Wenyu River Catchment more realistically simulates the process of water quantity and quality control by dams and floodgates. This integrated model provides the foundation for research of water quantity and quality optimization on dam operation in Wenyu River Catchment. The results of this modeling also suggest that current water quality of Wenyu River will improve following the implementation of the optimized operation of the main dams and floodgates. By pollution control and water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates, water quality of Wenyu river will change significantly, and the available water resources will increase by 134%, 32%, 17%, and 82% at the downstream sites of Sha River Reservoir, Lutong Floodgate, Xinpu Floodgate, and Weigou Floodgate, respectively. The water quantity and quality joint operation of dams will play an active role in improving water quality and water use efficiency in Wenyu River Basin. The research will provide the technical support for water pollution control and ecological restoration in Wenyu River Catchment and could be applied to other basins with large number of dams. Its application to the Wenyu River Catchment has a great significance for the sustainable economic development of Beijing City.

  12. Chalk Catchment Transit Time: Unresolved Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, W. G.; Gooddy, D. C. [British Geological Survey, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Barker, J. A. [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Robinson, M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    The mean transit time (MTT) of a catchment is the average residence time of water from rainfall to river outflow at the foot of the catchment. As such, MTT has important water quality as well as resource implications. Many catchments worldwide have been measured for MTT using environmental isotopes, yet the Chalk, an important aquifer in NW Europe, has received little attention in this regard. The catchment of the River Lambourn in southern England has been intermittently studied since the 1960s using isotopic methods. A tritium peak measured in the river during the 1970s indicates an apparent MTT of {approx}15 years, but the thick unsaturated zone (average {approx}50 m) of the catchment suggests that the MTT should be much greater because of the average downward movement through the Chalk of {approx}1 m/a consistently indicated by tritium and other tracers. Recent work in the catchment using SF{sub 6} as a residence time indicator has given groundwater ages in the narrow range 11-18 yrs, apparently supporting the river tritium data but in conflict with the unsaturated zone data even allowing for a moderate proportion of rapid bypass flow. The MTT of the catchment remains unresolved for the time being. (author)

  13. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  14. Using attractiveness model for actors ranking in social media networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Ziyaad; Jansen, Marc; Hecking, Tobias; Hoppe, H Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Influential actors detection in social media such as Twitter or Facebook can play a major role in gathering opinions on particular topics, improving the marketing efficiency, predicting the trends, etc. This work aims to extend our formally defined T measure to present a new measure aiming to recognize the actor's influence by the strength of attracting new important actors into a networked community. Therefore, we propose a model of the actor's influence based on the attractiveness of the actor in relation to the number of other attractors with whom he/she has established connections over time. Using an empirically collected social network for the underlying graph, we have applied the above-mentioned measure of influence in order to determine optimal seeds in a simulation of influence maximization. We study our extended measure in the context of information diffusion because this measure is based on a model of actors who attract others to be active members in a community. This corresponds to the idea of the IC simulation model which is used to identify the most important spreaders in a set of actors.

  15. Using actor-network theory to study an educational situation: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actor-network theory allows a researcher to analyse a complex social setting involving both human and non-human actors. An actor network can be used to model a dynamic and complex set of relationships between these actors. This article describes actor-network theory and shows how it was applied to study and model ...

  16. Quantification of Runoff as Influenced by Morphometric Characteristics in a Rural Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-03-01

    This study addresses the critical scientific question of assessing the relationship between morphometric features and the hydrological factors that increase the risk of flooding in Kelantan River basin, Malaysia. Two hypotheses were developed to achieve this aim, namely: the alternate hypothesis (runoff, is influenced by morphometric characteristics in the study watershed) and the null hypothesis (runoff is not influenced by morphometric characteristics). First, the watershed was delineated into four major catchments, namely: Galas, Pergau, Lebir, and Nenggiri. Next, quantitative morphometric characters such as linear aspects, areal aspects, and relief aspects were determined on each of these catchments. Furthermore, HEC-HMS and flood response analyses were employed to simulate the hydrological response of the catchments. From the results of morphometric analysis, profound spatial changes were observed between runoff features of Kelantan River and the morphometric characteristics. The length of overflow that was related to drainage density and constant channel maintenance was found to be 0.12 in Pergau, 0.04 in both Nenggiri and Lebir, and 0.03 in Galas. Drainage density as influenced by geology and vegetation density was found to be low in all the catchments (0.07-0.24). Results of hydrological response indicated that Lebir, Nenggiri, Galas, and Pergau recorded a flood response factor of 0.75, 0.63, 0.40, and 0.05, respectively. Therefore, Lebir and Nenggiri are more likely to be flooded during a rainstorm. There was no clear indication with regard to the catchment that emerged as the most prevailing in all the morphological features. Hence, the alternate hypothesis was affirmed. This study can be replicated in other catchments with different hydrologic setup.

  17. Think about and intervene in the territory through the Actor Network Theory Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to think about the similarities between the ways of seeing the territory as a network, some theoretical positions about the territory concept and actor network theory.
    After focusing on proposing a way of understanding the relationships between actors when they will intervene in the territory through the public policies and territorial planning, i ll try to apply the ANT model of public policy management through the guidance of ANT El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red.
    Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  18. Anomaly in the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the Meuse catchment. Climate, land-use, or land-use management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fenicia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the time variability of catchment characteristics in the Meuse basin through its effect on catchment response. The approach uses a conceptual model to represent rainfall-runoff behaviour of this catchment, and evaluates possible time-dependence of model parameters. The main hypothesis is that conceptual model parameters, although not measurable quantities, are representative of specific catchment attributes (e.g. geology, land-use, land management, topography. Hence, we assume that eventual trends in model parameters are representative of catchment attributes that may have changed over time. The available hydrological record involves ninety years of data, starting in 1911. During this period the Meuse catchment has undergone significant modifications. The catchment structural modifications, although documented, are not available as "hard-data". Hence, our results should be considered as "plausible hypotheses". The main motivation of this work is the "anomaly" found in the rainfall runoff behaviour of the Meuse basin, where ninety years of rainfall-runoff simulations show a consistent overestimation of the runoff in the period between 1930 and 1965. Different authors have debated possible causes for the "anomaly", including climatic variability, land-use change and data errors. None of the authors considered the way in which the land is used by for instance agricultural and forestry practises. This aspect influenced the model design, which has been configured to account for different evaporation demand of growing forest. As a result of our analysis, we conclude that the lag time of the catchment has decreased significantly over time, which we attribute to more intensive drainage and river training works. Furthermore, we hypothesise that forest rotation has had a significant impact on the evaporation of the catchment. These results contrast with previous studies, where the effect of land-use change on

  19. Changes without changes: the Puebla's Alto Atoyac sub-basin case in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Casiano Flores, Cesar Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Since the year 2000, actions at the three governmental levels have taken place to improve water quality in Mexico’s Puebla Alto Atoyac sub-basin. This paper reports a situation in which several policy actors have been striving for water quality improvement in that polluted sub-basin. However, when

  20. Trail-Based Search for Efficient Event Report to Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhezhuang; Liu, Guanglun; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Bin; Lin, Feilong

    2017-10-27

    In wireless sensor and actor networks, when an event is detected, the sensor node needs to transmit an event report to inform the actor. Since the actor moves in the network to execute missions, its location is always unavailable to the sensor nodes. A popular solution is the search strategy that can forward the data to a node without its location information. However, most existing works have not considered the mobility of the node, and thus generate significant energy consumption or transmission delay. In this paper, we propose the trail-based search (TS) strategy that takes advantage of actor's mobility to improve the search efficiency. The main idea of TS is that, when the actor moves in the network, it can leave its trail composed of continuous footprints. The search packet with the event report is transmitted in the network to search the actor or its footprints. Once an effective footprint is discovered, the packet will be forwarded along the trail until it is received by the actor. Moreover, we derive the condition to guarantee the trail connectivity, and propose the redundancy reduction scheme based on TS (TS-R) to reduce nontrivial transmission redundancy that is generated by the trail. The theoretical and numerical analysis is provided to prove the efficiency of TS. Compared with the well-known expanding ring search (ERS), TS significantly reduces the energy consumption and search delay.

  1. Towards Feature Selection in Actor-Critic Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohanimanesh, Khashayar; Roy, Nicholas; Tedrake, Russ

    2007-01-01

    .... They demonstrate that two popular representations for value methods -- the barycentric interpolators and the graph Laplacian proto-value functions -- can be used to represent the actor so as to satisfy these conditions...

  2. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  3. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    style actors with receive clauses containing multi-headed message patterns. Patterns may be non-linear and constrained by guards. We provide a number of examples to show the usefulness of the extension. We also explore the design space for multi-headed message matching semantics, for example first-match......The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang...... and rule priority-match semantics. The various semantics are inspired by the multi-set constraint matching semantics found in Constraint Handling Rules. This provides us with a formal model to study actors with multi-headed message receive patterns. The system can be implemented efficiently and we have...

  4. Soft Power in Central Asia: Actors and Its Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article considers theoretical aspects of soft power concept and its use by various actors in Central Asia. It is noted that scholars as well as practitioners are paying insufficient attention to such key concepts position J. Nye, as an attraction. As a result the efficiency of the use of soft power is significantly reduced. It also shows that the attractiveness is not a universal characteristic. For this reason, attractiveness and hence soft power of different actors are different and aimed at different segments of the population. These differences lead to competition of actors, but they do not reduce interaction in the region to zero-sum game. Specific forms and directions of the soft power of Russia, the U.S., the EU and China in Central Asia are discussed. The article emphasizes that the Central Asian states are not just recipients of soft power of external actors, but also themselves form behavioral strategies that are attractive to others.

  5. REPUTATIONAL CAPITAL OF POLITICAL ACTORS AS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the reputational characteristics of the formation of political actors at the expense of the state budget, the specificity of the mechanism of implementation of government procurement and modern Russian practice.

  6. Understanding Obstacles to Peace: Actors, Interests, and Strategies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-24

    Feb 24, 2011 ... Understanding Obstacles to Peace: Actors, Interests, and Strategies in Africa's ... The case studies all employ methods of “thick description” process tracing ... Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying ...

  7. Transnational Diaspora and Civil Society Actors Driving MNE Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Elo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are viewed as proactive global economic actors that enter new and emerging markets with intentional strategies, building on their inherent resources and firm-specific advantages. However, an international joint venture involves numerous actors in the market entry...... and civil society actors. It provides evidence of the reactive internationalisation of an MNE, showing how the transnational diaspora drove the MNE’s internationalisation and how a civil society actor, in conjunction with a diaspora member, facilitated the creation of an international joint venture (IJV...... and organisational capability base for this process, which would not have happened without their market-driving and enabling influence. The findings illustrate the central role of transnational diaspora entrepreneurship and the related innovation, motivation, contextual intelligence, networking and funding...

  8. Elegant Coercion and Iran: Beyond the Unitary Actor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moss, J. C

    2005-01-01

    .... At its core, then, coercion is about state decision-making. Most theories of coercion describe states as if they were unitary actors whose decision-making results from purely rational cost-benefit calculations...

  9. Interface Between Research, Development and Local Actors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interface Between Research, Development and Local Actors in Enhancing ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Environmental sustainability is a key area of focus in academic and development circles mainly because of the role that the ...

  10. Resenha: Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia Moreno Galhera Espósito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livro: Moravcsik, Andrew; Milner, Helen V. (org.. Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-691-14027-8

  11. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm.

  12. Aquifers Characterization and Productivity in Ellala Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... to weak degree of potentiality are found occupying flat to rugged topography of the catchment. ... government and non-governmental organizations. Among various .... Ellala River, forming something like graben structure. This is particularly ...

  13. Innovation barriers originating from the differing logics of network actors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena; Alaranta, Mar

    2016-01-01

    The recent IMP and innovation network research has highlighted that diverse aspects of actors' heterogeneity such as differing goals, knowledge bases, capabilities and competences, perceptions, power, position, and culture play a role in the development of collaborative innovation....../organization, inter-organizational and ecosystem levels. Our results advance knowledge on the diversity of barriers in collaborative innovation and commercializing science and how they relate to the different actors: a body of knowledge that is increasingly discussed among IMP stream....

  14. A Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  15. Logistics Performance of Actors in the Wine Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chandes , Jerôme; Estampe , Dominique

    2003-01-01

    International audience; In an environment marked by ever-greater international competition, wine sector companies have been seriously questioning the structure of their entire logistics chain. This is due to the emergence of new actors (i.e., large retailers); the diversification of service providers' product offers; and the different rapprochements between actors in this branch. These are all signals that have caused companies to question their logistics strategies as shown in the ISLI survey.

  16. Actor roles in transition: Insights from sociological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmayer, Julia; Avelino, Flor; van Steenbergen, F.; Loorbach, Derk

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo date, the field of transition research lacks a suitable vocabulary to analyse the (changing) interactions and relations of actors as part of a sustainability transition. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the potential of the concept of 'roles' from social interaction research. The role concept is operationalized for transition research to allow the analysis of (changing) roles and relations between actor roles as indicative of changes in the social fabric a...

  17. Characterising phosphorus transfers in rural catchments using a continuous bank-side analyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-month series of high-resolution synchronous stream discharge and total phosphorus (TP concentration data is presented from a 5 km2 agricultural catchment in the Lough Neagh basin, Northern Ireland. The data are hourly averages of 10-minute measurements using a new bankside, automatic, continuous monitoring technology. Three TP transfer "event-types" occur in this catchment: (1 chronic, storm independent transfers; (2 acute, storm dependent transfers; (3 acute, storm independent transfers. Event-type 2 transferred over 90% of the total 279 kg TP load in 39% of the total period; it corresponded to diffuse transfers from agricultural soils. Event-types 1 and 3, however, maintained the river in a highly eutrophic state between storm events and were characteristic of point source pollution, despite there being no major industrial or municipal point sources. Managing P transfers at the catchment scale requires a robust monitoring technology to differentiate between dynamic, multiple sources and associated event types and so enable a reliable assessment of the performance of mitigation measures, monitored at catchment outlets. The synchronous and continuous TP and discharge data series generated in this study demonstrate how this is possible.

  18. Development of a hydrological model for simulation of runoff from catchments unbounded by ridge lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vema, Vamsikrishna; Sudheer, K. P.; Chaubey, I.

    2017-08-01

    Watershed hydrological models are effective tools for simulating the hydrological processes in the watershed. Although there are a plethora of hydrological models, none of them can be directly applied to make water conservation decisions in irregularly bounded areas that do not confirm to topographically defined ridge lines. This study proposes a novel hydrological model that can be directly applied to any catchment, with or without ridge line boundaries. The model is based on the water balance concept, and a linear function concept to approximate the cross-boundary flow from upstream areas to the administrative catchment under consideration. The developed model is tested in 2 watersheds - Riesel Experimental Watershed and a sub-basin of Cedar Creek Watershed in Texas, USA. Hypothetical administrative catchments that did not confirm to the location of ridge lines were considered for verifying the efficacy of the model for hydrologic simulations. The linear function concept used to account the cross boundary flow was based on the hypothesis that the flow coming from outside the boundary to administrative area was proportional to the flow generated in the boundary grid cell. The model performance was satisfactory with an NSE and r2 of ≥0.80 and a PBIAS of administrative catchments of the watersheds were in good agreement with the observed hydrographs, indicating a satisfactory performance of the model in the administratively bounded areas.

  19. Simulating the effect of vegetation cover on the sediment yield of mediterranean catchments using SHETRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukey, B. T.; Sheffield, J.; Bathurst, J. C.; Lavabre, J.; Mathys, N.; Martin, C.

    1995-08-01

    The sediment yield of two catchments in southern France was modelled using the newly developed sediment code of SHETRAN. A fire in August 1990 denuded the Rimbaud catchment, providing an opportunity to study the effect of vegetation cover on sediment yield by running the model for both pre-and post-fire cases. Model output is in the form of upper and lower bounds on sediment discharge, reflecting the uncertainty in the erodibility of the soil. The results are encouraging since measured sediment discharge falls largely between the predicted bounds, and simulated sediment yield is dramatically lower for the catchment before the fire which matches observation. SHETRAN is also applied to the Laval catchment, which is subject to Badlands gulley erosion. Again using the principle of generating upper and lower bounds on sediment discharge, the model is shown to be capable of predicting the bulk sediment discharge over periods of months. To simulate the effect of reforestation, the model is run with vegetation cover equivalent to a neighbouring fully forested basin. The results obtained indicate that SHETRAN provides a powerful tool for predicting the impact of environmental change and land management on sediment yield.

  20. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia, discussing the limitations of the available models and extrapolating these to future challenges and directions. After reviewing recent efforts, we conclude that the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change are the unreliable and incomplete data sets and the lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of glacierized catchments of central Asia. Runoff trends indicate a complex response to changes in climate. For future variation of water resources, it is essential to quantify the responses of hydrologic processes to both climate change and shrinking glaciers in glacierized catchments, and scientific focus should be on reducing uncertainties linked to these processes.

  1. Sediment sources and storages in the urbanizing South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    An investigation of the sediment source areas and sediment storages has been undertaken in the South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW. Source areas have been examined by analyzing suspended sediment concentrations, field measurements and observations, and caesium-137 values. The caesium-137 technique and field measurements were used to study the sediment storages on the South Creek flood plain. Particle size analysis of sediments on the slopes and flood plain were undertaken to provide information on the efficiency of the sediment transport system. The results of these investigations indicate that the developing urban areas are the main sources of poorest water quality (in terms of suspended sediment) in the South Creek catchment. The open woodland, rural and established urban areas were minor sediment source areas, although the open woodland had the potential to become a major sediment source if disturbed by human activities. The developing urban areas had efficient sediment transport systems, while the open woodland and rural areas tended to deposit sediment locally. The upstream section of the flood plain was found to be storing more sediment than the downstream section. The study revealed that when urban development occurs on the steeper gradients of the South Creek catchment erosion processes are greatly accelerated and thus the developing urban area becomes the major source of poorest water quality in the catchment. The importance of the developing urban area as a sediment source needs to be considered in any future land developments in urbanizing drainage basins

  2. Pollution indicators in groundwater of two agricultural catchments in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Lidia; Modelska, Magdalena; Staśko, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the content and source of mineral nitrogen compounds in groundwater, based on the data collected in two river catchments in two series (spring and autumn 2014). The study area comprises two catchments located in Lower Silesia, Poland - Cicha Woda and Sąsiecznica. Both catchments are characterised agricultural character of development. In the both researched areas, the points of State Environmental Monitoring (SEM) are located but only the Cicha Woda area is classified as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). To analyse and compare the contamination of Quaternary and Neogene aquifers, the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and potassium ions was measured primarily. Results showed the exceedance of nitrogen mineral forms of shallow groundwater Quaternary aquifer in both basins. The concentration of nitrates range from 0.08 to 142.12 mgNO3 -/dm3 (Cicha Woda) and from 2.6 to 137.65 mg NO3 -/dm3 (Sąsiecznica). The major source of pollution is probably the intensive agriculture activity. It causes a degradation of the shallow groundwater because of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, phosphates and ammonium contents. There was no observed contamination of anthropogenic origin in the deeper Neogene aquifer of Cicha Woda catchment.

  3. Modeling sediment yield in small catchments at event scale: Model comparison, development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Leung, L. R.; Li, H. Y.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment yield (SY) has significant impacts on river biogeochemistry and aquatic ecosystems but it is rarely represented in Earth System Models (ESMs). Existing SY models focus on estimating SY from large river basins or individual catchments so it is not clear how well they simulate SY in ESMs at larger spatial scales and globally. In this study, we compare the strengths and weaknesses of eight well-known SY models in simulating annual mean SY at about 400 small catchments ranging in size from 0.22 to 200 km2 in the US, Canada and Puerto Rico. In addition, we also investigate the performance of these models in simulating event-scale SY at six catchments in the US using high-quality hydrological inputs. The model comparison shows that none of the models can reproduce the SY at large spatial scales but the Morgan model performs the better than others despite its simplicity. In all model simulations, large underestimates occur in catchments with very high SY. A possible pathway to reduce the discrepancies is to incorporate sediment detachment by landsliding, which is currently not included in the models being evaluated. We propose a new SY model that is based on the Morgan model but including a landsliding soil detachment scheme that is being developed. Along with the results of the model comparison and evaluation, preliminary findings from the revised Morgan model will be presented.

  4. Integrated catchment modelling within a strategic planning and decision making process: Werra case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg; Funke, Markus

    Integrated water resources management (IWRM) redefines conventional water management approaches through a closer cross-linkage between environment and society. The role of public participation and socio-economic considerations becomes more important within the planning and decision making process. In this paper we address aspects of the integration of catchment models into such a process taking the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) as an example. Within a case study situated in the Werra river basin (Central Germany), a systems analytic decision process model was developed. This model uses the semantics of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity model. As an example application, the catchment model SWAT and the water quality model RWQM1 were applied to simulate the effect of phosphorus emissions from non-point and point sources on water quality. The decision process model was able to guide the participants of the case study through the interdisciplinary planning and negotiation of actions. Further improvements of the integration framework include tools for quantitative uncertainty analyses, which are crucial for real life application of models within an IWRM decision making toolbox. For the case study, the multi-criteria assessment of actions indicates that the polluter pays principle can be met at larger scales (sub-catchment or river basin) without significantly compromising cost efficiency for the local situation.

  5. Hydrological picture of Nišava trans-boundary catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on hydrographic and hydrological specific of Nišava River. It uses all hydrometric and cartographic information for the Bulgarian part of the catchment. Trans-boundary catchment of Nišava River includes four sub-basins, which are trans-borders too. There are a lot of karst areas in the river basin. The drainage density is 1.09 km/km2. Water resources of Nišava River are 170 million m3. They vary between 300.0 and 84.0 million m3. The period of high water appears in March/April and finishes in June. The frequency of monthly maximum is biggest in April or May. The monthly minimum appears most often in September or October. Floods in the catchment of the river Nišava are most often in March, May and June. Some of the rivers lose its waters in the karst areas and dries up during the summer. The average number of days with ice is between 10 and 70. The chemical and ecological status of river water is good. .

  6. Scaling the flood regime with the soil hydraulic properties of the catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Rojas, Luis Eduardo; Francés García, Félix; Barrios Peña, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    The spatial land cover distribution and soil type affect the hydraulic properties of soils, facilitating or retarding the infiltration rate and the response of a catchment during flooding events. This research analyzes: 1) the effect of land cover use in different time periods as a source of annual maximum flood records nonstationarity; 2) the scalability of the relationship between soil hydraulic properties of the catchment (initial abstractions, upper soil capillary storage and vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity) and the flood regime. The study was conducted in Combeima River basin in Colombia - South America and it was modelled the changes in the land uses registered in 1991, 2000, 2002 and 2007, using distributed hydrological modelling and nonparametric tests. The results showed that changes in land use affect hydraulic properties of soil and it has influence on the magnitude of flood peaks. What is a new finding is that this behavior is scalable with the soil hydraulic properties of the catchment flood moments have a simple scaling behavior and the peaks flow increases with higher values of capillary soil storage, whereas higher values, the peaks decreased. Finally it was applied Generalized Extreme Values and it was found scalable behavior in the parameters of the probability distribution function. The results allowed us to find a relationship between soil hydraulic properties and the behavior of flood regime in the basin studied.

  7. Hydrology and sediment yield calibration for the Barasona reservoir catchment (Spain) using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological and soil erosion models, as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), have become very useful tools and increasingly serve as vital components of integrated environmental assessments that provide information outside of direct field experiments and causal observation. The purpose of this study was to improve the calibration of SWAT model to use it in an alpine catchment as a simulator of processes related to water quality and soil erosion. SWAT is spatially semi-distributed, agro-hydrological model that operates on a daily time step (as a minimum) at basin scale. It is designed to predict the impact of management on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in ungaged catchments. SWAT provides physically based algorithms as an option to define many of the important components of the hydrologic cycle. The input requirements of the model are used to describe the climate, soil properties, topography, vegetation, and land management practices. SWAT analyzes small or large catchments by discretising into sub-basins, which are then further subdivided into hydrological response units (HRUs) with homogeneous land use, soil type and slope. SWAT model (SWAT2009) coupled with a GIS interface (ArcSWAT), was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The 1509 km2 agro-forestry catchment presents a mountain type climate, an altitudinal range close to 3000 meters and a precipitation variation close to 1000 mm/km. The mountainous characteristics of the catchment, in addition to the scarcity of climate data in the region, require specific calibration for some processes. Snowfall and snowmelt are significant processes in the hydrologic regime of the area and were calibrated in a previous work. In this work some of the challenges of the catchment to model with SWAT which affected the hydrology and the sediment yield simulation were performed as improvement of the previous calibration. Two reservoirs, a karst system which

  8. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, F.; Qiang, H.; Shen, C.; Aijun, G.

    2015-05-01

    Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  9. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  10. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jingjing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  11. Catchment Dispersion Mechanisms in an Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.; Rossel, F.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez, F.

    2014-12-01

    Dispersion mechanisms have been examined in-depth in natural catchments in previous studies. However, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. Thus, these features can modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. This model computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment (France) as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further studies with other catchments are needed to assess whether the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.

  12. Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

    Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations

  13. The precipitation-/runoff model ZEMOKOST: development of a practical model for the determination of flood runoff in the catchment areas of torrents, including improved data field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, B.

    2010-01-01

    In hydrology a basic task is the estimation of design discharges and runoff changes in ungauged catchments. However, traditional empirical rules of thumb as well as regionalization of measured discharges are subject to uncertainty. It seems that precipitation-runoff modelling is the only comprehensible way to predict discharge alterations due to changes in ungauged basins, even though the results are perhaps not less uncertain. In order to minimize this uncertainty this work presents a new methodology for discharge estimation in ungauged basins by introducing runoff coefficients derived from field assessment, by a new adapted precipitation-runoff model (ZEMOKOST) and routines for a plausibility check. Subsequently ten gauged Austrian catchments were used as hypothetical ungauged catchments for application and verification of this method. Except for special questions in karst- and glacier-hydrology the procedure showed satisfying results. (author) [de

  14. Trail-Based Search for Efficient Event Report to Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhezhuang; Liu, Guanglun; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Bin; Lin, Feilong

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor and actor networks, when an event is detected, the sensor node needs to transmit an event report to inform the actor. Since the actor moves in the network to execute missions, its location is always unavailable to the sensor nodes. A popular solution is the search strategy that can forward the data to a node without its location information. However, most existing works have not considered the mobility of the node, and thus generate significant energy consumption or transmission delay. In this paper, we propose the trail-based search (TS) strategy that takes advantage of actor’s mobility to improve the search efficiency. The main idea of TS is that, when the actor moves in the network, it can leave its trail composed of continuous footprints. The search packet with the event report is transmitted in the network to search the actor or its footprints. Once an effective footprint is discovered, the packet will be forwarded along the trail until it is received by the actor. Moreover, we derive the condition to guarantee the trail connectivity, and propose the redundancy reduction scheme based on TS (TS-R) to reduce nontrivial transmission redundancy that is generated by the trail. The theoretical and numerical analysis is provided to prove the efficiency of TS. Compared with the well-known expanding ring search (ERS), TS significantly reduces the energy consumption and search delay. PMID:29077017

  15. Soil and Terrain Database for Upper Tana River Catchment (version 1.1) - scale 1:250,000 (SOTER_UT_v1.1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Macharia, P.; Kempen, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for the Upper Tana River Catchment (version 1.1) (SOTER_UT_v1.1) at scale 1:250,000 was compiled to support the Green Water Credits (GWC) programme by creating a primary SOTER dataset for a hydrology assessment of the basin. The Kenya Soil Survey of the Kenya

  16. Assessment of hydropower potential in small karst catchments: the case of the Rocche Plateau, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopardi Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of flow duration characteristics is key in assessing hydropower potential in natural catchments. However, such analysis is not usually straightforward, especially in ungauged sites and/or in complex catchment areas. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of revamping of a small hydroelectric power plant, located in a karst plateau in central Italy, by assessing the hydropower potential of its feeding surface and subsurface stream network. A thorough analysis of runoff processes occurring in the examined area is carried out in order to corroborate regionalization studies based on measured specific flows in neighboring homogeneous basins. The results show an appreciable availability of water resources to be exploited for hydropower purposes.

  17. An Open-Source Approach for Catchment's Physiographic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, M.; Di Stefano, M.

    2013-12-01

    A water catchment's hydrologic response is intimately linked to its morphological shape, which is a signature on the landscape of the particular climate conditions that generated the hydrographic basin over time. Furthermore, geomorphologic structures influence hydrologic regimes and land cover (vegetation). For these reasons, a basin's characterization is a fundamental element in hydrological studies. Physiographic descriptors have been extracted manually for long time, but currently Geographic Information System (GIS) tools ease such task by offering a powerful instrument for hydrologists to save time and improve accuracy of result. Here we present a program combining the flexibility of the Python programming language with the reliability of GRASS GIS, which automatically performing the catchment's physiographic characterization. GRASS (Geographic Resource Analysis Support System) is a Free and Open Source GIS, that today can look back on 30 years of successful development in geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics and maps production, spatial modeling and visualization. The recent development of new hydrologic tools, coupled with the tremendous boost in the existing flow routing algorithms, reduced the computational time and made GRASS a complete toolset for hydrological analysis even for large datasets. The tool presented here is a module called r.basin, based on GRASS' traditional nomenclature, where the "r" stands for "raster", and it is available for GRASS version 6.x and more recently for GRASS 7. As input it uses a Digital Elevation Model and the coordinates of the outlet, and, powered by the recently developed r.stream.* hydrological tools, it performs the flow calculation, delimits the basin's boundaries and extracts the drainage network, returning the flow direction and accumulation, the distance to outlet and the hill slopes length maps. Based on those maps, it calculates hydrologically meaningful shape factors and

  18. Water erosion and climate change in a small alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteni, Francesca; Grossi, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    WATER EROSION AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN A SMALL ALPINE CATCHMENT Francesca Berteni, Giovanna Grossi A change in the mean and variability of some variables of the climate system is expected to affect the sediment yield of mountainous areas in several ways: for example through soil temperature and precipitation peak intensity change, permafrost thawing, snow- and ice-melt time shifting. Water erosion, sediment transport and yield and the effects of climate change on these physical phenomena are the focus of this work. The study area is a small mountainous basin, the Guerna creek watershed, located in the Central Southern Alps. The sensitivity of sediment yield estimates to a change of condition of the climate system may be investigated through the application of different models, each characterized by its own features and limits. In this preliminary analysis two different empirical mathematical models are considered: RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation; Renard et al., 1991) and EPM (Erosion Potential Method; Gavrilovic, 1988). These models are implemented in a Geographical Information System (GIS) supporting the management of the territorial database used to estimate relevant geomorphological parameters and to create different thematic maps. From one side the geographical and geomorphological information is required (land use, slope and hydrogeological instability, resistance to erosion, lithological characterization and granulometric composition). On the other side the knowledge of the weather-climate parameters (precipitation and temperature data) is fundamental as well to evaluate the intensity and variability of the erosive processes and estimate the sediment yield at the basin outlet. Therefore different climate change scenarios were considered in order to tentatively assess the impact on the water erosion and sediment yield at the small basin scale. Keywords: water erosion, sediment yield, climate change, empirical mathematical models, EPM, RUSLE, GIS

  19. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  20. On the Fidelity of Semi-distributed Hydrologic Model Simulations for Large Scale Catchment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, H.; Sharma, A.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Application of semi-distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks is a viable alternative to fully distributed hyper-resolution hydrologic models due to computational efficiency and resolving fine-scale spatial structure of hydrologic fluxes and states. However, fidelity of semi-distributed model simulations is impacted by (1) formulation of hydrologic response units (HRUs), and (2) aggregation of catchment properties for formulating simulation elements. Here, we evaluate the performance of a recently developed Soil Moisture and Runoff simulation Toolkit (SMART) for large catchment scale simulations. In SMART, topologically connected HRUs are delineated using thresholds obtained from topographic and geomorphic analysis of a catchment, and simulation elements are equivalent cross sections (ECS) representative of a hillslope in first order sub-basins. Earlier investigations have shown that formulation of ECSs at the scale of a first order sub-basin reduces computational time significantly without compromising simulation accuracy. However, the implementation of this approach has not been fully explored for catchment scale simulations. To assess SMART performance, we set-up the model over the Little Washita watershed in Oklahoma. Model evaluations using in-situ soil moisture observations show satisfactory model performance. In addition, we evaluated the performance of a number of soil moisture disaggregation schemes recently developed to provide spatially explicit soil moisture outputs at fine scale resolution. Our results illustrate that the statistical disaggregation scheme performs significantly better than the methods based on topographic data. Future work is focused on assessing the performance of SMART using remotely sensed soil moisture observations using spatially based model evaluation metrics.

  1. Prediction of Hydrologic Characteristics for Ungauged Catchments to Support Hydroecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Nick R.; Kennard, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Hydrologic variability is a fundamental driver of ecological processes and species distribution patterns within river systems, yet the paucity of gauges in many catchments means that streamflow data are often unavailable for ecological survey sites. Filling this data gap is an important challenge in hydroecological research. To address this gap, we first test the ability to spatially extrapolate hydrologic metrics calculated from gauged streamflow data to ungauged sites as a function of stream distance and catchment area. Second, we examine the ability of statistical models to predict flow regime metrics based on climate and catchment physiographic variables. Our assessment focused on Australia's largest catchment, the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB). We found that hydrologic metrics were predictable only between sites within ˜25 km of one another. Beyond this, correlations between sites declined quickly. We found less than 40% of fish survey sites from a recent basin-wide monitoring program (n = 777 sites) to fall within this 25 km range, thereby greatly limiting the ability to utilize gauge data for direct spatial transposition of hydrologic metrics to biological survey sites. In contrast, statistical model-based transposition proved effective in predicting ecologically relevant aspects of the flow regime (including metrics describing central tendency, high- and low-flows intermittency, seasonality, and variability) across the entire gauge network (median R2 ˜ 0.54, range 0.39-0.94). Modeled hydrologic metrics thus offer a useful alternative to empirical data when examining biological survey data from ungauged sites. More widespread use of these statistical tools and modeled metrics could expand our understanding of flow-ecology relationships.

  2. Estimating emissions of PFOS and PFOA to the Danube River catchment and evaluating them using a catchment-scale chemical transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindim, C.; Cousins, I.T.; Gils, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Novel approaches for estimating the emissions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to surface waters are explored. The Danube River catchment is used to investigate emissions contributing to riverine loads of PFOS and PFOA and to verify the accuracy of estimates using a catchment-scale dynamic fugacity-based chemical transport and fate model (STREAM-EU; Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for European basins). Model accuracy evaluation performed by comparing STREAM-EU predicted concentrations and monitoring data for the Danube and its tributaries shows that the best estimates for PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Danube region are obtained by considering the combined contributions of human population, wealth (based on local gross domestic product (GDP)) and wastewater treatment. Human population alone cannot explain the levels of PFOS and PFOA found in the Danube catchment waters. Introducing wealth distribution information in the form of local GDPs improves emission estimates markedly, likely by better representing emissions resulting from consumer trends, industrial and commercial sources. For compounds such as PFOS and PFOA, whose main sink and transport media is the aquatic compartment, a major source to freshwater are wastewater treatment plants. Introducing wastewater treatment information in the emission estimations also further improves emission estimates. - Highlights: • Novel approaches for estimating PFOS/PFOA emissions to surface waters are explored. • Human population alone cannot explain the levels of PFOS/PFOA found in the Danube. • Best estimates are obtained when considering population, wealth and WWTP together.

  3. The Grand Strategy of Nonstate Actors: Theory and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Pierman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the Realist assumption that only actors that are states can be considered to have a strategic culture. The primary issue raised is the question of the ability of non-state actors to have a strategic culture. Al-Qaida is used as a theoretical case study. Ultimately this article rejects the idea of territoriality in strategic culture formulation and calls for academics and policymakers alike to adopt a broader conception of actors on the international, stage. This broader conception of actors would necessitate rich case studies to be done in the future in order to seek an understanding of the strategic culture of the non-state actors which academics and policymakers must deal with in the modern security environment. In particular, the article finds that the assumptions held about al-Qaida thus far are wrong and, in reality, the group has ambitions that are cosmic in nature, which will necessitate change in the strategies used to fight against terrorism.

  4. Flash flood modelling for ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garambois, P.-A.; Roux, H.; Larnier, K.; Dartus, D.

    2012-04-01

    Flash flood is a very intense and quick hydrologic response of a catchment to rainfall. This phenomenon has a high spatial-temporal variability as its generating storm, often hitting small catchments (few km2). Data collected by (Gaume et al. 2009) about 500 flash floods over the last 50 years showed that they could occur everywhere in Europe and more often in the Mediterranean regions, Alpine regions and continental Europe. Given the small spatial-temporal scales and high variability of flash floods, their prediction remains a hard exercise as the necessary data are often scarce. Flash flood prediction on ungauged catchments is one of the challenges of hydrological modelling as defined by (Sivapalan et al. 2003). Several studies have been headed up with the MARINE model (Modélisation de l'Anticipation du Ruissellement et des Inondations pour des évèNements Extrêmes) for the Gard region (France), (Roux et al. 2011), (Castaings et al. 2009). This physically based spatially distributed rainfall runoff model is dedicated to flash flood prediction. The study aims at finding a methodology for flash flood prediction at ungauged locations in the Cévennes-Vivarais region in particular. The regionalization method is based on multiple calibrations on gauged catchments in order to extract model structures (model + parameter values) for each catchment. Several mathematical methods (multiple regressions, transfer functions, krigging…) will then be tested to calculate a regional parameter set. The study also investigates the usability of additional hydrologic indices at different time scales to constrain model predictions from parameters obtained using these indices, and this independently of the model considered. These hydrologic indices gather information on hydrograph shape or catchment dynamic for instance. Results explaining global catchments behaviour are expected that way. The spatial-temporal variability of storms is also described through indices and linked with

  5. Testing the transferability of regression equations derived from small sub-catchments to a large area in central Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need to apply hydrological models to catchments where streamflow data are unavailable or to large geographical regions where calibration is not feasible. Estimation of model parameters from spatial physical data is the key issue in the development and application of hydrological models at various scales. To investigate the suitability of transferring the regression equations relating model parameters to physical characteristics developed from small sub-catchments to a large region for estimating model parameters, a conceptual snow and water balance model was optimised on all the sub-catchments in the region. A multiple regression analysis related model parameters to physical data for the catchments and the regression equations derived from the small sub-catchments were used to calculate regional parameter values for the large basin using spatially aggregated physical data. For the model tested, the results support the suitability of transferring the regression equations to the larger region. Keywords: water balance modelling,large scale, multiple regression, regionalisation

  6. Zoning of the White Sea catchment area by the degree of continental runoff influence on the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulavina A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies for the integral evaluation of the potential impact of continental runoff on the marine aquatic environment have been developed and tested in relation to the catchment area of the White Sea. Integral indicators of pollution potential (PP and self-purification capacity (SPC of the river waters have been calculated within the boundaries of the hydrologic areas. The following indicators have been used to calculate the PP: the volume of wastewater and the population density in the catchment area (anthropogenic components of pollution, sediment load (a natural component of pollution. Such natural settings of the catchment as the lake percentage, woodiness and the role of topography in self-purification of rivers have been used to calculate the SPC. The quality of river waters, entering the sea, is the result of the ratio of the proposed integrated indicators. On the basis of the quantitative ratios of PP and SPC, the zoning of the catchment area according to the degree of the negative impact of river waters on water quality in the White Sea has been performed. The resulting zoning scheme is demonstrated as a holistic picture, representing a complex of natural-economic factors on the river catchments of the White Sea basin. It has been revealed that river runoff from a considerable part of the catchment area has not a significant negative impact on the water quality on the White Sea. The greatest pollution effect on the waters of the White Sea has the Northern Dvina River and the Niva River. The obtained data are well correlated with the data of hydrochemical observations in the bays of the White Sea. The objectivity of integrated assessment has been provided by the base on a large number of field data and the exception of the indicators that have not quantitative expression. The obtained results can be used to develop scientifically valid environmental programmes and to plan industrial development in the catchment area.

  7. On the forecast of runoff based on the harmonic analysis of time series of precipitation in the catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, A. V.; Cherednichenko, A. V.; Cherednichenko, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that a significant connection exists between the most important harmonics, extracted in the process of harmonic analysis of time series of precipitation in the catchment area of rivers and the amount of runoff. This allowed us to predict the size of the flow for a period of up to 20 years, assuming that the main parameters of the harmonics are preserved at the predicted time interval. The results of such a forecast for three river basins of Kazakhstan are presented.

  8. Added value of online satellite data transmission for flood forecasting: warning systems in medium-size catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, C; Stadler, H

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with the implementation of online data transferred via LEO satellite communication in a flood forecasting system. Although the project is ongoing, it is already recognised that the information chain: "measurement-transmission-forecast-alert" can be shortened, i.e., the flood danger can be more rapidly communicated to the population at risk. This gain is particularly valuable for medium size catchments where the concentration time (basin time of response to rainfall) is short.

  9. Simulating Catchment Scale Afforestation for Mitigating Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. S.; Bathurst, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.; Birkinshaw, S.

    2016-12-01

    After the 2013-14, and the more recent 2015-16, winter floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management practice remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. This project aims to improve the understanding of the impacts of upland afforestation on flood risk at the sub-catchment and full catchment scales. This will be achieved through an integrated fieldwork and modelling approach, with the use of a series of process based hydrological models to scale up and examine the effects forestry can have on flooding. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, catchment system engineering and the installation of runoff attenuation features (RAFs), such as engineered log jams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. Additionally, the proportion of a catchment or riparian reach that would need to be forested in order to achieve a significant impact on reducing downstream flooding will be defined. The consequential impacts of a corresponding reduction in agriculturally productive farmland and the potential decline of water resource availability will also be considered in order to safeguard the UK's food security and satisfy the global demand on water resources.

  10. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... in our project’s agenda by going through the different stages of translation. The paper is finalized with reflections on the difficulties in engaging actors in a co-design process and transporting results into the existing framed context of design and architectural work....... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged...

  11. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  12. The Eu as a strategic global policy actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti; Ansell, Christopher

    that shapes and is being shaped by the EU strategic choices. This process is facilitated by the existing EU institutions and structures, the administrative and technical expertise capacity when it responds to the internal and external challenges (environment, sustainable development climate and circular......This article aims to complement the existing literature on the EU as a global actor and demonstrates that the EU’s entrepreneurship on policy, ideas and knowledge production contributes to the evolution of the EU as a strategic global policy actor. While the number of significant studies on the EU...... as a global actor proliferated the last decades, these studies concentrate on the EU’s role in a fragmented manner, focusing either on specific normative or more economic and trade issues, and thus often competing between themselves. This article acknowledges these contributions and aims to take them further...

  13. Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2012-11-01

    Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.

  14. EU–Hamas actors in a state of permanent liminality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    2018-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on liminality within International Relations (IR) theory by focusing on the actorness of the European Union (EU) and Hamas. The concept of liminality as a transitional process is applied to frame the situation of both the EU and Hamas as political actors in......-between socially established categories. This article explores how the liminal identity of these two actors impacts, on the one hand, their relations with each other and, on the other hand, their relations of ‘self’. Exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas, it argues for the necessity of recognising...... liminal categories in IR theory and practice, while, at the same time, it highlights the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  15. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M; Babad, Yair M

    2011-04-19

    Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc.) motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include improved transparency of all aspects of medical decision

  16. Estimating suspended sediment yield, sedimentation controls and impacts in the Mellah Catchment of Northern Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchoul, Kamel; Assassi Fella; Altschul, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an assessment of the suspended sediment yield in the Mellah Catchment of northern Algeria. We use discharge-sediment load relationships to explore the variability of water discharge and sediment load, and to investigate the impact of geomorphic factors disturbance on erosion and sedimentation. Suspended sediment load was analyzed in the Mellah Catchment (550 squre kms ) which was controlled by a gauging station to measure discharge and sediment transport. The relations between daily mean sediment concentration and daily mean water discharge were analyzed to develop sediment rating curves. For storms with no water samples, a sediment rating curve was developed. The technique involves stratification of data into discharge-based classes, the mean of which are used to fit a rating curve according to single flow data and season to provide various rating relationships. The mean annual sediment yield during the 24 years of the study period was 562 T km -2 in the Mellah Catchment. This drainage basin had high rainfall and runoff, the erosion was high. The high sediment yield in the Mellah basin could be explained by a high percentage of sparse grassland and cultivation developed on shallow marly silty-clayey soils with steep slopes often exceeding 12%. Almost all suspended sediment loads are transported during storm events that mainly occur in the winter and spring heavy and medium downpours. The scarceness of these events leads to a very large interseasonal variability of the wadi sediment fluxes. The negative impacts of this enhanced sediment mobility are directly felt in the western part of the basin which shows many mass movements, bank and gully erosion because cultivated areas are often bared during autumnal brief flash floods and furrowed downslope during the winter season. (author)

  17. Catchment scale multi-objective flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Steve; Worrall, Peter; Rosolova, Zdenka; Hammond, Gene

    2010-05-01

    Rural land management is known to affect both the generation and propagation of flooding at the local scale, but there is still a general lack of good evidence that this impact is still significant at the larger catchment scale given the complexity of physical interactions and climatic variability taking place at this level. The National Trust, in partnership with the Environment Agency, are managing an innovative project on the Holnicote Estate in south west England to demonstrate the benefits of using good rural land management practices to reduce flood risk at the both the catchment and sub-catchment scales. The Holnicote Estate is owned by the National Trust and comprises about 5,000 hectares of land, from the uplands of Exmoor to the sea, incorporating most of the catchments of the river Horner and Aller Water. There are nearly 100 houses across three villages that are at risk from flooding which could potentially benefit from changes in land management practices in the surrounding catchment providing a more sustainable flood attenuation function. In addition to the contribution being made to flood risk management there are a range of other ecosystems services that will be enhanced through these targeted land management changes. Alterations in land management will create new opportunities for wildlife and habitats and help to improve the local surface water quality. Such improvements will not only create additional wildlife resources locally but also serve the landscape response to climate change effects by creating and enhancing wildlife networks within the region. Land management changes will also restore and sustain landscape heritage resources and provide opportunities for amenity, recreation and tourism. The project delivery team is working with the National Trust from source to sea across the entire Holnicote Estate, to identify and subsequently implement suitable land management techniques to manage local flood risk within the catchments. These

  18. Dilution correction equation revisited: The impact of stream slope, relief ratio and area size of basin on geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Shahed; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza

    2017-04-01

    Stream sediment sampling is a well-known technique used to discover the geochemical anomalies in regional exploration activities. In an upstream catchment basin of stream sediment sample, the geochemical signals originating from probable mineralization could be diluted due to mixing with the weathering material coming from the non-anomalous sources. Hawkes's equation (1976) was an attempt to overcome the problem in which the area size of catchment basin was used to remove dilution from geochemical anomalies. However, the metal content of a stream sediment sample could be linked to several geomorphological, sedimentological, climatic and geological factors. The area size is not itself a comprehensive representative of dilution taking place in a catchment basin. The aim of the present study was to consider a number of geomorphological factors affecting the sediment supply, transportation processes, storage and in general, the geochemistry of stream sediments and their incorporation in the dilution correction procedure. This was organized through employing the concept of sediment yield and sediment delivery ratio and linking such characteristics to the dilution phenomenon in a catchment basin. Main stream slope (MSS), relief ratio (RR) and area size (Aa) of catchment basin were selected as the important proxies (PSDRa) for sediment delivery ratio and then entered to the Hawkes's equation. Then, Hawkes's and new equations were applied on the stream sediment dataset collected from Takhte-Soleyman district, west of Iran for Au, As and Sb values. A number of large and small gold, antimony and arsenic mineral occurrences were used to evaluate the results. Anomaly maps based on the new equations displayed improvement in anomaly delineation taking the spatial distribution of mineral deposits into account and could present new catchment basins containing known mineralization as the anomaly class, especially in the case of Au and As. Four catchment basins having Au and As

  19. Social movements and the construction of crisis actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    of social movements occurs when they collaborate with similar movements in other countries, claim a European identity, invoke Europe-wide solidarity, contest authorities beyond the state and ascribe responsibility for solving the crisis to European Union (EU). By targeting EU authorities, social movements......This article examines the Europeanization of social movements following the European sovereign debt crisis. It develops a theoretical framework to measure degrees of social movement Europeanization, incorporating targets, participants, and issue frame dimensions of mobilization. Europeanization...... may contribute to the construction of the EU as a crisis actor and through deliberative processes define the roles and identities of such actors....

  20. Private actors, global health and learning the lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youde, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance.

  1. Learning to Run with Actor-Critic Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhewei; Zhou, Shuchang; Zhuang, BoEr; Zhou, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an Actor-Critic Ensemble(ACE) method for improving the performance of Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient(DDPG) algorithm. At inference time, our method uses a critic ensemble to select the best action from proposals of multiple actors running in parallel. By having a larger candidate set, our method can avoid actions that have fatal consequences, while staying deterministic. Using ACE, we have won the 2nd place in NIPS'17 Learning to Run competition, under the name of "Megvii-hzw...

  2. The Vaal river catchment: Problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The vaal river catchments contains South African's economic heartland, the Pretoria -Witwatersrand-Vereeniging (PWV) complex. Although the catchments only produces eight per cent of the mean annual runoff of the country it has highest concentration...

  3. What is the Source? Post-glacial sediment flux from the Waipaoa Catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderback, E. L.; Pettinga, J. R.; Litchfield, N. J.; Quigley, M.; Marden, M.

    2011-12-01

    scale sediment budgets. Does costal erosion contribute a significant volume to the offshore sink? Was sediment from other catchments trapped in the Poverty Bay postglacial shelf basin? Are the uncertainties in any of these source and sink calculations large enough that the previous questions are essentially irrelevant? We believe that it is an achievable goal to account for the major processes that generate sediment in the Waipaoa Sedimentary System and that this budget tuning can inform our understanding of active landscapes.

  4. Vaal River catchment: problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available , the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging (PWV) complex. Although the catchment only produces eight per cent of the mean annual runoff of the country it has the highest concentration of urban, industrial, mining and power generation development in South Africa... of the Vaal River. The purpose of the workshop and preceding symposium was to examine the ever increasing complexity of the Vaal River system, the much enlarged spectrum of user water quality needs and problems, and those activities in the catchment which...

  5. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  6. On the impact of the development of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona river catchment area (the Vologda Region on the chemical composition of the waters in its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the influence of anthropogenic burden on the catchment areas of the rivers in Vologda Region and to establish the dependence of the chemical composition of water on pollution sources in the rivers of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin. In the catchment areas hydro chemical samples were taken, population density was calculated as well as the automated and visual interpretation of the main elements of the landscape was carried out. At that, forests, populated areas, farmlands and other territories changed by economic activities were identified. An increase in the pollutants concentration in the catchment areas on drawing near the regional center was detected. The development of the catchment areas varies depending on the landscape pattern and on the proximity to the city of Vologda. The population density and the relative area of settlements and farmlands increase while approaching to the city, at the same time the ratio of forests decreases. The positive correlation dependence between the phosphate content and the relative size of farmlands was shown. The main source of pollutants in the catchment areas of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin is the presence of settlements and high population density. Under such conditions, high concentration of sodium, chlorine, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as permanganate oxidizability are observed in water.

  7. Mapping for the management of diffuse pollution risks related to agricultural plant protection practices: case of the Etang de l'Or catchment area in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mghirbi, Oussama; Bord, Jean-Paul; Le Grusse, Philippe; Mandart, Elisabeth; Fabre, Jacques

    2018-03-08

    Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France. Risk mapping represents a support-decision tool that enables the different field actors to identify and locate vulnerable areas, so as to determine action plans and agri-environmental measures depending on the context of the natural environment. This work shows that mapping is helpful for managing risks related to the use of pesticides in agriculture by employing indicators of pressure (TFI) and risk on the applicator's health (IRSA) and on the environment (IRTE). These indicators were designed to assess the impact of plant protection practices at various spatial scales (field, farm, etc.). The cartographic analysis of risks related to plant protection practices shows that diffuse pollution is unequally located in the North (known for its abundant garrigues and vineyards) and in the South of the Etang de l'Or catchment area (the Mauguio-Lunel agricultural plain known for its diversified cropping systems). This spatial inequity is essentially related to land use and agricultural production system. Indeed, the agricultural lands cover about 60% of the total catchment area. Consequently, this cartographic analysis helps the territorial actors with the implementation of strategies for managing risks of diffuse pollution related to pesticides use in agriculture, based on environmental and

  8. Actor-Network Theory and Tourism : Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ren, C.; Jóhannesson, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    The recent surfacing of actor-network theory (ANT) in tourism studies correlates to a rising interest in understanding tourism as emergent thorough relational practice connecting cultures, natures and technologies in multifarious ways. Despite the widespread application of ANT across the social

  9. Living Labs as boundary-spanners between Triple Helix actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Living labs are an increasingly popular methodology to enhance innovation. Living labs aim to span boundaries between different organizations, among others Triple helix actors, by acting as a network organization typically in a real-life environment to foster co-creation by user-groups. This paper

  10. Of International Actors, Nodal Governance and the African Peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the recent political unrest in Kenya, I argue that one way in which the. African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) can improve governance in Africa and indeed see through the implementation of its review recommendations is to form networks with other international actors. These networks will be constituted by ...

  11. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...

  12. Hugh Grant's Image Restoration Discourse: An Actor Apologizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the strategies used by actor Hugh Grant (in his appearances on talk shows) to help restore his reputation after he was arrested for lewd behavior with a prostitute. Uses this case as a springboard to contrast entertainment image repair with political and corporate image repair, arguing that important situational differences can be…

  13. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deliberates on actor/actant-network theory (AANT) as methodology for policy research in environmental education (EE). Insights are drawn from work that applied AANT to research environmental policy processes surrounding the formulation and implementation of South Africa's Plastic Bags Regulations of 2003.

  14. Stochastic actor-oriented models for network change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.B.

    1996-01-01

    A class of models is proposed for longitudinal network data. These models are along the lines of methodological individualism: actors use heuristics to try to achieve their individual goals, subject to constraints. The current network structure is among these constraints. The models are continuous

  15. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  16. The Plurilingual Social Actor. Language, Citizenship and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Daniel; Simon, Diana-Lee

    2009-01-01

    The paper critically discusses key theoretical concepts and definitions attached to the notion of a "plurilingual social actor", and assesses their impact and implications for European language policies and for the development of plurilingualism and citizenship in schools. (Contains 11 notes.)

  17. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  18. Actor roles in transition: Insights from sociological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wittmayer (Julia); F. Avelino (Flor); F. van Steenbergen; D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo date, the field of transition research lacks a suitable vocabulary to analyse the (changing) interactions and relations of actors as part of a sustainability transition. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the potential of the concept of 'roles' from social

  19. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  20. Streamflow variation of forest covered catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, Z.; Kalicz, P.; Kucsara, M.

    2003-04-01

    Rainfall concentration and runoff, otherwise rainfall-runoff processes, which cause river water discharge fluctuation, is one of the basic questions of hydrology. Several social-economy demands have a strong connection with small or bigger rivers from the point of view both quantity and quality of the water. Gratification or consideration of these demands is complicated substantially that we have still poor knowledge about our stream-flow regime. Water resources mainly stem from upper watersheds. These upper watersheds are the basis of the water concentration process; therefore we have to improve our knowledge about hydrological processes coming up in these territories. In this article we present runoff regime of two small catchments on the basis of one year data. Both catchments have a similar magnitude 0.6 and 0.9 km^2. We have been analyzed in detail some hydrological elements: features of rainfall, discharge, rainfall induced flooding waves and basic discharge in rainless periods. Variances of these parameters have been analyzed in relation to catchments surface, vegetation coverage and forest management. Result data set well enforce our knowledge about small catchments hydrological processes. On the basis of these fundamentals we can plan more established the management of these lands (forest practices, civil engineering works, and usage of natural water resources).

  1. Assessment of water availability in Chindwinn catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyu Oo Khin; Ohn Gyaw

    2001-01-01

    A study of water balance over Chindwinn Catchment has been carried out by using three decades of available climatological and hydrological data (i.e. from 1967). The study was based on the monthly, annual and normal values. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) computed by as well as on the using Penman (1963) as well as Hargreaves (1985) methods. Some of the reliable data of evaporation at the stations were also used to estimate actual evaporation with the pancoefficient value 0.7. The values of actual evapotranspiration estimated by Hargreaves method was lower than the values estimated by Penman, but most followed the same significant trend. The soil moisture deficiency generally occurs during November and April. A few cases of soil moisture deficiency do occur in August, September and October. However, on the overall availability of water in the catchment is quite promising. The residual resulted from the water balance estimation may be assumed as soil moisture in the catchment by neglecting some losses from the catchment. (author)

  2. Understanding catchment behaviour through model concept improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to model development based on the concept of iterative model improvement, which is a process where by trial and error different hypotheses of catchment behaviour are progressively tested, and the understanding of the system proceeds through a combined process of

  3. Urbanisation, coastal development and vulnerability, and catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas that form coastal cities, especially in the WIO, places an increasing demand on natural coastal extractive and non-extractive resources. The use and conversion of coastal land and catchments is considered a permanent effect...

  4. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Droogers, P.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Hunink, J.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Kauffman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to

  5. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  6. Preliminary analysis of the afforestation role in the maximum runoff in Valea Rece Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalcea Andreea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate the afforestation role in maximum surface runoff. In this way, it was made a comparison of simulated flows in the current conditions of afforestation and the simulated flows in conditions of applying both afforestation and deforestation scenarios in Valea Rece catchment. Through HEC-HMS 4.1 hydrologic modeling software, using the method of unit hydrograph SCS Curve Number, were simulated flow of the river Valea Rece closing section of the basin, where precipitation amounts of 30,50,80,120 mm fallen in intervals of 1.3 to 6 hours on a soil with varying degrees of moisture: dry soil, average soil moisture and high humidity. This was done for the current degree of afforestation basin, for the results from a possible afforestation that would increase the afforestation degree to 80%, and for a possible deforestation that would lead to a degree of afforestation 15 %.

  7. FLOOD VULNERABILITY IN BODVA RIVER BASIN IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELENAKOVA MARTINA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to generate a composite map for decision makers using selected factors, mainly of natural character, causing floods. In the analyses, some of the causative factors for flooding in a catchment area are taken into account, such as soil type, precipitation, land use, size of catchment and basin slope. A case study of flood vulnerability identification in the Bodva river basin in eastern Slovakia is employed to illustrate the different approaches. A geographical information system (GIS is integrated with multicriteria analysis (MCA in the paper. The identification of flood vulnerability consists of two basic phases. Firstly, the effective factors causing floods are identified. Secondly several approaches to MCA in a GIS environment are applied and these approaches are evaluated in order to prepared flood vulnerability map.

  8. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.

  9. Radar–rain-gauge rainfall estimation for hydrological applications in small catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate evaluation of the precipitation's time–spatial structure is a critical step for rainfall–runoff modelling. Particularly for small catchments, the variability of rainfall can lead to mismatched results. Large errors in flow evaluation may occur during convective storms, responsible for most of the flash floods in small catchments in the Mediterranean area. During such events, we may expect large spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, using rain-gauge measurements only can be insufficient in order to adequately depict extreme rainfall events. In this work, a double-level information approach, based on rain gauges and weather radar measurements, is used to improve areal rainfall estimations for hydrological applications. In order to highlight the effect that precipitation fields with different level of spatial details have on hydrological modelling, two kinds of spatial rainfall fields were computed for precipitation data collected during 2015, considering both rain gauges only and their merging with radar information. The differences produced by these two precipitation fields in the computation of the areal mean rainfall accumulation were evaluated considering 999 basins of the region Calabria, southern Italy. Moreover, both of the two precipitation fields were used to carry out rainfall–runoff simulations at catchment scale for main precipitation events that occurred during 2015 and the differences between the scenarios obtained in the two cases were analysed. A representative case study is presented in detail.

  10. Actors' portrayals of depression to test interrater reliability in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jules; Mulsant, Benoit H; Bruce, Martha L; Mittal, Vikas; Fox, Debra

    2004-10-01

    This study determined if actors could portray depressed patients to establish the interrater reliability of raters using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Actors portrayed depressed patients using scripts derived from HDRS assessments obtained at three points during treatment. Four experienced raters blindly viewed videotapes of two patients and two actors. They guessed if each interviewee was a patient or an actor and rated the certainty of their guesses. For each interview, they also rated the realism of the portrayal and completed the HDRS. Experienced raters could not distinguish actors and patients better than chance and were equally certain of their right and wrong guesses. Actors and patients received high scores on the realism of their portrayals. The HDRS scores of the actor-patient pairs were correlated. Actors can effectively portray depressed patients. Future studies will determine if actors can accurately portray patients with anxiety and psychosis.

  11. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Storm events mobilize large proportions of sediments in catchment systems. Therefore understanding catchment sediment dynamics throughout the continuity of storms and how initial catchment states act as controls on the transport of sediment to catchment outlets is important for effective catchment management. Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within catchments (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016a,b; Mekonnen et al., 2016). However, sediment connectivity alone does not provide a practicable mechanism by which the catchment's initial state - and thus the location of entrained sediment in the sediment transport cascade - can be characterized. Studying the dynamic relationship between water discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) at the catchment outlet can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to sediment transport because the relationship can be characterized by predictable hysteresis patterns. Hysteresis is observed when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed - towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine the hysteresis make its interpretation ambiguous. Previous work has described various types of hysteretic loops as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly pointing to the origin of the sediments. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds are similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine

  12. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  13. Typecasting catchments: Classification, directionality, and the pursuit of universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler; Marshall, Lucy; McGlynn, Brian

    2018-02-01

    Catchment classification poses a significant challenge to hydrology and hydrologic modeling, restricting widespread transfer of knowledge from well-studied sites. The identification of important physical, climatological, or hydrologic attributes (to varying degrees depending on application/data availability) has traditionally been the focus for catchment classification. Classification approaches are regularly assessed with regard to their ability to provide suitable hydrologic predictions - commonly by transferring fitted hydrologic parameters at a data-rich catchment to a data-poor catchment deemed similar by the classification. While such approaches to hydrology's grand challenges are intuitive, they often ignore the most uncertain aspect of the process - the model itself. We explore catchment classification and parameter transferability and the concept of universal donor/acceptor catchments. We identify the implications of the assumption that the transfer of parameters between "similar" catchments is reciprocal (i.e., non-directional). These concepts are considered through three case studies situated across multiple gradients that include model complexity, process description, and site characteristics. Case study results highlight that some catchments are more successfully used as donor catchments and others are better suited as acceptor catchments. These results were observed for both black-box and process consistent hydrologic models, as well as for differing levels of catchment similarity. Therefore, we suggest that similarity does not adequately satisfy the underlying assumptions being made in parameter regionalization approaches regardless of model appropriateness. Furthermore, we suggest that the directionality of parameter transfer is an important factor in determining the success of parameter regionalization approaches.

  14. Quantifying the performance of two conceptual models for snow dominated catchments in Austria and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, Aynur; Parajka, Juraj; Coskun, Cihan; Sorman, Arda; Ertas, Cansaran

    2014-05-01

    In many mountainous regions, snowmelt makes significant contribution to streamflow, particularly during spring and summer months. Understanding the magnitude and timing of this contribution and hydrological forecasts are essential for a range of purposes concerning the implications with water resources management. Conceptual hydrological models have been widely applied for mountain catchments both for operational and scientific applications. Hydrologiska Byran Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) and Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) are selected in this study as the commonly used conceptual models in hydrological modeling forecasting for a number of basins in several countries. Moreover, this selection is also supported by the experiences on the improvement and application in remote sensing techniques in snow dominated regions. The greatest similarity between the two models is that each uses a temperature index method to predict melt rate whereas the greatest difference lies in the way snow cover is handled. In mountainous regions, data limitations prevent detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed relative to snowpack heterogeneity therefore, to supplement ground measurements; remotely sensed images of snow covered area (SCA) provide useful information for runoff prediction during the snowmelt season. SCA has been used as a direct input to SRM and as a means of checking the internal validity for HBV model. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products with 500 m spatial resolution are used to derive SCA data in this study. A number of studies have been reported in the literature indicated that the model performance can vary depending on several factors, including the scale and characteristics of the catchment, availability of the data required and runoff producing mechanism. Therefore, five different catchments including data scare and rich basins, areas and reliefs

  15. Can climate variability information constrain a hydrological model for an ungauged Costa Rican catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Montano, Beatriz; Westerberg, Ida K.; Fuentes-Andino, Diana; Hidalgo-Leon, Hugo; Halldin, Sven

    2017-04-01

    constrain model uncertainty for an - assumed to be - ungauged basin. This shows that our method is promising for reconstructing long-term flow data for ungauged catchments on the Pacific side of Central America, and that similar methods can be developed for ungauged basins in other regions where climate variability exerts a strong control on streamflow variability.

  16. Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolgay, J.; Kubes, R.

    2005-01-01

    The component part of atmospheric precipitations-runoff model of Hron River is a individual model of transformation of flows in river network, too, which transforms runoff from separate partial catchment basin into terminal profile. This component of precipitations-runoff model can also be used as individual hydrologic transformation model of runoff waves in river-basin. Identification and calibration of this model is realised independently on precipitations-runoff model of Hron River, which is described in this chapter in detail.

  17. Erosivity, surface runoff, and soil erosion estimation using GIS-coupled runoff-erosion model in the Mamuaba catchment, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Richarde; Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto; Carneiro de Lima Silva, Valeriano; Pereira e Silva, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates erosivity, surface runoff generation, and soil erosion rates for Mamuaba catchment, sub-catchment of Gramame River basin (Brazil) by using the ArcView Soil and Water Assessment Tool (AvSWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. Daily rainfall data between 1969 and 1989 from six rain gauges were used, and the monthly rainfall erosivity of each station was computed for all the studied years. In order to evaluate the calibration and validation of the model, monthly runoff data between January 1978 and April 1982 from one runoff gauge were used as well. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic when compared to what can be observed in the field and to results from previous studies around of catchment. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 9.4 t ha(-1) year(-1); most of the area of the catchment (60%) was predicted to suffer from a low- to moderate-erosion risk (soil erosion was estimated to exceed > 12 t ha(-1) year(-1). Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the catchment was divided into four priority categories (low, moderate, high and very high) for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the AvSWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from catchments and facilitates the planning for a sustainable land management in northeastern Brazil.

  18. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babad Yair M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc. motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include

  19. The legislative actor in the Nobel era: Quo Vadis EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Xavier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a political union, as well as an economic union of Europe, beyond free circulation of persons, goods and services, has always been included in the ideals of the building of Europe. However, its de jure formalization only occurs on November 1, 1993, when the Treaty of Maastricht is in force and a new political and strategic actor is in place: the European Union (EU. Since then, literature has "defined" the European Union in order to clearly establish what this UPO - Unidentified Political Object (an expression by Jacques Delors in the 1990s - is or what it can be. One of the ideas which has been a focus of discussion is that of "legislative actor" (Manners, 2001; 2002, which claims that the European Union has progressed towards normativity, both internally as well as externally, to its close neighbors and its relations with the rest of the world. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on Europe's quality or condition to impose rules. We will begin by systematizing a series of achievements which, according to Manners, lead to the triangle democracy, Human Rights and good governance in the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon on December 13, 2007 and its entering in full force on December 1, 2009. However, this paper does not disregard the fact that the concept "legislative actor" has been (reworked and perfected by its author and other scholars due to criticism and empirical studies and has thus been altered, enhanced and argued against. Therefore, some concepts will be studied whose arguments will allow us to question the internal and external dimension of the actor European Union. We will also explore the symbolic power of the Union in the development of tools and capacity to be acknowledged as an actor able to face current threats and challenges but whose profile may not be different from other actors in international relations. Finally, we will discuss the impact of the EU having been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 on

  20. Can spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Faye L.; Fryer, Robert J.; Hannah, David M.; Malcolm, Iain A.

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing use of spatial statistical models to understand and predict river temperature (Tw) from landscape covariates. However, it is not financially or logistically feasible to monitor all rivers and the transferability of such models has not been explored. This paper uses Tw data from four river catchments collected in August 2015 to assess how well spatial regression models predict the maximum 7-day rolling mean of daily maximum Tw (Twmax) within and between catchments. Models were fitted for each catchment separately using (1) landscape covariates only (LS models) and (2) landscape covariates and an air temperature (Ta) metric (LS_Ta models). All the LS models included upstream catchment area and three included a river network smoother (RNS) that accounted for unexplained spatial structure. The LS models transferred reasonably to other catchments, at least when predicting relative levels of Twmax. However, the predictions were biased when mean Twmax differed between catchments. The RNS was needed to characterise and predict finer-scale spatially correlated variation. Because the RNS was unique to each catchment and thus non-transferable, predictions were better within catchments than between catchments. A single model fitted to all catchments found no interactions between the landscape covariates and catchment, suggesting that the landscape relationships were transferable. The LS_Ta models transferred less well, with particularly poor performance when the relationship with the Ta metric was physically implausible or required extrapolation outside the range of the data. A single model fitted to all catchments found catchment-specific relationships between Twmax and the Ta metric, indicating that the Ta metric was not transferable. These findings improve our understanding of the transferability of spatial statistical river temperature models and provide a foundation for developing new approaches for predicting Tw at unmonitored locations across

  1. Calibration of a distributed hydrologic model for six European catchments using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stisen, S.; Demirel, M. C.; Mendiguren González, G.; Kumar, R.; Rakovec, O.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    While observed streamflow has been the single reference for most conventional hydrologic model calibration exercises, the availability of spatially distributed remote sensing observations provide new possibilities for multi-variable calibration assessing both spatial and temporal variability of different hydrologic processes. In this study, we first identify the key transfer parameters of the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM) controlling both the discharge and the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) across six central European catchments (Elbe, Main, Meuse, Moselle, Neckar and Vienne). These catchments are selected based on their limited topographical and climatic variability which enables to evaluate the effect of spatial parameterization on the simulated evapotranspiration patterns. We develop a European scale remote sensing based actual evapotranspiration dataset at a 1 km grid scale driven primarily by land surface temperature observations from MODIS using the TSEB approach. Using the observed AET maps we analyze the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mHM model. This model allows calibrating one-basin-at-a-time or all-basins-together using its unique structure and multi-parameter regionalization approach. Results will indicate any tradeoffs between spatial pattern and discharge simulation during model calibration and through validation against independent internal discharge locations. Moreover, added value on internal water balances will be analyzed.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS TO GEOMORPHIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENT YIELD FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanchoul Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sediment yield and the factors controlling it provides useful information for estimating erosion intensities within river basins. The objective of this study was to build a model from which suspended sediment yield could be estimated from ungauged rivers using computed sediment yield and physical factors. Researchers working on suspended sediment transported by wadis in the Maghreb are usually facing the lack of available data for such river types. Further study of the prediction of sediment transport in these regions and its variability is clearly required. In this work, ANNs were built between sediment yield established from longterm measurement series at gauging stations in Algerian catchments and corresponding basic physiographic parameters such as rainfall, runoff, lithology index, coefficient of torrentiality, and basin area. The proposed Levenberg-Marquardt and Multilayer Perceptron algorithms to train the neural networks of the current research study was based on the feed-forward backpropagation method with combinations of number of neurons in each hidden layer, transfer function, error goal. Additionally, three statistical measurements, namely the root mean square error (RMSE, the coefficient of determination (R², and the efficiency factor (EF have been reported for examining the forecasting accuracy of the developed model. Single plot displays of network outputs with respect to targets for training have provided good performance results and good fitting . Thus, ANNs were a promising method for predicting suspended sediment yield in ungauged Algerian catchments.

  3. Planning the development of the Mekong river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomchai, P [Mekong Secretariat, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1992-10-01

    In planning to develop the vast potential of the Mekong river in Southeast Asia, a number of institutional aspects need to be addressed, and the sometimes diverging interests of the riparian countries need to be carefully balanced. The Mekong river is an extremely valuable natural resource: its potential for irrigation, hydropower, navigation, fisheries and related development is more than adequate to raise significantly the standards of living of the people of the lower Mekong basin and in the riparian countries outside the river's catchment area. The Mekong's catchment area of 795 000 km[sup 2] encompasses parts of China and Myanmar, the whole of Laos and Cambodia, one third of Thailand and one fifth of Viet Nam. The population of the Mekong basin is around 100 million, about half of whom live in the lower basin. It could be said that these impoverished inhabitants of the basin depend significantly on the Mekong for an improvement in their livelihood, and this places a heavy responsibility on those involved in developing its water resources. The Mekong Committee, since its establishment in 1957 and in its present interim status since 1977, is dedicated to the co-ordinated development of the basin's resources, on the basis of reasonable and equitable sharing between the riparian states as stated in the Committee's declaration of principles. With the establishment of the Mekon Committee, serious efforts have been made aimed at rational management of water resources use. (author).

  4. Characterisation of dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using a deterministic spatially distributed direct hydrograph travel time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, F.; Gironas, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The link between stream network structure and hydrologic response for natural basins has been extensively studied. It is well known that stream network organization and flow dynamics in the reaches combine to shape the hydrologic response of natural basins. Geomorphologic dispersion and hydrodynamic dispersion along with hillslope processes control to a large extent the overall variance of the hydrograph, particularly under the assumption of constant celerity throughout the basin. In addition, a third mechanism referred as to kinematic dispersion becomes relevant when considering spatial variations of celerity. On contrary, the link between the drainage network structure and overall urban terrain, and the hydrologic response in urban catchments has been much less studied. In particular, the characterization of the different dispersion mechanisms within urban areas remains to be better understood. In such areas artificial elements are expected to contribute to the total dispersion due to the variety of geometries and the spatial distribution of imperviousness. This work quantifies the different dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment, focusing on their relevance and the spatial scales involved. For this purpose we use the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph model, a deterministic spatially distributed direct hydrograph travel time model, which computes travel times in hillslope, pipe, street and channel cells using formulations derived from kinematic wave theory. The model was applied to the Aubeniere catchment, located in Nantes, France. Unlike stochastic models, this deterministic model allows the quantification of dispersion mechanism at the local scale (i.e. the grid-cell). We found that kinematic dispersion is more relevant for small storm events, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more significant for larger storms, as the mean celerity within the catchment increases. In addition, the total dispersion relates to the drainage area in

  5. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, J. R.; Robinson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall) vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms), contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.

  6. Action recognition is sensitive to the identity of the actor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ylva; Bülthoff, Heinrich; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing who is carrying out an action is essential for successful human interaction. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this ability are little understood and have been subject of discussions in embodied approaches to action recognition. Here we examine one solution, that visual action recognition processes are at least partly sensitive to the actor's identity. We investigated the dependency between identity information and action related processes by testing the sensitivity of neural action recognition processes to clothing and facial identity information with a behavioral adaptation paradigm. Our results show that action adaptation effects are in fact modulated by both clothing information and the actor's facial identity. The finding demonstrates that neural processes underlying action recognition are sensitive to identity information (including facial identity) and thereby not exclusively tuned to actions. We suggest that such response properties are useful to help humans in knowing who carried out an action. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Passenger Rail SOEs as Domestic Institutional Market Actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    sectorial challenges. In Sweden, this role has a new public governance form as the monopoly over time is fully dismantled. In Denmark, over time marketization is put on hold due to problems with the SOE as a market actor, but the SOE is nevertheless safeguarded in a new Weberian model as a sector......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to make an empirical-based conceptualization of the contemporary domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as domestic institutional market actors (IMAs) in the marketization of public service delivery. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based...... on a qualitative comparative case study of the SOEs in passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden from 1990 to 2015. Findings: The paper shows how marketization results in a layered institutional set-up of public service delivery based on both competition and monopoly where the SOE becomes what we call an IMA bridging...

  8. Actor proliferation and the fragmentation of violent groups in conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Dowd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel application of a measure of actor fragmentation drawn from electoral studies to the growing field of conflict event data. The application facilitates comparison of conflict environments over time and across cases, while enabling researchers to take account of the relative activity levels of diverse actors. Analysis of the measure suggests that a fragmentation index diverges from a simple count of active conflict agents in important instances, including in providing a more accurate measure of dominant and weaker conflict agents, capturing dynamics of escalation and continuation of conflict over time and across country cases, and reflecting the coalescence of conflict agents around dominant conflict cleavages. The findings suggest that future research may benefit from combining measures of the discrete count of groups and their relative activity levels in order to accurately capture evolving conflict dynamics.

  9. APPROACHES TO GLOBAL SECURITY. ACTORS, MANIFESTATIONS AND TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world seems to be in a transition from the current system founded on the liberal social, economic and political model to a more diverse and heterogeneous model in which the determinant role is played by a number of state and non-state actors. The step from the Western system of cultural, political and predominant economic values to a more diverse and heterogeneous system makes the actors involved defend not only their visions, but also promote their own interests. The differences between visions gain relevance and clarity because the countries supporting them obtain increased power, and that is more than obvious. All this leads to a symmetric allocation of different means, which generates uncertainties and diminishes unilateral actions This transition process impacts global security especially through the asymmetric, unconventional and hybrid risks and threats manifesting worldwide.

  10. Widening the scope? How intermediary actors can shape energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maneschi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with energy consumption in the residential sector and with the implementation of measures to reduce it. While most research dealing with energy consumption has targeted factors and drivers at the individual user level, more recent works have highlighted collective aspects...... of (energy) consumption, both to explain the resilience of consumption patterns and to identify leverage points for the reduction of energy use. One understudied aspect of this discussion is the way “intermediary” actors – those actors who are neither policy makers, nor users, nor energy providers...... – influence energy consumption. This paper presents a review of the literature on intermediaries, providing an overview of their roles and contextualizing their functions in energy efficiency improvements. The review shows how the concept of intermediaries has been used in research dealing with innovation...

  11. Semantics for Communicating Actors with Interdependent Real-Time Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2009-01-01

    on the results, these tools must use consistent semantics for the model. Yet, a monolithic semantic model is just as complex as the entity it describes. In order to circumvent this issue, we define a three level semantics giving independent definitions of the functionality of actors, the temporal properties...... of communications, and finally imposing deadlines on the timing of dependent actors. With this approach the semantics is used directly in developing a simulator supporting the nondeterminism of the abstract semantics such that e.g. potential race conditions can be detected. The layers are also planned to underpin...... independent specialized verification tools. The verification task for timed, hybrid systems can thus be divided into the continuous, discrete, and timing domains with automated translation to specialized tools, and this promises better scalability than simulation or model checking of one complex model....

  12. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  13. New market actors: economic social movements and politicized consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Portilho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on new market actors, and economic social movements in particular - that is, those in which actors build a new culture of political action that seeks to reappropriate the economy through their own values. Some examples of this are the movements organized around “solidarity economics”, fair trade, geographic indications, “slow food” and consumer organization. This interface of social movements and the market may be the most marked, differentiated and polemic trait of contemporary political mobilizations. Nonetheless, beyond economic social movements, this article simultaneously emphasizes and problematizes political action within the sphere of individual consumption, that is, that which has been referred to as “political consumption”. Keywords: economic social movements, consumer movements, political consumption.

  14. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  15. Vallerani Micro-Catchment Infiltration Dynamics and Erosion from Simulated Rainfall and Concentrated Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, M. J.; McGwire, K.; Weltz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Critical research gaps in rangeland hydrology still exist on the impact of conservation practices on erosion and subsequent mobilization of dissolved solids to streams. This study develops the scientific foundation necessary to better understand how a restoration strategy using a Vallerani Plow can be optimized to minimize erosion from rainfall impact and concentrated flow. Use of the Vallerani system has been proposed for use in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where rapidly eroding rangelands contribute high salt loads to the Colorado River at a significant economic cost. The poster presentation will document the findings from a series of physical rainfall and concentrated flow simulations taking place at an experimental site northeast of Reno, NV in early August. A Walnut Gulch Rainfall simulator is used to apply variable intensity and duration rainfall events to micro-catchment structures created by the Vallerani Plow. The erosion and deposition caused by simulated rainfall will be captured from multi-angle photography using structure from motion (SFM) to create sub-centimeter 3-D models between each rainfall event. A rill-simulator also will be used to apply large volumes of concentrated flow to Vallerani micro-catchments, testing the point at which their infiltration capacity is exceeded and micro-catchments are overtopped. This information is important to adequately space structures on a given hillslope so that chances of failure are minimized. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity from a Guelph Permeameter will be compared to the experimental results in order to develop an efficient method for surveying new terrain for treatment with the Vallerani plow. The effect of micro-catchments on surface flow and erosion will eventually be incorporated into the process-based Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) to create a tool that provides decision makers with quantitative estimates of potential reductions in erosion when

  16. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bussi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss and sediment transport in Mediterranean areas are driven by complex non-linear processes which have been only partially understood. Distributed models can be very helpful tools for understanding the catchment-scale phenomena which lead to soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study, a modelling approach is proposed to reproduce and evaluate erosion and sediment yield processes in a Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Valencia, Spain. Due to the lack of sediment transport records for model calibration and validation, a detailed description of the alluvial stratigraphy infilling a check dam that drains a 12.9 km2 sub-catchment was used as indirect information of sediment yield data. These dam infill sediments showed evidences of at least 15 depositional events (floods over the time period 1990–2009. The TETIS model, a distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment model, was coupled to the Sediment Trap Efficiency for Small Ponds (STEP model for reproducing reservoir retention, and it was calibrated and validated using the sedimentation volume estimated for the depositional units associated with discrete runoff events. The results show relatively low net erosion rates compared to other Mediterranean catchments (0.136 Mg ha−1 yr−1, probably due to the extensive outcrops of limestone bedrock, thin soils and rather homogeneous vegetation cover. The simulated sediment production and transport rates offer model satisfactory results, further supported by in-site palaeohydrological evidences and spatial validation using additional check dams, showing the great potential of the presented data assimilation methodology for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged Mediterranean basins.

  17. Root reinforcement and its implications in shallow landsliding susceptibility on a small alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, M. C.; Farabegoli, E.; Onorevoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Roots shear resistance offers a considerable contribution to hill-slope stability on vegetated terrains. Through the pseudo-cohesion of shrubs, trees and turf's roots, the geomechanical properties of soils can be drastically increased, exerting a positive influence on the hillslope stability. We analysed the shallow landsliding susceptibility of a small alpine catchment (Duron valley, Central Dolomites, Italy) that we consider representative of a wide altitude belt of the Dolomites (1800 - 2400 m a.s.l). The catchment is mostly mantled by grass (Nardetum strictae s.l.), with clustered shrubs (Rhododendron hirsutum and Juniperus nana), and trees (Pinus cembra, Larix decidua and Picea abies). The soil depth, investigated with direct and indirect methods, ranges from 0 to 180 cm, with its peak at the hollow axes. Locally, the bedrock, made of Triassic volcanic rocks, is deeply incised by the Holocene drainage network. Intensive grazing of cows and horses pervades the catchment area and cattle-trails occupy ca 20% of the grass cover. We used laboratory and field tests to characterize the geotechnical properties of these alpine soils; moreover we designed and tested an experimental device that measures, in situ, the shear strengths of the grass mantle. In the study area we mapped 18 shallow landslides, mostly related to road cuts and periodically reactivated as retrogressive landslides. The triggering mechanisms of these shallow landslides were qualitatively analysed at large scale and modelled at smaller scale. We used SHALSTAB to model the shallow landsliding susceptibility of the catchment at the basin scale and SLIDE (RocScience) to compute the Safety Factor at the versant scale. Qualitative management solutions are provided, in order to reduce the shallow landsliding susceptibility risk in this alpine context.

  18. Demystifying facilitation of multi-actor learning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural devel...

  19. Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, and Strategic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    local wireless network to in- form the doctor, relatives, or other caregivers that the medications have been taken. In this way, computer chips have...labeled this phenomenon BlackFor, or Black Force, defined as a “postmodern form of societal cancer ,” and as “a confederation of illicit non-state actors...psychedelics, pre- 298 scription, precursors, opioids, ecstasy, cannabis , and steroids.61 Once these products were purchased, they were shipped in

  20. Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Artificial Intelligence Labora- tory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the labora- tory’s aritificial intelligence research is...RD-A157 917 ACTORS: A MODEL OF CONCURRENT COMPUTATION IN 1/3- DISTRIBUTED SY𔃿TEMS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CRMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ...Computation In Distributed Systems Gui A. Aghai MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Thsdocument ha. been cipp-oved I= pblicrelease and sale; itsI

  1. Wave Energy and Actor-Network Theory: The Irish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the wave energy sector in Ireland using theories from the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Theoretical divisions within the field of STS are examined, particularly the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (SSK) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Any conflicts which these two theories present to each other are examined through the empirical findings of the Irish wave energy sector. In particular, ANT s rejection of macro and micro distinctions when analy...

  2. Beyond Pain: Coercing Violent Non-State Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    same collection by Abraham Maslow , “A Theory of Motivation,” 174- 175, taken from Psychological Review, 50 (1943). 15 For excellent study of global...utility now? Despite a persistent threat, contemporary theory and practice are not oriented on the VNSA problem. Focus remains on inter-state...actors make imperfect decisions resulting in unexpected behaviors. This is contrary to the underlying premise of classical coercion theory , which

  3. The Grenelle de l'Environnement - actors, discourses, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, Daniel; Brugidou, Mathieu; Halpern, Charlotte; Lascoumes, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes an abstract of a collective publication which aimed at assessing the effects of the French environmental policy 'Grenelle de l'Environnement', its methodological originality and its consequences in terms of environmental public policies. The authors propose a sociological analysis of the about thousand five hundred involved actors, a thorough analysis of discourses, and an inventory of effects in three specific fields

  4. Runoff of small rocky headwater catchments: Field observations and hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoretti, C.; Degetto, M.; Bernard, M.; Crucil, G.; Pimazzoni, A.; De Vido, G.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.; Lanzoni, S.

    2016-10-01

    In dolomitic headwater catchments, intense rainstorms of short duration produce runoff discharges that often trigger debris flows on the scree slopes at the base of rock cliffs. In order to measure these discharges, we placed a measuring facility at the outlet (elevation 1770 m a.s.l.) of a small, rocky headwater catchment (area ˜0.032 km2, average slope ˜320%) located in the Venetian Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps). The facility consists of an approximately rectangular basin, ending with a sharp-crested weir. Six runoff events were recorded in the period 2011-2014, providing a unique opportunity for characterizing the hydrological response of the catchment. The measured hydrographs display impulsive shapes, with an abrupt raise up to the peak, followed by a rapidly decreasing tail, until a nearly constant plateau is eventually reached. This behavior can be simulated by means of a distributed hydrological model if the excess rainfall is determined accurately. We show that using the Soil Conservation Service Curve-Number (SCS-CN) method and assuming a constant routing velocity invariably results in an underestimated peak flow and a delayed peak time. A satisfactory prediction of the impulsive hydrograph shape, including peak value and timing, is obtained only by combining the SCS-CN procedure with a simplified version of the Horton equation, and simulating runoff routing along the channel network through a matched diffusivity kinematic wave model. The robustness of the proposed methodology is tested through a comparison between simulated and observed timings of runoff or debris flow occurrence in two neighboring alpine basins.

  5. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuring, Philipp [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Collins, Adrian L. [Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Rode, Michael [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km{sup 2} Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments

  6. Counterterrorism in the Russian Arctic: legal framework and central actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvill M. Elgsaas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s strategic interests in the Arctic coupled with a complex and diffuse terrorist threat has produced a niche topic: Arctic counterterrorism. Arctic counterterrorism is a new and underdeveloped topic that has received only limited attention. This article contributes a discussion of the legal framework and the main actors involved in countering terrorism in the Russian Arctic. The author finds that the legal framework for counterterrorism is extensive yet centered in core documents. Similarly, counterterrorism involves many and varied actors united in a relatively simple and streamlined national system for counterterrorism. Current legal regulation and organisation provide a solid base that may support efficient management of counterterrorism, also in the Arctic. A notable strength is the concentration of coordination responsibilities in the hands of one central actor, the FSB. Another important characteristic is that the system is symmetrical and follows Russia’s federal organisation with coordinating bodies for all regions including those in the Arctic. Counterterrorism legislation is kept up to date and the trend is towards tougher punishments and a wide understanding of terrorist offenses. A potential weak spot is the unclear role of the newly formed National Guard. The uncertainty surrounding the role of the National Guard in the fight against terrorism may challenge the FSB and weaken coordination of the system for counterterrorism in the future.

  7. Environmental assessment for sustainable development: process, actors and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, P.; Delisle, C.E.; Reveret, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple environmental problems afflict our contemporary world and have been the subject of discussions during many international meetings. All declarations resulting from these meetings insist on including environmental problems and on environmental assessment (EA) as an important tool to achieve this. This book aims to reach three objectives. First, it introduces EA to people from different disciplines, and therefore it opens up the perspective of new disciplinary horizons. Second, the authors discuss EA as a socio-political process rather than emphasizing methodologies. Third, this book draws mainly on the experience in Francophone countries which is still poorly disseminated. This book focusses on process and actors. Thus, the subject matter is divided into five major parts: the history and major issues of EA from a sustainable development perspective (Chapters 1 to 3); the actors, i.e. the Project Proponent and consulting firms, the public, the decision maker and international actors (Chapters 4 to 7); methods and tools including public participation (Chapters 8 and 9); processes in practice through step by step processes in practice and case studies (Chapters 10 and 11); and, finally, recent and upcoming developments in EA, including elements of strategic environmental assessment (Chapters 12 and 13). An index facilitates searching for information. The reader is also invited to consult the book's website

  8. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  9. Searching for realism, structure and agency in Actor Network Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2008-09-01

    Superficially, Actor Network Theory (ANT) and critical realism (CR) are radically opposed research traditions. Written from a realist perspective, this paper asks whether there might be a basis for finding common ground between these two traditions. It looks in turn at the questions of realism, structure, and agency, analysing the differences between the two perspectives and seeking to identify what each might learn from the other. Overall, the paper argues that there is a great deal that realists can learn from actor network theory; yet ANT remains stunted by its lack of a depth ontology. It fails to recognize the significance of mechanisms, and of their dependence on emergence, and thus lacks both dimensions of the depth that is characteristic of critical realism's ontology. This prevents ANT from recognizing the role and powers of social structure; but on the other hand, realists would do well to heed ANT's call for us to trace the connections through which structures are constantly made and remade. A lack of ontological depth also underpins ANT's practice of treating human and non-human actors symmetrically, yet this remains a valuable provocation to sociologists who neglect non-human entities entirely.

  10. The Psychological Self as Actor, Agent, and Author.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Dan P

    2013-05-01

    The psychological self may be construed as a reflexive arrangement of the subjective "I" and the constructed "Me," evolving and expanding over the human life course. The psychological self begins life as a social actor, construed in terms of performance traits and social roles. By the end of childhood, the self has become a motivated agent, too, as personal goals, motives, values, and envisioned projects for the future become central features of how the I conceives of the Me. A third layer of selfhood begins to form in the adolescent and emerging adulthood years, when the self as autobiographical author aims to construct a story of the Me, to provide adult life with broad purpose and a dynamic sense of temporal continuity. An integrative theory that envisions the psychological self as a developing I-Me configuration of actor, agent, and author helps to synthesize a wide range of conceptions and findings on the self from social, personality, cognitive, cultural, and developmental psychology and from sociology and other social sciences. The actor-agent-author framework also sheds new light on studies of self-regulation, self-esteem, self-continuity, and the relationship between self and culture. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Biomass markets. Growth strategy and challenges for French actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This study comprises three reports. The first one is an executive summary which focuses on the main aspects of the evolution of the activity in the biomass sector, and highlights factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second one proposes an overview of the situation of biomass French markets, analyses growth strategies adopted by actors of the biomass sector (development of new production capacities, international growth, development of strategies based on several energies, diversification of prospects, innovation and improvement of installation efficiency), and discusses the main strategic challenges on the medium term. The third report proposes a presentation of the context of French biomass markets (political, regulatory and energetic framework, energetic assessment and assessment of the waste-based sector, economic context, housing stock, and other contextual factors), a presentation of the biomass French market (data for 2005-2013, dynamics of three specific segments: solid biomass, renewable urban wastes, and biogas), and a description of the competitive landscape (economic structure, actors) and of the 15 main actors

  12. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  13. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  15. Collaborative Catchment-Scale Water Quality Management using Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    collaborative information sharing can have a direct influence on agricultural practice. We apply a nutrient management scheme to a model of an example catchment with several individual networks. The networks are able to correlate catchment events to events within their zone of influence, allowing them to adapt their monitoring and control strategy in light of wider changes across the catchment. Results indicate that this can lead to significant reductions in nutrient losses (up to 50%) and better reutilization of nutrients amongst farms, having a positive impact on catchment scale water quality and fertilizer costs. 1. EC, E.C., Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, 2000. 2. Rivers, M., K. Smettem, and P. Davies. Estimating future scenarios for farm-watershed nutrient fluxes using dynamic simulation modelling-Can on-farm BMPs really do the job at the watershed scale? in Proc.29th Int.Conf System Dynamics Society, 2011. 2010. Washington 3. Liu, C., et al., On-farm evaluation of winter wheat yield response to residual soil nitrate-N in North China Plain. Agronomy Journal, 2008. 100(6): p. 1527-1534. 4. Kotamäki, N., et al., Wireless in-situ sensor network for agriculture and water monitoring on a river basin scale in Southern Finland: Evaluation from a data user's perspective. Sensors, 2009. 9(4): p. 2862-2883.

  16. The Saale-Project -A multidisciplinary approach towards sustainable integrative catchment management -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongartz, K.; Flügel, W. A.

    2003-04-01

    In the joint research project “Development of an integrated methodology for the sustainable management of river basins The Saale River Basin example”, coordinated by the Centre of Environmental Research (UFZ), concepts and tools for an integrated management of large river basins are developed and applied for the Saale river basin. The ultimate objective of the project is to contribute to the holistic assessment and benchmarking approaches in water resource planning, as required by the European Water Framework Directive. The study presented here deals (1) with the development of a river basin information and modelling system, (2) with the refinement of a regionalisation approach adapted for integrated basin modelling. The approach combines a user friendly basin disaggregation method preserving the catchment’s physiographic heterogeneity with a process oriented hydrological basin assessment for scale bridging integrated modelling. The well tested regional distribution concept of Response Units (RUs) will be enhanced by landscape metrics and decision support tools for objective, scale independent and problem oriented RU delineation to provide the spatial modelling entities for process oriented and distributed simulation of vertical and lateral hydrological transport processes. On basis of this RUs suitable hydrological modelling approaches will be further developed with strong respect to a more detailed simulation of the lateral surface and subsurface flows as well as the channel flow. This methodical enhancement of the well recognised RU-concept will be applied to the river basin of the Saale (Ac: 23 179 km2) and validated by a nested catchment approach, which allows multi-response-validation and estimation of uncertainties of the modelling results. Integrated modelling of such a complex basin strongly influenced by manifold human activities (reservoirs, agriculture, urban areas and industry) can only be achieved by coupling the various modelling approaches

  17. Children's Moral Judgments as a Function of Intention, Damage, and an Actor's Physical Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suls, Jerry; Kalle, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines children's moral judgments of story characters who accidently harm themselves. Children in kindergarten and in grades 3 and 5 rated actors in stories which varied in terms of intention, damage, and harm to the actor. (SS)

  18. Importance of Actors and Agency in Sustainability Transitions: A Systematic Exploration of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Britt Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of actors and agency in the literature on sustainability transitions. We reviewed 386 journal articles on transition management and sustainability transitions listed in Scopus from 1995 to 2014. We investigate the thesis that actors have been neglected in this literature in favor of more abstract system concepts. Results show that this thesis cannot be confirmed on a general level. Rather, we find a variety of different approaches, depending on the systemic level, for clustering actors and agency as niche, regime, and landscape actors; the societal realm; different levels of governance; and intermediaries. We also differentiate between supporting and opposing actors. We find that actor roles in transitions are erratic, since their roles can change over the course of time, and that actors can belong to different categories. We conclude by providing recommendations for a comprehensive typology of actors in sustainability transitions.

  19. Necessity for Consistent and Understandable Engagement Policies with Non-State Actors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    How does a nonstate actor, namely a recognized armed insurgent group, transition to the political realm from insurgent to state actor, and what are the implications of such transitions for U.S. foreign policy...

  20. The role of social actors in times of crisis / El papel de los actores sociales en tiempos de crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Medina Iborra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the performance of the two main trade unions (UGT and CCOO and the employers’ association CEOE during the economic crisis. The analysis focuses on their position on major reforms, on their ideological differences over various public policies, as well as on their ability to negotiate collective bargaining agreements. We depart from the command of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, which in its seventh article gives trade unions and business associations a prominent role in representing economic interests, to suggest that social actors would be likely to reduce their chances of veto in times of economic crisis given the exceptional situation. However, the article confirms a gap in the approaches of social actors and the few options for a strong social dialogue. This leads to a greater distance between the social actors and the public opinion, as evidenced by the results derived from the survey on ‘Culture and Political Representation in Spain’.

  1. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  2. Counter-terrorism and the protection of civilians: Armed non-state actors

    OpenAIRE

    Munive, Jairo; Somer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent events in the Middle East present the latest and undoubtedly not the last challenge to international engagement with armed non-state actors. Over the last many years international humanitarian law has increasingly regulated the behaviour of armed non-state actors with regard to the protection of civilians. At the same time, counter-terror measures have increasingly addressed such conduct, as well as controlled the extent to which other actors may interact with armed non-state actors. Y...

  3. Selected Micropollutants as Indicators in a Karst Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Schiperski, Ferry; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    High flow dynamics and variations in water quality are typical for karst springs and reflect the complex interaction of different flow and storage components within a karst system. Event-based monitoring of mobile micropollutants in spring water combined with information on their input is used (1) to quantify the impact of certain contamination scenarios on spring water quality and (2) to gain additional information on the intrinsic characteristics of a karst system. We employ the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate as source specific indicators for sewage along with the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon for agriculture. The study site is the 45 km² rural catchment of the perennial karst spring Gallusquelle in SW-Germany (mean discharge: 0.5 m³/s). Overflow events of a stormwater detention basin (SDB, combined sewer system) are known to impact water quality. Most of the sewer system is situated in the SW of the catchment. Most agricultural land is found in the NE. Neither atrazine nor significant amounts of isoproturon were detected in wastewater. Concentrations and mass fluxes of acesulfame and cyclamate in wastewater were determined. The combined evaluation of the persistent compound acesulfame with the rather degradable cyclamate allows for the distinction of long and short transit times and thus slow and fast flow components. The same applies for atrazine (persistent) and isoproturon (degradable). In Germany, acesulfame was licensed in 1990, atrazine was banned shortly after, in 1991. During low flow conditions only atrazine (max. 4 ng/L) and acesulfame (max. 20 ng/L) were detected in spring water. After a recharge event without SDB overflow concentrations as well as mass fluxes of both compounds decreased, reflecting an increasing portion of event water in spring discharge. A breakthrough of isoproturon (max. 9 ng/L) indicated the arrival of water from croplands. After a recharge event accompanied by a SDB overflow cyclamate was detected at max

  4. Hydro-economic modelling in mining catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa Moreno, J. S.; McIntyre, N.; Rivera, D.; Smart, J. C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydro-economic models are gaining momentum because of their capacity to model both the physical processes related to water supply, and socio-economic factors determining water demand. This is particularly valuable in the midst of the large uncertainty upon future climate conditions and social trends. Agriculture, urban uses and environmental flows have received a lot of attention from researchers, as these tend to be the main consumers of water in most catchments. Mine water demand, although very important in several small and medium-sized catchments worldwide, has received less attention and only few models have attempted to reproduce its dynamics with other users. This paper describes an on-going project that addresses this gap, by developing a hydro-economic model in the upper Aconcagua River in Chile. This is a mountain catchment with large scale mining and hydro-power users at high altitudes, and irrigation areas in a downstream valley. Relevant obstacles to the model included the lack of input climate data, which is a common feature in several mining areas, the complex hydrological processes in the area and the difficulty of quantifying the value of water used by mines. A semi-distributed model developed within the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), was calibrated to reproduce water supply, and this was complemented with an analysis of the value of water for mining based on two methods; water markets and an analysis of its production processes. Agriculture and other users were included through methods commonly used in similar models. The outputs help understanding the value of water in the catchment, and its sensitivity to changes in climate variables, market prices, environmental regulations and changes in the production of minerals, crops and energy. The results of the project highlight the importance of merging hydrology and socio-economic calculations in mining regions, in order to better understand trade-offs and cost of opportunity of using

  5. Who Needs What? Some Thoughts on the Possibility of Using Psychology in Actor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Contends that the aim of professional actor training is to reveal and develop an actor's individuality. Proposes that the responsibility of drama teachers is to lead training in such away that students feel accepted, understood, and respected. Proposes that psychodrama is the most appropriate method for student and professional actors' personal…

  6. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  7. A Low-cost System for Generating Near-realistic Virtual Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mahmoud; Hussain, Khaled F.; Ibrahim, Hosny M.; Omar, Nagwa M.

    2015-06-01

    Generating virtual actors is one of the most challenging fields in computer graphics. The reconstruction of a realistic virtual actor has been paid attention by the academic research and the film industry to generate human-like virtual actors. Many movies were acted by human-like virtual actors, where the audience cannot distinguish between real and virtual actors. The synthesis of realistic virtual actors is considered a complex process. Many techniques are used to generate a realistic virtual actor; however they usually require expensive hardware equipment. In this paper, a low-cost system that generates near-realistic virtual actors is presented. The facial features of the real actor are blended with a virtual head that is attached to the actor's body. Comparing with other techniques that generate virtual actors, the proposed system is considered a low-cost system that requires only one camera that records the scene without using any expensive hardware equipment. The results of our system show that the system generates good near-realistic virtual actors that can be used on many applications.

  8. Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment of Non-point Source Pollution Measured Through Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes in a Tropical Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-05-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution (NPS) to the contamination of surface water is an issue of growing concern. Non-point source (NPS) pollutants are of various types and altered by several site-specific factors making them difficult to control due to complex uncertainties involve in their behavior. Kelantan River basin, Malaysia is a tropical catchment receiving heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with intense land use/land cover (LULC) changes making the area consistently flood prone thereby deteriorating the surface water quality in the area. This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes and to establish a NPS pollutant loads relationships among LULC conditions and sub-basins in each catchment. Four pollutants parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) were chosen with their corresponding event mean concentration values (EMC). Soil map and LULC change maps corresponding to 1984, 2002 and 2013 were used for the calculation of runoff and NPS pollutant loads using numeric integration in a GIS environment. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for the comparison of NPS pollutant loads among the three LULC conditions used and the sub-basins in each catchment. The results showed that the spatio-temporal variation of pollutant loads in almost all the catchments increased with changes in LULC condition as one moves from 1984 to 2013, with 2013 LULC condition found as the dominant in almost all cases. NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes also increased with changes in LULC condition from 1984 to 2013. While urbanization was found to be the dominant LULC change with the highest pollutant load in all the catchments. Results from ANOVA reveals that statistically most significant ( p changes on NPS pollution. The findings of this study may be useful to water resource planners in controlling water pollution

  9. Examining runoff generation processes in the Selke catchment in central Germany: Insights from data and semi-distributed numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: We examined the spatio-temporal variation of runoff generating mechanisms on the sub-basin level on seasonal basis. Our analysis reveals that the runoff generation in the Selke catchment is primarily dominated by shallow sub-surface flow and very rarely the contribution from Dunne overland flow exceeds sub-surface flow. Runoff generated by Hortonian mechanism is very infrequent and almost negligible. We also examined the spatio-temporal variation of runoff coefficients on seasonal basis as well as for individual storms. Due to higher precipitation and topographic relief in the upland catchment of Silberhutte, the runoff coefficients were consistently higher and its peak was found in winter months due to lower evapotranspiration.

  10. Using Isotope Methods to Assess Groundwater Recharge in Some Hydraulic Catchments in a Semiarid Region in Central Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouari, K.; Trabelsi, R.; Kacem, A. [Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment, ENIS, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2013-07-15

    Water resource issues constitute a major concern in arid and semiarid areas in Tunisia. To meet rising demand for different human activities considerable importance is being given to improving the natural groundwater recharge by the installation of hydraulic catchments. In central Tunisia, numerous retention sites and dams have been built since 1990, for example, the el Ogla dam in the Nadhour-Saouaf basin. In order to determine the implication of these hill reservoirs on the hydrodynamic functioning and water quality of the aquifer system, hydrochemical (major elements) and isotopic methods have been employed. The interpretation of these results showed that the shallow aquifer is recharged mainly by surface water and water dam infiltration from the el Ogla and Sahel catchments. A tentative isotopic mass balance based on stable isotope contents leads to the quantification of the artificial recharge rate, which ranges between 42% and 86% of precipitation in the humid period. (author)

  11. Hydrological effects of fire in South-African mountain catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available is entirely suppressed and a deep litter mat develops giving a continuous cover with good soil protection characteristics. The timber plantations are at risk of burning as they are surrounded by fire-maintained vegetation... in vegetation type and fire characteristics. Description of the research catchments and treatments The catchments studied are all small, mountainous and with a high rainfall, each forming part of long-term experimental catchment...

  12. Flash flood warning in mountainaious areas: using damages reports to evaluate the method at small ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, Dimitri; Javelle, Pierre; Ecrepont, Stéphane; Andreassian, Vazken

    2013-04-01

    floods. Furthermore, many events are missed, since flash floods can occur very locally. In this study, we try to evaluate the results on observations collected by witnesses on 'real' ungauged catchments. The proposed method consists to use an historical data-base of flood damages reports. These data have been collected by local authorities (RTM). Finally, 139 ungauged locations were considered, where we simulated discharges for the entire 1997-2006 period. The comparison of these modelled discharges with the occurrence of an observed discharge makes it possible to determine a local 'modelled' discharge threshold above it most of the damages are observed. The pertinence of this threshold (and consequently of the model used for the simulation) is assessed by considering classical contingency statistics: probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR) and critical success index (CSI). The main advantage of this historical approach is the availability of many events in the database on very small catchments (50% less than 20 km²). The preliminary results show that on gauged basins, the base flow and the snowmelt added modules improve the performance of the AIGA method when locally calibrated. But when results are applied on real ungauged catchments, improvements become less obvious, with a small advantage for neighbour's method. These results shows the difficulty arising with ungauged catchments, specially when target catchments are smaller than the gauged 'parents'. It also illustrates the interest of the damages database used as 'proxy' data to investigate the model performances at smaller scales. This work has been done in the framework of the RHYTMME project, with the financial support of the European Union, the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Region and the French Ministry in charge of Ecology.

  13. A multi-objective approach to improve SWAT model calibration in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Ye; Marcolini, Giorgia; Disse, Markus; Chiogna, Gabriele

    2018-04-01

    Multi-objective hydrological model calibration can represent a valuable solution to reduce model equifinality and parameter uncertainty. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is widely applied to investigate water quality and water management issues in alpine catchments. However, the model calibration is generally based on discharge records only, and most of the previous studies have defined a unique set of snow parameters for an entire basin. Only a few studies have considered snow observations to validate model results or have taken into account the possible variability of snow parameters for different subbasins. This work presents and compares three possible calibration approaches. The first two procedures are single-objective calibration procedures, for which all parameters of the SWAT model were calibrated according to river discharge alone. Procedures I and II differ from each other by the assumption used to define snow parameters: The first approach assigned a unique set of snow parameters to the entire basin, whereas the second approach assigned different subbasin-specific sets of snow parameters to each subbasin. The third procedure is a multi-objective calibration, in which we considered snow water equivalent (SWE) information at two different spatial scales (i.e. subbasin and elevation band), in addition to discharge measurements. We tested these approaches in the Upper Adige river basin where a dense network of snow depth measurement stations is available. Only the set of parameters obtained with this multi-objective procedure provided an acceptable prediction of both river discharge and SWE. These findings offer the large community of SWAT users a strategy to improve SWAT modeling in alpine catchments.

  14. 3-D basin modelling of the Paris Basin: diagenetic and hydrogeologic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Jost, A.; Marsily, G. de

    2004-01-01

    integrating all these actors in a same research program (PNRH.99/35-01/44: 'Paris basin modelling') we were able to draw a more comprehensive view of the Paris basin evolution. At each step of the work, meetings and discussions were conducted to assess the validity of the data and quality of the results. Thus work is still in progress, the basin model results will be first emphasized in this short paper, and while the hydro-climatologic modelling will be presented as a perspective for future work. (author)

  15. Global Surgery 2030: a roadmap for high income country actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah L M; Abdullah, Fizan; Amado, Vanda; Anderson, Geoffrey A; Cossa, Matchecane; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa; Davies, Justine; Debas, Haile T; Dyer, George S M; Erdene, Sarnai; Farmer, Paul E; Gaumnitz, Amber; Hagander, Lars; Haider, Adil; Leather, Andrew J M; Lin, Yihan; Marten, Robert; Marvin, Jeffrey T; McClain, Craig D; Meara, John G; Meheš, Mira; Mock, Charles; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Orgoi, Sergelen; Prestero, Timothy; Price, Raymond R; Raykar, Nakul P; Riesel, Johanna N; Riviello, Robert; Rudy, Stephen M; Saluja, Saurabh; Sullivan, Richard; Tarpley, John L; Taylor, Robert H; Telemaque, Louis-Franck; Toma, Gabriel; Varghese, Asha; Walker, Melanie; Yamey, Gavin; Shrime, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals have ended and the Sustainable Development Goals have begun, marking a shift in the global health landscape. The frame of reference has changed from a focus on 8 development priorities to an expansive set of 17 interrelated goals intended to improve the well-being of all people. In this time of change, several groups, including the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery, have brought a critical problem to the fore: 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. The magnitude of this problem and the world's new focus on strengthening health systems mandate reimagined roles for and renewed commitments from high income country actors in global surgery. To discuss the way forward, on 6 May 2015, the Commission held its North American launch event in Boston, Massachusetts. Panels of experts outlined the current state of knowledge and agreed on the roles of surgical colleges and academic medical centres; trainees and training programmes; academia; global health funders; the biomedical devices industry, and news media and advocacy organisations in building sustainable, resilient surgical systems. This paper summarises these discussions and serves as a consensus statement providing practical advice to these groups. It traces a common policy agenda between major actors and provides a roadmap for maximising benefit to surgical patients worldwide. To close the access gap by 2030, individuals and organisations must work collectively, interprofessionally and globally. High income country actors must abandon colonial narratives and work alongside low and middle income country partners to build the surgical systems of the future. PMID:28588908

  16. Predicting Surface Runoff from Catchment to Large Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting surface runoff from catchment to large region is a fundamental and challenging task in hydrology. This paper presents a comprehensive review for various studies conducted for improving runoff predictions from catchment to large region in the last several decades. This review summarizes the well-established methods and discusses some promising approaches from the following four research fields: (1 modeling catchment, regional and global runoff using lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models, distributed hydrological models, and land surface models, (2 parameterizing hydrological models in ungauged catchments, (3 improving hydrological model structure, and (4 using new remote sensing precipitation data.

  17. Conditional flood frequency and catchment state: a simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Marco; Bourgin, François; Merz, Bruno; Andreassian, Vazken; Blaquiere, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Catchments have memory and the conditional flood frequency distribution for a time period ahead can be seen as non-stationary: it varies with the catchment state and climatic factors. From a risk management perspective, understanding the link of conditional flood frequency to catchment state is a key to anticipate potential periods of higher flood risk. Here, we adopt a simulation approach to explore the link between flood frequency obtained by continuous rainfall-runoff simulation and the initial state of the catchment. The simulation chain is based on i) a three state rainfall generator applied at the catchment scale, whose parameters are estimated for each month, and ii) the GR4J lumped rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters are calibrated with all available data. For each month, a large number of stochastic realizations of the continuous rainfall generator for the next 12 months are used as inputs for the GR4J model in order to obtain a large number of stochastic realizations for the next 12 months. This process is then repeated for 50 different initial states of the soil moisture reservoir of the GR4J model and for all the catchments. Thus, 50 different conditional flood frequency curves are obtained for the 50 different initial catchment states. We will present an analysis of the link between the catchment states, the period of the year and the strength of the conditioning of the flood frequency compared to the unconditional flood frequency. A large sample of diverse catchments in France will be used.

  18. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  19. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  20. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Demand in many industrial buying situations, e.g. project purchases or procurement related to virtual organizations, is discontinuous. In situations of discontinuity, networks are often more of an ad hos informational and social nature, as strong activity and resource links are not present....... Furthermore the governance structure of markets characterized by discontinuous business activities is either that of the "socially constructed market" (Skaates, 2000) or that of the (socially constructed) network (Håkansson and Johanson, 1993). Additionally relationships and actor bonds vary substantially...

  1. The position of international political actors towards the Prague spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Tinu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The intervention of the USSR, Poland, Bulgaria, the German Democratic Republic and Hungary in Czechoslovakia on the night of 20 to 21 August 1968 produced a huge shock in the international community, but also a deepening of cleavage of relationships between the countries from the socialist camp. This study is an analysis of „hot“ reactions of key actors on the world political stage. The main source of information was the Agerpres Archive: unpublished documents (news, letters, analysis, translations of editorials in Western media and the external news flow.

  2. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, whi...... that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT)....

  3. Actor, creación colectiva y dramaturgia nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Buenaventura Alder

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available El teatro no es un género literario. Esta afirmación, que hace algunos años resultó -en un seminario, en Caracas- polémica y hasta escandalosa, es hoy un punto de partida en los estudios de semiótica teatral. Dentro de este orden de cosas se dice que el teatro no es ni más ni menos que el momento efímero en el cual se produce una relación entre actores y espectadores.

  4. The Barcelona Mobile Cluster: Actors, Contents and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scolari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication mediated by mobile devices is one of the most dynamic sectors of the global economy and is transforming different aspects of our lives, including our ways of relating and our cultural production, distribution and consumption models. Media studies should not ignore these transformations. This paper presents the results of a study carried out during 2008 to determine the actors, contents produced and trends of the mobile communication companies in Barcelona. The study outlines an initial map of the situation, proposes a series of analysis categories and lays the foundations for more specific future studies on mCommunication.

  5. Solid discharge and landslide activity at basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Iadanza, C.; Rossi, M.; Spizzichino, D.; Trigila, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a preliminary analysis aimed at understanding the relationship between landslide sediment supply and sediment yield at basin scale in central and southern Italy. A database of solid discharge measurements regarding 116 gauging stations, located along the Apennines chain in Italy, has been compiled by investigating the catalogues, named Annali Idrologici, published by Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Italiano in the period from 1917 to 1997. The database records several information about the 116 gauging stations, and especially reports the sediment yield monthly measurements (103 ton) and the catchments area (km2). These data have been used to calculate the average solid yield and the normalized solid yield for each station in the observation period. The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) has been used to obtained the size of the landslides, in order to estimate the landslide mobilization rates. The IFFI Project funded by the Italian Government is realized by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research - Geological Survey of Italy) in partnership with the 21 Regions and Self Governing Provinces. 21 of the 116 gauging stations and the related catchments have been selected on the basis of the length of the solid discharge observation period and excluding the catchments with dams located upstream the stations. The landslides inside the selected catchments have been extracted from the IFFI inventory, calculating the planimetric area of each landslide. Considering both the shallow and deep landslides, the landslide volume has been estimated using an empirical power law relation (landslide area vs. volume). The total landslide volume in the study areas and the average sediment yield measured at the gauging stations have been compared, analysing the behaviour of the basins which drainage towards the Tyrrhenian sea and the basins which drainage towards the Adriatic sea.

  6. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  7. Statistical analysis of hydrological response in urbanising catchments based on adaptive sampling using inter-amount times

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Schleiss, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Urban catchments are typically characterised by a more flashy nature of the hydrological response compared to natural catchments. Predicting flow changes associated with urbanisation is not straightforward, as they are influenced by interactions between impervious cover, basin size, drainage connectivity and stormwater management infrastructure. In this study, we present an alternative approach to statistical analysis of hydrological response variability and basin flashiness, based on the distribution of inter-amount times. We analyse inter-amount time distributions of high-resolution streamflow time series for 17 (semi-)urbanised basins in North Carolina, USA, ranging from 13 to 238 km2 in size. We show that in the inter-amount-time framework, sampling frequency is tuned to the local variability of the flow pattern, resulting in a different representation and weighting of high and low flow periods in the statistical distribution. This leads to important differences in the way the distribution quantiles, mean, coefficient of variation and skewness vary across scales and results in lower mean intermittency and improved scaling. Moreover, we show that inter-amount-time distributions can be used to detect regulation effects on flow patterns, identify critical sampling scales and characterise flashiness of hydrological response. The possibility to use both the classical approach and the inter-amount-time framework to identify minimum observable scales and analyse flow data opens up interesting areas for future research.

  8. Combining caesium-137 measurements and suspended sediment load data to investigate the sediment response of a small catchment in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Porto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A long-term measurement programme was operated in southern Italy during the 1960s and 1970s, to provide information on the suspended sediment yields from the main river basins. Information obtained for the rivers of Calabria suggests that suspended sediment yields in this area are relatively low. However, there is evidence that the intensity of land degradation within the upstream catchments is substantially higher than suggested by the values of specific sediment yield and there is a need to explore the relationship between on-site soil loss and downstream sediment yield more closely. Monitoring time-integrated erosion rates over large areas has traditionally required extensive long-term measurement programmes employing experimental plots. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs offers an alternative means of documenting medium-term rates of soil loss. This paper describes the use of 137Cs measurements and the available sediment load data to explore the links between soil erosion, sediment redistribution and storage, and sediment output for a medium-scale (41.3 km2 catchment in Calabria. Data available from a sediment load monitoring programme undertaken at the catchment outlet during 1962–1977 have been used to estimate the longer-term catchment sediment yield. This estimate has been combined with information provided by the 137Cs measurements, to establish a medium-term sediment budget for the catchment. The results provided by the 137Cs measurements indicate that the catchment is subject to much higher rates of soil loss and land degradation than suggested by its specific sediment yield. These findings are consistent with the results obtained for other catchments in Calabria for which both 137Cs derived erosion rates and measured sediment yields are available.

  9. Predicting the ungauged basin: Model validation and realism assessment

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    Tim evan Emmerik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological decade on Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB led to many new insights in model development, calibration strategies, data acquisition and uncertainty analysis. Due to a limited amount of published studies on genuinely ungauged basins, model validation and realism assessment of model outcome has not been discussed to a great extent. With this paper we aim to contribute to the discussion on how one can determine the value and validity of a hydrological model developed for an ungauged basin. As in many cases no local, or even regional, data are available, alternative methods should be applied. Using a PUB case study in a genuinely ungauged basin in southern Cambodia, we give several examples of how one can use different types of soft data to improve model design, calibrate and validate the model, and assess the realism of the model output. A rainfall-runoff model was coupled to an irrigation reservoir, allowing the use of additional and unconventional data. The model was mainly forced with remote sensing data, and local knowledge was used to constrain the parameters. Model realism assessment was done using data from surveys. This resulted in a successful reconstruction of the reservoir dynamics, and revealed the different hydrological characteristics of the two topographical classes. This paper does not present a generic approach that can be transferred to other ungauged catchments, but it aims to show how clever model design and alternative data acquisition can result in a valuable hydrological model for an ungauged catchment.

  10. Application of Temperature Index Model to Assess the Future Hydrological Regime of the Glacierized Catchments in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, R.; Kayastha, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Unavailability of hydro meteorological data in the Himalayan regions is challenging on understanding the flow regimes. Temperature index model is simple yet the powerful glacio-hydrological model to simulate the discharge in the glacierized basin. Modified Positive Degree Day (MPDD) Model Version 2.0 is a grid-ded based semi distributed model with baseflow module is a robust melt modelling tools to estimate the discharge. MPDD model uses temperature and precipitation as a forcing datasets to simulate the discharge and also to obtain the snowmelt, icemelt, rain and baseflow contribution on total discharge. In this study two glacierized, Marsyangdi and Langtang catchment were investigated for the future hydrological regimes. Marsyangdi encompasses an area of 4026.19 sq. km with 20% glaciated area, whereas Langtang catchment with area of 354.64 sq. km with 36% glaciated area is studied to examine for the future climatic scenarios. The model simulates discharge well for the observed period; (1992-1998) in Marsyangdi and from (2007-2013) in Langtang catchment. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) for the both catchment were above 0.75 with the volume difference less than - 8 %. The snow and ice melts contribution in Marsyangdi were 4.7% and 10.2% whereas in Langtang the contribution is 15.3% and 23.4%, respectively. Rain contribution ( 40%) is higher than the baseflow contribution in total discharge in both basins. The future river discharge is also predicted using the future climate data from the regional climate models (RCMs) of CORDEX South Asia experiments for the medium stabilization scenario RCP4.5 and very high radiative forcing scenario RCP8.5 after bias correction. The projected future discharge of both catchment shows slightly increase in both scenarios with increase of snow and ice melt contribution on discharge. The result generated from the model can be utilized to understand the future hydrological regimes of the glacierized catchment also the impact of

  11. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed open-quotes lithogenicclose quotes solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing open-quotes cosmogenicclose quotes nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing open-quotes thermonuclearclose quotes nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing open-quotes in-situclose quotes lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading open-quotes cosmogenic nuclidesclose quotes, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system

  12. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed {open_quotes}lithogenic{close_quotes} solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing {open_quotes}cosmogenic{close_quotes} nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing {open_quotes}thermonuclear{close_quotes} nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading {open_quotes}cosmogenic nuclides{close_quotes}, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system.

  13. Integration of rainfall/runoff and geomorphological analyses flood hazard in small catchments: case studies from the southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Manuela; Ascione, Alessandra; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We present the first results of an analysis of flood hazard in ungauged mountain catchments that are associated with intensely urbanized alluvial fans. Assessment of hydrological hazard has been based on the integration of rainfall/runoff modelling of drainage basins with geomorphological analysis and mapping. Some small and steep, ungauged mountain catchments located in various areas of the southern Apennines, in southern Italy, have been chosen as test sites. In the last centuries, the selected basins have been subject to heavy and intense precipitation events, which have caused flash floods with serious damages in the correlated alluvial fan areas. Available spatial information (regional technical maps, DEMs, land use maps, geological/lithological maps, orthophotos) and an automated GIS-based procedure (ArcGis tools and ArcHydro tools) have been used to extract morphological, hydrological and hydraulic parameters. Such parameters have been used to run the HEC (Hydrologic Engineering Center of the US Army Corps of Engineers) software (GeoHMS, GeoRAS, HMS and RAS) based on rainfall-runoff models, which have allowed the hydrological and hydraulic simulations. As the floods occurred in the studied catchments have been debris flows dominated, the solid load simulation has been also performed. In order to validate the simulations, we have compared results of the modelling with the effects produced by past floods. Such effects have been quantified through estimations of both the sediment volumes within each catchment that have the potential to be mobilised (pre-event) during a sediment transfer event, and the volume of sediments delivered by the debris flows at basins' outlets (post-event). The post-event sediment volume has been quantified through post-event surveys and Lidar data. Evaluation of the pre-event sediment volumes in single catchments has been based on mapping of sediment storages that may constitute source zones of bed load transport and debris flows. For

  14. Modelling spring flood in the area of the Upper Volga basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Helms

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river-basin management for the Volga river requires understanding and modelling of the flow process in its macro-scale tributary catchments. At the example of the Kostroma catchment (16 000 km2, a method combining existing hydrologic simulation tools was developed that allows operational modelling even when data are scarce. Emphasis was placed on simulation of three processes: snow cover development using a snow-compaction model, runoff generation using a conceptual approach with parameters for seasonal antecedent moisture conditions, and runoff concentration using a regionalised unit hydrograph approach. Based on this method, specific regional characteristics of the precipitation-runoff process were identified, in particular a distinct threshold behaviour of runoff generation in catchments with clay-rich soils. With a plausible overall parameterisation of involved tools, spring flood events could successfully be simulated. Present paper mainly focuses on the simulation of a 16-year sample of snowmelt events in a meso-scale catchment. An example of regionalised simulation in the scope of the modelling system "Flussgebietsmodell" shows the capabilities of developed method for application in macro-scale tributary catchments of the Upper Volga basin.

  15. Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and

  16. Test of a simplified modeling approach for nitrogen transfer in agricultural subsurface-drained catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henine, Hocine; Julien, Tournebize; Jaan, Pärn; Ülo, Mander

    2017-04-01

    In agricultural areas, nitrogen (N) pollution load to surface waters depends on land use, agricultural practices, harvested N output, as well as the hydrology and climate of the catchment. Most of N transfer models need to use large complex data sets, which are generally difficult to collect at larger scale (>km2). The main objective of this study is to carry out a hydrological and a geochemistry modeling by using a simplified data set (land use/crop, fertilizer input, N losses from plots). The modelling approach was tested in the subsurface-drained Orgeval catchment (Paris Basin, France) based on following assumptions: Subsurface tile drains are considered as a giant lysimeter system. N concentration in drain outlets is representative for agricultural practices upstream. Analysis of observed N load (90% of total N) shows 62% of export during the winter. We considered prewinter nitrate (NO3) pool (PWNP) in soils at the beginning of hydrological drainage season as a driving factor for N losses. PWNP results from the part of NO3 not used by crops or the mineralization part of organic matter during the preceding summer and autumn. Considering these assumptions, we used PWNP as simplified input data for the modelling of N transport. Thus, NO3 losses are mainly influenced by the denitrification capacity of soils and stream water. The well-known HYPE model was used to perform water and N losses modelling. The hydrological simulation was calibrated with the observation data at different sub-catchments. We performed a hydrograph separation validated on the thermal and isotopic tracer studies and the general knowledge of the behavior of Orgeval catchment. Our results show a good correlation between the model and the observations (a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.75 for water discharge and 0.7 for N flux). Likewise, comparison of calibrated PWNP values with the results from a field survey (annual PWNP campaign) showed significant positive correlation. One can conclude that

  17. Soil and geologic controls on recharge and groundwater flow response to climate perturbation: A case study of the Yakima River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Pham, H. V.; Bachmann, M.; Tague, C.; Adam, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Yakima River Basin (YRB) is one of the most important agricultural basins in Washington State with annual revenues in excess of $3.2 billion. This intensively irrigated basin is, however, one of the state's most climatically sensitive water resources system as it heavily relies on winter snowpack and limited reservoir storage. Water shortages and drought are expected to be more frequent with climate change, population growth and increasing agricultural demand. This could result in significant impacts on the groundwater system and subsequently the Yakima River. The goal of this study is to assess how soil and geologic characteristics affect catchment recharge and groundwater flow across three catchments within the YRB using a coupled framework including a physically based hydro-ecological model, the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) and a groundwater model, MODFLOW. Soil and geologic-related parameters were randomly sampled to use within the Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA) framework to explore their roles in governing catchment recharge and groundwater flow to climate perturbation. Preliminarily results show that catchment recharge is most sensitive to variation in soil transmissivity in two catchments. However, in the other catchment, recharge is more influenced by soil field capacity and bypass recharge. Recharge is also more sensitive to geologic related parameters in catchments where a portion of its flow comes from deep groundwater. When including the effect of climate perturbations, the sensitivity of recharge responses to soil and geologic characteristics varies with temperature and precipitation change. On the other hand, horizontal hydraulic conductivity is the dominant factor that controls groundwater flow responses in catchments with low permeability soil; alternatively, specific storage (and, to some extent, vertical anisotropy) are important in catchments with more conductive soil. The modeling

  18. The population-development tangle. Aspects and actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1974 Population Conference, the population field has become of interest to members of the fundamentalist right wing, feminists, and environmentalists. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the areas of agreement and disagreement among each set of actors as well as how they define the issues. Currently, development discourse is characterized by considerations of: 1) economic growth, 2) the provision of livelihoods, 3) the provision of basic needs, 4) ecological sustainability and renewability, and 5) political participation. The actors who define the terms of this discourse include: 1) corporate interests, which concentrate on economic growth; 2) international and national agencies, which place primary importance on economic growth and some importance on basic needs and ecological sustainability; 3) popular organizations and social movements, which concentrate on livelihoods, basic needs, and political participation; and 4) environmentalists, who focus on ecological sustainability, economic growth, and (occasionally) political participation. The field of population, on the other hand, is dominated by traditional populationists, whose primary focus is economic growth; developmentalists; the fundamentalist right, who are most concerned with family and control over reproduction; environmentalists; and the women's movement, which is most concerned with reproductive rights and reproductive health. When the perspective of poor women is considered, it can be seen that economic growth and ecological sustainability must support the securing of livelihoods, basic needs, political participation, and reproductive rights, and that reproductive health programs must be part of an overall health agenda.

  19. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Batchelor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a “health knowledge economy”, organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term “health knowledge economy” draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  20. Construyendo la Barcelona creativa: nuevos actores, nuevas estrategias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Building A creative Barcelona: new actors, new strategies.Barcelona is under the international spotlight. The city that triumphed with the organisation of the Olympic Games in 1992 now wants to become a 21st Century creative city. In order to achieve this goal, the city must establish conditions that facilitate the emergence of a shared discourse around its ability to become an attractive city for creative talent and for businesses. The recognition of the historical-economic heritage, as a starting point for the creative city, along with the driving role played by culture in the generation of a exclusive and distinctive experience, turnBarcelona into a unique city. However, this is not sufficient. The participation and involvement of all the actors in a shared strategy pose significant challenges to Barcelona, as does the need to minimise the negative effects that inevitably accompany success. Companies, institutions and citizens constitute the city’s best assets: they must work in partnership and take advantage of the synergies generated amongst them. Consensus and participation are more than mere utopias in Barcelona: they have become requirements for the city of tomorrow. Moreover, leadership in Barcelona is largely left to public initiative: the emergence of linkages across the needs of the various creative sectors, based on public intervention mechanisms is the best way to ensure success.

  1. Spain and Mediterranean Security Governance: Neighbours, Spaces and Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wolff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Tampere Summit marked the start of the development of the external dimension of the European Union’s policy of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA. This external dimension has been reflected in the inclusion of JHA in agreements with third countries, and particularly with Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the European NeighbourhoodPolicy (ENP, in addition to bilateral and multilateral programmes, confirmed the transformation of the JHA policy into one of the EU’s foreign policy objectives. In the light of this evolution, this article examines Spain’s role in the development of the Mediterraneandimension of the JHA policy: firstly, it covers the stance of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government toward the JHA policy and its external dimension; secondly, it explores the new parameters of governance in the area of security and the Spanish case through three main factors: the neighbours, spaces and actors that define this governance. Lastly, and within a context of a multiplicity of governance actors on security, it focuses on the Canary Islands,which have acquired a central importance with respect to the management of borders and the policy of development for Africa. The analysis of this period helps to explain the new security perceptions that define Spain’s policy in the Mediterranean.

  2. Scholars in the Nineties: Actors, Subjects, Spectators or Hostages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gil Antón

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Gil questions the role played by Mexican university academics in the transformation of higher education during the nineties. After outlining the general context of change and its importance, the author proposes avoiding the false dichotomy between restoring the past or installing, without reflective mediation, a schematic future. He suggests taking into consideration the current national academic body composed of several generations of scholars. Three phases are established in terms of the modification of academic activities during the last decades of the twentieth century, and the changes in the level of higher education are considered. Dr. Gil asks if the academics have been actors, subjects, spectators or hostages-both in regard to regulations governing their activity and in the modifications of university processes and structure. The essay ends by proposing a general agenda for research in the field of university studies, and emphasizes two problems: the need for a detailed description of the type and depth of changes, and the definition of the academic as a central actor in institutional life. 

  3. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  4. Runoff formation in a small mountainous catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2003), s. 265-270 ISSN 1335-6291 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3060001; GA AV ČR IBS2060104; GA MŽP SE/610/3/00 Grant - others:Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 2/7065/20; 5th EC Framework Programme(XE) IST-2000-28084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : hydrology * rainfall-runoff relationship * small mountainous catchment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  5. Hydrologic regime alteration of a Mediterranean catchment under climate change projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Haykel; Benabdallah, Sihem; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Herrmann, Frank; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2014-05-01

    Most of the climate models projections for the Mediterranean basin have showed that the region will likely to experience a general tendency towards drier climate conditions with decreases in total precipitation, increases in temperature, alterations in the rainfall extreme events and droughts frequency (IPCC, 2007; Giorgi and Lionello, 2008; López-Moreno et al., 2011). The region is already suffering from water resources scarcity and vulnerability which are expected to amplify in the next century (Ludwig et al., 2011; Schneider et al., 2013). Therefore, assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic regime of Mediterranean catchments is with a major concern not only to scientist but also to water resources policy makers and general public. However, most of the climate change impact studies focus on the flow regime on global or regional scale rather than on the catchment scale which is more useful and more appropriate to guide practical mitigation and adaptation policy. This is because hydro-climate modeling at the local scale is confronted to the variability in climate, topography, geology, lack of observations and anthropogenic activities within the catchment. Furthermore, it is well recognized that hydrological and climate models forecasts are always affected with uncertainty making the assessment of climate change impact on Mediterranean catchment hydrology more challenging. This work aims to assess the impact of climate change on a Mediterranean catchment located in North Africa (the Chiba catchment in northeast Tunisia) through a conjunctive use of physically based hydrological model (SWAT) driven with four climate models*. Quantification of the impact of climate change has been conducted by means of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (Richter et al., 1996) which are also ecologically meaningful. By comparing changes in these indicators in the reference period (1971-2000) to the projected ones in the future (2041-2070), it was possible to draw

  6. Fine-grained suspended sediment source identification for the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Michael; Theuring, Philipp; Collins, Adrian L.

    2015-04-01

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on the water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on a new Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. The composite fingerprints were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin) with the pattern generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of riverbank erosion was shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the general applicability and associated uncertainties of an approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. The combined application of source fingerprinting and catchment modelling approaches can be used to assess whether tracing estimates are credible and in combination such approaches provide a basis for making sediment source apportionment more compelling to catchment stakeholders and managers.

  7. A numerical solution to define channel heads and hillslope parameters from digital topography of glacially conditioned catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Baumann, Sebastian; Kober, Florian; Robl, Jörg; Heiniger, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    region shows a distinct increase of mean elevation from the major overdeepend valleys near the Foreland to the alpine main divide at around 4000 m.a.s.l. within a distance of only 150 km. To define channel heads we first analyzed the variations to fine-scale topography of catchments by calculating the plan curvature at low topographic wavelengths. Higher elevated catchments more frequently impacted by glacial erosion show a higher degree in topographic flattening than catchments with a lower mean elevation where rougher fluvial (steady state) channels dominate. We found that this process of glacial destruction of fine-scale topography can well be analyzed by extracting the plan curvature from a DEM (1-30 m resolution). We furthermore found that the plan curvature frequency depends on the mean elevation of a catchment. Accordingly, the correlation between mean elevation of basins and the related density of pixels with a certain curvature is highly controlled by the used curvature threshold (e.g. used range of curvature pixels). A statistically derived optimum of the negative plan curvature was taken to define a threshold for the concavity of channels. The resulting fragmented network of channel segments was then fully integrated by utilizing a steepest descent algorithm. The upstream-most point of this fully integrated network was then defined as channel head. Our approach offers not only a consistent method to derive (i) hillslope and channel parameters in formerly glaciated catchments but also to (ii) measure the degree in glacial conditioning and therefore (iii) separating non-glacial from glacial catchments.

  8. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mean Annual R-factor, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average annual R-factor, rainfall-runoff erosivity measure, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data are from Christopher Daly of the Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University, and George Taylor of the Oregon Climate Service, Oregon State University (2002), who developed spatially distributed estimates of R-factor for the period 1971-2000 for the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus

  9. Framework for measuring sustainable development in catchment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Jay J

    2002-02-01

    Integrated catchment management represents an approach to managing the resources of a catchment by integrating environmental, economic, and social issues. It is aimed at deriving sustainable benefits for future generations, while protecting natural resources, particularly water, and minimizing possible adverse social, economic, and environmental consequences. Indicators of sustainable development, which summarize information for use in decision-making, are invaluable when trying to assess the diverse, interacting components of catchment processes and resource management actions. The Driving-Forces--Pressure--State--Impact--Response (DPSIR) indicator framework is useful for identifying and developing indicators of sustainable development for catchment management. Driving forces have been identified as the natural conditions occurring in a catchment and the level of development and economic activity. Pressures include the natural and anthropogenic supply of water, water demand, and water pollution. State indicators can be split into those of quantity and those of quality. Impacts include those that affect the ecosystems directly and those that impact the use value of the resource. It core indicators are identified within each of the categories given in the framework, most major catchment-based management issues can be evaluated. This framework is applied to identify key issues in catchment management in South Africa, and develop a set of indicators for evaluating catchments throughout the country.

  10. Measuring the size of an airport's catchment area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although much empirical research exists on the factors that drive passenger airport choice, not much is known about the related topic of airport catchment area size. This paper presents a novel methodology to assess the size of airport catchment areas and the airport’s market shares therein using a

  11. Participatory catchment management: an opportunity for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Versfeld, DB

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available offer a new opportunity for communities living within these catchments to share their knowledge and to become involved in planning and implementing the management process. This paper discusses the use of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in a catchment...

  12. Multi-objective, multiple participant decision support for water management in the Andarax catchment, Almeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cauwenbergh, N.; Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.; Frances, I.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-04-01

    Water management in the Andarax river basin (Almeria, Spain) is a multi-objective, multi-participant, long-term decision-making problem that faces several challenges. Adequate water allocation needs informed decisions to meet increasing socio-economic demands while respecting the environmental integrity of this basin. Key players in the Andarax water sector include the municipality of Almeria, the irrigators involved in the intensive greenhouse agricultural sector, and booming second residences. A decision support system (DSS) is developed to rank different sustainable planning and management alternatives according to their socio-economic and environmental performance. The DSS is intimately linked to sustainability indicators and is designed through a public participation process. Indicators are linked to criteria reflecting stakeholders concerns in the 2005 field survey, such as fulfilling water demand, water price, technical and economical efficiency, social and environmental impacts. Indicators can be partly quantified after simulating the operation of the groundwater reservoir over a 20-year planning period and partly through a parallel expert evaluation process. To predict the impact of future water demand in the catchment, several development scenarios are designed to be evaluated in the DSS. The successive multi-criteria analysis of the performance indicators permits the ranking of the different management alternatives according to the multiple objectives formulated by the different sectors/participants. This allows more informed and transparent decision-making processes for the Andarax river basin, recognizing both the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of water resources management.

  13. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  14. Gauging the ungauged basin: a top-down approach in a large semiarid watershed in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Barthold

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A major research challenge in ungauged basins is to quickly assess the dominant hydrological processes of watersheds. In this paper we present a top-down approach from first field reconnaissance to perceptual model development, model conceptualization, evaluation, rejection and eventually, to a more substantial field campaign to build upon the initial modeling. This approach led us from an initial state where very little was known about catchment behavior towards a more complete view of catchment hydrological processes, including the preliminary identification of water sources and an assessment of the effectiveness of our sampling design.

  15. Catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.; Tang, Y.; Wang, D.; Xu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic responses to climate variability and change are important for human society. Here we test the hypothesis that natural catchments utilize hedging strategies for evapotranspiration and water storage carryover with uncertain future precipitation. The hedging strategy for evapotranspiration in catchments under different levels of water availability is analytically derived from the economic perspective. It is found that there exists hedging between evapotranspiration for current and future only with a portion of water availability. Observation data sets of 160 catchments in the United States covering the period from 1983 to 2003 demonstrate the existence of hedging in catchment hydrology and validate the proposed hedging strategies. We also find that more water is allocated to carryover storage for hedging against the future evapotranspiration risk in the catchments with larger aridity indexes or with larger uncertainty in future precipitation, i.e., long-term climate and precipitation variability control the degree of hedging.

  16. Pesticide modelling for a small catchment using SWAT-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; White, Sue M; Worrall, Fred; Whelan, Mick J

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides in stream flow from the 142 ha Colworth catchment in Bedfordshire, UK were monitored from October 1999 to December 2000. About 47% of the catchment is tile-drained and different pesticides and cropping patterns have recently been evaluated in terms of their effect on nutrient and pesticide losses to the stream. The data from Colworth were used to test soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) 2000 predictions of pesticide concentrations at the catchment outlet. A sound model set-up to carry out pesticide modelling was created by means of hydrological modelling with proper simulation of crop growth and evapotranspiration. The pesticides terbuthylazine, terbutryn, cyanazine and bentazone were modelled. There was close agreement between SWAT-predicted pesticide concentration values and observations. Scenario trials were conducted to explore management options for reducing pesticide loads arriving at the catchment outlet. The results obtained indicate that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behavior at the catchment scale.

  17. Hydroclimatic control on suspended sediment dynamics of a regulated Alpine catchment: a conceptual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the control of hydroclimatic factors on suspended sediment concentration (SSC in Alpine catchments by differentiating among the potential contributions of erosion and suspended sediment transport driven by erosive rainfall, defined as liquid precipitation over snow-free surfaces, ice melt from glacierized areas, and snowmelt on hillslopes. We account for the potential impact of hydropower by intercepting sediment fluxes originated in areas diverted to hydropower reservoirs, and by considering the contribution of hydropower releases to SSC. We obtain the hydroclimatic variables from daily gridded datasets of precipitation and temperature, implementing a degree-day model to simulate spatially distributed snow accumulation and snow–ice melt. We estimate hydropower releases by a conceptual approach with a unique virtual reservoir regulated on the basis of a target-volume function, representing normal reservoir operating conditions throughout a hydrological year. An Iterative Input Selection algorithm is used to identify the variables with the highest predictive power for SSC, their explained variance, and characteristic time lags. On this basis, we develop a hydroclimatic multivariate rating curve (HMRC which accounts for the contributions of the most relevant hydroclimatic input variables mentioned above. We calibrate the HMRC with a gradient-based nonlinear optimization method and we compare its performance with a traditional discharge-based rating curve. We apply the approach in the upper Rhône Basin, a large Swiss Alpine catchment heavily regulated by hydropower. Our results show that the three hydroclimatic processes – erosive rainfall, ice melt, and snowmelt – are significant predictors of mean daily SSC, while hydropower release does not have a significant explanatory power for SSC. The characteristic time lags of the hydroclimatic variables correspond to the typical flow concentration times of the basin. Despite not

  18. Ecohydrological Controls on Intra-Basin Alpine Subarctic Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Ziegler, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    In the mountainous Canadian subarctic, elevation gradients control the disposition of vegetation, permafrost, and characteristics of the soil profile. How intra-basin ecosystems combine to control catchment-scale water and biogeochimcal cycling is uncertain. To this end, a multi-year ecohydrological investigation was undertaken in Granger Basin (GB), a 7.6 km2 sub-basin of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. GB was divided into four sub-basins based on the dominant vegetation and permafrost status, and the timing and magnitude of hydrological processes were compared using hydrometric and hydrochemical methods. Vegetation plays an important role in end-of-winter snow accumulation as snow redistribution by wind is controlled by roughness length. In sub-basins of GB with tall shrubs, snow accumulation is enhanced compared with areas of short shrubs and tundra vegetation. The timing of melt was staggered with elevation, although melt-rates were similar among the sub-basins. Runoff was enhanced at the expense of infiltration in tall shrub areas due to high snow water equivalent and antecedent soil moisture. In the high-elevation tundra sub-basin, thin soils with cold ground temperatures resulted in increased surface runoff. For the freshet period, the lower and upper sub-basins accounted for 81 % of runoff while accounting for 58 % of the total basin area. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation revealed that during melt, pre-event water dominated in all sub-basins, yet those with greater permafrost disposition and taller shrubs had increased event-water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spiked prior to peak freshet in each sub-basin except for the highest with thin soils, and was associated with flushing of surficial organic soils. For the post-melt period, all sub-basins have similar runoff contributions. Solute and stable isotope data indicate that in sub-basins dominated by permafrost, supra-permafrost runoff pathways predominate as flow

  19. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, R; Herr, A; Brodie, J; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria based tool for assessing the relative impact of diffuse-source pollution to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) from the river basins draining into the GBR lagoon. The assessment integrates biophysical and ecological data of water quality and pollutant concentrations with socio-economic information pertaining to non-point source pollution and (potential) pollutant impact. The tool generates scores for each river basin against four criteria, thus profiling the basins and enabling prioritization of management alternatives between and within basins. The results support policy development for pollution control through community participation, scientific data integration and expert knowledge contributed by people from across the catchment. The results specifically provided support for the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, released in October 2003. The aim of the plan is to provide a framework for reducing discharge of sediment, nutrient and other diffuse-source loads and (potential) impact of that discharge and for prioritising management actions both between and within river basins.

  20. GIS-Based KW-GIUH hydrological model of semiarid catchments: The case of Faria Catchment, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadeed, S.; Shaheen, H.; Jayyousi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the quantitative understanding of the processes of runoff generation and prediction of flow hydrographs. Traditional techniques have been widely applied for the estimation of runoff hydrographs of gauged catchments using historical rainfall-runoff data and unit hydrographs. Such procedures are questioned as to their reliability and their application to ungauged, arid and semiarid catchments. To overcome such difficulties, the use of physically based rainfall-runoff process of Faria Catchment using the lately developed KW-GIUH. Faria catchment, located in the northeastern part of the West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as a semiarid region with annual rainfall depths ranging on average from 150 to 640 mm at both ends of the catchment. The Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used to shape the geomorphological features of the catchment. A GIS based KW-GIUH hydrological model was used to stimulate the rainfall-runoff process in the three sub-catchments of Faria, namely: Al-Badan, Al-Faria and Al-Malaqi. The simulated runoff hydrographs proved that the GIS-based KW-GIUH model is applicable to semiarid regions and can be used to estimate the unit hydrographs in the West Bank catchments. (author)

  1. Merging perspectives in the catchment sciences: the US-Japan Joint Seminar on catchment hydrology and forest biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin J. McGuire; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Nobuhito Ohte; Emily M. Elliott; Takashi Gomi; Mark B. Green; Brian L. McGlynn; Naoko. Tokuchi

    2014-01-01

    Japan has strong research programmes in the catchment sciences that overlap with interests in the US catchment science community, particularly in experimental and field-based research. Historically, however, there has been limited interaction between these two hydrologic science communities because of differences in language, culture, and research approaches. These...

  2. Can tics be performed convincingly by an actor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Riemann, Laura; Krämer, Hermann; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the German movie "Vincent will Meer" a healthy actor portrays a man with Tourette's syndrome. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of tics is convincing and whether this judgment depends on whether he/she suffers from tics or not. While the movie was broadcasted in German cinemas, we put an online survey (including 28 questions on different aspects related to the observation, performance, and authenticity of tics) on the web pages of the German self-help group. 276/296 surveys submitted could be used for further analyses. 95.7% of all participants felt that the performance of tics was convincing. However, people with tics (n = 26) were less convinced compared to those who had never met a person with tics (n = 110) (P = 0.020). Our results further support the hypothesis that tics are not "abnormal" but "physiological" movements that are only misplaced both in time and context.

  3. Interaction among actors in retail market competition in malang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, B.; Ma'ruf, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    In several countries, traditional market lose in competition with supermarket. Supermarket has several advantages compared with traditional market. It can provides consumers with lower prices, offer more varieties of products and higher quality products than traditional retailers, has more comfortable place for shopping. In Malang City, the existence of traditional traders was threatened. In a competitive retail market, traditional traders get less protection from the Government of Malang Municipality. Massive demonstrations conducted by traditional traders along with other society elements unable to stem the rapid growth of modern retail. This paper focus on the interaction of Malang Municipality actors in the local retail market competition. How those interaction can make imbalance retail market competition. The author uses descriptive-analytic method with a qualitative approach in this work. As a result, the interaction tend to produce imbalance retail market competition. Interaction between legislative, executive, bureaucracy and mass media tend to support modern retail growth than traditional one.

  4. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debizet, Gilles; Blanco, Sylvie; Buclet, Nicolas; Forest, Fabrice; Gauthier, Caroline; La Branche, Stephane; Menanteau, Philippe; Schneuwly, Patrice; Tabourdeau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  5. The actors of the photovoltaic sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2010-01-01

    The author reviews the 192 actors in the French photovoltaic sector, they are classified into 9 categories: 1) the solar plant owner, 2) the developer: he sets projects and his role stops when the project is ready to be sold to an investor, 3) the design office: it leads technical studies and manages the construction works), 4) the installer: he fits the solar panels, 5) the operator of the solar plant, 6) the wholesaler of equipment, 7) the manufacturer of solar panels and photovoltaic systems, 8) the provider or manufacturer of components and materials for the photovoltaic industry, and 9) the provider of specialized services such as insurance, staff training, the follow-up of legal issues... For each company, a brief historical account, the range of activities, the strength of manpower and the turnover are reported. (A.C.)

  6. Heavy rainfalls, floods and landslides in the small catchment of the Bend Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela

    2004-01-01

    The small catchments of the Bend Carpathians and of the adjacent hilly region are affected by a great diversity of geomorphic processes differing in terms of geological structure, terrain configuration, seismic activity and human pressure. The region is developed on Paleogene flysch and Neogene molasse deposits and is characterised by an intense tectonic mobility (neotectonic uplift movements, strong earthquakes). We have chosen two catchments with a surface of 20-30 km 2 in which we tried to evaluate the sediments transfers during extreme events on the slope, from the slope downwards the channels and along the channels. The two catchments are characterised by some of the highest sediment yield in the region. Long-term measurements carried out in the region have revealed that landslides and mud flows are the most common processes of sediment transfer on the slopes. The reactivation of the mass movements is related to heavy rainfalls (over 100 mm in 24 hours) to long lasting rainy periods and to combined rainfalls and rapid snow melting. The denudation rates through mass movements were estimated in 6 experimental plots, indicating values between 1-10 mm in the years with high amount of,precipitations with a return period of 5-7 years and 40-70 mm in extreme conditions with a return period of 50 years. Sediment delivery ratios are controlled by rock erodibility and the runoff regime. A sediment yield multivariate statistical analysis of 27 third order drainage basins on flysch and molasse deposits indicates that total erosion is four times higher in the hilly region than in the flysch mountains (Ichim, Raldoane, 1987).(Author)

  7. Contrasting model complexity under a changing climate in a headwaters catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine, snowmelt-dominated catchments are the source of water for more than 1/6th of the world's population. These catchments are topographically complex, leading to steep weather gradients and nonlinear relationships between water and energy fluxes. Recent evidence suggests that alpine systems are more sensitive to climate warming, but these regions are vastly simplified in climate models and operational water management tools due to computational limitations. Simultaneously, point-scale observations are often extrapolated to larger regions where feedbacks can both exacerbate or mitigate locally observed changes. It is critical to determine whether projected climate impacts are robust to different methodologies, including model complexity. Using high performance computing and an integrated model of a representative headwater catchment we determined the hydrologic response from 30 projected climate changes to precipitation, temperature and vegetation for the Rocky Mountains. Simulations were run with 100m and 1km resolution, and with and without lateral subsurface flow in order to vary model complexity. We found that model complexity alters nonlinear relationships between water and energy fluxes. Higher-resolution models predicted larger changes per degree of temperature increase than lower resolution models, suggesting that reductions to snowpack, surface water, and groundwater due to warming may be underestimated in simple models. Increases in temperature were found to have a larger impact on water fluxes and stores than changes in precipitation, corroborating previous research showing that mountain systems are significantly more sensitive to temperature changes than to precipitation changes and that increases in winter precipitation are unlikely to compensate for increased evapotranspiration in a higher energy environment. These numerical experiments help to (1) bracket the range of uncertainty in published literature of climate change impacts on headwater

  8. Hydrological impact of high-density small dams in a humid catchment, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Lei, H.; Yang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Jiulong River basin is a humid catchment with a drainage area of 14,741 km2; however, it has over 1000 hydropower stations within it. Such catchment with high-density small dams is scarce in China. Yet few is known about the impact of high-density small dams on streamflow changes. To what extent the large number of dams alters the hydrologic patterns is a fundamental scientific issue for water resources management, flood control, and aquatic ecological environment protection. Firstly, trend and change point analyses are applied to determine the characteristics of inter-annual streamflow. Based on the detected change point, the study period is divided into two study periods, the ``natural'' and ``disturbed'' periods. Then, a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM) and the fixing-changing method are adopted to evaluate the relative contributions of climate variations and damming to the changes in streamflow at each temporal scale (i.e., from daily, monthly to annual). Based on the simulated natural streamflow, the impact of dam construction on hydrologic alteration and aquatic ecological environment will be evaluated. The hydrologic signatures that will be investigated include flood peak, seasonality of streamflow, and the inter-annual variability of streamflow. In particular, the impacts of damming on aquatic ecological environment will be investigated using eco-flow metrics and indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) which contains 33 individual streamflow statistics that are closely related to aquatic ecosystem. The results of this study expect to provide a reference for reservoir operation considering both ecological and economic benefits of such operations in the catchment with high-density dams.

  9. Operationalizing social safeguards in REDD+: actors, interests and ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Constance L.; Coad, Lauren; Helfgott, Ariella; Schroeder, Heike

    2012-01-01

    “REDD+” is a mechanism created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Reducing {carbon} Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation and forest enhancement. In addition, REDD+ “safeguards” are intended to protect non-carbon forest values. While REDD+ countries are formally requested to provide information on safeguards, there is as yet no agreement on the relative priority of carbon versus non-carbon values, and the appropriate level of safeguard standardization. This, we argue, has allowed REDD+ to function as a “boundary object” spanning disparate priorities. Meanwhile, the contestation of these priorities has been displaced from intergovernmental processes to the various organizations involved in operationalizing REDD+ activities. This article applies a set of organizational, substantive and conceptual typologies to compare differences in the balance of actors, interests and ideas across these organizations. It finds that multi-lateral funding programs have drawn heavily on existing safeguards for international aid, while private certification schemes have specialized in different niche priorities at the project level. In regards to the substance of safeguard requirements, the involvement of donors and investors appears correlated with a stronger emphasis on carbon and risk mitigation while greater NGO involvement and the decoupling of safeguards design from REDD+ funding appear correlated with greater emphasis on social rights and benefits. These findings have several critical implications for future REDD+ activities. Firstly, the choice of organizations involved in defining, funding and verifying safeguard activities, and the balance of actors in their governing structures, are likely to influence the relative emphasis on non-carbon values. Secondly, a diversity of approaches to disbursing REDD+ incentives may be necessary to maintain widespread support for REDD+. Thirdly, it remains to be seen whether REDD

  10. La disciplina entre las disposiciones legales y los actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Palacios Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción del funcionamiento de la disciplina escolar en una institución educativa de secundaria en Colombia. Tiene como objetivo explicar el origen del conflicto disciplinario, las situaciones que lo generan, la forma como la institución trata de lograr y mantener la disciplina, las explicaciones que cada uno de los actores da a las situaciones conflictivas y la manera como son vividas por ellos. El diseño metodológico de la investigación combinó una encuesta, entrevistas y el análisis de documentos de la institución educativa. El análisis de los datos se hace a la luz de planteamientos sociológicos que reconocen la enorme importancia que ejercen las estructuras sociales sobre la forma de pensar y actuar de los individuos, pero también resaltan la gran capacidad de los actores sociales para amoldarse a dichas estructuras y a través de sus ideas y acciones darle una dinámica propia al tipo de relaciones que establecen entre individuos en sus entornos de vida más inmediatos. Se pudo concluir que sobre la disciplina escolar no hay unidad de criterio entre los docentes, los directivos y los estudiantes, ni en su definición, ni en su importancia, ni en los medios para conseguirla; dichas diferencias producen tensiones y desacuerdos entre los miembros de la comunidad educativa.

  11. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  12. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  13. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  14. Institutional and Actor-Oriented Factors Constraining Expert-Based Forest Information Exchange in Europe: A Policy Analysis from an Actor-Centred Institutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Baycheva-Merger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and accessible expert-based forest information has become increasingly in demand for effective decisions and informed policies in the forest and forest-related sectors in Europe. Such accessibility requires a collaborative environment and constant information exchange between various actors at different levels and across sectors. However, information exchange in complex policy environments is challenging, and is often constrained by various institutional, actor-oriented, and technical factors. In forest policy research, no study has yet attempted to simultaneously account for these multiple factors influencing expert-based forest information exchange. By employing a policy analysis from an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, this paper aims to provide an overview of the most salient institutional and actor-oriented factors that are perceived as constraining forest information exchange at the national level across European countries. We employ an exploratory research approach, and utilise both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse our data. The data was collected through a semi-structured survey targeted at forest and forest-related composite actors in 21 European countries. The results revealed that expert-based forest information exchange is constrained by a number of compound and closely interlinked institutional and actor-oriented factors, reflecting the complex interplay of institutions and actors at the national level. The most salient institutional factors that stand out include restrictive or ambiguous data protection policies, inter-organisational information arrangements, different organisational cultures, and a lack of incentives. Forest information exchange becomes even more complex when actors are confronted with actor-oriented factors such as issues of distrust, diverging preferences and perceptions, intellectual property rights, and technical capabilities. We conclude that expert-based forest information

  15. A physically-based parsimonious hydrological model for flash floods in Mediterranean catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Roux

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A spatially distributed hydrological model, dedicated to flood simulation, is developed on the basis of physical process representation (infiltration, overland flow, channel routing. Estimation of model parameters requires data concerning topography, soil properties, vegetation and land use. Four parameters are calibrated for the entire catchment using one flood event. Model sensitivity to individual parameters is assessed using Monte-Carlo simulations. Results of this sensitivity analysis with a criterion based on the Nash efficiency coefficient and the error of peak time and runoff are used to calibrate the model. This procedure is tested on the Gardon d'Anduze catchment, located in the Mediterranean zone of southern France. A first validation is conducted using three flood events with different hydrometeorological characteristics. This sensitivity analysis along with validation tests illustrates the predictive capability of the model and points out the possible improvements on the model's structure and parameterization for flash flood forecasting, especially in ungauged basins. Concerning the model structure, results show that water transfer through the subsurface zone also contributes to the hydrograph response to an extreme event, especially during the recession period. Maps of soil saturation emphasize the impact of rainfall and soil properties variability on these dynamics. Adding a subsurface flow component in the simulation also greatly impacts the spatial distribution of soil saturation and shows the importance of the drainage network. Measures of such distributed variables would help discriminating between different possible model structures.

  16. Some climatological factors of pine in the lake toba catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The article deals with climatological factors of Pine at the Lake Toba Catchment Area also called drained basin, Pinus merkusii is a plant endemic in Sumatra. A central population of Pine in North Sumatra is located in the Tapanuli region to south of Lake Toba. Junghuhn discovered the species in the mountains range of Sipirok. He provisionally named the species as Pinus sumatrana. The article presents a detail analysis of approaches to climate factors, considers rainfall, air temperature, humidity, stemflow, throughfall and Interception following calculation of regression to determine relationship between precipitation with stemflow and interception. Stemflow, it is highly significant with significance of difference between correlation coefficients and z normal distribution. Temperature and relative humidity are the important components in the climate. These components influence the evaporation process and rainfall in the catchment. Pinus merkusii has the big crown interception. Stemflow and Interception has an opposite relation. Increasing of interception capacity will decrease stemflow. This type of Pine also has rough bark however significant channels so that, it flows water even during the wet season and caused the stemflow in Pinus merkusii relatively bigger.

  17. Watershed area ratio accurately predicts daily streamflow in nested catchments in the Catskills, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C. Gianfagna

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Watershed area ratio was the most important basin parameter for estimating flow at upstream sites based on downstream flow. The area ratio alone explained 93% of the variance in the slopes of relationships between upstream and downstream flows. Regression analysis indicated that flow at any upstream point can be estimated by multiplying the flow at a downstream reference gage by the watershed area ratio. This method accurately predicted upstream flows at area ratios as low as 0.005. We also observed a very strong relationship (R2 = 0.79 between area ratio and flow–flow slopes in non-nested catchments. Our results indicate that a simple flow estimation method based on watershed area ratios is justifiable, and indeed preferred, for the estimation of daily streamflow in ungaged watersheds in the Catskills region.

  18. Actor-network Theory and cartography of controversies in Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, Ramon Fernandes; TOMAÉL, Maria Inês

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to discuss the interactions between the Actor-network Theory and the Cartography of Controversies method in Information Science research. A literature review was conducted on books, scholarly articles, and any other sources addressing the Theory-Actor Network and Cartography of Controversies. The understanding of the theoretical assumptions that guide the Network-Actor Theory allows examining important aspects to Information Science research, seeking to identif...

  19. The Interactive Constitution of Actors in Industrial Networks: The Case of the Norwegian City of Alesund

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Prenkert

    2013-01-01

    The actor-dimension of the Activitiy-Resource-Actor (ARA)-model has not gained the same attention among Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) scholars as the resource and activity dimensions. However, the issue of what an actor actually is, in the sense of its interactive constitution, is important from an industrial marketing and purchasing perspective that emphasizes the interactive character of the business landscape. This is adressed in this paper. As a concequence of their interactiv...

  20. Colorado River basin sensitivity to disturbance impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Urrego-Blanco, J. R.; Jonko, A. K.; Vano, J. A.; Newman, A. J.; Bohn, T. J.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Colorado River basin is an important river for the food-energy-water nexus in the United States and is projected to change under future scenarios of increased CO2emissions and warming. Streamflow estimates to consider climate impacts occurring as a result of this warming are often provided using modeling tools which rely on uncertain inputs—to fully understand impacts on streamflow sensitivity analysis can help determine how models respond under changing disturbances such as climate and vegetation. In this study, we conduct a global sensitivity analysis with a space-filling Latin Hypercube sampling of the model parameter space and statistical emulation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to relate changes in runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and soil moisture to model parameters in VIC. Additionally, we examine sensitivities of basin-wide model simulations using an approach that incorporates changes in temperature, precipitation and vegetation to consider impact responses for snow-dominated headwater catchments, low elevation arid basins, and for the upper and lower river basins. We find that for the Colorado River basin, snow-dominated regions are more sensitive to uncertainties. New parameter sensitivities identified include runoff/evapotranspiration sensitivity to albedo, while changes in snow water equivalent are sensitive to canopy fraction and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Basin-wide streamflow sensitivities to precipitation, temperature and vegetation are variable seasonally and also between sub-basins; with the largest sensitivities for smaller, snow-driven headwater systems where forests are dense. For a major headwater basin, a 1ºC of warming equaled a 30% loss of forest cover, while a 10% precipitation loss equaled a 90% forest cover decline. Scenarios utilizing multiple disturbances led to unexpected results where changes could either magnify or diminish extremes, such as low and peak flows and streamflow timing

  1. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  2. Hydrological catchment modelling: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses basic issues in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, ranging from the roles of physically-based and data-driven rainfall runoff models, to the concepts of predictive uncertainty and equifinality and their implications. The evolution of a wide range of hydrological catchment models employing the physically meaningful and data-driven approaches introduces the need for objective test beds or benchmarks to assess the merits of the different models in reconciling the alternative approaches. In addition, the paper analyses uncertainty in models and predictions by clarifying the meaning of uncertainty, by distinguishing between parameter and predictive uncertainty and by demonstrating how the concept of equifinality must be addressed by appropriate and robust inference approaches. Finally, the importance of predictive uncertainty in the decision making process is highlighted together with possible approaches aimed at overcoming the diffidence of end-users.

  3. Nutrient fluxes from coastal California catchments with suburban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Leydecker, A.; Beighley, E.; Robinson, T.; Coombs, S.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous streams originate in the mountains fringing California's coast and transport nutrients into coastal waters. In central California, these streams traverse catchments with land covers including chaparral, grazed grasslands, orchards, industrial agriculture and suburban and urban development. Fluvial nutrient concentrations and fluxes vary as a function of these land covers and as a function of considerable fluctuations in rainfall. As part of a long-term investigation of mobilization and fluvial transport of nutrients in catchments bordering the Santa Barbara Channel we have intensively sampled nutrient concentrations and measured discharge during storm and base flows in multiple catchments and subcatchments. Volume-weighted mean concentrations of nitrate generally ranged from 5 to 25 micromolar in undeveloped areas, increased to about 100 micromolar for suburban and most agricultural catchments, and were in excess of 1000 micromolar in catchments with greenhouse-based agriculture. Phosphate concentrations ranged from 2 to 20 micromolar among the catchments. These data are used to examine the premise that the suburbanized portion of the catchments is the primary source of nutrients to the streams.

  4. Spatial characterization of catchment dispersion mechanisms in an urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, Florian; Gironás, Jorge; Mejía, Alfonso; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have examined in-depth the dispersion mechanisms in natural catchments. In contrast, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. This has the ability to modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. The U-McIUH computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment in France as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion in the catchment, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further study with other catchments is needed to asses if the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.

  5. Spatial dependence and correlation of rainfall in the Danube catchment and its role in flood risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, M. L. V.; Vitolo, R.; Todini, E.; Stephenson, D. B.; Cook, I. M.

    2009-04-01

    The possibility that multiple catastrophic events occur within a given timespan and affect the same portfolio of insured properties may induce enhanced risk. For this reason, in the insurance industry it is of interest to characterise not only the point probability of catastrophic events, but also their spatial structure. As far as floods are concerned it is important to determine the probability of having multiple simultaneous events in different parts of the same basin: in this case, indeed, the loss in a portfolio can be significantly different. Understanding the spatial structure of the precipitation field is a necessary step for the proper modelling of the spatial dependence and correlation of river discharge. Several stochastic models are available in the scientific literature for the multi-site generation of precipitation. Although most models achieve good performance in modelling mean values, temporal variability and inter-site dependence of extremes are still delicate issues. In this work we aim at identifying the main spatial characteristics of the precipitation structure and then at analysing them in a real case. We consider data from a large network of raingauges in the Danube catchment. This catchment is a good example of a large-scale catchment where the spatial correlation of flood events can radically change the effect in term of flood damage.

  6. Land cover changes in catchment areas of lakes situated in headwaters of the Tyśmienica River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywna Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze, and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń. The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.

  7. Empirical models based on the universal soil loss equation fail to predict sediment discharges from Chesapeake Bay catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Kathleen B; Weller, Donald E; Jordan, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its derivatives are widely used for identifying watersheds with a high potential for degrading stream water quality. We compared sediment yields estimated from regional application of the USLE, the automated revised RUSLE2, and five sediment delivery ratio algorithms to measured annual average sediment delivery in 78 catchments of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. We did the same comparisons for another 23 catchments monitored by the USGS. Predictions exceeded observed sediment yields by more than 100% and were highly correlated with USLE erosion predictions (Pearson r range, 0.73-0.92; p USLE estimates (r = 0.87; p USLE model did not change the results. In ranked comparisons between observed and predicted sediment yields, the models failed to identify catchments with higher yields (r range, -0.28-0.00; p > 0.14). In a multiple regression analysis, soil erodibility, log (stream flow), basin shape (topographic relief ratio), the square-root transformed proportion of forest, and occurrence in the Appalachian Plateau province explained 55% of the observed variance in measured suspended sediment loads, but the model performed poorly (r(2) = 0.06) at predicting loads in the 23 USGS watersheds not used in fitting the model. The use of USLE or multiple regression models to predict sediment yields is not advisable despite their present widespread application. Integrated watershed models based on the USLE may also be unsuitable for making management decisions.

  8. Recent trends in water quality in an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland: elucidating the roles of hydrology and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S M; Sample, J; Potts, J; Abel, C; Cook, Y; Taylor, C; Vinten, A J A

    2014-07-01

    Across the EU, programmes of measures have been introduced as part of river basin management planning as a means of tackling problems of diffuse pollution from agriculture. Evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of these measures and with this overarching objective, monitoring of an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland was initiated in 2007. As a precursor to evaluating the effect of new management measures it is essential to understand how other factors, including hydrology and land use changes, could have influenced water quality. This study undertook an analysis of the trends in concentrations and loads of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suspended solids (SS) and turbidity measured at six points in the catchment over a six year period. The results identified both differing trends between determinands and differing trends occurring over varying spatial scales. The only direct relationships between land use and water quality that could be identified based on annual data was a positive link between arable cropping and nitrate concentrations. At the sub-catchment scale some temporal changes in land use and management explained short-term trends in nitrate but not in SRP. Lags in the system were identified due to soil adsorption, in-stream/loch processing and groundwater transport making the identification of cause and effect problematic. The results have implications for the demonstration of effectiveness of measures over the shorter term and the timescales of recovery from diffuse pollution. Longer term monitoring at small scales will be important in this regard.

  9. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium

  10. A framework of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic models using synthetic rainfall for flash flood hazard mapping of ungauged catchments in tropical zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lohpaisankrit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood hazard maps provide a scientific support to mitigate flash flood risk. The present study develops a practical framework with the help of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic modelling in order to estimate the potential flash floods. We selected a small pilot catchment which has already suffered from flash floods in the past. This catchment is located in the Nan River basin, northern Thailand. Reliable meteorological and hydrometric data are missing in the catchment. Consequently, the entire upper basin of the main river was modelled with the help of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. In this basin, three monitoring stations are located along the main river. PANTA RHEI was calibrated and validated with the extreme flood events in June 2011 and July 2008, respectively. The results show a good agreement with the observed discharge data. In order to create potential flash flood scenarios, synthetic rainfall series were derived from temporal rainfall patterns based on the radar-rainfall observation and different rainfall depths from regional rainfall frequency analysis. The temporal rainfall patterns were characterized by catchment-averaged rainfall series selected from 13 rainstorms in 2008 and 2011 within the region. For regional rainfall frequency analysis, the well-known L-moments approach and related criteria were used to examine extremely climatic homogeneity of the region. According to the L-moments approach, Generalized Pareto distribution was recognized as the regional frequency distribution. The synthetic rainfall series were fed into the PANTA RHEI model. The simulated results from PANTA RHEI were provided to a 2-D hydrodynamic model (MEADFLOW, and various simulations were performed. Results from the integrated modelling framework are used in the ongoing study to regionalize and map the spatial distribution of flash flood hazards with four levels of flood severities. As an overall outcome, the presented framework

  11. Probability based hydrologic catchments of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet melt water impacts ice sheet flow dynamics, fjord and coastal circulation, and sediment and biogeochemical fluxes. Melt water exiting the ice sheet also is a key term in its mass balance. Because of this, knowledge of the area of the ice sheet that contributes melt water to a given outlet (its hydrologic catchment) is important to many ice sheet studies and is especially critical to methods using river runoff to assess ice sheet mass balance. Yet uncertainty in delineating ice sheet hydrologic catchments is a problem that is rarely acknowledged. Ice sheet catchments are delineated as a function of both basal and surface topography. While surface topography is well known, basal topography is less certain because it is dependent on radar surveys. Here, I a present a Monte Carlo based approach to delineating ice sheet catchments that quantifies the impact of uncertain basal topography. In this scheme, over many iterations I randomly vary the ice sheet bed elevation within published error bounds (using Morlighem et al., 2014 bed and bed error datasets). For each iteration of ice sheet bed elevation, I calculate the hydraulic potentiometric surface and route water over its path of 'steepest' descent to delineate the catchment. I then use all realizations of the catchment to arrive at a probability map of all major melt water outlets in Greenland. I often find that catchment size is uncertain, with small, random perturbations in basal topography leading to large variations in catchments size. While some catchments are well defined, others can double or halve in size within published basal topography error bars. While some uncertainty will likely always remain, this work points to locations where studies of ice sheet hydrology would be the most successful, allows reinterpretation of past results, and points to where future radar surveys would be most advantageous.

  12. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures for gauged and ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Ida K.; Wagener, Thorsten; Coxon, Gemma; McMillan, Hilary K.; Castellarin, Attilio; Montanari, Alberto; Freer, Jim

    2016-03-01

    Reliable information about hydrological behavior is needed for water-resource management and scientific investigations. Hydrological signatures quantify catchment behavior as index values, and can be predicted for ungauged catchments using a regionalization procedure. The prediction reliability is affected by data uncertainties for the gauged catchments used in prediction and by uncertainties in the regionalization procedure. We quantified signature uncertainty stemming from discharge data uncertainty for 43 UK catchments and propagated these uncertainties in signature regionalization, while accounting for regionalization uncertainty with a weighted-pooling-group approach. Discharge uncertainty was estimated using Monte Carlo sampling of multiple feasible rating curves. For each sampled rating curve, a discharge time series was calculated and used in deriving the gauged signature uncertainty distribution. We found that the gauged uncertainty varied with signature type, local measurement conditions and catchment behavior, with the highest uncertainties (median relative uncertainty ±30-40% across all catchments) for signatures measuring high- and low-flow magnitude and dynamics. Our regionalization method allowed assessing the role and relative magnitudes of the gauged and regionalized uncertainty sources in shaping the signature uncertainty distributions predicted for catchments treated as ungauged. We found that (1) if the gauged uncertainties were neglected there was a clear risk of overconditioning the regionalization inference, e.g., by attributing catchment differences resulting from gauged uncertainty to differences in catchment behavior, and (2) uncertainty in the regionalization results was lower for signatures measuring flow distribution (e.g., mean flow) than flow dynamics (e.g., autocorrelation), and for average flows (and then high flows) compared to low flows.

  13. Water use conflicts in northern Tanzania. A case study of Rundugai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Rundugai river catchment, Pangani basin Hzai District. ... content and structural-functional analysis techniques were used for qualitative data analysis. Five types of key stakeholders/actors involved in regulating and negotiating ...

  14. The Caspian Sea Catchment influenced by Atlantic Teleconnections in CESM1.2.2 and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, S. D.; Prange, M.; Schulz, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Caspian Sea (CS) is the world's largest inland sea and located within a closed (endorheic) drainage basin [ 37°-47N, 47°-54°E]. It has undergone dynamic variations (>3 m) during the past century with huge impacts on the economy, ecosystem and livelihood of coastal people. The origin of these variations as well as future changes are disputable. Here, we examine the impact of the major seasonal North Atlantic teleconnection patterns, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic pattern (EA) on Caspian hydroclimate variability from 1850-2100 CE. Five Numerical experiments at different atmospheric grid resolutions (2° and 1°) and atmospheric model versions (CAM4 and CAM5) are carried out with the coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2.2). Results reveal the 1° CESM1.2.2 CAM5 captures DJF NAO (46.5%) and EA (13.4%), agreeing well with observational data (1850-2000). The DJF NAO has a strong influence on the DJF temperature, rainfall and evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) over the Caspian sub-basins (Volga, Ural, Terek and Kura). Furthermore, 1° model climate projections (2020-2100 CE) are performed with different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) to examine likely changes in the NAO and EA and their influence on the Caspian catchment. The NAO under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios remains the leading mode with the highest variance and influences E-P with increased precipitation over the Volga basin and increased evaporation over the Caspian Sea. The above canceling effects act on the hydroclimate variability in the Caspian sub-basins. Moreover, it is indicated that no substantial change is predicted in the CSL by the year 2100. Keywords: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), CESM1.2.2 resolutions, Evaporation minus Precipitation (E-P), RCP4.5, RCP8.5

  15. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  16. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  17. Confidence, Actors' Beliefs and Transparency: the Case of ANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buclet, Nicolas; Bouzidi, Youcef

    2003-01-01

    Considering the predominant position of nuclear power in France, one could think that nuclear in France has always benefited from a high consensus within the French opinion. The emerging of nuclear and its development through years in France, might seem to have taken place in a rather singular climate of good social acceptability, if compared with other countries. Yet, now that the question has to be raised concerning the management of long-life radioactive waste, things are complicated. A strong contest accompanies each choice of a site that could be dedicated to stocking those very sensitive wastes. Actually, only one site has been found and accepted by local political authorities. A laboratory has been created by ANDRA, with the scope to study the opportunity to stock long-life radioactive waste. The decision should take place in 2006 and, since many years, is at the origin of a strong controversy between actors in favour or against the project. How to explain that? Why in a country where everything has been done for the nuclear development, is it so difficult to find a place to manage the residues of such an activity? It is even amazing to see that, on this specific topic, controversy is even stronger in France than in Sweden, although the Swedish opinion is by far less nuclear-friendly than the French one. The present paper focuses on one aspect of the strategy followed by ANDRA in order to achieve its mission: the essential aspect of the social acceptability of its activities. The comprehension of the difficulties met by ANDRA is not possible without taking into account the history of French nuclear and the catastrophic lack of democracy that characterised it. Among the results from an inquiry done by CREIDD for ANDRA in 2002, it indeed emerged that ANDRA was most of all perceived as an entity belonging to a global 'nuclear sphere'. Although rather young, ANDRA therefore has to carry with it the 'weigh of history' of the whole 'sphere', and its social

  18. Response of floodplain sedimentation to catchment disturbances in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, B.; Houbrechts, G.; Verstraeten, G.; Petit, F.

    2009-04-01

    Holocene floodplain sediments are an important environmental archive, that can be accesed for reconstructing the past landscape dynamics either qualitatively (e.g. palynology) and quantitatively (e.g. sediment budgeting). In this study Holocene alluvial sediment deposition in two contrasting Belgian catchments was quantified and dated: the Lienne (148 km2) in the Ardennes massif and the Dijle (750 km2) in the loess region. These catchments experienced a comparable Holocene climatic variation, but differ in topography and geology with highest relief energy in the Lienne catchment. Land use history also differs with high land use intensities in the Dijle catchment since Roman times, but at least since the Middle Ages there were also large deforestations in the Lienne catchment. Detailed cumulative Holocene sediment deposition was assessed for each catchment using more then 1000 hand augerings. Detailed radiocarbon dating of fluvial deposits was performed in the Dijle catchment, while iron slag was used as a tracer for sediments deposited after 1350 AD in the Lienne catchment. Results show that sediment deposition is much larger in the Dijle catchment (~4.5 Mg ha-1 catchment area) then in the Lienne catchment (~0.2 Mg ha-1 catchment area). Dating results from the Dijle catchment show an increase of sediment deposition in the late Holocene, first starting in the colluvial valleys and later on prograding towards the main valleys. Variations in sedimentation rates can clearly be related to anthropogenous land use pressure, and the majority of the sediments found in colluvial and alluvial valleys were deposited in the last 4000 years, and in many cases even in the last 1000 years. Variations in sediment deposition within the catchment can partially be explained by differences in river valley physical settings (mainly valley slope), while in other cases hill slope sediment delivery (upstream erosion, connectivity between hill slopes and the river system) is the explaining

  19. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  20. Transport at basin scales: 1. Theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rinaldo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the theoretical framework for a class of general continuous models of the hydrologic response including both flow and transport of reactive solutes. The approach orders theoretical results appeared in disparate fields into a coherent theoretical framework for both hydrologic flow and transport. In this paper we focus on the Lagrangian description of the carrier hydrologic runoff and of the processes embedding catchment-scale generation and transport of matter carried by runoff. The former defines travel time distributions, while the latter defines lifetime distributions, here thought of as contact times between mobile and immobile phases. Contact times are assumed to control mass transfer in a well-mixed approximation, appropriate in cases, like in basin-scale transport phenomena, where the characteristic size of the injection areas is much larger than that of heterogeneous features. As a result, we define general mass-response functions of catchments which extend to transport of matter geomorphologic theories of the hydrologic response. A set of examples is provided to clarify the theoretical results towards a computational framework for generalized applications, described in a companion paper.

  1. Simulating streamflow in ungauged basins under a changing climate: The importance of landscape characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Karlsen, Reinert H.; Bishop, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we explored how landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, soils and land cover influence the way catchments respond to changing climate conditions. Based on an ensemble of 15 regional climate models bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach, present and future streamflow in 14 neighboring and rather similar catchments in Northern Sweden was simulated with the HBV model. We established functional relationships between a range of landscape characteristics and projected changes in streamflow signatures. These were then used to analyze hydrological consequences of physical perturbations in a hypothetically ungauged basin in a climate change context. Our analysis showed a strong connection between the forest cover extent and the sensitivity of different components of a catchment's hydrological regime to changing climate conditions. This emphasizes the need to redefine forestry goals and practices in advance of climate change-related risks and uncertainties.

  2. A systematic study of distribution characters of infiltration parameters in an experimental basin by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weizu; Lu Jieju; Lu Mingjiang; Chen Tingyang

    1988-01-01

    A case study of spatial variability of Philip's infiltration parameters was carried out in a small experimental catchment with an area of 0.8 ha by nuclear monitoring methods. Relationships between sorptivity S, parameter A and the average initial soil water content within 0.5 m depth of soil profiles over the catchment have been plotted. A watershed infiltration parameter distribution curve is set up and fitted approximately by f/F=1-(1-S/S M ) n . The parameters of composite infiltration response related to whole catchment are suggested. The author has studied it on an experimental basin by combined method of nuclear technology and micro-geomorphic analysis. The results are satisfactory. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Recollection and unitization in associating actors with extrinsic and intrinsic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W; Earles, Julie L; Berger, Johanna D

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments provide evidence for a distinction between 2 different kinds of motion representations. Extrinsic motions involve the path of an object with respect to an external frame of reference. Intrinsic motions involve the relative motions of the parts of an object. This research suggests that intrinsic motions are represented conjointly with information about the identities of the actors who perform them, whereas extrinsic motions are represented separately from identity information. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants remembered which actor had performed a particular intrinsic motion better than they remembered which actor had performed a particular extrinsic motion. Experiment 2 replicated this effect with incidental encoding of actor information, suggesting that encoding intrinsic motions leads one to automatically encode identity information. The results of Experiments 3 and 4 were fit by Yonelinas's (1999) source-memory model to quantify the contributions of familiarity and recollection to memory for the actors who carried out the intrinsic and extrinsic motions. Successful performance with extrinsic motion items in Experiment 3 required participants to remember in which scene contexts an actor had appeared, whereas successful performance in Experiment 4 required participants to remember the exact path taken by an actor in each scene. In both experiments, discrimination of old and new combinations of actors and extrinsic motions relied strongly on recollection, suggesting independent but associated representations of actors and extrinsic motions. In contrast, participants discriminated old and new combinations of actors and intrinsic motions primarily on the basis of familiarity, suggesting unitized representations of actors and intrinsic motions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Catchment Models and Management Tools for diffuse Contaminants (Sediment, Phosphorus and Pesticides): DIFFUSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Eva; Reaney, Simeon; Mellander, Per-Erik; Wade, Andrew; Collins, Adrian; Arheimer, Berit; Bruen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural sector is the most common suspected source of nutrient pollution in Irish rivers. However, it is also often the most difficult source to characterise due to its predominantly diffuse nature. Particulate phosphorus in surface water and dissolved phosphorus in groundwater are of particular concern in Irish water bodies. Hence the further development of models and indices to assess diffuse sources of contaminants are required for use by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide support for river basin planning. Understanding connectivity in the landscape is a vital component of characterising the source-pathway-receptor relationships for water-borne contaminants, and hence is a priority in this research. The DIFFUSE Project will focus on connectivity modelling and incorporation of connectivity into sediment, nutrient and pesticide risk mapping. The Irish approach to understanding and managing natural water bodies has developed substantially in recent years assisted by outputs from multiple research projects, including modelling and analysis tools developed during the Pathways and CatchmentTools projects. These include the Pollution Impact Potential (PIP) maps, which are an example of research output that is used by the EPA to support catchment management. The PIP maps integrate an understanding of the pollution pressures and mobilisation pathways and, using the source-pathways-receptor model, provide a scientific basis for evaluation of mitigation measures. These maps indicate the potential risk posed by nitrate and phosphate from diffuse agricultural sources to surface and groundwater receptors and delineate critical source areas (CSAs) as a means of facilitating the targeting of mitigation measures. Building on this previous research, the DIFFUSE Project will develop revised and new catchment managements tools focused on connectivity, sediment, phosphorus and pesticides. The DIFFUSE project will strive to identify the state

  5. Ecological quality assessment of rivers and integrated catchment management in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul LOGAN

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ecological assessment of river quality and its relationship to integrated catchment management. The concept of catchment or river basin management has been a basic management tool in England and Wales since 1990; it is now being enshrined in the Water Framework Directive. Historically the statutory and operational drivers in the UK have lead to the development of distinctly different approaches to the management of water quality, water resources (quantity and physical river structure. More recently a proactive approach to the sustainable use of water promulgated in the Local Environment Agency Plans has also dealt with the three management aspects in some isolation although greater effort has been made to present the issues in an integrated manner. The Water Framework Directive calls for further integration in river basin plans and associated programmes of measures. In the paper the three approaches are described and considered in light of the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. Water Quality classification and objective setting has been based on information from the survey of benthic macro-invertebrates. The Biological Monitoring Working Party Score and the predictive software River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS have been used to set site-specific targets for management purposes. RIVPACS includes a reference database of minimally impacted sites for comparison with the observed data. This approach is in line with the requirements of the directive. Physical river structure work has been based on monitoring of in-river and river corridor characteristics. The River Habitat System (RHS has also developed a reference database but is less well developed in terms of its predictive ability. The use of ecological information in Water Resource management has taken a different approach based on the concept of differential ecological sensitivity to the hydrological regime within the river. In

  6. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  7. Identification of dominant interactions between climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics and agricultural activities on Budyko-type equation parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wanqiu; Wang, Weiguang; Shao, Quanxi; Yong, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying precipitation (P) partition into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (Q) is of great importance for global and regional water availability assessment. Budyko framework serves as a powerful tool to make simple and transparent estimation for the partition, using a single parameter, to characterize the shape of the Budyko curve for a "specific basin", where the single parameter reflects the overall effect by not only climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics (e.g., soil, topography and vegetation) but also agricultural activities (e.g., cultivation and irrigation). At the regional scale, these influencing factors are interconnected, and the interactions between them can also affect the single parameter of Budyko-type equations' estimating. Here we employ the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model to estimate the Budyko curve shape parameter (n in the Choudhury's equation, one form of the Budyko framework) of the selected 96 catchments across China using a data set of long-term averages for climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics and agricultural activities. Results show average storm depth (ASD), vegetation coverage (M), and seasonality index of precipitation (SI) are three statistically significant factors affecting the Budyko parameter. More importantly, four pairs of interactions are recognized by the MARS model as: The interaction between CA (percentage of cultivated land area to total catchment area) and ASD shows that the cultivation can weaken the reducing effect of high ASD (>46.78 mm) on the Budyko parameter estimating. Drought (represented by the value of Palmer drought severity index 0.23) tend to enhance the Budyko parameter reduction by large SI (>0.797). Low vegetation coverage (34.56%) is likely to intensify the rising effect on evapotranspiration ratio by IA (percentage of irrigation area to total catchment area). The Budyko n values estimated by the MARS model reproduce the calculated ones by the observation well

  8. Defining and Theorizing Terrorism: A Global Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lizardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arriving at a consensual definition of the phenomenon of terrorism has been a particularly difficult undertaking. Some definitions are either too specific or too vague, concentrating on some essential “terrorist” aspect of the actions, strategies, or types of non-state organizations that engage in terrorism. In this paper I draw on global approaches from international relations and world systems theories to propose a definition of terrorism that skirts these issues by concentrating on terrorist actors rather than terrorist behavior. I argue that this approach has several advantages, including the dissolution of several empirical and analytical problems produced by more essentialist definitions, and the location of terrorism within a two dimensional continuum of collective-violence phenomena in the international system which discloses important theoretical insights. I proceed to examine the characteristics of terrorism by comparing it with other forms of violence in the international system. I propose that terrorism may be part of the cycles and trends of unrest in the world system, responding to the same broad families of global dynamics as other forms of system-level conflict.

  9. La prostitución, una mirada desde sus actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Montoya Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge de la investigación Aspectos sociales y familiares que conllevan al ejercicio de la prostitución a 14 jóvenes de la ciudad de Medellín, a partir de sus relatos de vida, que en su proceso de generación de información implementó entre otras estrategias, una serie de talleres con población –hombres y mujeres– en ejercicio de la prostitución y con el equipo profesional que les brinda atención psicosocial, como parte del desarrollo del diseño metodológico planteado para la generación de información. Con esta publicación se pretende reflexionar sobre las diferentes concepciones y significados que se le ha dado a la palabra prostitución, estigmatizada no solo desde el imaginario social, sino también desde la religión. Se retoman para ello algunas posturas disciplinares y especialmente las voces de los actores que participaron como fuentes originales en el proceso de investigación; por ende, se realizará un breve recorrido que recoja las connotaciones más comunes de las personas que ejercen cotidianamente la prostitución.

  10. Can Tics be Performed Convincingly by an Actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten R. Müller-Vahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the German movie “Vincent will Meer” a healthy actor portrays a man with Tourette’s syndrome. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of tics is convincing and whether this judgment depends on whether he/she suffers from tics or not. Methods. While the movie was broadcasted in German cinemas, we put an online survey (including 28 questions on different aspects related to the observation, performance, and authenticity of tics on the web pages of the German self-help group. 276/296 surveys submitted could be used for further analyses. Results. 95.7% of all participants felt that the performance of tics was convincing. However, people with tics (n=26 were less convinced compared to those who had never met a person with tics (n=110 (P=0.020. Conclusions. Our results further support the hypothesis that tics are not “abnormal” but “physiological” movements that are only misplaced both in time and context.

  11. El actor aglutinante: Nacionalismo y sociedad civil en Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Giori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct the history of civil society in Quebec (Canada to relate it with nationalism, the rise of the welfare state, trade unions, Catholic Church and civil society, the dynamic forces of society. Through in-depth interviews with key leaders, exploration of institutional archives and specific literature, we work with a particular case that, when compared to Catalonia, will allow us to evaluate the importance of civil society within nationalism. This actor is not usually considered as the central subject of researches and rarely token into account, unlike political parties, their leaders or intellectuals. Currently, in a context of crisis of the state and political parties, it has begun to be considered that civil society can be a key factor for its ability to produce alliances between sectors, build hegemony and dialogue directly with the population. The study is divided into four parts: 1 the development of the theoretical framework along with the construction of the object of study and the hypotheses; 2 an analysis about the importance of the involvement of civil society in the construction of the nationalist movement in Quebec; 3 a comparison with the Catalan case; and, 4 finally some conclusions.

  12. Anthropocene landscape change and the legacy of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Catchment, Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Ouimet, William B.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Kotikian, Maneh; Wicherski, Will; Samuels, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Human impacts on earth surface processes and materials are fundamental to understanding the proposed Anthropocene epoch. This study examines the magnitude, distribution, and long-term context of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado, coupling airborne LiDAR topographic analysis with historical documents and field studies of river banks exposed by 2013 flooding. Mining impacts represent the dominant Anthropocene landscape change for this basin. Mining activity, particularly placer operations, controls floodplain stratigraphy and waste rock piles related to mining cover >5% of hillslopes in the catchment. Total rates of surface disturbance on slopes from mining activities (prospecting, mining, and road building) exceed pre-nineteenth-century rates by at least fifty times. Recent flooding and the overprint of human impacts obscure the record of Holocene floodplain evolution. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the Fourmile valley floor was as much as two meters higher in the past 2,000 years and that placer reworking, lateral erosion, or minor downcutting dominated from the late Holocene to present. Concentrations of As and Au in the fine fraction of hillslope soil, mining-related deposits, and fluvial deposits serve as a geochemical marker of mining activity in the catchment; reducing As and Au values in floodplain sediment will take hundreds of years to millennia. Overall, the Fourmile Creek catchment provides a valuable example of Anthropocene landscape change for mountainous regions of the Western United States, where hillslope and floodplain markers of human activity vary, high rates of geomorphic processes affect mixing and preservation of marker deposits, and long-term impact varies by landscape location.

  13. Variability of Snow Ablation: Consequences for Runoff Generation at the Process Scale and Lessons for Large Cold Regions Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Carey, S. K.; Granger, R. J.; Hedstrom, N. R.; Janowicz, R.; Pietroniro, A.; Quinton, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The supply of water to large northern catchments such as the Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers is dominated by snowmelt runoff from first order mountain catchments. In order to understand the timing, peak and duration of the snowmelt freshet at larger scale it is important to appreciate the spatial and temporal variability of snowmelt and runoff processes at the source. For this reason a comprehensive hydrology study of a Yukon River headwaters catchment, Wolf Creek Research Basin, near Whitehorse, has focussed on the spatial variability of snow ablation and snowmelt runoff generation and the consequences for the water balance in a mountain tundra zone. In northern mountain tundra, surface energetics vary with receipt of solar radiation, shrub vegetation cover and initial snow accumulation. Therefore the timing of snowmelt is controlled by aspect, in that south facing slopes become snow-free 4-5 weeks before the north facing. Runoff generation differs widely between the slopes; there is normally no spring runoff generated from the south facing slope as all meltwater evaporates or infiltrates. On the north facing slope, snowmelt provides substantial runoff to hillside macropores which rapidly route water to the stream channel. Macropore distribution is associated with organic terrain and discontinuous permafrost, which in turn result from the summer surface energetics. Therefore the influence of small-scale snow redistribution and energetics as controlled by topography must be accounted for when calculating contributing areas to larger scale catchments, and estimating the effectiveness of snowfall in generating streamflow. This concept is quite distinct from the drainage controlled contributing area that has been found useful in temperate-zone hydrology.

  14. Applications of the PyTOPKAPI model to ungauged catchments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this work as an alternative model calibration procedure for streamflow simulation from .... catchment is divided into direct runoff and infiltration, which reflects the nonlinear relationship between the soil water storage and the saturated ...

  15. Land use change impacts on floods at the catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogger, M.; Agnoletti, M.; Alaoui, A.; Bathurst, J.C.; Bodner, G.; Borga, M.; Chaplot, Vincent; Gallart, F.; Glatzel, G.; Hall, J.; Holden, J.; Holko, L.; Horn, R.; Kiss, A.; Kohnová, S.; Leitinger, G.; Lennartz, B.; Parajka, J.; Perdigão, R.; Peth, S.; Plavcová, L.; Quinton, John N.; Robinson, Matthew R.; Salinas, J.L.; Santoro, A.; Szolgay, J.; Tron, S.; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2017-01-01

    Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes

  16. Impacts of afforestation on low flows: Paired catchment data revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blight, JJ

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of the hydrological regime caused by afforestation is well documented. Several sets of experimental catchments were set up in South Africa between 1935 and 1980 specifically to quantify such impacts. Data emanating from these experimental...

  17. Analysis of catchments response to severe drought event for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    The run sum analysis method was a sound method which indicates in ... intensity and duration of stream flow depletion between nearby catchments. ... threshold level analysis method, and allows drought events to be described in more.

  18. Extreme inflow events and synoptic forcing in Sydney catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepler, Acacia S; Rakich, Clinton S

    2010-01-01

    The Sydney catchment region encompasses over 16,000km 2 , supplying water to over 4 million inhabitants. However, few studies have investigated the synoptic and climatic influences on inflow in this region, which are crucial for understanding the vulnerability of water supply in a changing climate. This study identifies extremely high and low inflow events between 1960 and 2008 based on catchment averages. The focus of the study is an analysis of the synoptic cause/s of each extreme inflow event. The events are evaluated to identify any trends and also to determine the concurrent significant climatic influences on rainfall over the catchments. Relationships between catchment inflow, rainfall, tropical SST indices, and other influencing factors such as observed wind and temperatures are investigated. Our results show that East Coast Lows and anomalously easterly flow are the drivers of high inflow events, with low inflow events dominated by westerly wind patterns and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

  19. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Commercial Actors and the Governing of Education: The Case of Academy School Sponsors in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which commercial actors are operating in state education by focusing on the case study of England's academies policy. First of all the discussion outlines the development of academies over time and the way in which the policy has provided opportunities for private actors to become involved in the state schooling…

  1. Lone-Actor Terrorism. Toolkit Paper 1 : Practical Guidance for Mental Health Practitioners and Social Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to draw out practical implications for mental health practitioners and social workers in dealing with Lone-Actor Terrorism. It is not intended to provide a profile of lone-actor terrorists, but rather to offer guidance that may be of use to practitioners in Europe (and

  2. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation : A Data-Driven Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, B.W.; Bakker, E.; Gill, P.; Bouhana, N.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists’ attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented

  3. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  4. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  5. Optimal Placement of Actors in WSANs Based on Imposed Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs refer to a group of sensors and actors linked by wireless medium to probe environment and perform specific actions. Such certain actions should always be taken before a deadline when an event of interest is detected. In order to provide such services, the whole monitor area is divided into several virtual areas and nodes in the same area form a cluster. Clustering of the WSANs is often pursued to give that each actor acts as a cluster-head. The number of actors is related to the size and the deployment of WSANs cluster. In this paper, we find a method to determine the accurate number of actors which enables them to receive data and take actions in an imposed time-delay. The k-MinTE and the k-MaxTE clustering algorithm are proposed to form the minimum and maximum size of cluster, respectively. In those clustering algorithms, actors are deployed in such a way that sensors could route data to actors within k hops. Then, clusters are arranged by the regular hexagon. At last, we evaluate the placement of actors and results show that our approach is effective.

  6. Estimating retention potential of headwater catchment using Tritium time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2018-06-01

    Headwater catchments provide substantial streamflow to rivers even during long periods of drought. Documenting the mean transit times (MTT) of stream water in headwater catchments and therefore the retention capacities of these catchments is crucial for water management. This study uses time series of 3H activities in combination with major ion concentrations, stable isotope ratios and radon activities (222Rn) in the Lyrebird Creek catchment in Victoria, Australia to provide a unique insight into the mean transit time distributions and flow systems of this small temperate headwater catchment. At all streamflows, the stream has 3H activities (water in the stream is derived from stores with long transit times. If the water in the catchment can be represented by a single store with a continuum of ages, mean transit times of the stream water range from ∼6 up to 40 years, which indicates the large retention potential for this catchment. Alternatively, variations of 3H activities, stable isotopes and major ions can be explained by mixing between of young recent recharge and older water stored in the catchment. While surface runoff is negligible, the variation in stable isotope ratios, major ion concentrations and radon activities during most of the year is minimal (±12%) and only occurs during major storm events. This suggests that different subsurface water stores are activated during the storm events and that these cease to provide water to the stream within a few days or weeks after storm events. The stores comprise micro and macropore flow in the soils and saprolite as well as the boundary between the saprolite and the fractured bed rock. Hydrograph separations from three major storm events using Tritium, electrical conductivity and selected major ions as well a δ18O suggest a minimum of 50% baseflow at most flow conditions. We demonstrate that headwater catchments can have a significant storage capacity and that the relationship between long-water stores and

  7. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  8. Catchment Storage and Transport on Timescales from Minutes to Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Landscapes are characterized by preferential flow and pervasive heterogeneity on all scales. They therefore store and transmit water and solutes over a wide spectrum of time scales, with important implications for contaminant transport, weathering rates, and runoff chemistry. Theoretical analyses predict, and syntheses of age tracer data confirm, that waters in aquifers are older - often by orders of magnitude - than in the rivers that flow from them, and that this disconnect between water ages arises from aquifer heterogeneity. Recent theoretical studies also suggest that catchment transit time distributions are nonstationary, reflecting temporal variability in precipitation forcing, structural heterogeneity in catchments themselves, and the nonlinearity of the mechanisms controlling storage and transport in the subsurface. The challenge of empirically estimating these nonstationary transit time distributions in real-world catchments, however, has only begun to be explored. In recent years, long-term isotope time series have been collected in many research catchments, and new technologies have emerged that allow quasi-continuous measurements of isotopes in precipitation and streamflow. These new data streams create new opportunities to study how rainfall becomes streamflow following the onset of precipitation. Here I present novel methods for quantifying the fraction of current rainfall in streamflow across ensembles of precipitation events. Benchmark tests with nonstationary catchment models demonstrate that this approach quantitatively measures the short tail of the transit time distribution for a wide range of catchment response characteristics. In combination with reactive tracer time series, this approach can potentially be extended to measure short-term chemical reaction rates at the catchment scale. Applications using high-frequency tracer time series from several experimental catchments demonstrate the utility of the new approach outlined here.

  9. Comparison of physically based catchment models for estimating Phosphorus losses

    OpenAIRE

    Nasr, Ahmed Elssidig; Bruen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As part of a large EPA-funded research project, coordinated by TEAGASC, the Centre for Water Resources Research at UCD reviewed the available distributed physically based catchment models with a potential for use in estimating phosphorous losses for use in implementing the Water Framework Directive. Three models, representative of different levels of approach and complexity, were chosen and were implemented for a number of Irish catchments. This paper reports on (i) the lessons and experience...

  10. The assessment of water resources in ungauged catchments in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Abimbola

    2017-10-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Results of this study show that climate, physiography and land cover strongly influence the hydrology of catchments in Rwanda. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, the log-transformed models were found to predict the flow parameters more suitably. These models can be used for estimating the flow parameters in ungauged catchments in Rwanda and the methodology can be applied in any other region, as long as sufficient and good quality streamflow data is available.

  11. Streamflow response of a small forested catchment on different timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zabaleta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of a catchment to rainfall on different timescales is result of a complex system involving a range of physical processes which may operate simultaneously and have different spatial and temporal influences. This paper presents the analysis of streamflow response of a small humid-temperate catchment (Aixola, 4.8 km2 in the Basque Country on different timescales and discusses the role of the controlling factors. Firstly, daily time series analysis was used to establish a hypothesis on the general functioning of the catchment through the relationship between precipitation and discharge on an annual and multiannual scale (2003–2008. Second, rainfall-runoff relationships and relationships among several hydrological variables, including catchment antecedent conditions, were explored at the event scale (222 events to check and improve the hypothesis. Finally, the evolution of electrical conductivity (EC during some of the monitored storm events (28 events was examined to identify the time origin of waters. Quick response of the catchment to almost all the rainfall events as well as a considerable regulation capacity was deduced from the correlation and spectral analyses. These results agree with runoff event scale data analysis; however, the event analysis revealed the non-linearity of the system, as antecedent conditions play a significant role in this catchment. Further, analysis at the event scale made possible to clarify factors controlling (precipitation, precipitation intensity and initial discharge the different aspects of the runoff response (runoff coefficient and discharge increase for this catchment. Finally, the evolution of EC of the waters enabled the time origin (event or pre-event waters of the quickflow to be established; specifically, the conductivity showed that pre-event waters usually represent a high percentage of the total discharge during runoff peaks. The importance of soil waters in the

  12. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  13. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France; Les acteurs de l'hydrogene en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  14. Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual childrens literacy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual children´s literacy development Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to artifacts, it becomes important to track and research the objects that circulate within and between “sites...... of human social interaction” (Latour, 2005). Latour argues that objects – e.g. a literacy testing instrument – play a central role through the meaning, human beings delegate to objects. In this way objects become co-actors in a network through the agency human actors delegate to them, and objects mediate...... categories and artifacts based on the local context. The second is termed “globalising connects” that brings local actors in line with bigger and remote networks. In order to understand the semiotic function of artifacts in a meaning making network an ethnographic oriented approach with a focus on actor...

  15. Application of the actor model to large scale NDE data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The Actor model of concurrent computation discretizes a problem into a series of independent units or actors that interact only through the exchange of messages. Without direct coupling between individual components, an Actor-based system is inherently concurrent and fault-tolerant. These traits lend themselves to so-called "Big Data" applications in which the volume of data to analyze requires a distributed multi-system design. For a practical demonstration of the Actor computational model, a system was developed to assist with the automated analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) datasets using the open source Myriad Data Reduction Framework. A machine learning model trained to detect damage in two-dimensional slices of C-Scan data was deployed in a streaming data processing pipeline. To demonstrate the flexibility of the Actor model, the pipeline was deployed on a local system and re-deployed as a distributed system without recompiling, reconfiguring, or restarting the running application.

  16. A Flash Flood Study on the Small Montaneous River Catchments in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Mari