WorldWideScience

Sample records for catapults

  1. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  2. Bow and catapult internal dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, M

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of bow and arrow dynamics is presented, which makes clear the physical principles, and reproduces the features obtained via more detailed, but less accessible calculations. We apply this instructive model to determine the efficiency of bows and of torsion-spring catapults.

  3. Bow and catapult internal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Mark [4665 Amblewood Drive, Victoria, BC V8Y 1C1 (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A simple model of bow and arrow dynamics is presented, which makes clear the physical principles, and reproduces the features obtained via more detailed, but less accessible calculations. We apply this instructive model to determine the efficiency of bows and of torsion-spring catapults.

  4. Bow and catapult internal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of bow and arrow dynamics is presented, which makes clear the physical principles, and reproduces the features obtained via more detailed, but less accessible calculations. We apply this instructive model to determine the efficiency of bows and of torsion-spring catapults

  5. Perspectives on Greek and Roman catapults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hassall

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Both the Greeks and the Romans showed great ingenuity in developing catapults as artillery weapons. Evidence of how these complicated machines worked comes from surviving descriptions, experimental reconstructions and archaeological remains. Ancient technical drawings are a valuable but relatively neglected source of information about catapult design, and one that poses challenging problems of interpretation.

  6. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar, E-mail: soundar@dalembert.upmc.fr; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme [Institut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 and CNRS-UMR 7190, F-75005 Paris (France); Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS - UMR 5519, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-15

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  7. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme

    2013-11-01

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  8. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex

  9. The fern sporangium: a unique catapult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblin, X; Rojas, N O; Westbrook, J; Llorens, C; Argentina, M; Dumais, J

    2012-03-16

    Various plants and fungi have evolved ingenious devices to disperse their spores. One such mechanism is the cavitation-triggered catapult of fern sporangia. The spherical sporangia enclosing the spores are equipped with a row of 12 to 13 specialized cells, the annulus. When dehydrating, these cells induce a dramatic change of curvature in the sporangium, which is released abruptly after the cavitation of the annulus cells. The entire ejection process is reminiscent of human-made catapults with one notable exception: The sporangia lack the crossbar that arrests the catapult arm in its returning motion. We show that much of the sophistication and efficiency of the ejection mechanism lies in the two very different time scales associated with the annulus closure.

  10. Catapulting Tentacles in a Sticky Carnivorous Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried Richard Heinrich; Seidel, Robin; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed ‘active’ have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin’s early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory. PMID:23049849

  11. Catapulting tentacles in a sticky carnivorous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried Richard Heinrich; Seidel, Robin; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed 'active' have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin's early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory.

  12. Catapulting tentacles in a sticky carnivorous plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed 'active' have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin's early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory.

  13. The fern sporangium: an ultrafast natural catapult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblin, Xavier; Argentina, Mederic; Westbrook, Jared; Llorens, Coraline; Rojas, Nicolas; Dumais, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    Plants have developed fascinating mechanisms to create ultra fast movements that often reach the upper limit allowed by physical laws. Inspiration for new technologies is one of the reasons for the strong interest for these mechanisms, along with the deep interest of understanding complex, natural systems. The fern sporangium is a capsule that contains the spores, it is surrounded by a row of cells called the annulus which acts as a beam. Due to the water evaporation from its cells, the annulus bends strongly and induces elastic energy storage during an opening phase. The tension in the cells breaks when cavitation bubbles appear in the cells, leading to a fast release of the elastic energy. The fern sporangium then acts as a catapult which ejects rapidly its spores by closing back to the initial closed shape. We have analyzed the slow opening motion and the fast catapulting mechanism. We found that the catapult motion involves two time scales, showing a very original behavior. In man-made catapults, the recoil motion needs to be arrested by a cross bar so that the projectile is released from the arm. We show here that the fern sporangium replaces the essential cross bar by an elegant poroelastic damping, leading to a completely autonomous, efficient device.

  14. The fern sporangium: a unique catapult.

    OpenAIRE

    Noblin, X.; Rojas, N. O.; Westbrook, J.; Llorens, C.; Argentina, M.; Dumais, J.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Various plants and fungi have evolved ingenious devices to disperse their spores. One such mechanism is the cavitation-triggered catapult of fern sporangia. The spherical sporangia enclosing the spores are equipped with a row of 12 to 13 specialized cells, the annulus. When dehydrating, these cells induce a dramatic change of curvature in the sporangium, which is released abruptly after the cavitation of the annulus cells. The entire ejection process is reminiscent of ...

  15. Botany: a record-breaking pollen catapult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joan; Whitaker, Dwight; Klionsky, Sarah; Laskowski, Marta J

    2005-05-12

    The release of stored elastic energy often drives rapid movements in animal systems, and plant components employing this mechanism should be able to move with similar speed. Here we describe how the flower stamens of the bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis) rely on this principle to catapult pollen into the air as the flower opens explosively. Our high-speed video observations show that the flower opens in less than 0.5 ms--to our knowledge, the fastest movement so far recorded in a plant.

  16. Catapult splint: a foot dorsiflexion assist splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet; Agrawal, Mayank; Dhal, Anil

    2011-12-01

    Loss of dorsiflexion is a common problem in cases where an external fixator or Ilizarov assembly is applied. It results in functional impairment of the foot by affecting the swing phase of gait cycle. We devised a simple dynamic dorsiflexion assist splint for prevention, correction of equinus/cavus deformity and maintenance of normal dorsiflexion of foot. This prospective study used a rubber splint styled in the shape of a catapult, made of discarded car rubber tubes attached to the frame of fixator in 50 patients. In 17 patients there was varying amount of loss of dorsiflexion at the time of application of splint while in 22 patients it was applied soon after the application of the fixator. In the rest of patients it was applied for cavus deformity. Out of 17 patients 10 had complete recovery of dorsiflexion. 22 patients in whom it was applied at the outset had normal range of movement at ankle. Correction was achieved in all 6 cases of cavus deformity and prevented its occurrence in the rest of 5 cases. Catapult splint is a low cost foot dorsiflexion assist splint. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanics modelling of fern cavitation catapult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jingtian; Li, Kai; Tan, Huifeng; Wang, Changguo; Cai, Shengqiang

    2017-12-01

    Cavitation is often regarded as a failure mode in soft materials. An intriguing phenomenon has been recently discovered that fern sporangium can take advantage of drying-induced cavitation instability in annulus cells to disperse spores at an extraordinarily high acceleration. Briefly, the decrease of environmental humidity causes continuous bending of the sporangium and growth of cavities inside the annulus cells, with the elastic energy accumulated in sporangium walls. When the humidity is lower than a critical value, the cavities suddenly expand dramatically inside the cells, causing a quick release of the elastic energy stored in the annular structure. As a result, like a catapult, the sporangium snaps back and ejects the seeds at a high speed. Motivated by the observation, in this article, we study cavitation instability in a similar structure as the sporangium. To simplify the problem, in our model, the mechanics of cells in the sporangium are described by the polymer gel model, while the sporangium wall is modelled as a hyperelastic material. When the environmental humidity is lower than a critical value, through energetic analyses, we can predict the cavitation catapult phenomenon using the model. We hope that our study in this article can provide useful insights into the bio-inspired design of structures which can take advantage of cavitation instability in soft materials.

  18. The cable catapult - Putting it there and keeping it there

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forward, Robert L.; Conley, Buford R.; Stanek, Clay; Ramsey, William

    1992-01-01

    The cable catapult is the previously proposed method of using long space tethers for high speed interplanetary transport. A long conductive multistrand cable would be connected to a power supply and pointed in the desired direction. A linear motor would pull itself along the powered cable strands and launch a payload capsule toward a distant planet, where it would be caught and decelerated by another cable catapult positioned there. In this paper it is shown how cable catapults can be used to transport themselves to a distant planet and keep themselves in position near the planet despite the tendency of the payload capsule momentum transfer to push them apart.

  19. 'Catapult' offshore renewables into commercial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    In February, the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's government innovation agency, appointed a consortium to set up the Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult centre, with Sterling Pounds 50 million to be spent over five years. (orig.)

  20. TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located on 11,000 feet of test runway, the TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site has in-ground catapults identical to those aboard carriers. This test site...

  1. Construct-a-Catapult. Science by Design Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulis, Lee

    This book is one of four books in the Science-by-Design Series crated by TERC and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It integrates history, physics, mathematics, and technology in its challenge to high school students to design and build a working catapult system. Students investigate elasticity, projectile launching, and learn about…

  2. Catapult launch-associated cardioversion of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnker, B K; Feeks, E F; McEwen, G

    1993-10-01

    A patient is presented with new-onset atrial fibrillation. While being air-evacuated, he cardioverted during the acceleration associated with aircraft carrier catapult launch. This case suggests a possible myocardial response to the kinetic energy produced by the acceleration force, similar to the electrical energy commonly used for cardioversion. Cardioversion using acceleration forces is probably not a clinically useful modality; however, this case demonstrates the importance of acceleration forces on patients during medical evacuation from aircraft carriers.

  3. Concept of an induction-dynamic catapult for a ballistic laser gravimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Bolyukh, V. F.; Vinnichenko, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    A design is proposed for an inductive-dynamic catapult in a ballistic laser gravimeter with a fixed inductor and an electrically conducting armature that moves together with the test object along a vertical axis. The catapult ensures improved accuracy of the gravimeter through direct conversion of electrical into kinetic energy. The electrical circuit of the catapult provides two successive current pulses to the inductor for launching and braking of the armature during the operating cycle.

  4. Biodynamic Assessment of Pilot Knee-Board Configurations During Simulated T-38 Catapult Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    0041 Biodynamic Assessment of Pilot Knee-Board Configurations During Simulated T-38 Catapult Acceleration Mr. Chris Perry Mr. Chris...to April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biodynamic Assessment of Pilot Knee-Board Configurations During Simulated T-38 Catapult Acceleration 5a...small and large manikins. The USAF currently accepts up to a 5% risk of injury to the spine during the catapult phase of ejection; therefore, this

  5. Universities, Catapult Centres and the 2014 Hauser Review. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This factsheet, the second in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of Catapult centres and how universities engage with them, with reference to the recommendations of the second Hauser review into the future of the Catapult network. The factsheet draws on a review of existing literature as well as the perspectives of businesses,…

  6. A Catapult (Slingshot) Current Sheet Relaxation Model for Substorm Triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the results of our superposed epoch analysis of Geotail data, we have proposed a catapult (slingshot) current sheet relaxation model in which earthward flows are produced in the central plasma sheet (CPS) due to the catapult (slingshot) current sheet relaxation, together with the rapid enhancement of Poynting flux toward the CPS in the lobe around X ~ -15 Re about 4 min before the substrom onset. These earthward flows are characterized by plasma pressure decrease and large amplitude magnetic field fluctuations. When these flows reach X ~ 12Re in the magnetotail, they give significant disturbances to the inner magnetosphere to initiate some instability such as a ballooning instability or other instabilities, and the substorm starts in the inner magnetosphere. The occurrence of the magnetic reconnection is a natural consequence of the initial convective earthward flows, because the relaxation of a highly stretched catapult current sheet produces a very thin current at its tailward edge being surrounded by intense magnetic fields which were formerly the off-equatorial lobe magnetic fields. Recently, Nishimura et al. [2010] reported that the substorm onset begins when faint poleward discrete arcs collide with equatorward quiet arcs. The region of earthward convective flows correlatively moves earthward prior to the onset. Thus, this region of the earthward convective flows seems to correspond to the faint poleward discrete arcs. Interestingly, our statistical analysis shows that the earthward convective flows are not produced by the magnetic reconnection, but they are attributed to the dominance of the earthward JxB force over the tailward pressure associated with the progress of the plasma sheet thinning.

  7. The fern cavitation catapult: mechanism and design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, C; Argentina, M; Rojas, N; Westbrook, J; Dumais, J; Noblin, X

    2016-01-01

    Leptosporangiate ferns have evolved an ingenious cavitation catapult to disperse their spores. The mechanism relies almost entirely on the annulus, a row of 12-25 cells, which successively: (i) stores energy by evaporation of the cells' content, (ii) triggers the catapult by internal cavitation, and (iii) controls the time scales of energy release to ensure efficient spore ejection. The confluence of these three biomechanical functions within the confines of a single structure suggests a level of sophistication that goes beyond most man-made devices where specific structures or parts rarely serve more than one function. Here, we study in detail the three phases of spore ejection in the sporangia of the fern Polypodium aureum. For each of these phases, we have written the governing equations and measured the key parameters. For the opening of the sporangium, we show that the structural design of the annulus is particularly well suited to inducing bending deformations in response to osmotic volume changes. Moreover, the measured parameters for the osmoelastic design lead to a near-optimal speed of spore ejection (approx. 10 m s(-1)). Our analysis of the trigger mechanism by cavitation points to a critical cavitation pressure of approximately -100 ± 14 bar, a value that matches the most negative pressures recorded in the xylem of plants. Finally, using high-speed imaging, we elucidated the physics leading to the sharp separation of time scales (30 versus 5000 µs) in the closing dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of the precise tuning of the parameters without which the function of the leptosporangium as a catapult would be severely compromised. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Analysis of the Design Criteria for Ancient Greek and Roman Catapults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This paper will give a short overview of use of COMSOL Multiphysics for analyzing ancient Greek and Roman catapults with the main focus on the energy storing torsion springs. Catapults have been known and used in the Greek and Roman world from around 399 BC and a fully standardized design...... for powerful torsion catapults emerged around 270 BC, based on one basic factor, the diameter of the torsion springs. This value is then scaled to give all vital structural dimensions of the catapult. How optimal this design is has until now not been fully understood and earlier work has been dominated...... by trial-and-error methods. The use of COMSOL Multiphysics enables the construction of virtual catapults parts, non-linear analysis of structural parts where no analytical solution is known as well the analysis of the surviving designs, with respect to optimal performance. The result from COMSOL...

  9. Capillary-Inertial Colloidal Catapult upon Drop Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Roger; Liu, Fangjie; Feng, James; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2014-11-01

    To discharge micron-sized particles such as colloidal contaminants and biological spores, an enormous power density is needed to compete against the strong adhesive forces between the small particles and the supporting surface as well as the significant air friction exerted on the particles. Here, we demonstrate a colloidal catapult that achieves such a high power density by extracting surface energy released upon drop coalescence within an extremely short time period, which is governed by the capillary-inertial process converting the released surface energy into the bulk inertia of the merged drop. When two drops coalesce on top of a spherical particle, the resulting capillary-inertial oscillation is perturbed by the solid particle, giving rise to a net momentum eventually propelling the particle to launch from the supporting surface. The measured launching velocity follows a scaling law that accounts for the redistribution of the momentum of the merged drop onto the particle-drop complex, and is therefore proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity characterizing the coalescing drops. The interfacial flow process associated with the colloidal catapult is elucidated with both high-speed imaging and phase-field simulations.

  10. Capillary-inertial colloidal catapults upon drop coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Surface energy released upon drop coalescence is known to power the self-propelled jumping of liquid droplets on superhydrophobic solid surfaces, and the jumping droplets can additionally carry colloidal payloads toward self-cleaning. Here, we show that drop coalescence on a spherical particle leads to self-propelled launching of the particle from virtually any solid surface. The main prerequisite is an intermediate wettability of the particle, such that the momentum from the capillary-inertial drop coalescence process can be transferred to the particle. By momentum conservation, the launching velocity of the particle-drop complex is proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity based on the drop radius and to the fraction of the liquid mass in the total mass. The capillary-inertial catapult is not only an alternative mechanism for removing colloidal contaminants, but also a useful model system for studying ballistospore launching. PMID:27478201

  11. Study of the Spinal Preloading Piston for the CKU-5/A Rocket Catapult

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peck, Walter

    1999-01-01

    ...). Spinal preloading may be an effective means of reducing spinal compression during the catapult phase of an emergency aircraft ejection and result in a reduction in major injuries and fatalities...

  12. Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping

    OpenAIRE

    Astley, Henry C.; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Anuran jumping is one of the most powerful accelerations in vertebrate locomotion. Several species are hypothesized to use a catapult-like mechanism to store and rapidly release elastic energy, producing power outputs far beyond the capability of muscle. Most evidence for this mechanism comes from measurements of whole-body power output; the decoupling of joint motion and muscle shortening expected in a catapult-like mechanism has not been demonstrated. We used high-speed marker-based biplana...

  13. Catapult current sheet relaxation model confirmed by THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.; Nose, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we show the result of superposed epoch analysis on the THEMIS probe data during the period from November, 2007 to April, 2009 by setting the origin of time axis to the substorm onset determined by Nishimura with THEMIS all sky imager (THEMS/ASI) data (http://www.atmos.ucla.edu/~toshi/files/paper/Toshi_THEMIS_GBO_list_distribution.xls). We confirmed the presence of earthward flows which can be associated with north-south auroral streamers during the substorm growth phase. At around X = -12 Earth radii (Re), the northward magnetic field and its elevation angle decreased markedly approximately 4 min before substorm onset. A northward magnetic-field increase associated with pre-onset earthward flows was found at around X = -17Re. This variation indicates the occurrence of the local depolarization. Interestingly, in the region earthwards of X = -18Re, earthward flows in the central plasma sheet (CPS) reduced significantly about 3min before substorm onset. However, the earthward flows enhanced again at t = -60 sec in the region around X = -14 Re, and they moved toward the Earth. At t = 0, the dipolarization of the magnetic field started at X ~ -10 Re, and simultaneously the magnetic reconnection started at X ~ -20 Re. Synthesizing these results, we can confirm the validity of our catapult current sheet relaxation model.

  14. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Catapult mechanism renders the chaperone action of Hsp70 unidirectional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, S M; Pierpaoli, E V; Christen, P

    1998-06-19

    Molecular chaperones of the Hsp70 type promote the folding and membrane translocation of proteins. The interaction of Hsp70s with polypeptides is linked to ATP binding and hydrolysis. We formed complexes of seven different fluorescence-labeled peptides with DnaK, the Hsp70 homolog of Escherichia coli, and determined the rate of peptide release under two different sets of conditions. (1) Upon addition of ATP to nucleotide-free peptide.DnaK complexes, all tested peptides were released with similar rate constants (2.2 s-1 to 6.7 s-1). (2) In the binding equilibrium of peptide and ATP-liganded DnaK, the dissociation followed one or two-step reactions, depending on the amino acid sequence of the peptide. For the monophasic reactions, the dissociation rate constants diverged by four orders of magnitude from 0.0004 s-1 to 5.7 s-1; for the biphasic reactions, the rate constants of the second, slower isomerization step were in the range from 0.3 s-1 to 0.0005 s-1. The release of the different peptides in case (1) is 1.4 to 14,000 times faster than in case (2). Apparently, binding of ATP induces a transient state of the chaperone which ejects target peptides before the final state of ATP-liganded DnaK is reached. This "catapult" mechanism provides the chaperone cycle with a mode of peptide release that does not correspond with the reverse of peptide binding. By allowing the conformation of the outgoing polypeptide to differ from that of the incoming polypeptide, a futile cycle with respect to conformational work exerted on the target protein is obviated. Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of solid aerosols produced by optical catapulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, F.J.; Cabalin, L.M.; Laserna, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of particles ejected by optical catapulting is discussed for the first time. For this purpose, materials deposited on a substrate were ejected and transported from the surface in the form of a solid aerosol by optical catapulting using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser at 1064 nm. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm was used for chemical characterization of the particles by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Both lasers were synchronized in order to perform suitable spectral detection. The optical catapulting was optimized and evaluated using aluminum silicate particles, nickel spheres, and quartz and stainless steel particles. Experimental parameters such as the interpulse delay time, the sampling distance, the laser fluence, the sampling rate and the particle size have been studied. A correlation between these parameters and the particle size is reported and discussed.

  17. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in fission and heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The fission processes of slabs of nuclear matter is modelled in the Hartree-Fock time dependence approximation by adding an initial collective velocity field to the static self-consistent solution. In dependence on its amplitude either large amplitude density oscillations are excited or fission occurs. The final disintegration of the slab proceeds on a time scale 10 -22 s and is characterized by a sharp peak in the actual velocity field in the region of the ''snatching'' inner low density tails. A characteristic time later a low density lump correlated with a peak in the velocity field energies in front of the fragments. These particles are called ''catapult particles''. Recent experimental results possibly provide evidence for catapult neutrons in low-energy fission. The significance of the catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in the exit channel of heavy ion reactions is discussed

  18. Open Innovation, Triple Helix and Regional Innovation Systems: Exploring CATAPULT Centres in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Christopher; Danson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Through the lens of UK CATAPULT Centres this conceptual paper presents an examination of the links between open innovation, the Triple Helix model and regional innovation systems. Highlighting the importance of boundary-spanning intermediaries, the combined role of these concepts is explored in detail. A conceptual model is then proposed which…

  19. Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Henry C; Roberts, Thomas J

    2012-06-23

    Anuran jumping is one of the most powerful accelerations in vertebrate locomotion. Several species are hypothesized to use a catapult-like mechanism to store and rapidly release elastic energy, producing power outputs far beyond the capability of muscle. Most evidence for this mechanism comes from measurements of whole-body power output; the decoupling of joint motion and muscle shortening expected in a catapult-like mechanism has not been demonstrated. We used high-speed marker-based biplanar X-ray cinefluoroscopy to quantify plantaris muscle fascicle strain and ankle joint motion in frogs in order to test for two hallmarks of a catapult mechanism: (i) shortening of fascicles prior to joint movement (during tendon stretch), and (ii) rapid joint movement during the jump without rapid muscle-shortening (during tendon recoil). During all jumps, muscle fascicles shortened by an average of 7.8 per cent (54% of total strain) prior to joint movement, stretching the tendon. The subsequent period of initial joint movement and high joint angular acceleration occurred with minimal muscle fascicle length change, consistent with the recoil of the elastic tendon. These data support the plantaris longus tendon as a site of elastic energy storage during frog jumping, and demonstrate that catapult mechanisms may be employed even in sub-maximal jumps.

  20. The seed dispersal catapult of Cardamine parviflora (Brassicaceae) is efficient but unreliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Marika; Gerry, Shannon P; Ellerby, David J

    2010-10-01

    Seed dispersal performance is an essential component of plant fitness. Despite their significance in shaping performance, the mechanical processes that drive dispersal are poorly understood. We have quantified seed dispersal mechanics in Cardamine parviflora (Brassicaceae), a ballistic disperser that launches seeds with specialized catapult-like structures. To determine which aspects of catapult function dictate interspecific dispersal differences, we compared this disperser with other ballistic dispersers. Comparison with brassicas that lack ballistic dispersal may also provide insight into the evolution of this mechanism. • Catapult performance was quantified using high-speed video analysis of dehiscence, ballistic modeling of seed trajectories, and measuring the mechanical energy storage capacity of the spring-like siliqua valve tissue that launched the seeds. • The siliquae valves coiled rapidly outward, launching the seeds in 4.7 ± 1.3 ms (mean ± SD, N = 11). Coiling was likely driven by the bilayered valve structure. The catapult was 21.3 ± 10.3% efficient (mean ± SD, N = 11) at transferring stored elastic energy to the seeds as kinetic energy. The majority of seeds (71.4%) were not launched effectively. • The efficiency of the C. parviflora catapult was high in comparison to that of a ballistic diplochore, a dispersal mode associated with poor ballistic performance, although the unreliability of the launch mechanism limited dispersal distance. Effective launching requires temporary seed-valve adhesion. The adhesion mechanism may be the source of the unreliability. Valve curvature is likely driven by the bilayered valve structure, a feature absent in nonballistic brassicas.

  1. The Cell Therapy Catapult: growing a U.K. cell therapy industry generating health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith; Foster, Emma Palmer

    2013-12-01

    In a recent report on the regenerative medicine sector, the U.K. House of Lords made several recommendations to enable the United Kingdom to become a global leader in this important industry. Its recommendations in this regard were many and various, covering the regulatory system, clinical trials, manufacturing, funding, approval, and reimbursement. In its mission to tackle what it sees as three main types of barriers to the development of the cell therapy industry in the United Kingdom, the Cell Therapy Catapult is tackling many of these issues. Established as a center of excellence in the United Kingdom in 2012, the Cell Therapy Catapult is a research organization expected to grow to a team of around 100 experts. Its core financing of £ 70 million over the next 5 years is provided by the Technology Strategy Board, the United Kingdom's innovation agency, and with additional contract research income and access to collaborative funds, the Catapult expects to build up to annual revenues of around £ 30 million. Along with its sister Catapult programs in other areas of the economy, the Cell Therapy Catapult was established after identification of the massive early-stage expertise the country has, as well as an acute market failure-the lack of expertise to translate early-stage cell therapy research into commercial success. In this article, in addition to showing our progress so far, we will discuss the hurdles the industry faces-grouped into business, manufacturing/supply chain issues, and clinical/regulatory issues-and what we are doing to help the United Kingdom leap over them.

  2. The game of catapult to understand the design of experiments: one proposal of playful approach for teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Júnior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of the Catapult game for teaching design of experiments. This game consists of a small catapult capable of launching small objects. This can have different settings, so up to five control variables can be changed. The possibility of introducing different adjustments to the catapult allows driving of several types of treatments and the use of various DOE techniques. In this direction, one 2k factorial experiment was performed and is presented. Moreover, the text addresses the DOE through the Multiple Linear Regression using the regression coefficient R2 as a measure for assessing the significance of the factors and the interaction between them. Despite the simplicity of the catapult device, several existing activities in conducting industrial experiments are present in this game. This work provides several important concepts of this technique through play.

  3. Characteristics of solid aerosols produced by optical catapulting studied by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, F. J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2010-08-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) constitutes an effective method to transport small amounts of different materials in the form of a solid aerosol. In this report, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the analysis of those aerosols produced by OC. For this purpose, materials were catapulted using a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser. A second Q-switch Nd:YAG laser was used for LIBS analysis of the ejected particles. Data processing of aerosols was conducted using conditional data analysis. Also, the standard deviation method was used for the qualitative identification of the ejected particles. Two modes of interaction in OC (OC with focused or defocused pulses) have been evaluated and discussed. LIBS demonstrates that the distribution (spreading) of the ejected particles along the propagation axis increased as a function of the interpulse delay time. The mass density and the thickness of the target also play an important role in OC-LIBS.

  4. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F.J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M.A.; Laserna, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2–8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%. - Highlights: • Aerosol generation by optical catapulting has been successfully optimized. • We study the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. • We use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. • Effects of temporal conditions and laser fluence on the elevation of the aerosol cloud have been investigated. • The observed LIBS sampling rate increased from 50% reported before to approximately 90%

  5. Accelerating Innovation in the Creation of Biovalue: The Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John; Webster, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    The field of regenerative medicine (RM) has considerable therapeutic promise that is proving difficult to realize. As a result, governments have supported the establishment of intermediary agencies to "accelerate" innovation. This article examines in detail one such agency, the United Kingdom's Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult (CGTC). We describe CGTC's role as an accelerator agency and its value narrative, which combines both "health and wealth." Drawing on the notion of sociotechnical imaginaries, we unpack the tensions within this narrative and its instantiation as the CGTC cell therapy infrastructure is built and engages with other agencies, some of which have different priorities and roles to play within the RM field.

  6. Pilot disorientation during aircraft catapult launchings at night - Historical and experimental perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the investigations conducted into, and the recommendations made to avoid fatal A-7 Corsair II aircraft accidents during night carrier launchings in which the aircraft was apparently flown into the water. The investigating boards conjectured that the pilots were distracted from their normal cockpit procedures and that the distraction was of an insidious nature not previously experienced or expected in the night catapult/departure environment. A conference to discuss these accidents focused on aerodynamic and human factors analyses of the problem, with the goal of producing several recommendations for its resolution.

  7. Bias determination for space accelerometers using the ZARM Catapult system - experimental setup and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Accelerometers for space applications - like the electrostatic differential accelrometer for the MICROSCOPE mission for testing the equivalence principle in space - have to be tested and qualified in μg-conditions in order to demonstrate the system operation and to determine the characteristic sensor parameters. One important characteristic property is the sensor bias. In principle one can determine the sensor bias directly by using the ZARM catapult system as test platform. Even in the evacuated drop tube the residual air pressure results in an air friction that depends on the capsule velocity. At the apex (highest point of the capsule trajectory) the acceleration (relative to the gravitational acceleration g) becomes zero due to the zero velocity at the apex. The direct measurement of the vertical linear acceleration sensor bias is affected by some additional effects that have to be understood in order to be able to determine the sensor bias. Two catapult campaigns have been carried out to demonstrate the principles of the bias determination using a SuperStar accelerometer (Onera). The presentation gives an overview on the experimental setup and on the corresponding data analysis.

  8. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F. J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M. A.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-11-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2-8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%.

  9. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in fission and heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, P.

    1985-01-01

    The fission process of slabs of nuclear matter is modelled in TDHF approximation by adding an initial collective velocity field to the static self-consistent solution. In dependence on its amplitude either large amplitude density oscillations are excited or fission occurs. The final disintegration of the slab proceeds on a time scale of 10 -22 s and is characterized by a sharp peak in the actual velocity field in the region of the ''snatching'' inner low density tails. A characteristic time later corresponding to the transit time of a nucelon across the fragment with mean velocity being the Fermi velocity plus twice the maximum ''snatching'' velocity, a low density lump correlated with a peak in the velocity field emerges in front of the fragments. We call these particles ''catepult particles''. Recent experimental results possibly provide evidence for catapult neutron in low-energy fission. We also speculate on the significance of the catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in the exit channel of heavy ion reactions. (orig.)

  10. Targeting pancreatic islets with phage display assisted by laser pressure catapult microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Virginia J; Ozawa, Michael G; Trepel, Martin; Arap, Wadih; McDonald, Donald M; Pasqualini, Renata

    2005-02-01

    Heterogeneity of the microvasculature in different organs has been well documented by multiple methods including in vivo phage display. However, less is known about the diversity of blood vessels within functionally distinct regions of organs. Here, we combined in vivo phage display with laser pressure catapult microdissection to identify peptide ligands for vascular receptors in the islets of Langerhans in the murine pancreas. Protein database analyses of the peptides, CVSNPRWKC and CHVLWSTRC, showed sequence identity to two ephrin A-type ligand homologues, A2 and A4. Confocal microscopy confirmed that most immunoreactivity of CVSNPRWKC and CHVLWSTRC phage was associated with blood vessels in pancreatic islets. Antibodies recognizing EphA4, a receptor for ephrin-A ligands, were similarly associated with islet blood vessels. Importantly, binding of both islet-homing phage and anti-EphA4 antibody was strikingly increased in blood vessels of pancreatic islet tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. These results indicate that endothelial cells of blood vessels in pancreatic islets preferentially express EphA4 receptors, and this expression is increased in tumors. Our findings show in vivo phage display and laser pressure catapult microdissection can be combined to reveal endothelial cell specialization within focal regions of the microvasculature.

  11. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in fission and heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maedler, P.

    1985-05-01

    The fission process of slabs of nuclear matter is modelled in TDHF approximation by adding an initial collective velocity field to the static self-consistent solution. In dependence on its amplitude either large amplitude density oscillations are excited or fission occurs. The final disintegration of the slab proceeds on a time scale of 10/sup -22/s and is characterized by a sharp peak in the actual velocity field in the region of the ''snatching'' inner low density tails. A characteristic time later corresponding to the transit time of a nucelon across the fragment with mean velocity being the Fermi velocity plus twice the maximum ''snatching'' velocity, a low density lump correlated with a peak in the velocity field emerges in front of the fragments. We call these particles ''catepult particles''. Recent experimental results possibly provide evidence for catapult neutron in low-energy fission. We also speculate on the significance of the catapult mechanism for fast particle emission in the exit channel of heavy ion reactions.

  12. A ballistic laser gravimeter for a symmetrical measurement method with the inductive-dynamic catapult and auto-seismic vibration preventing

    OpenAIRE

    Bolyukh, V. F.; Omelchenko, A.; Vinnichenko, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    A ballistic laser gravimeter (BLG) with a symmetrical measurement method of the gravity acceleration (GA) is considered. Special treatment is given to the problem of eliminating the measurement error due throw of the catapult when it speeds up the test body (TB). It is possible to decrease the indicated errors thanks to the use of the induction and dynamic catapult. However, a short-term boost catapult generates vibrations of the basement (i.e. a pillar) and the mechanical elements of the gra...

  13. Heterosis, the catapult effect and establishment success of a colonizing bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, John M

    2006-06-22

    The genetic basis of population colonization is poorly understood, particularly in animals. Here, I introduce the idea of a 'catapult effect' to explain how the effects of transient increases in fitness can be retained in population demography diminishing the chance of extinction. I tested this idea using information on historical introductions of hybrid and non-hybrid pheasants in the United States. I found that hybrid pheasants were 2.2 times more likely to establish than non-hybrid strains. Analysis of fitness components failed to support the alternative that the increased odds of establishment resulted from increased genetic variation conferring permanent fitness benefits through directional selection or by purging deleterious alleles. These results show that even ephemeral increases in fitness can affect the persistence of small populations.

  14. Assessment and regression analysis on instant catapult steam explosion pretreatment of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Guang; Liu, Li-Yang; Zi, Li-Han; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xu, You-Hai; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-08-01

    Instant catapult steam explosion (ICSE) offers enormous physical force on lignocellulosic biomass due to its extremely short depressure duration. In this article, the response surface methodology was applied to optimize the effect of working parameters including pressure, maintaining time and mass loading on the crystallinity index and glucose yield of the pretreated corn stover. It was found that the pressure was of essential importance, which determined the physical force that led to the morphological changes without significant chemical reactions, and on the other hand the maintaining time mainly contributed to the thermo-chemical reactions. Furthermore, the pretreated biomass was assessed by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra to understand mechanisms underlying the ICSE pretreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disorienting effects of aircraft catapult launchings: III. Cockpit displays and piloting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M M

    1977-09-01

    Accelerations closely approximating those encountered in catapult launchings of carrier-based aircraft were generated on the Naval Air Development Center's human centrifuge Dynamic Flight Simulator. Flight instruments, controls, and flight dynamics of an A-7 aircraft were provided to four experienced Naval Aviators, who exercised closed-loop control of a simulated climbout immediately after they were exposed to the accelerations. Four experimental conditions were employed for each aviator: 1) no operational flight instruments, 2) conventional flight instruments, 3) a single carrier takeoff director display operating concurrently. Measures of flight parameters, including indicated airspeed, angle of attack, rate of climb, altitude, pitch attitude, and pitch trim adjustment were monitored throughout the simulation. Subjective reactions and piloting performance were examined under each of the four conditions. Results indicate that the carrier takeoff director display significantly reduced pilot workload and enhanced performance during the climbout.

  16. A catapult model for the narrow-line region in Seyferts and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    The kinematics and stability of clouds falling radially into a supersonic wind are studied. A critical parameter is found, the ejection coefficient, which separates clouds which continue to gravitate inwards from those which are catapulted out by the ram pressure of the wind. This leads to a maximum size for ejected clouds. The clouds are partially broken up by fluid dynamic instabilities and the fragments expelled with enhanced velocities. This model is applied to the narrow-line region of Seyferts and radio galaxies. A quasi-steady picture may be established for the wind-ambient medium interaction zone. The wind is shocked and escapes through jets or bubbles; the ambient medium cools, forming the clouds which gravitate inwards. (author)

  17. Schrodinger's catapult I: coherent launch of multi-photon cavity states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axline, C.; Pfaff, W.; Burkhart, L. D.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P. C.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    Quantum networks are a powerful paradigm for managing complexity in quantum information processing. Here we present a circuit QED tool to control the exchange of quantum information in such a network, dubbed ''Schrodinger's catapult''. It enables rapid conversion between complex, multi-photon states prepared in a cavity memory and a propagating output mode. Enabled by four-wave mixing in a single Josephson junction, this conversion rate is tunable up to three orders of magnitude faster than the intrinsic memory decay rate. In addition to such a large on/off ratio, we show that the mapping of cavity states to traveling states is faithful and state-independent. Amplitude and phase control of the conversion process anticipates the capture of propagating states using a reciprocal module.

  18. Catapult model for the narrow-line region in Seyferts and radio galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.D. (Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1984-08-15

    The kinematics and stability of clouds falling radially into a supersonic wind are studied. A critical parameter is found, the ejection coefficient, which separates clouds which continue to gravitate inwards from those which are catapulted out by the ram pressure of the wind. This leads to a maximum size for ejected clouds. The clouds are partially broken up by fluid dynamic instabilities and the fragments expelled with enhanced velocities. This model is applied to the narrow-line region of Seyferts and radio galaxies. A quasi-steady picture may be established for the wind-ambient medium interaction zone. The wind is shocked and escapes through jets or bubbles; the ambient medium cools, forming the clouds which gravitate inwards.

  19. Pollen Dispersal by Catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the Flower of Mountain Laurel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M. B.; Landa, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower's stamen could make it possible. Briggs's unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower's growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs's experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.

  20. Chemical characterization of single micro- and nano-particles by optical catapulting-optical trapping-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Francisco J.; Fernández-Bravo, Angel; Javier Laserna, J.

    2014-10-01

    Spectral identification of individual micro- and nano-sized particles by the sequential intervention of optical catapulting, optical trapping and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is presented. The three techniques are used for different purposes. Optical catapulting (OC) serves to put the particulate material under inspection in aerosol form. Optical trapping (OT) permits the isolation and manipulation of individual particles from the aerosol, which are subsequently analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once catapulted, the dynamics of particle trapping depends both on the laser beam characteristics (power and intensity gradient) and on the particle properties (size, mass and shape). Particles are stably trapped in air at atmospheric pressure and can be conveniently manipulated for a precise positioning for LIBS analysis. The spectra acquired from the individually trapped particles permit a straightforward identification of the material inspected. Variability of LIBS signal for the inspection of Ni microspheres was 30% relative standard deviation. OC-OT-LIBS permits the separation of particles in a heterogeneous mixture and the subsequent analysis of the isolated particle of interest. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the approach, the number of absolute photons emitted by a single trapped particle was calculated. The limit of detection (LOD) for Al2O3 particles was calculated to be 200 attograms aluminium.

  1. Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Shida; Gold, Jeffrey A; Andina, Nicola; Lee, James J; Kelly, Ann M; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Straumann, Alex; Reichenbach, Janine; Gleich, Gerald J; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2008-09-01

    Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-gamma-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, but independent of eosinophil death. Notably, the process of DNA release occurs rapidly in a catapult-like manner--in less than one second. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures able to bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Moreover, after cecal ligation and puncture, Il5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. These data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of wet microalgal cells disrupted with instant catapult steam explosion for lipid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-09-01

    Instant catapult steam explosion (ICSE) was employed to disrupt wet microalgal cells for efficient lipid extraction. Physicochemical properties of exploded cells were investigated through SEM, TEM, FTIR, and TGA. The exploded cells increased in fractal dimension (1.53-1.65) when preheat time was prolonged from 0 min to 5 min and in surface pore area when steam pressure was increased. Meanwhile, the exploded cells decreased in mean size (1.69-1.44 μm) when the filling ratio of wet microalgal biomass in the preheat chamber decreased (75-12.5%). Flash evaporation and volume expansion exploded the cell walls and released the cytoplasm of the microalgal cells. These phenomena decreased the carbohydrate content and increased the lipid content in the exploded biomass. However, ICSE treatment did not change the lipid compositions in the microalgal cells. Using isopropanol as a cosolvent significantly increased the yield of lipids extracted with hexane from the exploded wet microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Western blot detection of brain phosphoproteins after performing Laser Microdissection and Pressure Catapulting (LMPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, Marlène; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Revest, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-15

    The Central Nervous System (CNS) is constituted of complex and specific anatomical regions that cluster together and interact with each other with the ultimate objective of receiving and delivering information. This information is characterized by selective biochemical changes that happen within specific brain sub-regions. Most of these changes involve a dynamic balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. The fine-tuning of this kinase/phosphatase balance is thus critical for neuronal adaptation, transition to long-term responses and higher brain functions including specific behaviors. Data emerging from several biological systems may suggest that disruption of this dynamic cell signaling balance within specific brain sub-regions leads to behavioral impairments. Therefore, accurate and powerful techniques are required to study global changes in protein expression levels and protein activities in specific groups of cells. Laser-based systems for tissue microdissection represent a method of choice enabling more accurate proteomic profiling. The goal of this study was to develop a methodological approach using Laser Microdissection and Pressure Catapulting (LMPC) technology combined with an immunoblotting technique in order to specifically detect the expression of phosphoproteins in particular small brain areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Outline of a Twenty-Five Year Plan for Development and Deployment of A Catapult for A Third Generation Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, John M.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews the rationale for catapult assist in the launching a third generation space shuttle. It then furnishes lists of early design decisions, questions whose answers are prerequisite to later design decisions, preliminary inventories of carriage levitation and carriage propulsion concepts, phases of the project and major milestones, and some sources of expertise to support the project.

  5. Ditching Tests with a 1/12-Scale Model of the Army A-26 Airplane in Langley Tank No. 2 and on an Outdoor Catapult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, George A.; Hoffman, Edward L.

    1947-01-01

    Tests were conducted in calm water in Langley tank no. 2 and in calm and rough water at an outdoor catapult in order to determine the best way to make a forced landing of an Army A-26 airplane and to determine its probable ditching behavior. These tests were requested by the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces, in their letter of March 26, 1943, WEL:AW:50.

  6. Validity of the Catapult ClearSky T6 Local Positioning System for Team Sports Specific Drills, in Indoor Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live S. Luteberget

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the validity of position, distance traveled and instantaneous speed of team sport players as measured by a commercially available local positioning system (LPS during indoor use. In addition, the study investigated how the placement of the field of play relative to the anchor nodes and walls of the building affected the validity of the system.Method: The LPS (Catapult ClearSky T6, Catapult Sports, Australia and the reference system [Qualisys Oqus, Qualisys AB, Sweden, (infra-red camera system] were installed around the field of play to capture the athletes' motion. Athletes completed five tasks, all designed to imitate team-sports movements. The same protocol was completed in two sessions, one with an assumed optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (optimal condition, and once with a sub-optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (sub-optimal condition. Raw two-dimensional position data were extracted from both the LPS and the reference system for accuracy assessment. Position, distance and speed were compared.Results: The mean difference between the LPS and reference system for all position estimations was 0.21 ± 0.13 m (n = 30,166 in the optimal setup, and 1.79 ± 7.61 m (n = 22,799 in the sub-optimal setup. The average difference in distance was below 2% for all tasks in the optimal condition, while it was below 30% in the sub-optimal condition. Instantaneous speed showed the largest differences between the LPS and reference system of all variables, both in the optimal (≥35% and sub-optimal condition (≥74%. The differences between the LPS and reference system in instantaneous speed were speed dependent, showing increased differences with increasing speed.Discussion: Measures of position, distance, and average speed from the LPS show low errors, and can be used confidently in time-motion analyses for indoor team sports. The calculation of instantaneous speed from LPS raw data is not valid. To

  7. From the elastica compass to the elastica catapult: an essay on the mechanics of soft robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, C.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.; Bigoni, D.

    2017-02-01

    An elastic rod is clamped at one end and has a dead load attached to the other (free) end. The rod is then slowly rotated using the clamp. When the load is smaller than the buckling value, the rod describes a continuous set of quasi-static forms and its end traces a (smooth, convex and simple) closed curve, which would be a circle if the rod were rigid. The closed curve is analytically determined through the integration of the Euler's elastica, so that for sufficiently small loads the mechanical system behaves as an `elastica compass'. For loads higher than that of buckling, the elastica reaches a configuration from which a snap-back instability occurs, realizing a sort of `elastica catapult'. The whole quasi-static evolution leading to the critical configuration for snapping is calculated through the elastica and the subsequent dynamic motion simulated using two numerical procedures, one ad hoc developed and another based on a finite-element scheme. The theoretical results are then validated on a specially designed and built apparatus. An obvious application of the present model would be in the development of soft robotic limbs, but the results are also of interest for the optimization analysis in pole vaulting.

  8. Ditching Tests of a 1/9-Size Model of the Army P-38 Airplane in Langley Tank No. 2 and at the Outdoor Catapult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, George A.; Cederborg, Gibson A.

    1946-01-01

    A dynamically similar model of the Army P-38 airplane was tested to determine the best way to land this airplane on the water and to determine its probable ditching performance. The tests consisted of ditching the model at various landing attitudes, flap settings, speeds, weights, and conditions of simulated damage. The model was ditched in calm water from the tank towing carriage and a few ditching were made in both calm and rough water at the outdoor catapult. The performance of the model was determined by making visual observations, by recording lengths of run and time histories of decelerations, and by taking motion pictures of the ditchings.

  9. Tirapazamine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A report of the international CATAPULT I study group. Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pawel, J; von Roemeling, R; Gatzemeier, U; Boyer, M; Elisson, L O; Clark, P; Talbot, D; Rey, A; Butler, T W; Hirsh, V; Olver, I; Bergman, B; Ayoub, J; Richardson, G; Dunlop, D; Arcenas, A; Vescio, R; Viallet, J; Treat, J

    2000-03-01

    A phase III trial, Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors (CATAPULT I), was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine plus cisplatin for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated NSCLC were randomized to receive either tirapazamine (390 mg/m(2) infused over 2 hours) followed 1 hour later by cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) over 1 hour) or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin alone, every 3 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 446 patients with NSCLC (17% with stage IIIB disease and pleural effusions; 83% with stage IV disease) were entered onto the study. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was >/= 60 for all patients (for 10%, KPS = 60; for 90%, KPS = 70 to 100). Sixty patients (14%) had clinically stable brain metastases. The median survival was significantly longer (34.6 v 27. 7 weeks; P =.0078) and the response rate was significantly greater (27.5% v 13.7%; P CATAPULT I study shows that tirapazamine enhances the activity of cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC and confirms that hypoxia is an exploitable therapeutic target in human malignancies.

  10. Trichome isolation with and without fixation using laser microdissection and pressure catapulting followed by RNA amplification: expression of genes of terpene metabolism in apical and sub-apical trichome cells of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Linda; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of fixation on plant material prior to Laser Microdissection and Pressure Catapulting (LMPC) and to identify an appropriate method for preserving good RNA quality after cell isolation. Therefore, flower buds from Artemisia annua L. were exposed to either the fixative formaldehyde or a non-fixative buffer prior to cell isolation by LMPC. Proteinase K was used after cell isolation from fixed plant tissue, in an attempt to improve the RNA yield. The ability to detect gene expression using real-time quantitative PCR with or without previous amplification of RNA from cells isolated by LMPC was also evaluated. Conclusively, we describe a new technique, without fixation, enabling complete isolation of intact glandular secretory trichomes and specific single trichome cells of A. annua. This method is based on LMPC and preserves good RNA quality for subsequent RNA expression studies of both whole trichomes, apical and sub-apical cells from trichomes of A. annua. Using this method, expression of genes of terpene metabolism was studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis was observed in both apical and sub-apical cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Portable catapult launcher for small aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Petter, George E. (Inventor); Gessler, Joseph A. (Inventor); Hughes, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for launching an aircraft having a multiplicity of interconnected elongated tracks of rigid material forming a track system and wherein each elongated track has a predetermined elongated track cross-sectional design, a winch system connected to the track system wherein the winch system has a variable mechanical advantage, one or more elongated elastic members wherein one end of each of the one or more elongated elastic members is adjustably connected to the track system, and a carrier slidably mounted to the track system wherein the carrier is connected to the winch system and to the other end of each of the one or more elongated elastic members.

  12. Development of a Virtual Environment for Catapult Launch Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    30 Figure 5.3 Oculus Rift HMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Figure 5.4 Wii Controller...achieves certification. Other ship- board training conducted for pre-deployment requirements include shipboard emergency procedures, fire drills, reactor...to 22 be trained and skills to be learned are essential to identifying the right balance of these factors in the development of a training

  13. Catapult mechanism for fast particle emission after scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown in TDHF approximation that the final disintegration of the prefragments is accompanied by a rapid snatching of the inner tails of the mean field including velocities of 0.1c or even larger. A nucleon moving towards the snatching ends with Fermi velocity becomes reflected, acquires additionally twice that velocity, and can escape with an energy of several tens MeV (preferentially along the scission axis). The proposed mechanism loses its purpose when neglecting self-consistency. (author)

  14. Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.

    Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.

  15. Dancing through the School Day: How Dance Catapults Learning in Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kelly Mancini

    2013-01-01

    The necessity for engaging the body in learning, the need for students to move throughout the school day, and the positive effects that dance has on students' development are all good reasons for dance to be included in the elementary curriculum. There are many ways for teachers to integrate movement into the school day, using math, science,…

  16. Gold nanorod in reverse micelles: a fitting fusion to catapult lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Subhabrata; Ghosh, Moumita; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2011-09-21

    Lipase solubilized within gold nanorod doped CTAB reverse micelles exhibited remarkable improvement in its activity mainly due to the enhanced interfacial domain of newly developed self-assembled nanocomposites.

  17. The Corrosion Control of Fastening Systems for Aircraft Carrier Steam Catapults

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-31

    of an upper bushing made of 304 stainless steel, AISI 4340 alloy steel or manganese bronze, and a lower blind tapped bushing made of 1018 steel. The...out resorting to drilling. Repair of the hole requires welding , drilling, and tapping. D. For the 700’F application, uncoated studs and nuts are used...with insulation which becomes soaked with corrodents from deck leakage. Corrosion attack is so intense, the fasteners seem to become " welded " into

  18. The Passing-on Defence Catapulted Out of State Aid Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    The annotated judgment concerns the aftermath of a differentiated taxation on travelling. The General Court partially annulled the Commission’s decision and found that the recovery of the aid should be limited to the advantage actually retained by the airlines, taking into account the competitive...

  19. Growing toward the Sun: How the Good-Food Movement Catapulted a Small New York City Third-Sector Organization into Rapid Growth, Success, and Many Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Carole L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of a New York City-based third-sector organization focused on what it calls "food justice." This study concentrates on how this organization, that I call Food Rights, has built a broad multi-sector network made up of a varied set of constituents and collaborators aiming to develop and promote an…

  20. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    of 1500 lbf. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ACES-II, Ejection, Seat, Cam, Roller, Bearing, Friction, CKU-5, Rocket, Catapult , ROCAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Booster = solid propellant grain in the catapult of a ROCAT Catapult = the telescopic tube phase that lifts the ACES-II ejection seat within the...Criteria (0-1 scaled collation of individual-axis DRI) ROCAT = Rocket Catapult ejection propulsion system SBLAZ (g) = Seat Back Linear Accelerometer

  1. Ditching Tests of a 1/18-Scale Model of the Navy XP4M-1 Airplane in Langley Tank No. 2 and on an Outdoor Catapult, TED No. NACA 2362

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Lloyd J.; Hoffman, Edward L.

    1947-01-01

    Tests with a dynamically similar model of the Navy XP4M-1 airplane were made to determine the best way to land the airplane in calm and rough water, to determine its probable ditching performance, and to determine practicable modifications which could be incorporated in the design of the airplane that would improve its ditching characteristics. The results were obtained by making visual observations, by recording longitudinal decelerations,a nd by taking motion pictures of the landings. A list of conclusions from the test results is included.

  2. Disease Modeling via Large-Scale Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-20

    properties to important human diseases. Our methods, Katz on heterogeneous network and CATAPULT [1], for predicting gene-disease associations were...label noise in classification. Our CATAPULT system employs "biased" support vector machines (SVM), to cope with the lack of negative examples. Biased...important human diseases. Our methods, Katz on heterogeneous network and CATAPULT [1], for predicting gene-disease associations were published during the

  3. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED 12 degrading other naval operations. Compatibility includes being capable of at least fifty catapult launches and forty-nine arrested...washdown, salt fog/salt spray, explosive atmosphere, mechanical shock (i.e., near-miss, catapult launches/arrested landings, and handling shock...replenishment ship operations. degrading other naval operations. Compatibility includes being capable of at least fifty catapult launches and forty

  4. The Foundations of Operational Resilience Assessing the Ability to Operate in an Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) Environment: The Analytical Framework, Lexicon, and Characteristics of the Operational Resilience Analysis Model (ORAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    What about for fuel bladders? Could parking areas be easily repaired with flexible mats? Are carrier catapult and landing systems uniquely vulnerable...times for aviation fuel storage tanks and offload hydrant systems? Could parking areas be easily repaired with flexible mats? Are carrier catapult ...scenarios. Although some types of missile defenses are likely to have low effectiveness simply because of physical limitations against

  5. Power Management System Design for Solar-Powered UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Drone technology has catapulted to the forefront of military and private sector research. Of...technology has catapulted to the forefront of military and private sector research. Of particular interest are unmanned aerial systems that are able to...12 1. Physical Dimensions.....................................................................12 2. Weight

  6. 高剛性受動関節を有する閉ループ柔軟カタパルトと遊泳ロボットへの応用

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 篤史; 渡, 正充; 望山, 洋; 藤本, 英雄

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new robotic catapult with a high stiffness endpoint. The conventional robotic catapults based on the closed elastica are the robotic elements for generating impulsive motions by utilizing the snap-through buckling. In a typical closed elastic catapult, the two ends of an elastic strip are fixed to a free joint and an active joint, respectively. Here we found that by adding only the high stiffness at the free joint, compared to the conventional type, more elastic en...

  7. Superpropulsion of Droplets and Soft Elastic Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufaste, Christophe; Chagas, Gabriela Ramos; Darmanin, Thierry; Claudet, Cyrille; Guittard, Frédéric; Celestini, Franck

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of droplets and soft elastic objects propelled with a catapult. Experiments show that the ejection velocity depends on both the projectile deformation and the catapult acceleration dynamics. With a subtle matching given by a peculiar value of the projectile/catapult frequency ratio, a 250% kinetic energy gain is obtained as compared to the propulsion of a rigid projectile with the same engine. This superpropulsion has strong potentialities: actuation of droplets, sorting of objects according to their elastic properties, and energy saving for propulsion engines.

  8. Contest Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehnke, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of contests to keep physics interesting and exciting for the students. Includes: balloon car, egg drop, tennis ball catapult, bridge building, mousetrap vehicle, musical instrument, slide photo, electric junk dissection, windmill generator, and solar heater. (MVL)

  9. Tournament and position-specific time-motion analyses of elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GPS) device at 10 Hz (Catapult Innovation, Melbourne, Australia) depicting movements which include standing, walking, slow jogging, fast jogging, cruising and sprinting. Results indicated that all-rounder players travelled a significant percentage ...

  10. Holy graal of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bührke, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    With the biggest "catapult" for elementar particles, the physicists want to explain why there is actually matter. Like in the USA some years ago, big accelerator started to find that black light would perhaps exist. (1 page)

  11. Inlet Distortion Generation for a Transonic Compressor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papamarkos, Ioannis

    2004-01-01

    ... (and therefore engine) stall. Auxiliary injection was examined as a technique for generating distortion in inlet stagnation pressure, or temperature, or to simulate the more complex effects of engine, steam ingestion from a catapult launch...

  12. 'To Go, or Not To Go, That is the Question': The Utility of Expeditionary Warfare in the Next Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFerren, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    ... being. Budget cuts, force reductions, and inter-service bickering attack the core of the services while sundry small contingencies catapult operational tempo to the lunatic fringe for those who...

  13. Vertical Impact Tests of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Chris

    1998-01-01

    ...) subjected to simulated catapult dynamics while wearing the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG). A series of vertical impacts were conducted with the PNVG using the AFRL/HEPA Vertical Deceleration Tower...

  14. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  15. Wind Assessment for Aerial Payload Delivery Systems Using GPS and IMU Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    18  Figure 12.  ARCTURUS T-20 on the Catapult with Two Snowflakes Mounted under the Wings...However, the X-Monkey is physically more robust than the Pixhawk and has not experienced any failures due to the opening canopy shock or ground impact... catapult launched, medium range aircraft constructed of lightweight composite materials. The T-20 has a 5.3 meter wingspan and can remain airborne

  16. An Investigation of Field Artillery Techniques and Fire Support Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    catapults, ballistas and later the trebuchet . The only real difference in these weapons and the modern artil- lery pieces was the nature of the propelling...counter-seige with simple artillery held for centuries. In fact even after cannon were introduced, the catapult, ballista and trebuchets were used...side by side with the early guns. The trebuchet was another war machine that received extensive use in the seige of medieval European castles. B

  17. Muscle-tendon interaction and elastic energy usage in human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V.; Grey, Michael James

    2005-01-01

    -stance phase. In contrast, the soleus fascicles were lengthened until the end of the single-stance phase. These findings suggest that the elastic recoil takes place not as a spring-like bouncing but as a catapult action in natural human walking. The interaction between the muscle fascicles and tendinous...... tissues plays an important role in the process of release of elastic energy, although the leg muscles, which are commonly accepted as synergists, do not have similar mechanical behavior of fascicles in this catapult action....

  18. Injection of Nucleate-Boiling Slug Flows into a Heat Exchange Chamber in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    EXPLORATION OF NUCLEATION BY VENTURI EFFECT E. IMPROVED SETUP FOR OPTIMAL PRESSURE CONTROL F. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FLUID EMPLOYED (FC-72...and 5 9.4-second launches through the catapult system. The use of the Drop Tower facility was funded by ESA, at an approximate cost of 5000 € per...Campaign 14 July 21 – Aug 02 (2014) Fourth Drop (+ Catapult ) Tower Campaign 10 (5+5) Nov 10 – Nov 22 (2014) Fifth Drop Tower Campaign 10 2.2 FIRST

  19. Safety First: Houston, We Have Liftoff!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A thrown basketball, a kicked football, an elastically launched catapult payload, and a free-falling solid fuel or pressurized gas-propelled rocket all have one thing in common. They are all projectiles familiar to elementary students. A projectile is an object thrown with an initial velocity and then allowed to move without thrust along its…

  20. Engineering at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

  1. Colleges Weigh "Yes We Can" Approach to Fund Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Blue State Digital, the company that helped catapult Barack Obama into the White House, is courting colleges. Some are welcoming the political rainmaker inside their wrought-iron gates. But some skeptics question whether what works in the digital war room of a political campaign can translate into the academic arena. The world of college fund…

  2. Cell sorting using efficient light shaping approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2016-01-01

    distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the catapulted cells. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading...

  3. Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, Natalia I.; Van der Plicht, Johan; Zazovskaya, Elya P.

    Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time eight

  4. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    The celebrated arguments of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen claiming that quantum mechanics cannot be a complete theory are reviewed. Recent research climaxed by Bell's theorem shows that Einstein's locality or ''no telepathy'' postulate conflicts with quantum theory. It adds a new dimension to the paradox by catapulting the problem from the domain of metaphysics into that of experimental physics. (auth.)

  5. Comparing the Use of Dynamic Response Index (DRI) and Lumbar Load as Relevant Spinal Injury Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    DRI-Injury Rate Relationship is only valid for misalignments of the seat with respect to the catapult direction < 5 degrees, which was not true...The Physicial and Sports Medicine, pp. 95-106, November 1978 23. Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Hybrid-III 50th Male Dummy, 78051-218-H, FMVSS208

  6. United States Naval War College, 1919-1941: An Institutional Response to Naval Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    distinctly military requirements as bombsights, catapults , and armaments, the military air- craft capability greatly expanded. In turn, these...8217ä^- illBKSSIHB^Ä’ÄfflRsÄ**«!»»«««^ 215 5 Inadequate physicial facilities continued to olague the College administration. Each year brought

  7. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) International Pulsed Power Conference on (2nd) Held in Lubbock, Texas on 12-14 June 1979 (Digest of Technical Papers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    raflgun performance. val catapult , with the exception of naval aircraft However, the failure mode of drive coils under fast launching. Mechanical...P. = S ,€.*" 1° D.B.c~c and ii.Z. Hkq "’X: Physici Znternational Cczpany 2700 m.arced Sttet San Leandro. California 94577Abstract "" :" " ; ?hysics

  8. The Western Pacific Theater of Operations: A Brewing Showdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    facilities and share information that benefits the state. This concern is based on the fact that as China expands its physical territory it allows... catapults to launch aircraft from the deck. Defense analysts claim that that the carrier is a starter carrier and China will eventually produce an

  9. Cognitive and Non-cognitive Predictors of Career Intentions within Cyber Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    4 It has been said that all technology comes with a price. Indeed, with the advent of our vast information system networks that have catapulted ...average education level (M=3.60, SD=0.96) was between high school diploma and college Bachelor’s degree. The average self-reported Army Physical

  10. Regional Implications of an Independent Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Barzani and the Iraqi military catapulted Mullah Mustafa into a position of prominence among the Kurdish population.18 In 1946, he used his power to...be tempted to react physically to a unilateral declara- tion of independence by the KRG; while Iran is unlikely to send troops into the KRG, it could

  11. Insurgent Design: The Re-Emergence of Al-Qaida from 9/11 to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    individuals, to organizations, to systems of states. Design is undertaken to alter anything from simple tools and physical structures to... physical geography, a variety of states ranging from hostile to intermittently supportive, societal power structures, competitive organizations...redundancy or density, achieves strategic impact, catapulting al-Qa’ida contingents to vanguard positions in the local insurgent ecosystem. This was the

  12. Considerations For Distributed Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    again. [sic]”72 These examples show that it is physically possible to use highways, albeit some preparation as envisioned in the Finnish scenario, by...prepared sites (possibly using an field expedient arresting gear or even catapult launching system to decrease the required length), giving the JFACC

  13. Decisive Combined Arms Maneuver and Atomic Fires: The Emergent Role of the Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    movement.” These definitions imply that the role of artillery was no longer one of an arm that enabled the physical changing of location, which was a...historically provided the final blows.94 In prior conflict, artillery, “the modern counterpart of the ancient catapult ,” contributed a proportion of success

  14. Physics Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Included is information regarding: fabrication of light emitting diodes, their operation as semiconductors, and an experiment demonstrating electroluminescence; experimenting with Random Access Memory (RAM) circuits; demonstrating Coriolis effect; measuring the diameter of an electron beam, E.H.T. meters; launching a trolley by catapult; a "random…

  15. Notes on Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes various procedures applicable to secondary school science classes, including: (1) constructing a centripetal accelerometer; (2) demonstrating weightlessness with a small scale apparatus employing a catapult; (3) teaching hexadecimal counting by using the fingers; (4) demonstrating oscillation and resonance in tuned circuits. (CS)

  16. The forgotten coracoid: A case report of a coracoid fracture in a male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Case report. A healthy 48-year-old male elite triathlete injured his right shoulder during a descent while mountain-biking. His front wheel hit an obstruction causing him to be catapulted over the handlebars and he landed on his shoulder. He experienced immediate pain, swelling and dysfunction of the shoulder. On further ...

  17. From concept to commercialisation: The European perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wadrop, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CPI is a UK technology innovation centre and the process element of the Government’s High Value Manufacturing Catapult. This presentation explains the services and focus of CPI and how they use applied knowledge in science and engineering combined...

  18. Icosahedrons: A Multifaceted Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazdin, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project focusing on icosahedrons that combines geometry, structure, graphic design, animation, motion, and mechanical and freehand drawing with ancient Greek catapult mechanics. Includes directions on how to both construct a template and develop the pattern for the icosahedrons. (CMK)

  19. School Vouchers: Stealing from the Poor to Give to the Rich?

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    School vouchers are defined as certificates of government funding that are allocated to students and intended to defer the cost of tuition at a private school of the student or the student's parents' choice. With strong views on opposing sides, the issue of school choice and the corresponding use of vouchers has certainly been catapulted into the…

  20. China’s Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    weapons acquisition budget during that time. The annual cost for regular training , maintenance, repairs, and fuel for two carrier battle groups can be...Technology], no. 2 (2008); and Ding Guoliang, Hu Yefa, and Liu Xiaojing, “ Maglev Electromagnetic Catapult System Structure Design and Magnetic Field

  1. Walking the Line: Do Heroes Help Us Choose the Red Road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow Bird, Dorreen

    2006-01-01

    In March 2005, the Red Lake Reservation in Minnesota catapulted into national headlines when Jeffrey Weise shot five students and four adults at the local high school and then turned his weapon on himself. In the same year, it was reported that some 20 young people had committed suicide on the Standing Rock Reservation in Fort Yates, North Dakota.…

  2. Publications | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 51 - 60 of 6375 ... Nearly one in every four people in Lebanon is a refugee. This number is staggering, yet not entirely unbelievable given the protracted and emerging conflicts in the Middle East. A rapid influx of refugees from Syria has catapulted Lebanon from the 69th largest refugee-hosting country to the third ...

  3. The ‘Unwilling or Unable’ Test and the Law of Self-defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibori-Szabó, K.; Paulussen, C.; Takács, T.; Lazić, V.; Van Rompuy, B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent events related to the rise of ISIS have catapulted the ‘unwilling or unable’ test to the forefront of the legal debate concerning the fight against terrorism. The still controversial test offers a justification for unilateral use of force in self-defence on behalf of a victim state on the

  4. Introduction to Modern Women in Sports: Beyond Winning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Gretchen

    Women can benefit from sports activities across the entire continuum from play to professional. Women have been catapulted into serious sports training and have been able to contend for more sports opportunities due to the evolution of clothing reforms, more acceptable sports, the right to vote, and the right to control pregnancy. Women have…

  5. Just a Community Organizer: Community/Campus Connections through Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Judith; Kelly, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    The 2008 presidential election catapulted "community organizers" into the media fray and raised awareness about community organizing. At the University of San Diego (USD), a course teaching consensus organizing techniques to address community issues was instituted in 2004. The course incorporates traditional undergraduate students and…

  6. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  7. 40 CFR 1700.4 - Discharges requiring control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... training, testing, or maintenance operations. (b) Catapult Water Brake Tank & Post-Launch Retraction... seawater. (j) Elevator Pit Effluent: the liquid that accumulates in, and is discharged from, the sumps of elevator wells on vessels. (k) Firemain Systems: the seawater pumped through the firemain system for...

  8. "Not Too Late to Take the Sanitation Test": Notes of a Non-Gifted Academic from the Working Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, David

    2004-01-01

    Working-class academic narratives reveal a number of common themes, like dual estrangement and internalized class conflict. A less popularized motif is the bookish child who is catapulted out of her working-class origins. But some working-class academics, like myself, were not academically ambitious as children. I am a nontraditional working-class…

  9. Endangered Species? Less Commonly Taught Languages in the Linguistic Ecology of Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Kerry; Palvyshyn, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Hindi, a less commonly taught language in Australian higher education, was catapulted into the list of four strategically significant languages in the Commonwealth Government's 2012 White Paper, Australia in the Asian Century. Hindi's inclusion is, perhaps, predictable in view of the Commonwealth Government's economic and trade agendas, though the…

  10. Safety First: Safety--The Elementary Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Activities involving the construction of a model solar oven, soda bottle rocket, catapult, bridge, roller coaster, playground, and plane glider all have one thing in common. They are examples of STEM project activities for elementary students. STEM is one of the areas of emphasis in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS), which…

  11. Hypermediated Art Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Pamela G.; Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    2007-01-01

    Technological media catapults our perception into what Marshall McLuhan called "new transforming vision and awareness." As our lives become more and more immersed in such technologies as television, film, and interactive computers, we find ourselves inundated with a heightened sense of mindfulness--an aesthetic experience made possible through…

  12. ISSN 1727-3781

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hmos

    not be far-reaching: e-DRS, if implemented in the manner suggested by the policy document, will catapult the system of registration into the twenty-first century and constitute a significant response to the pressures of e-commerce. 69. 63. Pienaar 2009 PER 42. 64. Pienaar 2009 PER 42. 65. Chief Registrar of Deeds and Law ...

  13. Fast prototyping H.264 deblocking filter using ESL tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damak, T.; Werda, I.; Masmoud, N.; Bilavarn, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for hardware/software (HW/SW) architecture design using ESL tools (Electronic System Level). From C++ descriptions, our design flow is able to generate hardware blocks running with a software part and all necessary codes to prototype the HW/SW system on Xilinx FPGAs. Therefore we use assistance of high level synthesis tools (Catapult C Synthesis), logic synthesis and Xilinx tools. As application, we developed an optimized Deblocking filter C code, designed to be used as a part of a complete H.264 video coding system [1]. Based on this code, we explored many configurations of Catapult Synthesis to analyze different area/time tradeoffs. Results show execution speedups of 95,5 pour cent compared to pure software execution etc.

  14. Microscopic insights into the sputtering of thin organic films on Ag{111} induced by C60 and Ga bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, Zbigniew; Czerwinski, Bartlomiej; Winograd, Nicholas; Garrison, Barbara J

    2005-06-23

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations have been employed to model the bombardment of Ag{111} covered with three layers of C6H6 by 15 keV Ga and C60 projectiles. The study is aimed toward examining the mechanism by which molecules are desorbed from surfaces by energetic cluster ion beams and toward elucidating the differences between cluster bombardment and atom bombardment. The results show that the impact of the cluster on the benzene-covered surface leads to molecular desorption during the formation of a mesoscopic scale impact crater via a catapulting mechanism. Because of the high yield of C6H6 with both Ga and C60, the yield enhancement is observed to be consistent with related experimental observations. Specific energy and angle distributions are shown to be associated with the catapult mechanism.

  15. From A Distance: The Psychology Of Killing With Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    engaged in combat despite the distances involved and are psychologically impacted by killing. The technology inherent in the MQ-1/9 system provides MQ-1...weapon systems such as the Tomahawk cruise- missile and MQ-1 Predator remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) are sometimes singled out as ground-breaking or... Tyre in 332 B.C.12 During this period, the best arrow-firing catapults had the accuracy and lethality to kill a single man at 100 yards and hit a

  16. High strength structural applications for large diameter forgings of Beta-C trademark (Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Wood, J.R.; Bhagat, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A program was initiated by the Navy to explore the use of Beta-C trademark as a water brake cylinder for stopping the catapult on aircraft carriers. Two processing routes were explored to manufacture the water brake cylinder: (1) extrusion, and (2) trepanning of large billet and electron beam welding of an end cap. Mechanical property evaluation of material produced by both processes showed that each was capable of achieving the strength and toughness requirements. Economic considerations will dictate final process selection

  17. Narrow line profiles and interacting gas flows in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardaljevic, J.; Raine, D.J.; Smith, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The 'catapult model' of the narrow line region involves both infalling and outflowing clouds interacting with an outflowing wind. The emission line profiles in this model are derived and the results compared with observation. Supersonic and subsonic winds in the interaction zone produce distinct line profiles, both of which are observed. Flat-topped profiles, the presence of broad wings, asymmetry and line shifts are discussed. A relationship between profile shape and X-ray properties is predicted. (author)

  18. Validity and reliability of an accelerometer-based player tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolella, Daniel P; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Saylor, Kase J; Schelling, Xavi

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the intra- and inter-device accuracy and reliability of wearable athletic tracking devices, under controlled laboratory conditions. A total of nineteen portable accelerometers (Catapult OptimEye S5) were mounted to an aluminum bracket, bolted directly to an Unholtz Dickie 20K electrodynamic shaker table, and subjected to a series of oscillations in each of three orthogonal directions (front-back, side to side, and up-down), at four levels of peak acceleration (0.1g, 0.5g, 1.0g, and 3.0g), each repeated five times resulting in a total of 60 tests per unit, for a total of 1140 records. Data from each accelerometer was recorded at a sampling frequency of 100Hz. Peak accelerations recorded by the devices, Catapult PlayerLoad™, and calculated player load (using Catapult's Cartesian formula) were used for the analysis. The devices demonstrated excellent intradevice reliability and mixed interdevice reliability. Differences were found between devices for mean peak accelerations and PlayerLoad™ for each direction and level of acceleration. Interdevice effect sizes ranged from a mean of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.74) (small) to 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08-1.30) (large) and ICCs ranged from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) (very large) to 1.0 (95% CI: 0.99-1.0) (nearly perfect) depending upon the magnitude and direction of the applied motion. When compared to the player load determined using the Cartesian formula, the Catapult reported PlayerLoad™ was consistently lower by approximately 15%. These results emphasize the need for industry wide standards in reporting validity, reliability and the magnitude of measurement errors. It is recommended that device reliability and accuracy are periodically quantified.

  19. Validity and reliability of an accelerometer-based player tracking device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Nicolella

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the intra- and inter-device accuracy and reliability of wearable athletic tracking devices, under controlled laboratory conditions. A total of nineteen portable accelerometers (Catapult OptimEye S5 were mounted to an aluminum bracket, bolted directly to an Unholtz Dickie 20K electrodynamic shaker table, and subjected to a series of oscillations in each of three orthogonal directions (front-back, side to side, and up-down, at four levels of peak acceleration (0.1g, 0.5g, 1.0g, and 3.0g, each repeated five times resulting in a total of 60 tests per unit, for a total of 1140 records. Data from each accelerometer was recorded at a sampling frequency of 100Hz. Peak accelerations recorded by the devices, Catapult PlayerLoad™, and calculated player load (using Catapult's Cartesian formula were used for the analysis. The devices demonstrated excellent intradevice reliability and mixed interdevice reliability. Differences were found between devices for mean peak accelerations and PlayerLoad™ for each direction and level of acceleration. Interdevice effect sizes ranged from a mean of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34-0.74 (small to 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08-1.30 (large and ICCs ranged from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89 (very large to 1.0 (95% CI: 0.99-1.0 (nearly perfect depending upon the magnitude and direction of the applied motion. When compared to the player load determined using the Cartesian formula, the Catapult reported PlayerLoad™ was consistently lower by approximately 15%. These results emphasize the need for industry wide standards in reporting validity, reliability and the magnitude of measurement errors. It is recommended that device reliability and accuracy are periodically quantified.

  20. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  1. A Novel Source of Mesoscopic Particles for Laser Plasma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-16

    pulses. A detailed investigation of the underlying physics especially on the role of the size and shape of the target is currently under exploration. 15...radiography and thermonuclear fusion, to name a few, has catapulted research in the field of high density, high field science to the forefront in many...substrate are much smaller than that with the solid-density sub-wavelength particles. To explore the physics of laser absorption and its optimal use in x

  2. Comparisons of the Educational Outcomes from Distance Delivered versus Traditional Classroom Instruction in Principles of Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Crouse, Tricia Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements in the speed and availability of the Internet have catapulted distance education into the forefront of possible economic education alternatives. Distance learning courses are taught exclusively over the Internet. Economics distance courses provide alternatives for economics students to traditional classroom instruction, and also invite new students to the discipline who may not have otherwise enrolled. An increase in the number of distance courses in the economics field ha...

  3. Traian Vuia – the Romanian inventor who first flew a powered airplane in 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu FILIMON

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As observed the beginning of heavier than air devices started with Wright Brothers who flew in 1903 the first catapulted airplane equipped with an engine, similar to present motor gliders. In March 1906 took place the first flight of Vuia’s monoplane using on board installations. Since then a real competition between manufacturers has started to improve their airplanes as they become more efficient. Traian Vuia’s first flights and his beginnings are explained below.

  4. Machine-Learning Techniques Applied to Antibacterial Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Jacob D.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria threatens to catapult humanity back to the pre-antibiotic era. Even now, multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections annually result in millions of hospital days, billions in healthcare costs, and, most importantly, tens of thousands of lives lost. As many pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic development in search of more lucrative therapeutics, academic researchers are uniquely positioned to fill the resulting vacuum.

  5. Theology and the (post-)apartheid university: Mapping discourses, interrogating transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Rian Venter

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the specific position of Theology at South African universities, following the recent developments on campuses that catapulted the urgency for greater commitment to radical transformation in higher education to public attention. A large corpus of material is generated on theological education as such, but the major question is rarely thematised as the transformation of Theology at public universities in (post-)apartheid South Africa. This article addresses the nature...

  6. OF KUNG FU AND CHOCOLATES: A STRATEGIC NARRATIVE OF KATHY’S BUSINESS SOJOURN IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Cordelia

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable growth of China in the last decade catapults it rapidly into one of the most prominent players in international business. Thus, it is not surprising that many studies have been undertaken to explore various business phenomena relating to China such as how Chinese companies explore global business opportunities and how companies from all over enter the Chinese market. A review of the literature shows that many of these studies focus on corporations and SMEs (Yang and Lee, 2002, ...

  7. Rural tourism retail : Tourism retail in the rural Westfjords (Iceland)

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsdottir, Viktoria Ran

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Rural tourism and service quality of Icelandic retailers is of focal attention in this research. The catapulting rise of the Icelandic tourism industry, is forcing rural retailers to rapidly adapt new managerial strategies. A better understanding of perceived service quality is required, and especially the differences of the two target markets, local and tourist customer. Plus, whether there is a relationship between perceived s...

  8. The relationship between personality traits and life balance : a quantitative study in the South African corporate sector

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. South Africa is a country which has undergone many changes since its first democratic elections in 1994. Amongst other societal implications, these changes have catapulted South African businesses and employees into the global economy. Being part of the global economy means that South African employees, like their northern hemisphere counterparts, are struggling to create balance in their lives. The stress resulting from the often opposing demands of work and family has lead to increa...

  9. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  10. Jumping performance of flea hoppers and other mirid bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M; Dorosenko, M

    2017-05-01

    The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here, we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high-speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs, and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs, which were, respectively, 140% and 190% longer than the front legs. In three species with masses ranging from 3.4 to 12.2 mg, depression of the coxo-trochanteral and extension of femoro-tibial joints accelerated the body in 8-17 ms to take-off velocities of 0.5-0.8 m s -1 The middle legs lost ground contact 5-6 ms before take-off so that the hind legs generated the final propulsion. The power requirements could be met by the direct muscle contractions so that catapult mechanisms were not implicated. Second, other species combined the same leg movements with wing beating to generate take-off during a wing downstroke. Third, up to four wingbeat cycles preceded take-off and were not assisted by leg movements. Take-off velocities were reduced and acceleration times lengthened. Other species from the same habitat did not jump. The lower take-off velocities achieved by powering jumping by direct muscle contractions may be offset by eliminating the time taken to load catapult mechanisms. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Chemical characterization of single micro- and nano-particles by optical catapulting–optical trapping–laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Francisco J.; Fernández-Bravo, Angel; Javier Laserna, J.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral identification of individual micro- and nano-sized particles by the sequential intervention of optical catapulting, optical trapping and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is presented. The three techniques are used for different purposes. Optical catapulting (OC) serves to put the particulate material under inspection in aerosol form. Optical trapping (OT) permits the isolation and manipulation of individual particles from the aerosol, which are subsequently analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once catapulted, the dynamics of particle trapping depends both on the laser beam characteristics (power and intensity gradient) and on the particle properties (size, mass and shape). Particles are stably trapped in air at atmospheric pressure and can be conveniently manipulated for a precise positioning for LIBS analysis. The spectra acquired from the individually trapped particles permit a straightforward identification of the material inspected. Variability of LIBS signal for the inspection of Ni microspheres was 30% relative standard deviation. OC–OT–LIBS permits the separation of particles in a heterogeneous mixture and the subsequent analysis of the isolated particle of interest. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the approach, the number of absolute photons emitted by a single trapped particle was calculated. The limit of detection (LOD) for Al 2 O 3 particles was calculated to be 200 attograms aluminium. - Highlights: • Detection of single nanoparticles by OC–OT–LIBS has been described for the first time. • An absolute mass quantity of 17 fg (single particle 100-nm sized Al 2 O 3 ) was detected. • Results confirm the extreme sensitivity of LIBS for single nanoparticle analysis. • The LOD for Al 2 O 3 particles was calculated to be 200 attograms aluminium. • A photon budget was performed in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the approach

  12. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  13. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  14. Western armament and tactics in the writings of Anna Komnene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Marko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, first we reconstructed and commented the western horseman's armament witch Anna Komnene had known (long spear, cross-bow, chain mail "Norman" shield, solarets. Afterwards, we established that Anne knew four types of western horseman's attack (attack in full gallop, attack from back slow march, attack from flank and three types of their battle formation (strewn formation, congested formation, formation of two columns. Also, we commented Anna's knowledge of western siege engines (battering-ram, tortoise catapult, siege tower; we established that Anne knew five types of western siege tower. In the end, we commented several fragments witch show Anna Komnene's knowledge of the western siege tactics.

  15. Instability in the Post-Cold War World: A Model for Evaluation and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-15

    focused mainly on the persecution of the Dalai Lama and his followers by the atheistic government of the People’s Republic of China. In Sri Lanka the...XV, no. 6 (Sep 1992): 572-574. 16. Joel Kotkin, "The Difference Principle," Reason, February 1993, 22. Martha Brill Olcott, "The Soviet (Dis)Union...March 1992): 128-131. Olcott, Martha Brill. "The Soviet (Dis)Union." Foreign Policy, no. 89 (Winter 1992-1993): 118-136. • "Central Asia’s Catapult to

  16. A roadmap for the development and market introduction of PVT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M.; Elswijk, M.J. [ECN Renewable Energy in the Built Environment DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU funded coordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here.

  17. PVT roadmap. A European guide for the development and market introduction of PVT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M.; Affolter, P.; Eisenmann, W.; Fechner, H.; Rommel, M.; Schaap, A.; Soerensen, H.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.

    2005-11-01

    In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU-funded co-ordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large-scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here

  18. Primary level management of eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakary Ceesay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Eye injuries are common and a leading cause of preventable unilateral blindness worldwide. The causes vary, but drawing upon experience from The Gambia and Senegal, trauma is more common during the farming season and among small-scale metal workers working without eye protection. Stick injury is common in children and farmers, sometimes causing a penetrating injury that can result in the affected eye quickly becoming infected. Blunt trauma is common among children, who can be injured with a catapult or stone. The dusty environment is a common cause of corneal, conjunctival and sub-tarsal foreign bodies injuries.

  19. PVT roadmap. A European guide for the development and market introduction of PVT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M. [ECN Renewable Energy in the Built Environment DEGO, Petten (Netherlands); Affolter, P. [Solstis, Lausanne (Switzerland); Eisenmann, W. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung ISFH, Emmerthal (Germany); Fechner, H. [Arsenal Research, Vienna (Austria); Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Schaap, A. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Soerensen, H. [Esbensen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece)

    2005-11-15

    In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU-funded co-ordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large-scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here.

  20. Cognitive intervention for early stage dementia: Research and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBoer, John W

    2017-09-07

    Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-estimated phenomena, with estimates ranging from 15 to 25% of the current U.S. The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of world's most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/early stage dementia will be reviewed. Additionally, future research and clinical directions will be explored.

  1. A roadmap for the development and market introduction of PVT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M.; Elswijk, M.J.

    2005-11-01

    In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU funded coordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here

  2. Wind energy barometer - EurObserv'ER - February 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    The spectacular rise of China's wind power market that resulted in connecting at least 30.5 GW, catapulted the global installation level to 62.7 GW in 2015- a 22% more than in 2014. The US and German markets also performed very well, the former because its tax credit mechanism remained in force and the latter because many of its offshore wind farms in the North Sea were connected to the grid. Global wind turbine capacity has increased by 17% and now stands at 432.6 GW

  3. Statistical visualization of the Earth's magnetotail based on Geotail data and the implied substorm model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Machida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal and spatial development of the near-Earth magnetotail during substorms based on multi-dimensional superposed-epoch analysis of Geotail data. The start time of the auroral break-up (t=0 of each substorm was determined from auroral data obtained by the Polar and IMAGE spacecraft. The key parameters derived from the plasma, magnetic-field, and electric-field data from Geotail were sorted by their meridional X(GSM–Z(proxy coordinates. The results show that the Poynting flux toward the plasma-sheet center starts at least 10 min before the substorm onset, and is further enhanced at X~−12 RE (Earth radii around 4 min before the onset. Simultaneously, large-amplitude fluctuations occurred, and earthward flows in the central plasma sheet between X~−11 RE and X~−19 RE and a duskward flow around X=−10 RE were enhanced. The total pressure starts to decrease around X=−16 RE about 4 min before the onset of the substorm. After the substorm onset, a notable dipolarization is observed and tailward flows commence, characterised by southward magnetic fields in the form of a plasmoid. We confirm various observable-parameter variations based on or predicted by the relevant substorm models; however, none of these can explain our results perfectly. Therefore, we propose a catapult (slingshot current-sheet relaxation model, in which an earthward convective flow produced by catapult current-sheet relaxation and a converted duskward flow near the Earth are enhanced through flow braking around 4 min before the substorm onset. These flows induce a ballooning instability or other instabilities, causing the observed current disruption. The formation of the magnetic neutral line is a natural consequence of the present model, because the relaxation of a highly stretched catapult current-sheet produces a very thin current at its tailward edge being surrounded by intense earthward and tailward magnetic fields which were formerly the off

  4. A roadmap for photovoltaic-thermal panels. Combination of techniques offers many advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU funded coordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here [nl

  5. A novel method of strain - bending moment calibration for blade testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, P; Prieto, R; Gaffing, J; Van Beveren, C; Dominy, R; Ingram, G

    2016-01-01

    A new method of interpreting strain data in full scale static and fatigue tests has been implemented as part of the Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult's ongoing development of biaxial fatigue testing of wind turbine blades. During bi-axial fatigue tests, it is necessary to be able to distinguish strains arising from the flapwise motion of the blade from strains arising from the edgewise motion. The method exploits the beam-like structure of blades and is derived using the equations of beam theory. It offers several advantages over the current state of the art method of calibrating strain gauges. (paper)

  6. cell-BOCS: Bio-Optofluidics Cell Sorter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    Within the framework of the recent DTU spin-out activity OptoRobotix we are developing an active cell sorter [1] that utilizes parallel microscopic machine vision for cell identification. Particles are identified based on visual features such as shape, size and color using image processing...... a large field of view, allowing them to be displaed from one laminar flow region to another. As the sorting motion is transverse to the viewing plane, multiple particles can be catapulted at the same time, therefore enabling a fully parallel sorting process [4, 5]. The cell-BOCS is developed with small...

  7. Validity and reliability of 5 Hz GPS devices on short career with change of direction

    OpenAIRE

    David Casamichana Gómez, Julen Castellano Paulis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a MinimaxX GPS device (Team Sport 2.5, Catapult Innovations) operating with a sampling frequency of 5 Hz. Were measured distances made for 10 football players (age, 22.5 ±2.9 years, height 174 ±7 cm. and weight 72.6 ±3.4 kg) in the specific Yo-Yo Endurance Test level 1. The test ended when the players completed the first 10 levels of speed test (from 2.22 to 3.48 m·s-1). Four of the 10 participants took two simultaneously GPS...

  8. Recent developments in mass drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the past eight months a new mass driver concept has been explored through calculation and inductance model verification. It retains the linear synchronous principle and freedom from arcs, plasmas or physical contact between the accelerated bucket and accelerator. However, it discards passive magnetic flight and obtains transverse focussing from strong off-axis restoring forces produced by drive coils operating in a pull-only mode. This paper gives the reasoning on which the new concept is based, and applies the concept to a lunar catapult design.

  9. Muscle-tendon interaction and elastic energy usage in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V; Grey, Michael J; Lepola, Vesa; Bruggemann, Gert-Peter

    2005-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore how the interaction between the fascicles and tendinous tissues is involved in storage and utilization of elastic energy during human walking. Eight male subjects walked with a natural cadence (1.4 +/- 0.1 m/s) on a 10-m-long force plate system. In vivo techniques were employed to record the Achilles tendon force and to scan real-time fascicle lengths for two muscles (medial gastrocnemius and soleus). The results showed that tendinous tissues of both medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles lengthened slowly throughout the single-stance phase and then recoiled rapidly close to the end of the ground contact. However, the fascicle length changes demonstrated different patterns and amplitudes between two muscles. The medial gastrocnemius fascicles were stretched during the early single-stance phase and then remained isometrically during the late-stance phase. In contrast, the soleus fascicles were lengthened until the end of the single-stance phase. These findings suggest that the elastic recoil takes place not as a spring-like bouncing but as a catapult action in natural human walking. The interaction between the muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues plays an important role in the process of release of elastic energy, although the leg muscles, which are commonly accepted as synergists, do not have similar mechanical behavior of fascicles in this catapult action.

  10. Prediction and validation of gene-disease associations using methods inspired by social network analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Martin Singh-Blom

    Full Text Available Correctly identifying associations of genes with diseases has long been a goal in biology. With the emergence of large-scale gene-phenotype association datasets in biology, we can leverage statistical and machine learning methods to help us achieve this goal. In this paper, we present two methods for predicting gene-disease associations based on functional gene associations and gene-phenotype associations in model organisms. The first method, the Katz measure, is motivated from its success in social network link prediction, and is very closely related to some of the recent methods proposed for gene-disease association inference. The second method, called Catapult (Combining dATa Across species using Positive-Unlabeled Learning Techniques, is a supervised machine learning method that uses a biased support vector machine where the features are derived from walks in a heterogeneous gene-trait network. We study the performance of the proposed methods and related state-of-the-art methods using two different evaluation strategies, on two distinct data sets, namely OMIM phenotypes and drug-target interactions. Finally, by measuring the performance of the methods using two different evaluation strategies, we show that even though both methods perform very well, the Katz measure is better at identifying associations between traits and poorly studied genes, whereas Catapult is better suited to correctly identifying gene-trait associations overall [corrected].

  11. Atomization efficiency and photon yield in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of single nanoparticles in an optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Pablo; Fortes, Francisco J.; Laserna, J. Javier

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed for investigating the influence of particle size on the dissociation efficiency and the absolute production of photons per mass unit of airborne solid graphite spheres under single-particle regime. Particles of average diameter of 400 nm were probed and compared with 2 μm particles. Samples were first catapulted into aerosol form and then secluded in an optical trap set by a 532 nm laser. Trap stability was quantified before subjecting particles to LIBS analysis. Fine alignment of the different lines comprising the optical catapulting-optical trapping-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument and tuning of excitation parameters conditioning the LIBS signal such as fluence and acquisition delay are described in detail with the ultimate goal of acquiring clear spectroscopic data on masses as low as 75 fg. The atomization efficiency and the photon yield increase as the particle size becomes smaller. Time-resolved plasma imaging studies were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms leading to particle disintegration and excitation.

  12. Non-Invasive Assessment of Internal and External Player Load: Implications for Optimizing Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L

    2018-01-24

    Few data exist that assess athlete tracking and monitoring for the development of strategies to optimize performance and reduce fatigue in elite athletes. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of external load and internal stress monitoring as assessment tools for examining a performance index of fatigue. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the pre-season in 10 elite male NCAA Division 1 basketball players. Internal stress was assessed using Omegawave Technology readiness scores and compared to the performance index of counter-movement jump (CMJ). The external load accumulated during the previous practice, quantified by PlayerLoad™ (PL; Catapult), was compared to CMJ values and Omegawave scores. The results indicated that high, compared to low CNS Omegawave Readiness Scores (6.7±05.1, 4.5±1.2AU; p Catapult technologies provide independent information related to performance and may be effective tools for monitoring athlete performance.

  13. Multiple Spark-Generated Bubble Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Boo Cheong; Adikhari, Deepak; Fong, Siew Wan; Klaseboer, Evert

    The complex interactions of two and three spark-generated bubbles are studied using high speed photography. The corresponding simulations are performed using a 3D Boundary Element Method (BEM) code. The bubbles generated are between 3 to 5 mm in radius, and they are either in-phase or out-of-phase with one another. The possible interaction phenomena between two identically sized bubbles are summarized. Depending on their relative distances and phase differences, they can coalesce, jet towards or away from one another, split into smaller bubbles, or 'catapult' away from one another. The 'catapult' effect can be utilized to generated high speed jet in the absence of a solid boundary or shockwave. Also three bubble interactions are highlighted. Complicated phenomena such as bubble forming an elliptical shape and bubble splitting are observed. The BEM simulations provide insight into the physics of the phenomena by providing details such as detailed bubble shape changes (experimental observations are limited by the temporal and spatial resolution), and jet velocity. It is noted that the well-tested BEM code [1,2] utilized here is computationally very efficient as compared to other full-domain methods since only the bubble surface is meshed.

  14. Nanotechnology in dentistry: reduction to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, David; Harris, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    The speed at which advances are being made in science has catapulted nanotechnology from its theoretical foundations straight into the real world. There are now many examples of commercially available products demonstrating that, in given situations, the technology really does work and that its scope for further application is wide. Healthcare, along with society as a whole, is facing a major revolution in the wake of ongoing technological developments in the field of nanotechnology. Dentistry as an individual healthcare discipline is not exempt, having already been targeted directly with novel 'nano-materials' at the same time as indirectly enjoying the benefits of nano-related advances in the electronics industry through the ongoing computerization of the modern practice. This article examines current practical applications of nanotechnology alongside proposed applications in the future and aims to demonstrate that, as well as a good deal of science fiction, there is some tangible science fact emerging from this novel multi-disciplinary science.

  15. What makes a champion! over fifty extraordinary individuals share their insights

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    What drives great and successful individuals — be they athletes, artists, or scientists — or businesses, to achieve the extraordinary? Over fifty champions from all walks of life, brought together by Allan Snyder, draw on their experiences to explore the secrets of success in this inspiring, revealing and thought-provoking book. Hear from the authors what made a McDonalds' branch become the most successful in the world; how a cottage business is catapulted into a world brand; how a visual artist's works crosses almost every medium imaginable; how an Ernst and Young setup becomes a top-notch employer; or why many geniuses or brilliant individuals never become champions, while many 'ordinary' individuals do; why many people don't know about their talent; what constitutes a champion outcome; and the neurological explanation for championship. Straddling academia and practitioners in all fields — government, entertainment, sports, business, arts, education, medicine, media — the authors include business...

  16. Interaction between fascicle and tendinous tissues in short-contact stretch-shortening cycle exercise with varying eccentric intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Niemelä, E; Komi, P V

    2005-07-01

    The interaction between fascicle and tendinous tissues (TT) in short-contact drop jumps (DJ) with three different drop heights [low (Low), optimal (OP), and high (High)] was examined with 11 subjects. The ground reaction force (F(z)) and ankle and knee joint angles were measured together with real-time ultrasonography (fascicle length) and electromyographic activities of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles during the movement. With increasing drop height, the braking force and flight time increased from Low to OP (P elastic recoil ratio decreased in both muscles with increasing the intensity during DJ. These findings demonstrated that TT underwent lengthening before shortening during DJ. However, the efficacy of elastic recoil decreased with increasing the drop intensity. The effective catapult action in TT can be limited by the drop intensity. In addition, the measured muscles behaved differently during DJ, providing evidence that each muscle may have a specific means of fascicle-TT interaction.

  17. When tsunamology and geophysics clash, throw geophysics in the trash (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, Costas

    2014-05-01

    Tsunami science has evolved differently from research on other extreme natural hazards, primarily because of the unavailability, until recently, of instrumental recordings of tsunamis in the open ocean. Recordings and observations have catapulted tsunamology into a rapidly evolving high-interdisciplinary field spanning geology, geophysics, oceanography, coastal engineering, hydrodynamics and social science. I will discuss progress in tsunami geology and geophysics in the past thirty years, and describe the evolution of numerical codes and analytical results. I will describe field observations which, while counter-intuitive at first, they later helped explain complex dynamics and assisted us in improving tsunami hazard mitigation. While the grand science synthesis remains elusive, we are converging to where we can reduce tsunami-related fatalities and injuries by about one half in the next few years.

  18. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  19. Marie Curie: the Curie Institute in Senegal to Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Paul

    Sub-Saharan Africa is not a place where one will look first when radioactivity or nuclear physics is mentioned. Conducting forefront research at the international stage at US national facilities such as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia or the National Superconducting Cyclotron Facility/Facility for Rare Isotope Beams in Michigan does not point to Historically Black Colleges either. The two are actually intrinsically connected as my personal journey from my early exposure to radiation at the Curie Institute at the LeDantec Hospital in Senegal lead me to Hampton University. The former, through one of my uncles, catapulted me into a nuclear physics PhD while the latter houses the only nuclear physics program at an HBCU to date that has established itself as one of the premier programs in the nation. This talk will review the impact of Marie Curie in my life as a nuclear physicist.

  20. An Efficient Circulant MIMO Equalizer for CDMA Downlink: Algorithm and VLSI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallaro Joseph R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient circulant approximation-based MIMO equalizer architecture for the CDMA downlink. This reduces the direct matrix inverse (DMI of size with complexity to some FFT operations with complexity and the inverse of some submatrices. We then propose parallel and pipelined VLSI architectures with Hermitian optimization and reduced-state FFT for further complexity optimization. Generic VLSI architectures are derived for the high-order receiver from partitioned submatrices. This leads to more parallel VLSI design with further complexity reduction. Comparative study with both the conjugate-gradient and DMI algorithms shows very promising performance/complexity tradeoff. VLSI design space in terms of area/time efficiency is explored extensively for layered parallelism and pipelining with a Catapult C high-level-synthesis methodology.

  1. Statistical visualization of the Earth's magnetotail based on Geotail data and the implied substorm model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Machida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal and spatial development of the near-Earth magnetotail during substorms based on multi-dimensional superposed-epoch analysis of Geotail data. The start time of the auroral break-up (t=0 of each substorm was determined from auroral data obtained by the Polar and IMAGE spacecraft. The key parameters derived from the plasma, magnetic-field, and electric-field data from Geotail were sorted by their meridional X(GSM–Z(proxy coordinates.

    The results show that the Poynting flux toward the plasma-sheet center starts at least 10 min before the substorm onset, and is further enhanced at X~−12 RE (Earth radii around 4 min before the onset. Simultaneously, large-amplitude fluctuations occurred, and earthward flows in the central plasma sheet between X~−11 RE and X~−19 RE and a duskward flow around X=−10 RE were enhanced. The total pressure starts to decrease around X=−16 RE about 4 min before the onset of the substorm. After the substorm onset, a notable dipolarization is observed and tailward flows commence, characterised by southward magnetic fields in the form of a plasmoid.

    We confirm various observable-parameter variations based on or predicted by the relevant substorm models; however, none of these can explain our results perfectly. Therefore, we propose a catapult (slingshot current-sheet relaxation model, in which an earthward convective flow produced by catapult current-sheet relaxation and a converted duskward flow near the Earth are enhanced through flow braking around 4 min before the substorm onset. These flows induce a ballooning instability or other instabilities, causing the observed current disruption. The formation of the magnetic neutral line is a natural consequence of the present model, because the relaxation of a highly stretched

  2. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M. [European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) secretariat, Brussels (Belgium); Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E. [European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  3. Three dimensional reconstruction of energy stores for jumping in planthoppers and froghoppers from confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwanowicz, Igor; Burrows, Malcolm

    2017-06-21

    Jumping in planthopper and froghopper insects is propelled by a catapult-like mechanism requiring mechanical storage of energy and its quick release to accelerate the hind legs rapidly. To understand the functional biomechanics involved in these challenging movements, the internal skeleton, tendons and muscles involved were reconstructed in 3-D from confocal scans in unprecedented detail. Energy to power jumping was generated by slow contractions of hind leg depressor muscles and then stored by bending specialised elements of the thoracic skeleton that are composites of the rubbery protein resilin sandwiched between layers of harder cuticle with air-filled tunnels reducing mass. The images showed that the lever arm of the power-producing muscle changed in magnitude during jumping, but at all joint angles would cause depression, suggesting a mechanism by which the stored energy is released. This methodological approach illuminates how miniaturized components interact and function in complex and rapid movements of small animals.

  4. A dynamical model for the narrow line region of Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasher, B.; Raine, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed emission line ratios and profiles have been computed for the 'catapult' model of the NLR. According to this model the emission lines arise from interstellar clouds interacting with a wind from the central source. For clouds which are ejected by the ram pressure of the wind agreement is found with average Seyfert 2 line ratios for the main diagnostic lines, within the 2σ dispersions. This also gives the observed constancy of line profiles for different lines. The Seyfert 1 line ratios are obtained by adding a component of clouds which are not ejected. The predicted line ratios (relative to [O III]λ5007) for Seyfert 1s agree to better than 1σ with the observed averages. (author)

  5. Genome-Wide Identification of Epigenetic Hotspots Potentially Related to Cardiovascular Risk in Adult Women after a Complicated Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Oudejans

    Full Text Available The physiological demands of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system can catapult women into a metabolic syndrome that predisposes to atherosclerosis in later life. We sought to identify the nature of the epigenomic changes associated with the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adult women following pre-eclampsia.We assessed the genome wide epigenetic profile by methyl-C sequencing of monozygotic parous twin sister pairs discordant for a severe variant of pre-eclampsia. In the adult twin sisters at risk for CVD as a consequence of a complicated pregnancy, a set of 12 differentially methylated regions with at least 50% difference in methylation percentage and the same directional change was found to be shared between the affected twin sisters and significantly different compared to their unaffected monozygous sisters.The current epigenetic marker set will permit targeted analysis of differentially methylated regions potentially related to CVD risk in large cohorts of adult women following complicated pregnancies.

  6. Controlled release of multiphoton quantum states from a microwave cavity memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Wolfgang; Axline, Christopher J.; Burkhart, Luke D.; Vool, Uri; Reinhold, Philip; Frunzio, Luigi; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2017-09-01

    Signal transmission loss in a quantum network can be overcome by encoding quantum states in complex multiphoton fields. But transmitting quantum information encoded in this way requires that locally stored states can be converted to propagating fields. Here we experimentally show the controlled conversion of multiphoton quantum states, such as Schrödinger cat states, from a microwave cavity quantum memory into propagating modes. By parametric conversion using the nonlinearity of a single Josephson junction, we can release the cavity state in ~500 ns, about three orders of magnitude faster than its intrinsic lifetime. This mechanism--which we dub Schrödinger’s catapult--faithfully converts arbitrary cavity fields to travelling signals with an estimated efficiency of >90%, enabling the on-demand generation of complex itinerant quantum states. Importantly, the release process can be precisely controlled on fast timescales, allowing us to generate entanglement between the cavity and the travelling mode by partial conversion.

  7. A roadmap for photovoltaic-thermal panels. Combination of techniques offers many advantages; Een roadmap voor pv-thermische panelen. Combinatie van technieken biedt vele voordelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M. [ECN Energie Gebouwde Omgeving en Netten, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU funded coordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here. [Dutch] Zonnepanelen (oftewel pv-panelen) produceren elektriciteit uit zonlicht. In de volle zon kan de temperatuur van zonnepanelen flink oplopen. Gewone zonnepanelen maken van deze warmte geen gebruik, maar in PVT-modules (pv-thermische modules) wordt deze warmte benut voor de productie van warm water of warme lucht. Het resultaat is een apparaat dat zowel warmte als stroom produceert uit zonlicht.

  8. Dynamical model for the narrow line region of Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobasher, B.; Raine, D.J.

    1987-09-01

    Detailed emission line ratios and profiles have been computed for the 'catapult' model of the NLR. According to this model the emission lines arise from interstellar clouds interacting with a wind from the central source. For clouds which are ejected by the ram pressure of the wind agreement is found with average Seyfert 2 line ratios for the main diagnostic lines, within the 2sigma dispersions. This also gives the observed constancy of line profiles for different lines. The Seyfert 1 line ratios are obtained by adding a component of clouds which are not ejected. The predicted line ratios (relative to (O III)lambda5007) for Seyfert 1s agree to better than 1sigma with the observed averages.

  9. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in 1774, and soon his telescopes were recognized as the finest in the world. It was through one of his homemade telescopes, a Newtonian reflector with a focal length of seven feet and an aperture of 6.2 inches, that Herschel first spotted the planet Uranus in 1781. The discovery of a new planet catapulted Herschel to fame and secured him a position as personal astronomer to King George III.

  10. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    In contemporary life science there is an increasing emphasis on sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of optofluidic lab-on-chip devices. Our approach to this is based on the use of optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by advanced...... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....

  11. Theology and the (post-apartheid university: Mapping discourses, interrogating transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Venter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the specific position of Theology at South African universities, following the recent developments on campuses that catapulted the urgency for greater commitment to radical transformation in higher education to public attention. A large corpus of material is generated on theological education as such, but the major question is rarely thematised as the transformation of Theology at public universities in (post-apartheid South Africa. This article addresses the nature of the challenge by following a distinct approach. Ten major discourses in the wider reflection on theological education are identified and interpreted as avenues to achieve three aims: to convey the unique challenge for Theology, to give historical texture to issues conventionally addressed a-politically in Theology and to forward an interpretation of ‘transformation’ for Theology that emphasises its multi-layered nature

  12. Using pico-LCoS SLMs for high speed cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of consumer pico projectors as cost effective spatial light modulators in cell sorting applications. The matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) beam shaping method is used to produce high intensity optical spots for trapping and catapulting cells. A pico projector......’s liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) chip was used as a binary phase spatial light modulator (SLM) wherein correlation target patterns are addressed. Experiments using the binary LCoS phase SLM with a fabricated Pyrex matched filter demonstrate the generation of intense optical spots that can potentially...... be used for cell sorting. Numerical studies also show mGPC’s robustness to phase aberrations in the LCoS device, and its ability to outperform a top hat beam with the same power....

  13. Ocean sciences after September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    The terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on September 11, 2001 shocked the world with their audacity and destruction. Shortly thereafter, bioterrorists struck through the U.S. postal system. Virtually overnight, major policy shifts took place in the United States that catapulted national security and homeland defense to the top of the political agenda. The consequences were unimaginable just a few months before: an international coalition at war against the Taliban in Afghanistan, major increases in U.S. defense spending, tightened security measures at airports, government facilities, and research laboratories, and a new sense of vulnerability in the post-cold war era. AGU itself was directly affected: three of its members perished in the hijacked planes, or on the ground in New York City.

  14. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  15. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    vehicles is foreseen. The future battery manufacturers strive to meet the ever growing requirement of consumer’s demand using the battery as a primary power source of these cars. So naturally, the growing popularity of battery electric and hybrid vehicles have catapulted the car industry in the recent...... years. The products include for instance: hybrids, plug-in hybrids, battery and fuel-cell-battery electric vehicles (EV) and so forth. Undeniably, the battery is one of the most significant parts in all of those. Furthermore, stationary storage is another aspect of an emerging field. It represents next......Last few years’ governments are tightening the carbon emission regulations. Moreover, the availability of different financial assistances is available to cut the market share of the fossil fuel vehicles. Conversely, to fill up the gap of the required demand, higher penetration of electrical...

  16. The use of laser microdissection for the preparation of chromosome-specific painting probes in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Musilova, Petra; Rubes, Jiri

    2002-01-01

    Laser microbeam microdissection and laser pressure catapulting procedure were used for the construction of chromosome-specific painting probes, arm-specific probes and probes for chromosomal subfragments. We report on a method for generation of fluorescence in-situ hybridization probes from laser dissected chromosomes of farm animals. So far, using the described method, a set of chromosome-specific painting probes has been obtained for all porcine chromosomes, 17 chromosomes of cattle and selected equine chromosomes. It is concluded that the laser technology appears to be a useful and powerful tool for the construction of chromosome-specifi c painting probes. Its main advantage is the fast non-contact collection of chromosomes.

  17. Landscape of current and emerging cell therapy clinical trials in the UK: current status, comparison to global trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Isabelle; Green, Emma; Sharpe, Michaela; Herbert, Chris; Hyllner, Johan; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Cell Therapy Clinical Trial and Preclinical Research databases have been established by the Cell Therapy Catapult to document current and future cell therapy clinical trials in the UK. We identified 41 ongoing trials in April 2014, an increase of seven trials from April 2013. In addition, we identified 45 late-stage preclinical research projects. The majority of the clinical trials are early phase, primarily led by academic groups. The leading therapeutic areas are cancer, cardiology and neurology. The trends in the UK are also seen globally. As the field matures, more later phase and commercial studies will emerge and the challenges will likely evolve into how to manufacture sufficient cell quantities, manage complex logistics for multi-center trials and control cost.

  18. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Don Winslow, autor de un clásico y otras obras dentro de la narconarrativa mexicano-estadounidense (una guía para forasteros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo E. García Niño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anclado en lo que se ha dado en llamar la narconarrativa, una expresión literaria binacional fronteriza compartida por México y Estados Unidos, se encuentra Don Winslow, quien con su novela El poder del perro catapultó y cimentó el enunciado subgénero literario para, de ahí, generar otras novelas que tienen al crimen organizado, y sus relaciones con el mundo empresarial y político, como protagonista y tópico, así como a la frontera como espacio donde se desarrollan los hechos narrados. Y sobre la narconarrativa, sobre el autor enunciado, su obra y el contexto binacional versa el análisis aquí incluido

  20. Evaluation of Large-Scale Wing Vortex Wakes from Multi-Camera PIV Measurements in Free-Flight Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, Carl F. v.; Heider, André; Schröder, Andreas; Konrath, Robert; Agocs, Janos; Gilliot, Anne; Monnier, Jean-Claude

    Multiple-vortex systems of aircraft wakes have been investigated experimentally in a unique large-scale laboratory facility, the free-flight B20 catapult bench, ONERA Lille. 2D/2C PIV measurements have been performed in a translating reference frame, which provided time-resolved crossvelocity observations of the vortex systems in a Lagrangian frame normal to the wake axis. A PIV setup using a moving multiple-camera array and a variable double-frame time delay has been employed successfully. The large-scale quasi-2D structures of the wake-vortex system have been identified using the QW criterion based on the 2D velocity gradient tensor ∇H u, thus illustrating the temporal development of unequal-strength corotating vortex pairs in aircraft wakes for nondimensional times tU0/b≲45.

  1. Faster than their prey: new insights into the rapid movements of active carnivorous plants traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Plants move in very different ways and for different reasons, but some active carnivorous plants perform extraordinary motion: Their snap-, catapult- and suction traps perform very fast and spectacular motions to catch their prey after receiving mechanical stimuli. Numerous investigations have led to deeper insights into the physiology and biomechanics of these trapping devices, but they are far from being fully understood. We review concisely how plant movements are classified and how they follow principles that bring together speed, actuation and architecture of the moving organ. In particular, we describe and discuss how carnivorous plants manage to execute fast motion. We address open questions and assess the prospects for future studies investigating potential universal mechanisms that could be the basis of key characteristic features in plant movement such as stimulus transduction, post-stimulatory mechanical answers, and organ formation. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Validity of 10-HZ GPS and Timing Gates for Assessing Maximum Velocity in Professional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Black, Christopher; Shaw, William; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of timing gates and 10-Hz global positioning systems (GPS) units (Catapult Optimeye S5) against a criterion measure (50-Hz radar gun) for assessing maximum sprint velocity (V max ). Nine male professional rugby union players performed 3 maximal 40-m sprints with 3 min rest between efforts with V max assessed simultaneously via timing gates, 10-Hz GPS Open (Openfield software), GPS Sprint (Sprint software), and radar gun. Eight players wore 3 GPS units, while 1 wore a single unit during each sprint. When compared with the radar gun, mean biases for GPS Open , GPS Sprint , and timing gates were trivial, small, and small, respectively. The typical error of the estimate (TEE) was small for timing gate and GPS Open while moderate for GPS Sprint . Correlations with radar gun were nearly perfect for all measures. Mean bias, TEE, and correlations between GPS units were trivial, small, and nearly perfect, respectively, while a small TEE existed when GPS Openfield was compared with GPS Sprint . Based on these findings, both 10-Hz GPS and timing gates provide valid measures of 40-m V max assessment compared with a radar gun. However, as error did exist between measures, the same testing protocol should be used when assessing 40-m V max over time. Furthermore, in light of the above results, it is recommended that when assessing changes in GPS-derived V max over time, practitioners should use the same unit for each player and perform the analysis with the same software, preferably Catapult Openfield.

  3. Progress on Concepts for Next-Generation Drop Tower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM about 100 scientists, engineers, and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important research center for space sciences and technologies in Europe. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM's ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10-6 g (microgravity), which is one of the best achievable for ground-based flight opportunities. Scientists may choose up to three times a day between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and an experiment in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system with 9.3 s in weightlessness. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 7500 drops or catapult launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like fundamental physics, combustion, fluid dynamics, planetary formation / astrophysics, biology and materials sciences have been accomplished so far. In addition, more and more technology tests have been conducted under microgravity conditions at the Bremen Drop Tower in order to effectively prepare appropriate space missions in advance. In this paper we report on the progress on concepts for next-generation drop tower systems based on the GraviTower idea utilizing a guided electro-magnetic linear drive. Alternative concepts motivated by the scientific demand for higher

  4. Versatile optical manipulation system for inspection, laser processing, and isolation of individual living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhrmann, B.; Jahnke, H.-G.; Schmidt, M.; Jähn, K.; Betz, T.; Müller, K.; Rothermel, A.; Käs, J.; Robitzki, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    Isolation of individual cells from a heterogeneous cell population is an invaluable step in the analysis of single cell properties. The demands in molecular and cellular biology as well as molecular medicine are the selection, isolation, and monitoring of single cells and cell clusters of biopsy material. Of particular interest are methods which complement a passive optical or spectroscopic selection with a variety of active single cell processing techniques such as mechanical, biochemical, or genetic manipulation prior to isolation. Sophisticated laser-based cell processing systems are available which can perform single cell processing in a contact-free and sterile manner. Until now, however, these multipurpose turnkey systems offer only basic micromanipulation and are not easily modified or upgraded, whereas laboratory situations often demand simple but versatile and adaptable solutions. We built a flexible laser micromanipulation platform combining contact-free microdissection and catapulting capabilities using a pulsed ultraviolet (337nm) laser with simultaneous generation of optical tweezing forces using a continuous wave infrared (1064nm) laser. The potential of our platform is exemplified with techniques such as local laser-induced injection of biomolecules into individual living cells, laser surgery, isolation of single cells by laser catapulting, and control of neuronal growth using optical gradient forces. Arbitrary dynamic optical force patterns can be created by fast laser scanning with acousto-optical deflectors and galvanometer mirrors, allowing multibeam contact-free micromanipulation, a prerequisite for reliable handling of material in laboratory-on-a-chip applications. All common microscopy techniques can be used simultaneously with the offered palette of micromanipulation methods. Taken together, we show that advanced optical micromanipulation systems can be designed which combine quality, cost efficiency, and adaptability.

  5. Inertial sensors to estimate the energy expenditure of team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced prosthetic stiffness lowers the metabolic cost of running for athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the springlike action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. However, manufacturer's recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed 15 trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2.5 or 3.0 m/s. Athletes ran using each of 3 different prosthetic models (Freedom Innovations Catapult FX6, Össur Flex-Run, and Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter) with 5 combinations of stiffness categories (manufacturer's recommended and ± 1) and heights (International Paralympic Committee's maximum competition height and ± 2 cm) while we measured metabolic rates and ground reaction forces. Overall, prosthetic stiffness [fixed effect (β) = 0.036; P = 0.008] but not height ( P ≥ 0.089) affected the net metabolic cost of transport; less stiff prostheses reduced metabolic cost. While controlling for prosthetic stiffness (in kilonewtons per meter), using the Flex-Run (β = -0.139; P = 0.044) and 1E90 Sprinter prostheses (β = -0.176; P = 0.009) reduced net metabolic costs by 4.3-4.9% compared with using the Catapult prostheses. The metabolic cost of running improved when athletes used prosthetic configurations that decreased peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces (β = 2.786; P = 0.001), stride frequencies (β = 0.911; P < 0.001), and leg stiffness values (β = 0.053; P = 0.009). Remarkably, athletes did not maintain overall leg stiffness across prosthetic stiffness conditions. Rather, the in-series prosthetic stiffness governed overall leg stiffness. The metabolic cost of running in athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations is influenced by prosthetic model and stiffness but not height. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We measured the

  7. The Problem with Hitler. The Man Nobody Knows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocemos mucho sobre Adolf Hitler. Probablemente tenemos más información –hechos, detalles y horarios- sobre la vida de este hombre que la de cualquier otra figura significativa de la contemporaneidad. Sin embargo, todavía sentimos que desconocemos a este hombre. Su vida es uno de los mayores misterios en la historia de la Humanidad. ¿Por qué Hitler, sobre el que conocemos mayores hechos y detalles que ninguna otra figura en la historia contemporánea (quizás en la historia, permanece siendo un misterio? Hitler frustró a sus oponentes, sorprendió a observadores neutrales, y deleitó a sus seguidores consiguiendo lo “imposible”. Él jamás habría accedido al poder sin haber conseguido estos cinco “improbabilidades” que describiremos a continuación, y lo que es más, consiguiendo el apoyo incondicional de sus seguidores, le dio un aura de excepcionalidad y catapultó a este pequeño y feo hombre al poder. Este artículo tratará sobre esas cinco “improbabilidades” y su influencia en la personalidad de Hitler: sus primeros años (1919-1923; el juicio por el Putsch; la refundación del partido; el terremoto político de 1930 y su ascenso al poder._____________________ABSTRACT:We know so much about Adolf Hitler. We probably have more information—facts, details, and minutiae—about this man’s life than any other major figure of modern times. Nonetheless, we still feel that we do not know the man. His life is one of the greatest mysteries in human history. Why is it that Hitler, about whom more facts and details are known than perhaps any other figure in modern history (perhaps in all history, remains such a mystery?  Hitler frustrated his opponents, amazed neutral observers, and delighted his supporters by pulling off the seemingly “impossible”. He never would have made it into power except by accomplishing these five “impossibilities”; and it was this, more than anything else, that bound his supporters to him

  8. Аппаратная реализация вычислительных алгоритмов с помощью инструментов алгоритмического синтеза

    OpenAIRE

    Монахов, Вадим; Керницкий, Игорь

    2010-01-01

    Описан процесс алгоритмического синтеза с помощью ПО Mentor Graphics Catapult C. Впервые реализована масштабируемая реализация алгоритма БПФ с параметризацией при помощи рекурсивных шаблонов, обеспечивающая возможность последующего синтеза в Mentor Graphics Catapult C. Показано, что производительность созданной с помощью инструментов алгоритмического синтеза аппаратной реализации алгоритмов на основе ПЛИС сопоставима с производительностью процессоров персональных компьютеров. Описаны недостат...

  9. Microgravity Experiment Programs for Students at the Bremen Drop Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM established as a research center and currently headed by Prof. Dr. Claus Lämmerzahl is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM more than 70 scientists, engineers and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important university institutes for space sciences and technologies in Europe as well as worldwide well known in the space community. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM’s ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10 (-6) g (microgravity). The provided quality is one of the purest for experiments under weightlessness worldwide achieved. The scientists may choose between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and a catapult experiment with 9.3 s of weightlessness. Either in the drop or in the worldwide unique catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM are always the same, generally up to 3 times per day. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 6750 launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like Fundamental Physics, Combustion, Fluid Dynamics, Planetary Formation / Astrophysics, Biology and Materials Sciences have been successfully accomplished so far. In our paper we will report and inform about microgravity experiment programs for students like "Drop Your Thesis!“ by ESA and

  10. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This Conference will examine DNA repair as the key component in genomic surveillance that is so crucial to the overall integrity and function of mammalian cells. Recent discoveries have catapulted the field of DNA repair into a pivotal position for fundamental investigations into oncology, aging, environmental health, and developmental biology. We hope to highlight the most promising and exciting avenues of research in robust discussions at this conference. This Mammalian DNA Repair Gordon Conference differs from the past conferences in this series, in which the programs were broader in scope, with respect to topics and biological systems covered. A conference sponsored by the Genetics Society in April 1998 emphasized recombinational mechanisms for double-strand break repair and the role of mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer. These topics will therefore receive somewhat less emphasis in the upcoming Conference. In view of the recent mechanistic advances in mammalian DNA repair, an upcoming comprehensive DNA repair meeting next autumn at Hilton Head; and the limited enrollment for Gordon Conferences we have decided to focus session-by-session on particular areas of controversy and/or new developments specifically in mammalian systems. Thus, the principal presentations will draw upon results from other cellular systems only to the extent that they impact our understanding of mammalian DNA repair

  11. The role of human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon interaction and architecture in maximal vertical jumping examined in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Dominic James; Lichtwark, Glen A; Brown, Nicholas A T; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    Humans utilise elastic tendons of lower limb muscles to store and return energy during walking, running and jumping. Anuran and insect species use skeletal structures and/or dynamics in conjunction with similarly compliant structures to amplify muscle power output during jumping. We sought to examine whether human jumpers use similar mechanisms to aid elastic energy usage in the plantar flexor muscles during maximal vertical jumping. Ten male athletes performed maximal vertical squat jumps. Three-dimensional motion capture and a musculoskeletal model were used to determine lower limb kinematics that were combined with ground reaction force data in an inverse dynamics analysis. B-mode ultrasound imaging of the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles was used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles during jumping. Our results highlighted that both GAS and SOL utilised stretch and recoil of their series elastic elements (SEEs) in a catapult-like fashion, which likely serves to maximise ankle joint power. The resistance of supporting of body weight allowed initial stretch of both GAS and SOL SEEs. A proximal-to-distal sequence of joint moments and decreasing effective mechanical advantage early in the extension phase of the jumping movement were observed. This facilitated a further stretch of the SEE of the biarticular GAS and delayed recoil of the SOL SEE. However, effective mechanical advantage did not increase late in the jump to aid recoil of elastic tissues. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Genetic analysis of the early natural history of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Pothuri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The high mortality rate associated with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC reflects diagnosis commonly at an advanced stage, but improved early detection is hindered by uncertainty as to the histologic origin and early natural history of this malignancy.Here we report combined molecular genetic and morphologic analyses of normal human ovarian tissues and early stage cancers, from both BRCA mutation carriers and the general population, indicating that EOCs frequently arise from dysplastic precursor lesions within epithelial inclusion cysts. In pathologically normal ovaries, molecular evidence of oncogenic stress was observed specifically within epithelial inclusion cysts. To further explore potential very early events in ovarian tumorigenesis, ovarian tissues from women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer were subjected to laser catapult microdissection and gene expression profiling. These studies revealed a quasi-neoplastic expression signature in benign ovarian cystic inclusion epithelium compared to surface epithelium, specifically with respect to genes affecting signal transduction, cell cycle control, and mitotic spindle formation. Consistent with this gene expression profile, a significantly higher cell proliferation index (increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis was observed in histopathologically normal ovarian cystic compared to surface epithelium. Furthermore, aneuploidy was frequently identified in normal ovarian cystic epithelium but not in surface epithelium.Together, these data indicate that EOC frequently arises in ovarian cystic inclusions, is preceded by an identifiable dysplastic precursor lesion, and that increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and aneuploidy are likely to represent very early aberrations in ovarian tumorigenesis.

  13. Prediction and Validation of Disease Genes Using HeteSim Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangxiang; Liao, Yuanlu; Liu, Yuansheng; Zou, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the gene disease association is an important goal in biomedical research. In this paper, we use a novel relevance measure, called HeteSim, to prioritize candidate disease genes. Two methods based on heterogeneous networks constructed using protein-protein interaction, gene-phenotype associations, and phenotype-phenotype similarity, are presented. In HeteSim_MultiPath (HSMP), HeteSim scores of different paths are combined with a constant that dampens the contributions of longer paths. In HeteSim_SVM (HSSVM), HeteSim scores are combined with a machine learning method. The 3-fold experiments show that our non-machine learning method HSMP performs better than the existing non-machine learning methods, our machine learning method HSSVM obtains similar accuracy with the best existing machine learning method CATAPULT. From the analysis of the top 10 predicted genes for different diseases, we found that HSSVM avoid the disadvantage of the existing machine learning based methods, which always predict similar genes for different diseases. The data sets and Matlab code for the two methods are freely available for download at http://lab.malab.cn/data/HeteSim/index.jsp.

  14. Operative wound classification: an inaccurate measure of pediatric surgical morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Katherine W; Dalton, Brian G; Kurtz, Brendan; Keirsey, Michael C; Oyetunji, Tolulope A; St Peter, Shawn D

    2016-11-01

    Wound classification has catapulted to the forefront of surgical literature and quality care discussions. However, it has not been validated in laparoscopy or children. We analyzed pediatric infection rates based on wound classification and reviewed the most common noninfectious complications which could be a more appropriate measure for quality assessment. We performed a retrospective review of 800 patients from 2011 to 2014 undergoing common procedures at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Demographics, procedure, wound classification and complications were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Infection rates were in the expected low range for clean procedures. However, 5% of pyloromyotomy patients required readmission and 10% of circumcision patients developed penile adhesions; 2% required reoperation. Ostomy reversal, a clean contaminated case, had 17% wound infections, whereas acute appendicitis, a contaminated case had only a 4% infection rate. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (clean-contaminated or contaminated depending on inflammation) had 2% postoperative infections. Perforated appendicitis, a dirty procedure had an 18% infection rate, below the expected >27% for dirty cases in adults. Current wound classifications do not accurately approximate the risk of surgical site infections in children, particularly for laparoscopic procedures. It would be more appropriate to grade hospitals based on disease and procedure specific complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae. Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.

  16. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  17. Oral passive IgY-based immunotherapeutics: a novel solution for prevention and treatment of alimentary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shofiqur; Van Nguyen, Sa; Icatlo, Faustino C; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu

    2013-05-01

    This commentary summarizes the laboratory investigations and clinical trials published recently involving per-oral application of IgY supplemented food for specific orogastrointestinal disease prevention and control purposes. The prolonged use and misuse of conventional antibacterial drugs has spawned antibiotic resistant microbes prompting scientists to search for other germ-killing options. In particular, the use of IgY as a novel mode of immunotherapy using oral chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) to confer passive immunity has gained much interest as an inexpensive non-antibiotic alternative for the prophylaxis and treatment of a wide variety of infectious diseases. The stability of IgY in the orogastrointestinal tract and its safety profile has been well-documented. IgY has been used in the treatment or prevention of dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer, oral thrush and infant rotavirus diarrhea. The recent clinical trials on IgY with encouraging results has catapulted into the market novel nutraceutical or health supplements for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention based on the consumption of mono-specific or mixed IgY formulations. With recent trends in consumer preference for natural materials to alleviate health concerns, the increasing healthcare costs and the recent advances in drug delivery systems, IgY is likely to shift from its mainly functional food status toward pharmaceuticalization in the foreseeable future.

  18. Safety culture relationships with hospital nursing sensitive metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Diane Storer; Wolosin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Public demand for safer care has catapulted the healthcare industry's efforts to understand relationships between patient safety and hospital performance. This study explored linkages between staff perceptions of safety culture (SC) and ongoing measures of hospital nursing unit-based structures, care processes, and adverse patient outcomes. Relationships between nursing-sensitive measures of hospital performance and SC were explored at the unit-level from 9 California hospitals and 37 nursing units. SC perceptions were measured 6 months prior to collection of nursing metrics and relationships between the two sets of data were explored using correlational and regression analyses. Significant relationships were found with reported falls and process measures for fall prevention. Multiple associations were identified with SC and the structure of care delivery: skill mix, staff turnover, and workload intensity demonstrated significant relationships with SC, explaining 22-45% of the variance. SC was an important factor to understand in the quest to advance safe patient care. These findings have affordability and care quality implications for hospital leadership. When senior leaders prioritized a safety culture, patient outcomes may have improved with less staff turnover and more productivity. A business case could be made for investing in patient safety systems to provide reliably safe care. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  19. Acoustic resonance at the dawn of life: musical fundamentals of the psychoanalytic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Judith

    2015-11-01

    This paper uses a case vignette to show how musical elements of speech are a crucial source of information regarding the patient's emotional states and associated memory systems that are activated at a given moment in the analytic field. There are specific psychoacoustic markers associated with different memory systems which indicate whether a patient is immersed in a state of creative intersubjective relatedness related to autobiographical memory, or has been triggered into a traumatic memory system. When a patient feels immersed in an atmosphere of intersubjective mutuality, dialogue features a rhythmical and tuneful form of speech featuring improvized reciprocal imitation, theme and variation. When the patient is catapulted into a traumatic memory system, speech becomes monotone and disjointed. Awareness of such acoustic features of the traumatic memory system helps to alert the analyst that such a shift has taken place informing appropriate responses and interventions. Communicative musicality (Malloch & Trevarthen 2009) originates in the earliest non-verbal vocal communication between infant and care-giver, states of primary intersubjectivity. Such musicality continues to be the primary vehicle for transmitting emotional meaning and for integrating right and left hemispheres. This enables communication that expresses emotional significance, personal value as well as conceptual reasoning. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-12

    This Conference will examine DNA repair as the key component in genomic surveillance that is so crucial to the overall integrity and function of mammalian cells. Recent discoveries have catapulted the field of DNA repair into a pivotal position for fundamental investigations into oncology, aging, environmental health, and developmental biology. We hope to highlight the most promising and exciting avenues of research in robust discussions at this conference. This Mammalian DNA Repair Gordon Conference differs from the past conferences in this series, in which the programs were broader in scope, with respect to topics and biological systems covered. A conference sponsored by the Genetics Society in April 1998 emphasized recombinational mechanisms for double-strand break repair and the role of mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer. These topics will therefore receive somewhat less emphasis in the upcoming Conference. In view of the recent mechanistic advances in mammalian DNA repair, an upcoming comprehensive DNA repair meeting next autumn at Hilton Head; and the limited enrollment for Gordon Conferences we have decided to focus session-by-session on particular areas of controversy and/or new developments specifically in mammalian systems. Thus, the principal presentations will draw upon results from other cellular systems only to the extent that they impact our understanding of mammalian DNA repair.

  1. The " Daphnia" Lynx Mark I Suborbital Flight Experiment: Hardware Qualification at the Drop Tower Bremen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Miriam; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Eck, Hendrik; Ribeiro, Bernard Wolfschoon; Laforsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The Drop Tower Bremen, a ground-based facility enabling research under real microgravity conditions, is an excellent platform for testing new types of experimental hardware to ensure full performance when deployed in costly and rare flight opportunities such as suborbital flights. Here we describe the " Daphnia" experiment which will fly on XCOR Aerospace Lynx Mark I and our experience from the hardware tests with the catapult system at the drop tower. The aim of the " Daphnia" experiment is to obtain data on the biological performance of daphnids and predator-prey interactions in microgravity, which are important for the development of aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The experiment consists of two subunits: The first unit is dedicated to predator-prey interactions, where behavioural analysis should reveal if microgravity interfere with prey ( Daphnia) detection or feeding and therefore may interrupt the trophic cascade. The functioning of such an artificial food web is indispensable for a long-lasting BLSS suitable for long-duration manned space missions or Earth-based explorations to extreme habitats. The second unit is designed to investigate the impact of microgravity on gene expression and the cytoskeleton in Daphnia. Next to data collection, the real microgravity conditions at the drop tower have helped to identify the weak points of the " Daphnia" experimental hardware and lead to further improvement. Hence, the drop tower is ideal for testing new experimental hardware which is indispensable before the implementation in suborbital flights.

  2. The buzz on buzz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, R

    2000-01-01

    Word-of-mouth promotion has become an increasingly potent force, capable of catapulting products from obscurity into runaway commercial successes. Harry Potter, collapsible scooters, the Chrysler PT Cruiser, and The Blair Witch Project are all recent examples of the considerable power of buzz. Yet many top executives and marketing managers are misinformed about the phenomenon and remain enslaved to some common myths. In her article, author Renée Dye explores the truth behind these myths. Myth 1: Only outrageous or edgy products are buzz-worthy. That's simply not true. The most unlikely products, like prescription drugs, can generate tremendous buzz. Myth 2: Buzz just happens. Not so, says Dye. Buzz is increasingly the result of shrewd marketing tactics in which companies seed a vanguard group, ration supplies, use celebrity endorsements, leverage the power of lists, and initiate grassroots marketing. Myth 3: The best buzz-starters are your best customers. Often, a counterculture has a greater ability to start buzz. Myth 4: To profit from buzz, you must act first and fast. In fact, copycat companies can reap substantial profits if they know when and when not to jump in. Myth 5: The media and advertising are needed to create buzz. When used either too early or too much, the media and advertising can squelch buzz before it ignites. As globalization and brand proliferation continue, writes Dye, buzz may come to dominate the shaping of markets. Indeed, companies that are unable to control buzz may soon find the phenomenon controlling them.

  3. Localization of enzymes of artemisinin biosynthesis to the apical cells of glandular secretory trichomes of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mikael E; Olofsson, Linda M; Lindahl, Ann-Louise; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Maria; Brodelius, Peter E

    2009-06-01

    A method based on the laser microdissection pressure catapulting technique has been developed for isolation of whole intact cells. Using a modified tissue preparation method, one outer pair of apical cells and two pairs of sub-apical, chloroplast-containing cells, were isolated from glandular secretory trichomes of Artemisia annua. A. annua is the source of the widely used antimalarial drug artemisinin. The biosynthesis of artemisinin has been proposed to be located to the glandular trichomes. The first committed steps in the conversion of FPP to artemisinin are conducted by amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorpha-4,11-diene hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13) reductase. The expression of the three biosynthetic enzymes in the different cell types has been studied. In addition, the expression of farnesyldiphosphate synthase producing the precursor of artemisinin has been investigated. Our experiments showed expression of farnesyldiphosphate synthase in apical and sub-apical cells as well as in mesophyl cells while the three enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were expressed only in the apical cells. Elongation factor 1alpha was used as control and it was expressed in all cell types. We conclude that artemisinin biosynthesis is taking place in the two outer apical cells while the two pairs of chloroplast-containing cells have other functions in the overall metabolism of glandular trichomes.

  4. Yachting club

    CERN Multimedia

    Yachting club

    2011-01-01

    WARNING: your C key is about to expire... Good, we hoped that would draw your attention! A gentle reminder that, following the purchase of our fast, sophisticated racing catamaran Hobie Tiger Meerkat last season, your Committee decided to create a new key to reflect this, the EC (Experienced Catamaran). Those taking a C course will be assessed during a test as to whether they will gain the C key or the C plus EC key, so need only practise hard. Those - and we are many - who possess the C key from past years need to refresh our knowledge and prove our competence to sail Meerkat effectively with the EC key. This requires a few attested outings under good wind conditions, use of the gennaker, general control. And if it’s any consolation, we (remembering the Darts and then the Mysteres, and now both SL16 and Tiger) can confirm that she is really a pussycat, and really very willing to tack if you treat her right... Plan on trying for her or indeed Catapult on Thursdays, then talk to your Committee (f.i...

  5. A pathway to supplier status: The case of Greenland and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, C.

    2014-01-01

    On 24 October 2013, the Greenland parliament, Inatsisartut, lifted a decades-long moratorium on mining radioactive elements. For a Kingdom that has otherwise foregone the nuclear fuel cycle (except for medical purposes), the abolishment of the so-called ‘zero tolerance’ policy has the potential to catapult the Kingdom of Denmark (or 'Rigsfælleskabet') into one of the world’s top suppliers of natural uranium. Greenland’s status as a country within a state is accompanied by a complicated legal system within the Rigsfælleskabet, where Greenland has authority over its natural resources and Copenhagen is constitutionally responsible for the Kingdom’s foreign, defence and security policies. This system is further complicated by Denmark’s membership (and Greenland’s non-membership) in the EU. Consequently, the process ahead for Greenland and Denmark in jointly developing a regulatory system to govern uranium will be complex, and one based on a steep learning curve. This paper will look at the process of how Greenland and Denmark are approaching the development of a governance system, not only for uranium production as a primary product but also as a byproduct of other resources, particularly REE (as is the case with the Kvanefjeld deposit in southern Greenland). (author)

  6. Asymmetric drop coalescence launches fungal ballistospores with directionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangjie; Chavez, Roger L; Patek, S N; Pringle, Anne; Feng, James J; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of fungal species use surface energy to power the launch of their ballistospores. The surface energy is released when a spherical Buller's drop at the spore's hilar appendix merges with a flattened drop on the adaxial side of the spore. The launching mechanism is primarily understood in terms of energetic models, and crucial features such as launching directionality are unexplained. Integrating experiments and simulations, we advance a mechanistic model based on the capillary-inertial coalescence between the Buller's drop and the adaxial drop, a pair that is asymmetric in size, shape and relative position. The asymmetric coalescence is surprisingly effective and robust, producing a launching momentum governed by the Buller's drop and a launching direction along the adaxial plane of the spore. These key functions of momentum generation and directional control are elucidated by numerical simulations, demonstrated on spore-mimicking particles, and corroborated by published ballistospore kinematics. Our work places the morphological and kinematic diversity of ballistospores into a general mechanical framework, and points to a generic catapulting mechanism of colloidal particles with implications for both biology and engineering. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  8. Validity of an ultra-wideband local positioning system to measure locomotion in indoor sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpiello, F R; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, S; Tavrou, J; Duthie, G M; Aughey, R J; Ball, K

    2018-08-01

    The validity of an Ultra-wideband (UWB) positioning system was investigated during linear and change-of-direction (COD) running drills. Six recreationally-active men performed ten repetitions of four activities (walking, jogging, maximal acceleration, and 45º COD) on an indoor court. Activities were repeated twice, in the centre of the court and on the side. Participants wore a receiver tag (Clearsky T6, Catapult Sports) and two reflective markers placed on the tag to allow for comparisons with the criterion system (Vicon). Distance, mean and peak velocity, acceleration, and deceleration were assessed. Validity was assessed via percentage least-square means difference (Clearsky-Vicon) with 90% confidence interval and magnitude-based inference; typical error was expressed as within-subject standard deviation. The mean differences for distance, mean/peak speed, and mean/peak accelerations in the linear drills were in the range of 0.2-12%, with typical errors between 1.2 and 9.3%. Mean and peak deceleration had larger differences and errors between systems. In the COD drill, moderate-to-large differences were detected for the activity performed in the centre of the court, increasing to large/very large on the side. When filtered and smoothed following a similar process, the UWB-based positioning system had acceptable validity, compared to Vicon, to assess movements representative of indoor sports.

  9. Construction of the Neutron Beam Facility at Australia's OPAL Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Australia's new research reactor, OPAL, has been designed for high quality neutron beam science and radioisotope production. It has a capacity for eighteen neutron beam instruments to be located at the reactor face and in a neutron guide hall. The new neutron beam facility features a 20 litre liquid deuterium cold neutron source and supermirror neutron reflecting guides for intense cold and thermal neutron beams. Nine neutron beam instruments are under development, of which seven are scheduled for completion in early 2007. The project is approaching the hot-commissioning stage, where criticality will be demonstrated. Installation of the neutron beam transport system and neutron beam instruments in the neutron guide hall and at the reactor face is underway, and the path to completion of this project is relatively clear. The lecture will outline Australia's aspirations for neutron science at the OPAL reactor, and describe the neutron beam facility under construction. The status of this project and a forecast of the program to completion, including commissioning and commencement of routine operation in 2007 will also be discussed. This project is the culmination of almost a decade of effort. We now eagerly anticipate catapulting Australia's neutron beam science capability to meet the best in the world today. (author)

  10. Antibody labelling of resilin in energy stores for jumping in plant sucking insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Burrows

    Full Text Available The rubbery protein resilin appears to form an integral part of the energy storage structures that enable many insects to jump by using a catapult mechanism. In plant sucking bugs that jump (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, the energy generated by the slow contractions of huge thoracic jumping muscles is stored by bending composite bow-shaped parts of the internal thoracic skeleton. Sudden recoil of these bows powers the rapid and simultaneous movements of both hind legs that in turn propel a jump. Until now, identification of resilin at these storage sites has depended exclusively upon characteristics that may not be specific: its fluorescence when illuminated with specific wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV light and extinction of that fluorescence at low pH. To consolidate identification we have labelled the cuticular structures involved with an antibody raised against a product of the Drosophila CG15920 gene. This encodes pro-resilin, the first exon of which was expressed in E. coli and used to raise the antibody. We show that in frozen sections from two species, the antibody labels precisely those parts of the metathoracic energy stores that fluoresce under UV illumination. The presence of resilin in these insects is thus now further supported by a molecular criterion that is immunohistochemically specific.

  11. Investigation of the interaction dynamics of a pair of laser-induced bubbles generated at the same time through double-exposure strobe method and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Liu; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the interaction dynamics of a pair of laser-induced bubbles, a double-exposure strobe photography experimental setup is build up to study the temporal evolution of the bubble pairs and to measure the transient bubble-interface moving speed. The interaction mechanisms of the bubble pairs are discussed together with the numerical results obtained through OpenFOAM. It is shown that the direction and the velocity of the jetting could be controlled by the relative size and the relative initiation distance of the bubble pair, when the bubbles are generated at the same time, i.e., in-phase. The liquid jet is considered to be a penetrating jet. The jet is originated from the smaller bubble and clearly protruding outside of the bigger bubble. The parameter space of the relative size and the initiation distance of the bubble pair allowing the formation of the penetrating jet are very narrow. It is concluded that the liquid jet induced by the bubble interactions resulted from the collapse and the rebound of the smaller bubble nearby the bigger bubble. This is defined as the "catapult effect." Such a directional liquid transportation is a promising tool as a micro-injector or a micro-pump. The investigation results could be also supplementary to the understandings of the bubble dynamics.

  12. Missiles caused by severe pressurized-water reactor accidients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1995-01-01

    For future pressurized-water reactors, which should be designed against core-meltdown accidents, missiles generated inside the containment present a severe problem for its integrity. The masses and geometries of the missiles, as well as their velocities, may vary to a great extent. Therefore a reliable proof of the containment integrity is very difficult. In this article the potential sources of missiles are discussed, and the conclusion was reached that the generation of heavy missiles must be prevented. Steam explosions must not damage the reactor vessel head. Thus fragments of the head cannot become missiles that endanger the containment shell. Furthermore, during a melt-through failure of the reactor vessel under high pressure, the resulting forces must not catapult the whole vessel against the containment shell. Only missiles caused by hydrogen explosions may be tolerable, but shielding structures that protect the containment shell may be required. Further investigations are necessary. Finally, measures are described showing that the generation of heavy missiles can indeed be prevented. Investigations are currently being carried out that will confirm the strength of the reactor vessel head. In addition, a device for retaining the fragments of a failing reactor vessel is discussed

  13. Development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using climatic and air pollution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathoni U; Zakaria C M; Rohayu C O

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has catapulted to an era of major transition. This rapid transition has also cause impact to the environment. The human activities contribute to pollutions. Buildings and it component's performances are affected directly or indirectly by air pollutions and climate factors. It has triggering and accelerating degradation processes. When deterioration start, service life of the buildings and its components will decrease. This paper presents initial development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using Geographical Information System (GIS). The air pollution and climate data obtained from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MMD). The air pollution data was the salt ion deposition of nitrate, chloride and sulphate in a form of wet fall out (WFO). The corrosion risk map generated using geographical information system (GIS) using inverse distance weighing (IDW) and weighted overlay method. It found that the corrosion risk map can be generated with further site verification and it can be used by engineers for further prediction of service life of building components in achieving sustainable construction design.

  14. Caviar and Friendship: Sensational Trials and the Reinvention of Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Evans

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensational trials are a venue for the performance of social knowledge—the kind of knowledge that does not regularly make an appearance on the front pages of national newspapers. if sensational trials routinely catapult private matters into the public sphere, it is less such exciting revelations that concern me here, than the dross kicked up in their wake. Sensational trials, I contend, are a point of entry into everyday life, that far more elusive zone of ordinary beliefs and practices situated between the institution and the bedroom, in the interstices of the scripted and chronicled domains of private and public life. To address the everyday is to confront those undocumented procedures and forms of knowledge that exist beyond the realm of official discourse, practices that cultural theorists are increasingly eager to explore and increasingly sceptical of finding. As Barry Sandywell recently observed, ‘Like the omnipollent term “community”, “everyday life” is in continuous use within lay and theoretical discourse and yet continuously evades definition. Perhaps ... we should ask “where is everyday life”?’ This paper argues that one answer to this question lies in the study of sensational trials.

  15. Prediction of MicroRNA-Disease Associations Based on Social Network Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs constitute an important class of noncoding, single-stranded, ~22 nucleotide long RNA molecules encoded by endogenous genes. They play an important role in regulating gene transcription and the regulation of normal development. MicroRNAs can be associated with disease; however, only a few microRNA-disease associations have been confirmed by traditional experimental approaches. We introduce two methods to predict microRNA-disease association. The first method, KATZ, focuses on integrating the social network analysis method with machine learning and is based on networks derived from known microRNA-disease associations, disease-disease associations, and microRNA-microRNA associations. The other method, CATAPULT, is a supervised machine learning method. We applied the two methods to 242 known microRNA-disease associations and evaluated their performance using leave-one-out cross-validation and 3-fold cross-validation. Experiments proved that our methods outperformed the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. PVT roadmap. A European guide for the development and market introduction of PVT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M. [ECN Renewable Energy in the Built Environment DEGO, Petten (Netherlands); Affolter, P. [Solstis, Lausanne (Switzerland); Eisenmann, W. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung ISFH, Emmerthal (Germany); Fechner, H. [Arsenal Research, Vienna (Austria); Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Schaap, A. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Soerensen, H. [Esbensen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece)

    2006-06-15

    The aim of the roadmap is to identify promising markets for PVT (PhotoVoltaic Thermal) technology , and to identify the economical, policy, legislative and technical bottlenecks. In addition, the roadmap wants to inform the parties in the market on PVT. It thereby targets a broad range of professionals, including policy makers, solar manufacturers, installers and researchers. This work has been carried out within the PVT forum project, which is part of the EU-supported project PV-Catapult. The aim of PVT Forum is to lay the foundations for a large-scale introduction of PVT technology in Europe by means of this roadmap. In order to construct the roadmap, a two-step approach was taken. As a first step, PVT experts, PV and solar thermal industries and other stakeholders were brought together in two workshops, connected to the PVSEC 2004 in Paris and the Eurosun conference 2004 in Freiburg, to identify drivers and barriers for PVT. The results of these two workshops, that were presented in two workshop reports, were used as input for the roadmap presented here. As a second step, the PVT roadmap was written, formulating the necessary actions that should be taken on short, medium and long term in order to enlarge the market for PVT products. The chapters of the roadmap are written and reviewed by the various participants in PVT Forum. These participants have been selected for this project on the basis of their contribution to PVT development over the last years.

  17. FY05 LDRD Final ReportTime-Resolved Dynamic Studies using Short Pulse X-Ray Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A; Dunn, J; van Buuren, T; Budil, K; Sadigh, B; Gilmer, G; Falcone, R; Lee, R; Ng, A

    2006-02-10

    Established techniques must be extended down to the ps and sub-ps time domain to directly probe product states of materials under extreme conditions. We used short pulse ({le} 1 ps) x-ray radiation to track changes in the physical properties in tandem with measurements of the atomic and electronic structure of materials undergoing fast laser excitation and shock-related phenomena. The sources included those already available at LLNL, including the picosecond X-ray laser as well as the ALS Femtosecond Phenomena beamline and the SSRL based sub-picosecond photon source (SPPS). These allow the temporal resolution to be improved by 2 orders of magnitude over the current state-of-the-art, which is {approx} 100 ps. Thus, we observed the manifestations of dynamical processes with unprecedented time resolution. Time-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray scattering were used to study phase changes in materials with sub-picosecond time resolution. These experiments coupled to multiscale modeling allow us to explore the physics of materials in high laser fields and extreme non-equilibrium states of matter. The ability to characterize the physical and electronic structure of materials under extreme conditions together with state-of-the-art models and computational facilities will catapult LLNL's core competencies into the scientific world arena as well as support its missions of national security and stockpile stewardship.

  18. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyan, S.; Froehlich, Th.

    2014-01-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10 6  S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations

  19. Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic fusion energy program of India started in the early eighties with the construction of an indigenous tokamak device ADITYA at the Institute for Plasma Research in Gandhinagar. The initial thrust was on fundamental studies related to plasma instabilities and turbulence phenomena but there was also a significant emphasis on technology development in the areas of magnetics, high vacuum, radio-frequency heating and neutral beam technology. The program took a major leap forward in the late nineties with the decision to build a state-of-the-art superconducting tokamak (SST-1) that catapulted India into the mainstream of the international tokamak research effort. The SST experience and the associated technological and human resource development has now earned the country a place in the ITER collaboration as an equal partner with other major nations. Keeping in mind the rapidly growing and enormous energy needs of the future the program has also identified and launched key development projects that can lead us to a DEMO reactor and eventually a Fusion Power Plant in a systematic manner. I will give a brief overview of the early origins, the present status and some of the highlights of the future road map of the Indian Fusion Program. (author)

  20. Behaviour of a birch plywood under various experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Lydie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gaz -LNG- carriers must provide cryogenic reliability and safety for at least 40 years. Most of the insulation systems belong to the so-called membrane type, in which the “insulation complex” is composed of a metal membrane as a barrier, a plywood panel, insulation foam and a plywood panel glued to the inner hull. During construction and exploitation at cryogenic temperature, an impact of the membrane may occur and could lead to a LNG leakage. In order to evaluate this risk, and the role of the plywood in the perforation process of the membrane, a series of original impact tests are carried out at room and cryogenic temperatures on metal-plywood samples thanks to a specially designed catapult. In order to obtain a reliable numerical simulation of the impact, a series of impact and out of plane compression tests at room and cryogenic temperatures are carried out. Thanks to a design experiment, we identified the influence of the moisture content, from 2% up to 30%, and of the temperature, from − 173 ∘C up to +20 ∘C, on the strain rate sensitivity of the plywood.

  1. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  2. Validity and reliability of 5 Hz GPS devices on short career with change of direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casamichana Gómez, Julen Castellano Paulis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a MinimaxX GPS device (Team Sport 2.5, Catapult Innovations operating with a sampling frequency of 5 Hz. Were measured distances made for 10 football players (age, 22.5 ±2.9 years, height 174 ±7 cm. and weight 72.6 ±3.4 kg in the specific Yo-Yo Endurance Test level 1. The test ended when the players completed the first 10 levels of speed test (from 2.22 to 3.48 m·s-1. Four of the 10 participants took two simultaneously GPS, what allowed to value the reliability of the devices. In the validity study comparing the values obtained by the GPS with the actual values obtained by tape before performing the test. Statistical analysis were: coefficient of variation (1 – 17 %, standard error (2.3 – 136 m, standard error estimated, (5 – 11 % and means difference (-0.7 – 89.2 m. The results indicate that although the reliability and validity showed satisfactory results at moderate intensities, almost all levels and for the total distance, although the distance was overestimated

  3. Pneumatic Performance Study of a High Pressure Ejection Device Based on Real Specific Energy and Specific Enthalpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In high-pressure dynamic thermodynamic processes, the pressure is much higher than the air critical pressure, and the temperature can deviate significantly from the Boyle temperature. In such situations, the thermo-physical properties and pneumatic performance can’t be described accurately by the ideal gas law. This paper proposes an approach to evaluate the pneumatic performance of a high-pressure air catapult launch system, in which esidual functions are used to compensate the thermal physical property uncertainties of caused by real gas effects. Compared with the Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility charts, the precision of the improved virial equation of state is better than Soave-Redlich-Kwong (S-R-K and Peng-Robinson (P-R equations for high pressure air. In this paper, the improved virial equation of state is further used to establish a compressibility factor database which is applied to evaluate real gas effects. The specific residual thermodynamic energy and specific residual enthalpy of the high-pressure air are also derived using the modified corresponding state equation and improved virial equation of state which are truncated to the third virial coefficient. The pneumatic equations are established on the basis of the derived residual functions. The comparison of the numerical results shows that the real gas effects are strong, and the pneumatic performance analysis indicates that the real dynamic thermodynamic process is obviously different from the ideal one.

  4. The invention that opened the solar system to exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minovitch, Michael A.

    2010-05-01

    The invention of gravity-propelled interplanetary space travel (also known as "gravity-assist trajectories") in the early 1960s broke the high-energy barrier of classical space travel based on reaction propulsion, and made possible the exploration of the entire solar system with instrumented spacecraft. In this concept, a free-fall spacecraft is launched from a launch planet P 1 to a nearby planet P 2 such that its gravitational field (superimposed on the gravitational field of the Sun) catapults the vehicle to another planet P 3, which in turn is used to repeat the process. Thus, through a series of planetary encounters, a gravity-propelled trajectory P 1-P 2-P 3-P 4-…-P N is generated. This paper describes how the invention was conceived and how the difficult mathematical problem of computing the trajectories was solved in order to numerically investigate and use the invention in actual missions. The crucial roles played by the UCLA Computing Facility and the Departments of Mathematics and Physics are also described.

  5. Slow, fast and furious: understanding the physics of plant movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Yoël

    2013-11-01

    The ability of plants to move is central to many physiological processes from development to tropisms, from nutrition to reproduction. The movement of plants or plant parts occurs over a wide range of sizes and time scales. This review summarizes the main physical mechanisms plants use to achieve motility, highlighting recent work at the frontier of biology and physics on rapid movements. Emphasis is given to presenting in a single framework pioneering biological studies of water transport and growth with more recent physics research on poroelasticity and mechanical instabilities. First, the basic osmotic and hydration/dehydration motors are described that contribute to movement by growth and reversible swelling/shrinking of cells and tissues. The speeds of these water-driven movements are shown to be ultimately limited by the transport of water through the plant body. Some plant structures overcome this hydraulic limit to achieve much faster movement by using a mechanical instability. The principle is to impose an 'energy barrier' to the system, which can originate from geometrical constraint or matter cohesion, allowing elastic potential energy to be stored until the barrier is overcome, then rapidly transformed into kinetic energy. Three of these rapid motion mechanisms have been elucidated recently and are described here: the snapping traps of two carnivorous plants, the Venus flytrap and Utricularia, and the catapult of fern sporangia. Finally, movement mechanisms are reconsidered in the context of the timescale of important physiological processes at the cellular and molecular level.

  6. U. S. aerospace: the keystone to fusion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, J.

    1977-03-01

    From 1968 to 1974 employment in the aerospace industry dropped by 35 percent, with even greater reductions since. Aerospace and related sectors are now estimated to be operating at 60 percent of total capacity or less. What is being destroyed is an industry whose R and D budget still makes up a whopping 50 percent of all U.S. industrial R and D. The author feels this R and D capability, and the quality of technology and manpower that accompany the industry, pinpoint aerospace as the keystone of the development effort necessary to bring a fusion economy into being, solving the scientific problems that still stand in the way of constructing working fusion reactors and providing the level of productive capacity necessary to produce such reactors to power the world. He suggests that a program for fusion development would catapult aerospace out of its present collapse into growth. Employment in aerospace and the related electronics industry would increase by at least a half million workers, scientists, engineers, and technicians. During the same time other parts of the industry will be deployed to vital projects in transportation development, space exploration, communications, and certain consumer goods, creating additional hundreds of thousands of jobs. The step from experimental reactors to full fusion power plants generating electricity and, further down the line, providing energy for techniques such as the fusion torch, is a giant one, involving the solution of both the most fundamental problems of physics theory and many formidable engineering problems.

  7. Short Duration Reduced Gravity Drop Tower Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B.; Welch, C.

    The industrial and commercial development of space-related activities is intimately linked to the ability to conduct reduced gravity research. Reduced gravity experimentation is important to many diverse fields of research in the understanding of fundamental and applied aspects of physical phenomena. Both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial experimental facilities are currently available to allow researchers access to reduced gravity environments. This paper discusses two drop tower designs, a 2.0 second facility built in Australia and a proposed 2.2 second facility in the United Kingdom. Both drop towers utilise a drag shield for isolating the falling experiment from the drag forces of the air during the test. The design and development of The University of Queensland's (Australia) 2.0 second drop tower, including its specifications and operational procedures is discussed first. Sensitive aspects of the design process are examined. Future plans are then presented for a new short duration (2.2 sec) ground-based reduced gravity drop tower. The new drop tower has been designed for Kingston University (United Kingdom) to support teaching and research in the field of reduced gravity physics. The design has been informed by the previous UQ drop tower design process and utilises a catapult mechanism to increase test time and also incorporates features to allow participants for a variety of backgrounds (from high school students through to university researchers) to learn and experiment in reduced gravity. Operational performance expectations for this new facility are also discussed.

  8. Investigation of the Triggering Mechanism of Magnetospheric Substorm via 2-1/2 D Full-Particle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, H.; Machida, S.

    2012-12-01

    A physical process of the substorm triggering in the Earth's Magnetotail is thought to be closely related to the magnetic reconnection and the tearing instability. Recently we proposed a new scheme of the substorm onset called "Catapult Current Sheet Relaxation (CCSR) Model " to physically understand the results from GEOTAIL and THEMIS data. The CCSR Model has characters that are the decrease of the total pressure and thinning of the current sheet at the distance about -12Re in the magnetotail a few minutes before the substorm onset, and the simultaneous occurrence of the dipolarization at X~-10Re and the magnetic reconnection at X~-20Re at the time of the onset. In this study, we investigate a stability of the current sheet and the particle acceleration via particle simulation in order to assess the validity of the CCSR model and to clarify the mechanism of substorm onset. We give an initial magnetic field structure which is akin to the Earth's dipole magnetic field together with a stretched magnetic field by thin current sheet, and further add a weak northward magnetic field at the place where Near-Earth Neutral Line is expected to be formed. The results of simulation contain similar features that characterize the CCSR Model. A physically interpretation of the simulation result with the linear instability theory as well as comparison with observations will be given.

  9. Functional diversity of resilin in Arthropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michels

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilin is an elastomeric protein typically occurring in exoskeletons of arthropods. It is composed of randomly orientated coiled polypeptide chains that are covalently cross-linked together at regular intervals by the two unusual amino acids dityrosine and trityrosine forming a stable network with a high degree of flexibility and mobility. As a result of its molecular prerequisites, resilin features exceptional rubber-like properties including a relatively low stiffness, a rather pronounced long-range deformability and a nearly perfect elastic recovery. Within the exoskeleton structures, resilin commonly forms composites together with other proteins and/or chitin fibres. In the last decades, numerous exoskeleton structures with large proportions of resilin and various resilin functions have been described. Today, resilin is known to be responsible for the generation of deformability and flexibility in membrane and joint systems, the storage of elastic energy in jumping and catapulting systems, the enhancement of adaptability to uneven surfaces in attachment and prey catching systems, the reduction of fatigue and damage in reproductive, folding and feeding systems and the sealing of wounds in a traumatic reproductive system. In addition, resilin is present in many compound eye lenses and is suggested to be a very suitable material for optical elements because of its transparency and amorphousness. The evolution of this remarkable functional diversity can be assumed to have only been possible because resilin exhibits a unique combination of different outstanding properties.

  10. Dinamika Elit Lokal Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Zamroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The priyayi played a vital role in leading the Indonesian community during the colonial era. The same applies to Madura society. During the colonial era, power wielded by the priyayi was constricted on the basis of Madura culture and was strengthened by the bureaucratic power structure at both the village and district/ city level. This was manifested in such ways as serving as a klébun or bupati. However, the pattern of priyayi power, which was underpinned by feudalism waned, being replaced by Islamic religious leaders known as kiai. During the New Order regime, kiai in Madura played a very dominant role which was not only limited to the realm of religion, but also all aspects of life ranging from social, politics, economic, to culture. Nevertheless, with the dawn of the reformation era, economic elites have catapulted themselves to prominence, and there are growing signs that they are replacing the role which religious leaders used to play in Madura society in general and in the political domain in particular through forming shadow state as a tool used to exert control over Madura Political dynamics. This concise paper presents as discussion of ‘political fights’ among cultural, religious, bureaucratic, and economic elites in Madura.

  11. Zika virus epidemic: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gregory; Marquez, Lucila; Pammi, Mohan

    2016-12-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community. Areas covered: This review seeks to consolidate ZIKV epidemiology, diagnostic testing methods, CDC screening recommendations, and preventive strategies including potential vaccines. Expert commentary: Many unknowns still exist regarding ZIKV infections and its long-term effects in neonates. In addition, further studies need to evaluate if genomic differences that have occurred from the African to the Asian lineage of the virus have led to increased virulence of the virus. The authors believe that all pregnant women with fetuses showing microcephaly and/or intracranial calcifications should be tested for ZIKV infection if they cannot recall their sexual partner travel history. This change from the current CDCs recommendations could increase substantially the number of pregnant women and neonates, screened for ZIKV.

  12. Dal protettore al controllore. Uno sguardo sociologico sulla letteratura disegnata a tema supereroistico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Zampieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 1938: a flying man with an S on his breast appears in the sky of an American metropolis, catapulting cartoon mass entertainment into a new dimension. 1986: a spot of blood on a Smiley icon (Moore, 1986 puts an end to the innocence of an entire narrative genre. The two logos, which share a great retroactive symbolic impact, are presented as the two great epistemic divides (Foucault, 1966 of the superheroic cartoon literature. This paper is aimed at offering a sociological view on a whole genre, made up of pure visual grammar and accounted as being particularly suitable for the representation of the implicit tensions of contemporary societies (Di Nocera, 2000. The paper offers genealogic systematizing and discussion of the implications inherent to Watchmen’s, mature and conscious production. Starting from the title, Watchmen (Moore, 1986 stands as a deliberate investigation of the archetype on which the whole genre rests. In the end, in more and more complex systems and societies, “who controls the controllers?”

  13. The sharing of radiological images by professional mixed martial arts fighters on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, George; Joyce, Cormac W; McCarthy, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Mixed martial arts is a sport that has recently enjoyed a significant increase in popularity. This rise in popularity has catapulted many of these "cage fighters" into stardom and many regularly use social media to reach out to their fans. An interesting result of this interaction on social media is that athletes are sharing images of their radiological examinations when they sustain an injury. To review instances where mixed martial arts fighters shared images of their radiological examinations on social media and in what context they were shared. An Internet search was performed using the Google search engine. Search terms included "MMA," "mixed martial arts," "injury," "scan," "X-ray," "fracture," and "break." Articles which discussed injuries to MMA fighters were examined and those in which the fighter themselves shared a radiological image of their injury on social media were identified. During our search, we identified 20 MMA fighters that had shared radiological images of their injuries on social media. There were 15 different types of injury, with a fracture of the mid-shaft of the ulna being the most common. The most popular social media platform was Twitter. The most common imaging modality X-ray (71%). The majority of injuries were sustained during competition (81%) and 35% of these fights resulted in a win for the fighter. Professional mixed martial artists are sharing radiological images of their injuries on social media. This may be in an attempt to connect with fans and raise their profile among other fighters.

  14. PVT roadmap. A European guide for the development and market introduction of PVT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M.; Affolter, P.; Eisenmann, W.; Fechner, H.; Rommel, M.; Schaap, A.; Soerensen, H.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the roadmap is to identify promising markets for PVT (PhotoVoltaic Thermal) technology , and to identify the economical, policy, legislative and technical bottlenecks. In addition, the roadmap wants to inform the parties in the market on PVT. It thereby targets a broad range of professionals, including policy makers, solar manufacturers, installers and researchers. This work has been carried out within the PVT forum project, which is part of the EU-supported project PV-Catapult. The aim of PVT Forum is to lay the foundations for a large-scale introduction of PVT technology in Europe by means of this roadmap. In order to construct the roadmap, a two-step approach was taken. As a first step, PVT experts, PV and solar thermal industries and other stakeholders were brought together in two workshops, connected to the PVSEC 2004 in Paris and the Eurosun conference 2004 in Freiburg, to identify drivers and barriers for PVT. The results of these two workshops, that were presented in two workshop reports, were used as input for the roadmap presented here. As a second step, the PVT roadmap was written, formulating the necessary actions that should be taken on short, medium and long term in order to enlarge the market for PVT products. The chapters of the roadmap are written and reviewed by the various participants in PVT Forum. These participants have been selected for this project on the basis of their contribution to PVT development over the last years

  15. El Boom Petrolero Ecuato-Guineano y sus Implicaciones para el Proceso de Regionalización Centroafricano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nso

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A mediados de los años 90, Guinea Ecuatorial, antigua colonia española en el Golfo de Guinea, experimentó un boom petrolero, que le catapultó al estatus de primer productor de crudo de la zona Franco CFA y tercero del Golfo (por detrás de Nigeria y Angola. El caso ecuato-guineano tiene un especial interés para la disciplina de la geopolítica del petróleo, porque se produce en un determinado contexto global, marcado por: (a los atentados del 11 de septiembre, a los que seguirá una inestabilidad creciente en la región de Oriente Medio, que detenta las mayores reservas de petróleo del mundo; y (b la trascendental transformación de los principios clásicos de la cooperación al desarrollo de la Unión Europea, con la firma de las Convenciones de Cotonou. Así pues, si bien el primer factor nos remite a la seguridad del aprovisionamiento de la potencia estadounidense, que se dirige entonces a la joven y fulgurante región del Golfo de Guinea, en África Central, el segundo acabará ofreciendo la clave de la ofensiva ecuato-guineana para hacerse con el liderazgo de la región centroafricana.

  16. Relearning how to learn: enrolled nurse transition to degree at a New Zealand rural satellite campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Judy A

    2005-10-01

    The demise of enrolled nurse (EN) training in New Zealand hastened the development of transition to registration/degree programmes for enrolled nurses. A North Island tertiary institution developed a flexible course to enabled ten enrolled nurses working in rural settings, the majority of whom were Māori, to continue working while studying at a small satellite campus. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative research study utilizing focus group interviews was undertaken to examine the factors that assisted or hindered their transition. Two major categories emerged from comparative analysis of the data. One category entitled 'relearning how to learn', demonstrated the cognitive and behavioural adaptations made and is the focus of this paper. The other category 'barriers and catapults', demonstrated the physical and environmental factors that influenced the students' transition but is outside the scope of this paper. Recent changes in New Zealand nursing education have witnessed the clarification of scopes of nursing practice and the controversial development of a new Certificate in Health Science (Nurse Assistant). Currently enrolled nurses are again facing threats to employment and it is envisaged that many will be seeking to undertake transition to registered nurse in the near future.

  17. Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Matthew C; Fairweather, Ian H; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the validity and reliability of 5 and 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant velocity while straight-line running. Three participants performed 80 running trials while wearing two GPS units each (5 Hz, V2.0 and 10 Hz, V4.0; MinimaxX, Catapult Innovations, Scoresby, VIC, Australia). The criterion measure used to assess GPS validity was instantaneous velocity recorded using a tripod-mounted laser. Validity was established using the standard error of the estimate (± 90% confidence limits). Reliability was determined using typical error (± 90% confidence limits, expressed as coefficient of variation) and Pearson's correlation. The 10 Hz GPS devices were two to three times more accurate than the 5 Hz devices when compared with a criterion value for instantaneous velocity during tasks completed at a range of velocities (coefficient of variation 3.1-11.3%). Similarly, the 10 Hz GPS units were up to six-fold more reliable for measuring instantaneous velocity than the 5 Hz units (coefficient of variation 1.9-6.0%). Newer GPS may provide an acceptable tool for the measurement of constant velocity, acceleration, and deceleration during straight-line running and have sufficient sensitivity for detecting changes in performance in team sport. However, researchers must account for the inherent match-to-match variation reported when using these devices.

  18. Evolution of Scholarly Publishing and Library Services in Astronomy Its Impact, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Hema; Sheshadri, Geetha

    2016-10-01

    Scholarly publishing and its procedures have evolved rapidly, forcefully, and incredibly. Technical advances in the production and promotion of science content have dramatically augmented the visibility and reach, deepened the impact and intensified the thrust of science journal content. These changes range from checking text on perforated tapes to pit stop; from hot metal types to CTP; and from Gutenberg to colour digital printers. Intrinsic and inextricable to this revolutionary aspect of evolution in scholarly publishing is the evolution of library services in astronomy which catapulted library resources from preprints on shelves to customised digital repositories and from communicating observational data through postal telegrams to Tablets. What impact does this unique blend of revolutionary advances have on science and society, what are the consequent challenges, and what are the opportunities that can metamorphose from challenges inherent in the power and potential of the `published word'? The perspectives expressed in this paper stem from learning experiences of the authors at the Indian Academy of Sciences, publishers of ten science journals including the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, and at the Raman Research Institute Library (in which Astronomy is one of the core subjects for research)

  19. Extracellular histones in tissue injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, Santhosh V R; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Neutrophil NETosis is an important element of host defense as it catapults chromatin out of the cell to trap bacteria, which then are killed, e.g., by the chromatin's histone component. Also, during sterile inflammation TNF-alpha and other mediators trigger NETosis, which elicits cytotoxic effects on host cells. The same mechanism should apply to other forms of regulated necrosis including pyroptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and cyclophilin D-mediated regulated necrosis. Beyond these toxic effects, extracellular histones also trigger thrombus formation and innate immunity by activating Toll-like receptors and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thereby, extracellular histones contribute to the microvascular complications of sepsis, major trauma, small vessel vasculitis as well as acute liver, kidney, brain, and lung injury. Finally, histones prevent the degradation of extracellular DNA, which promotes autoimmunization, anti-nuclear antibody formation, and autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Here, we review the current evidence on the pathogenic role of extracellular histones in disease and discuss how to target extracellular histones to improve disease outcomes.

  20. Performance indicators for areas of innovation: international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonski, G.A.; Getz, D.; Barge-Gil, A.; Modrego Rico, A.

    2016-07-01

    The first science park (Stanford Research Park) was established in 1951. Eight years later the first business incubator (Batavia Incubator) started operations. A noticeable similitude is that neither one of those pioneering innovation niches was intentional, as they resulted from the acumen of entrepreneurial minds that perceived unconventional usages of available real estate. Science parks (a.k.a. research parks or technology parks, or science and technology parks) and incubators have disseminated and now operate in a large number of countries, regardless of their economic level or political ideology. Science parks and business incubators were gradually regarded as prototypical innovation habitats. A phenomenon that has gradually surfaced since the mid 2000’s is the emergence of nontraditional types of innovation niches: accelerators, catapults, innovation districts, high-tech hubs, technopoles, makerspaces, hackerspaces, co-working spaces, fab labs, tech shops, innovation labs, living labs and others. Although each of them possesses individual features, they share converging aims, which are akin to the purposes of incubators and science parks. The proliferation these models generated the need for a new and encompassing idea. The recent notion of “areas of innovation” devised by IASP, the main international trade association of science parks, headquartered in Malaga, Spain, contends for such a concept. (Author)

  1. The validity and reliability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport specific running patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke; Aughey, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]). Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz). Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.

  2. Pharmacodynamics and Systems Pharmacology Approaches to Repurposing Drugs in the Wake of Global Health Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jane P F

    2016-10-01

    There are emergent needs for cost-effective treatment worldwide, for which repurposing to develop a drug with existing marketing approval of disease(s) for new disease(s) is a valid option. Although strategic mining of electronic health records has produced real-world evidences to inform drug repurposing, using omics data (drug and disease), knowledge base of protein interactions, and database of transcription factors have been explored. Structured integration of all the existing data under the framework of drug repurposing will facilitate decision making. The ability to foresee the need to integrate new data types produced by emergent technologies and to enable data connectivity in the context of human biology and targeted diseases, as well as to use the existing crucial quality data of all approved drugs will catapult the number of drugs being successfully repurposed. However, translational pharmacodynamics databases for modeling information across human biology in the context of host factors are lacking and are critically needed for drug repurposing to improve global public health, especially for the efforts to combat neglected tropic diseases as well as emergent infectious diseases such as Zika or Ebola virus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Oppenheimer the tragic intellect

    CERN Document Server

    Thorpe, Charles

    2008-01-01

    At a time when the Manhattan Project was synonymous with large-scale science, physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-67) represented the new sociocultural power of the American intellectual. Catapulted to fame as director of the Los Alamos atomic weapons laboratory, Oppenheimer occupied a key position in the compact between science and the state that developed out of World War II. By tracing the making-and unmaking-of Oppenheimer's wartime and postwar scientific identity, Charles Thorpe illustrates the struggles over the role of the scientist in relation to nuclear weapons, the state, and culture.  A stylish intellectual biography, Oppenheimer maps out changes in the roles of scientists and intellectuals in twentieth-century America, ultimately revealing transformations in Oppenheimer's persona that coincided with changing attitudes toward science in society.  "This is an outstandingly well-researched book, a pleasure to read and distinguished by the high quality of its observations and judgments. It will b...

  4. Improving competitiveness of small medium Batik printing industry on quality & productivity using value chain benchmarking (Case study SME X, SME Y & SME Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Rizky Hanif; Liquiddanu, Eko; Suletra, I. Wayan

    2018-02-01

    Batik printing is made by way of night printing as well as conventional batik & through the dyeing process like batik making in general. One of the areas that support the batik industry in Karisidenan Surakarta is Kliwonan Village, Masaran District, Sragen. Masaran district is known as one of batik centers originated from batik workers in Laweyan Solo area from Masaran, they considered that it would be more economical to produce batik in their village which is Masaran Sragen because it is impossible to do production from upstream to downstream in Solo. SME X is one of SME batik in Kliwonan Village, Masaran, Sragen which has been able to produce batik printing with sales coverage to national. One of the key SME X in selling its products is by participating in various national & international exhibitions that are able to catapult its name. SME Y & SME Z are also SMEs in Kliwonan Village, Masaran, Sragen producing batik printing. From the observations made there are several problems that must be fixed in SME Y & SME Z. The production process is delayed from schedule, maintenance of used equipment, procedures for batik workmanship, supervision of operators as well as unknown SMEY & SMEZ products are the problems found. The purpose of this research is to improve the primary activity in SME Y & Z value chain on batik prioting product by benchmarking to small & medium scale industries (SME) X which have better competence.

  5. Isolation of a Nav channel blocking polypeptide from Cyanea capillata medusae - a neurotoxin contained in fishing tentacle isorhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Stephan; Wiebring, Annika; Helmholz, Heike; Ruhnau, Christiane; Prange, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Jellyfish are efficient predators which prey on crabs, fish larvae, and small fish. Their venoms consist of various toxins including neurotoxins that paralyse prey organisms immediately. One possible mode of action of neurotoxins is the blockage of voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels. A novel polypeptide with Na(v) channel blocking activity was isolated from the northern Scyphozoa Cyanea capillata (L., 1758). For that purpose, a bioactivity-guided multidimensional liquid chromatographic purification method has been developed. A neurotoxic activity of resulting chromatographic fractions was demonstrated by a bioassay, which based on the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2A. The purification process yielded one fraction containing a single polypeptide with proven activity. The molecular weight of 8.22 kDa was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). Utilising Laser Microdissection and Pressure Catapulting (LMPC) for the separation of different nematocyst types in combination with direct MALDI-ToF MS analysis of the intact capsules, the neurotoxin was found to be present in all types of fishing tentacle isorhizas (A-isorhizas, a-isorhizas, O-isorhizas) of C. capillata medusae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of heavy missiles during severe PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1994-01-01

    For future pressurized water reactors, which should be designed against core melt down accidents, missiles generated inside the containment present a severe problem for its integrity. The masses and geometries of the missiles as well as their velocities may vary to a great extend. Therefore, a reliable proof of the containment integrity is very difficult. To overcome this problem the potential sources of missiles are discussed. In section 5 it is concluded that the generation of heavy missiles must be prevented. Steam explosions must not damage the reactor vessel head. Thus fragments of the head cannot become missiles endangering the containment shell. Furthermore, during a melt-through failure of the reactor vessel under high pressure the resulting forces must not catapult the whole vessel against the containment shell. Only missiles caused by hydrogen explosions might be tolerable, but shielding structures which protect the containment shell might be required. Here further investigations are necessary. Finally, measures are described showing that the generation of heavy missiles can indeed be prevented. In section 6 investigations are explained which will confirm the strength of the reactor vessel head. In section 7 a device is discussed keeping the fragments of a failing reactor vessel at its place. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs

  7. Straight talk with... Tom Inglesby. Interview by Kevin Jiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglesby, Tom

    2013-06-01

    When letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several US senators and media offices in September 2001, just one week after the 9/11 attacks, bioterrorism catapulted to the national stage. Political leaders and public health officials, desperate for guidance on this once-theoretical scenario, turned to experts including Tom Inglesby, then deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, a bioterrorism research and analysis think tank in Baltimore. In the years that followed, Inglesby and his colleagues ran exercises to simulate bioterror incidents, established a peer-reviewed journal on biodefense and advised government agencies on how to reduce the public health impact of biological threats.Today, he continues his work with the think tank, which moved to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) in 2003 (although it stayed headquartered in Baltimore) and which was recently renamed the UPMC Center for Health Security. As director and chief executive officer for the past four years, Inglesby has expanded the center's focus toward preventing public health crises arising from infectious diseases, pandemics and major natural disasters, in addition to biological, chemical and nuclear accidents or threats. Inglesby spoke with Kevin Jiang about how responses to bioterrorism, pandemics and natural disasters aren't all that different.

  8. An On-Line Algorithm for Measuring the Translational and Rotational Velocities of a Table Tennis Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfang; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu; Nakashima, Akira

    This paper proposes an on-line method for estimating both translational and rotational velocities of a table tennis ball by using only a few consecutive frames of image data which are sensed by two high speed cameras. In order to estimate the translational velocity, three-dimensional (3D) position of the ball's center at each instant of camera frame is obtained, where the on-line method of reconstructing the 3D position from the two-dimensional (2D) image data of two cameras is proposed without the pattern matching process. The proposed method of estimating the rotational velocity belongs to the image registration methods, where in order to avoid the pattern matching process too, a rotation model of the ball is used to make an estimated image data from an image data sensed at the previous instant of camera frame and then the estimated image data are compared with the image data sensed at the next instant of camera frame to obtain the most plausible rotational velocity by using the least square and the conjugate gradient method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by some experimental results in the case of a ball rotated by a rotation machine as well as in the case of a flying ball shot from a catapult machine.

  9. Quantifying the physical demands of collision sports: does microsensor technology measure what it claims to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-08-01

    The physical demands of rugby league, rugby union, and American football are significantly increased through the large number of collisions players are required to perform during match play. Because of the labor-intensive nature of coding collisions from video recordings, manufacturers of wearable microsensor (e.g., global positioning system [GPS]) units have refined the technology to automatically detect collisions, with several sport scientists attempting to use these microsensors to quantify the physical demands of collision sports. However, a question remains over the validity of these microtechnology units to quantify the contact demands of collision sports. Indeed, recent evidence has shown significant differences in the number of "impacts" recorded by microtechnology units (GPSports) and the actual number of collisions coded from video. However, a separate study investigated the validity of a different microtechnology unit (minimaxX; Catapult Sports) that included GPS and triaxial accelerometers, and also a gyroscope and magnetometer, to quantify collisions. Collisions detected by the minimaxX unit were compared with video-based coding of the actual events. No significant differences were detected in the number of mild, moderate, and heavy collisions detected via the minimaxX units and those coded from video recordings of the actual event. Furthermore, a strong correlation (r = 0.96, p sports. Until such validation research is completed, sport scientists should be circumspect of the ability of other units to perform similar functions.

  10. Cultivating regenerative medicine innovation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Dominique S; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2010-01-01

    While China has become a significant contributor and prolific publisher in regenerative medicine, its role in the field is not well understood. We analyze how capacity in regenerative medicine was built in China to identify some of its main strengths and challenges. This case study of regenerative medicine in China is primarily based on interviews with experts in China, including researchers, policy makers, clinicians, representatives of firms and regulators. Our analysis shows that diverse groups are active in this field in China. Leading research groups are contributing extensively to international peer-reviewed journals. Strong governmental support and recruitment of highly trained Chinese scientists from abroad has made it possible for China to rapidly build up capacity in regenerative medicine. However, some hospitals in China are offering stem cell therapies with limited scientific evidence supporting their efficacy/safety, and international skepticism of medical research in China presents a challenge to the development of the field. China has been able to catapult itself into the forefront of regenerative medicine but needs to address current regulatory challenges in order to secure its position in this emerging field.

  11. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  12. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakes, Aimée; van der Wiel, Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W. J.; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. Methods We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting. Results Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10−9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi), or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals), or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to −197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi). The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential) energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1) in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum) by compression of the spore and droplets and (2) in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5

  13. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Sakes

    Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in

  14. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  15. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakes, Aimée; van der Wiel, Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W J; van Leeuwen, Johan L; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting. Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi), or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals), or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi). The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential) energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1) in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum) by compression of the spore and droplets and (2) in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in cnidarians, the

  16. Designing Electrostatic Accelerometers for Next Gravity Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Liorzou, Françoise; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Square cuboid electrostatic accelerometers sensor core have been used in various combinations in recent and still flying missions (CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE). ONERA is now in the process of delivering such accelerometers for the GRACE Follow-On mission. The goal is to demonstrate the performance benefits of an interferometry laser ranging method for future low-low satellite to satellite missions. The electrostatic accelerometer becoming thus the system main performance limiter, we propose for future missions a new symmetry which will allow for three ultrasensitive axes instead of two. This implies no performance ground testing, as the now cubic proof-mass will be too heavy, but only free fall tests in catapult mode, taking advantage of the additional microgravity testing time offered by the updated ZARM tower. The updated mission will be in better adequacy with the requirements of a next generation of smaller and drag compensated micro-satellites. In addition to the measurement of the surface forces exerted on the spacecraft by the atmospheric drag and by radiation pressures, the accelerometer will become a major part of the attitude and orbit control system by acting as drag free sensor and by accurately measuring the angular accelerations. ONERA also works on a hybridization of the electrostatic accelerometer with an atomic interferometer to take advantage of the absolute nature of the atomic interferometer acceleration measurement and its great accuracy in the [5-100] mHz bandwidth. After a description of the improvement of the GRACE-FO accelerometer with respect to the still in-orbit previous models and a status of its development, the presentation will describe the new cubic configuration and how its operations and performances can be verified in the Bremen drop tower.

  17. Functional food red yeast rice (RYR) for metabolic syndrome amelioration: a review on pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2016-05-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), the fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus has been an integral part of Oriental food and traditional Chinese medicine, long before the discovery of their medicinal roles. With the identification of bioactive components as polyketide pigments (statins), and unsaturated fatty acids, RYR has gained a nutraceutical status. Hypercholesterolemic effect of this fermented compound has been validated and monacolin K has been recognized as the pivotal component in cholesterol alleviation. Functional similarity with commercial drug lovastatin sans the side effects has catapulted its popularity in other parts of the world as well. Apart from the hypotensive role, ameliorative benefits of RYR as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer and osteogenic agent have emerged, fueling intense research on it. Mechanistic studies have revealed their interaction with functional agents like coenzyme Q10, astaxanthin, vitamin D, folic acid, policosanol, and berberine. On the other hand, concurrence of mycotoxin citrinin and variable content of statin has marred its integration in mainstream medication. In this disputable scenario, evaluation of the scopes and lacunae to overcome seems to contribute to an eminent area of healthcare. Red yeast rice (RYR), the rice-based fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus is a functional food. Its bioactive component monacolin K acts like synthetic drug lovastatin, without the severe side effects of the latter. RYR has been validated to lower cholesterol, control high blood pressure; confer anti-flammation, hypoglycaemic, anticancer and osteogenic properties. However, dose inconsistency and co-occurrence of toxin citrinin hampers its dietary supplementation prospect. Further research might facilitate development of RYR as a nutraceutical.

  18. Aerospace Workforce Development: The Nebraska Proposal; and Native View Connections: A Multi-Consortium Workforce Development Proposal. UNO Aviation Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Russell, Valerie; Vlasek, Karisa; Avery, Shelly; Calamaio, Larry; Carstenson, Larry; Farritor, Shane; deSilva, Shan; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) continues to recognize the necessity of increasing the quantity and quality of highly skilled graduates and faculty involved with NASA. Through NASA Workforce Development funds awarded in 2002, NSGC spearheaded customer- focused workforce training and higher education, industry and community partnerships that are significantly impacting the state s workforce in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) competencies. NSGC proposes to build upon these accomplishments to meet the steadily increasing demand for STEM skills and to safeguard minority representation in these disciplines. A wide range of workforce development activities target NASA s need to establish stronger connections among higher education, industry, and community organizations. Participation in the National Student Satellite Program (NSSP), Community Internship Program, and Nebraska Science and Technology Recruitment Fair will extend the pipeline of employees benefiting NASA as well as Nebraska. The diversity component of this proposal catapults from the exceptional reputation NSGC has built by delivering geospatial science experiences to Nebraska s Native Americans. For 6 years, NSGC has fostered and sustained partnerships with the 2 tribal colleges and 4 reservation school districts in Nebraska to foster aeronautics education and outreach. This program, the Nebraska Native American Outreach Program (NNAOP), has grown to incorporate more than educational institutions and is now a partnership among tribal community leaders, academia, tribal schools, and industry. The content focus has broadened from aeronautics in the school systems to aerospace technology and earth science applications in tribal community decision-making and workforce training on the reservations. To date, participants include faculty and staff at 4 Nebraska tribal schools, 2 tribal colleges, approximately 1,000 Native American youth, and over 1,200 community members

  19. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alba, Elías; Díaz, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen) and PLA (polylactic acid) matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets) were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA) as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack) seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD-PE matrix. PMID

  20. Dopant-induced ignition of helium nanoplasmas—a mechanistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Schomas, Dominik; Mudrich, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Helium (He) nanodroplets irradiated by intense near-infrared laser pulses form a nanoplasma by avalanche-like electron impact ionizations (EIIs) even at lower laser intensities where He is not directly field ionized, provided that the droplets contain a few dopant atoms which provide seed electrons for the EII avalanche. In this theoretical paper on calcium and xenon doped He droplets we elucidate the mechanism which induces ionization avalanches, termed ignition. We find that the partial loss of seed electrons from the activated droplets starkly assists ignition, as the Coulomb barrier for ionization of helium is lowered by the electric field of the dopant cations, and this deshielding of the cation charges enhances their electric field. In addition, the dopant ions assist the acceleration of the seed electrons (slingshot effect) by the laser field, supporting EIIs of He and also causing electron loss by catapulting electrons away. The dopants’ ability to lower the Coulomb barriers at He as well as the slingshot effect decrease with the spatial expansion of the dopant, causing a dependence of the dopants’ ignition capability on the dopant mass. Here, we develop criteria (impact count functions) to assess the ignition capability of dopants, based on (i) the spatial overlap of the seed electron cloud with the He atoms and (ii) the overlap of their kinetic energy distribution with the distribution of Coulomb barrier heights at He. The relatively long time delays between the instants of dopant ionization and ignition (incubation times) for calcium doped droplets are determined to a large extent by the time it takes to deshield the dopant ions.

  1. Electrostatic Positioning System for a free fall test at drop tower Bremen and an overview of tests for the Weak Equivalence Principle in past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Andrea; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is at the basis of General Relativity - the best theory for gravitation today. It has been and still is tested with different methods and accuracies. In this paper an overview of tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle done in the past, developed in the present and planned for the future is given. The best result up to now is derived from the data of torsion balance experiments by Schlamminger et al. (2008). An intuitive test of the WEP consists of the comparison of the accelerations of two free falling test masses of different composition. This has been carried through by Kuroda & Mio (1989, 1990) with the up to date most precise result for this setup. There is still more potential in this method, especially with a longer free fall time and sensors with a higher resolution. Providing a free fall time of 4.74 s (9.3 s using the catapult) the drop tower of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen is a perfect facility for further improvements. In 2001 a free fall experiment with high sensitive SQUID (Superconductive QUantum Interference Device) sensors tested the WEP with an accuracy of 10-7 (Nietzsche, 2001). For optimal conditions one could reach an accuracy of 10-13 with this setup (Vodel et al., 2001). A description of this experiment and its results is given in the next part of this paper. For the free fall of macroscopic test masses it is important to start with precisely defined starting conditions concerning the positions and velocities of the test masses. An Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS) has been developed to this purpose. It is described in the last part of this paper.

  2. The perils of the imitation age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabeau, Eric

    2004-06-01

    Imitation exerts enormous influence over society, and business and finance in particular. And its influence has grown as the avenues by which people imitate--and are imitated--have multiplied and the process has gotten faster. Thousands of communications channels make it possible for virtually anyone in the developed world to know, almost instantaneously, what others do, think, believe, claim, or predict. More significantly, we can and do act upon such knowledge. The resulting fads and fashions, bubbles and crashes are ever more frequent, severe, and complex. The information age has cast up more than its share of paradoxes, including this one: When information is plentiful, we often use it not to make better decisions but to imitate others--and their mistakes. In consumer purchases, financial markets, and corporate strategy, what others do matters more to us than the facts. When there's too much information, imitation becomes a convenient heuristic. This is the basis for a self-referential society. Imitation has its virtues, but it also promotes instability and unpredictability. That's because, by definition a multiplier, it can swell a single opinion into a mass movement or catapult the smallest player to the forefront of a market. Mastering the dynamics of self-reference won't ensure mastery of its consequences. But businesses that understand how imitation works can at least attempt to gird themselves against its worst effects--by accounting for it in their forecasts and risk-management plans, by becoming more sensitive to unexpectedly changing circumstances, and by avoiding mindless imitation of other companies' moves. In some instances, they may even be able to build strategies around self-reference and use the tools of imitation to capture new business. That won't make the world any less confusing. But it may make it more profitable.

  3. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

  4. Using Microsensor Technology to Quantify Match Demands in Collegiate Women's Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlantes, Travis G; Readdy, Tucker

    2017-12-01

    Vlantes, TG and Readdy, T. Using microsensor technology to quantify match demands in collegiate women's volleyball. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3266-3278, 2017-The purpose of this study was to quantify internal and external load demands of women's NCAA Division I collegiate volleyball competitions using microsensor technology and session rating of perceived exertion (S-RPE). Eleven collegiate volleyball players wore microsensor technology (Optimeye S5; Catapult Sports, Chicago, IL, USA) during 15 matches played throughout the 2016 season. Parameters examined include player load (PL), high impact PL, percentage of HI PL, explosive efforts (EEs), and jumps. Session rating of perceived exertion was collected 20 minutes postmatch using a modified Borg scale. The relationship between internal and external load was explored, comparing S-RPE data with the microsensor metrics (PL, HI PL, % HI PL, EEs, and jumps). The setter had the greatest mean PL and highest number of jumps of all positions in a 5-1 system, playing all 6 rotations. Playing 4 sets yielded a mean PL increase of 25.1% over 3 sets, whereas playing 5 sets showed a 31.0% increase in PL. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p < 0.01) across all position groups when examining % HI PL and jumps. Cohen's d analysis revealed large (≥0.8) effect sizes for these differences. Defensive specialists recorded the greatest mean S-RPE values over all 15 matches (886 ± 384.6). Establishing positional load demands allows coaches, trainers, and strength and conditioning professionals to implement training programs for position-specific demands, creating consistent peak performance, and reducing injury risk.

  5. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with two IMUs (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n=10), consisting of seven team handball specific tasks, or field assessment (n=12) conducted in twelve training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufactures software. IMA count was divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5m·s -1 ), medium (2.5-3.5m·s -1 ), high (>3.5m·s -1 ), medium/high (>2.5m·s -1 ), and total (>1.5m·s -1 ). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment : IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV: 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more complex tasks. Field assessment : Total IMA count (CV: 1.8%, SWD: 2.5%), PlayerLoad™ (CV: 0.9 % SWD: 2.1%), and its associated variables (CV: 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA count were good, when data was displayed as total, high or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad™ and associated variables was evident. The CV of the aforementioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye IMU and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  6. A Comparison of Pre-Season and In-Season Practice and Game Loads in NCAA Division I Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Flynn, Patrick J; Siam, Ty K; McLellan, Christopher P

    2017-07-31

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the individual practice and game loads throughout an NCAA division I football season to determine if significant differences exist between the practice loads associated with pre-season training camp and those undertaken during the in-season period. Thirty-one NCAA division I football players were monitored using GPS and IA (MinimaxX S5; Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) during 22 pre-season practices, 36 in-season practices, and 12 competitions. The season was divided into four distinct phases for data analysis: pre-season week 1 (pre-season1), pre-season week 2 (pre-season2), pre-season week 3 (pre-season3), and 12 in-season weeks. Individual IA datasets represented players from every offensive and defensive position group (WR: n=5), (OL: n=4), (RB: n=4), (QB: n=2), (TE: n=3), (DL: n=4), (LB: n=4), (DB: n=5). Data were set at the practice level, where an observation for each player's maximum player load (PLMax) or mean player load (PLMean) from each training camp phase was referenced against each player's respective PL from each game, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday practice session. Notable results included significantly (p<0.05) greater PLMax values attributed to pre-season1 compared to PL resulting from all in-season practices, and significantly (p<0.05) higher cumulative PL reported for pre-season1, 2, and 3 compared to every in-season week. Data from the present study augment our understanding of the practice demands experienced by NCAA division I college football players, and provide scope for the improvement of pre-season practice design and physical conditioning strategies for coaches seeking to optimize performance.

  7. A Comparison of GPS Workload Demands in Match Play and Small-Sided Games by the Positional Role in Youth Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beenham Mathew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The external demands of small-sided games (SSGs according to the positional role are currently unknown. Using a Catapult Minimax X3 5 Hz GPS, with a 100 Hz tri-axial accelerometer, we compared the accumulated tri-axial player workload per min (PLacc·min-1 during friendly youth match play (MP (11 vs. 11 and SSGs (2 vs. 2, 3 vs. 3, and 4 vs. 4. Significant differences existed between all SSGs and MP for PLacc·min-1 (F = 21.91, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.38, and individual X (F = 27.40, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.43, Y (F = 14.50, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.29 and Z (F = 19.28, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.35 axis loads. Across all conditions, mean PLacc·min-1 was greater for midfielders (p = 0.004, CI: 0.68, 4.56 and forwards (p = 0.037, CI: 0.08, 3.97 than central defenders. In all conditions, greater Y axis values existed for wide defenders (p = 0.024, CI: 0.67, 1.38, midfielders (p = 0.006, CI: 0.18, 1.50 and forwards (p = 0.007, CI: 0.17, 0.15 compared to central defenders. Midfielders reported greater Z axis values compared to central defenders (p = 0.002, CI: 0.40, 2.23. We concluded that SSGs elicited greater external loads than MP, and previous studies may have underestimated the demands of SSGs.

  8. Broomstick injuries to the eye; An emerging cause of blindness among children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine U Ukponmwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular trauma among children is responsible for a high incidence of uni-ocular blindness. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of presentation and complications from broomstick eye injury at University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City with a view to proffering solutions on ways to reduce this trend. Materials and Methods: The hospital records of all consecutive patients who suffered ocular trauma from broomstick injury and presented at the eye clinic of the UBTH between 2003 and 2014 were evaluated. Information retrieved from the case records included social demographic characteristics, interval between the occurrence of injury and presentation, mechanism of injury, activity at time of injury, examination findings, treatments and complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS, IBM, Chicago, USA. Results: A total of 20 eyes in 20 patients were seen. They were all children <14 years old. The mean age was 7.10 ± 4.03 (standard deviation years. The male: female ratio was 3:1. Twelve children (60% sustained trauma from broomstick shot as a missile with a rubber band and/or catapult sling by other children and siblings while at play. Ten children (50% presented within 24 h of occurrence of the injury. Nineteen (95%, n = 19 of the children were blind at presentation in the affected eye with visual acuity ranging from count finger to no light perception. Ninety percent (90% of the cases were open globe injuries. Only 10% (n = 2 were closed (lamellar injuries. Most of the patients had multiple complications such as corneal laceration (80%, traumatic cataract (40%, endophthalmitis/panophthalmitis (55% and orbital cellulitis (15%. Conclusion: Ocular trauma from broomstick results in devastating, penetrating eye injury with loss of vision. Young male children are vulnerable as targets of dangerous game-play. Primary prevention is important by sensitization of caregivers and children of the risks. There is a need for effective

  9. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Matthias

    2018-03-31

    Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD) are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD) has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development.This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS) Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  10. The Same Story or a Unique Novel? Within-Participant Principle Component Analysis of Training Load Measures in Professional Rugby Union Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Dan; Dalton, Nicholas E; Black, Christopher; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Gray, Michael; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory A B

    2018-03-27

    The study aimed to identify which combination of external and internal training load (TL) metrics capture similar or unique information for individual professional players during skills training in rugby union using principal component analysis (PCA). TL data were collected from twenty-one male professional rugby union players across a competitive season. This included PlayerLoad™, total distance (TD), and individualised high-speed distance (HSD; >61% maximal velocity; all external TL) obtained from a micro-technology device worn by each player (Optimeye X4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) and the session-rating of perceived exertion (sRPE; internal TL). PCA was conducted on each individual to extract the underlying combinations of the four TL measures that best describe the total information (variance) provided by the measures. TL measures with PC "loadings" (PC L ) above 0.7 were deemed to possess well-defined relationships with the extracted PC. The findings show that from the four TL measures, the majority of an individual's TL information (1 st PC: 55 to 70%) during skills training can be explained by either sRPE (PC L : 0.72 to 0.95), TD (PC L : 0.86 to 0.98) or PlayerLoad™ (PC L : 0.71 to 0.98). HSD was the only variable to relate to the 2nd PC (PC L : 0.72 to 1.00), which captured additional TL information (+19 to 28%). Findings suggest practitioners could quantify the TL of rugby union skills training with one of PlayerLoad™, TD, or sRPE plus HSD whilst limiting omitted information of the TL imposed during professional rugby union skills training.

  11. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alba, Elías; Schmeer, Sebastian; Díaz, Francisco

    2018-03-13

    The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen) and PLA (polylactic acid) matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets) were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA) as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack) seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD-PE matrix.

  12. Optimized Trajectories to the Nearest Stars Using Lightweight High-velocity Photon Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael; Kervella, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    New means of interstellar travel are now being considered by various research teams, assuming lightweight spaceships to be accelerated via either laser or solar radiation to a significant fraction of the speed of light (c). We recently showed that gravitational assists can be combined with the stellar photon pressure to decelerate an incoming lightsail from Earth and fling it around a star or bring it to rest. Here, we demonstrate that photogravitational assists are more effective when the star is used as a bumper (I.e., the sail passes “in front of” the star) rather than as a catapult (I.e., the sail passes “behind” or “around” the star). This increases the maximum deceleration at α Cen A and B and reduces the travel time of a nominal graphene-class sail (mass-to-surface ratio 8.6× {10}-4 {{g}} {{{m}}}-2) from 95 to 75 years. The maximum possible velocity reduction upon arrival depends on the required deflection angle from α Cen A to B and therefore on the binary’s orbital phase. Here, we calculate the variation of the minimum travel times from Earth into a bound orbit around Proxima for the next 300 years and then extend our calculations to roughly 22,000 stars within about 300 lt-yr. Although α Cen is the most nearby star system, we find that Sirius A offers the shortest possible travel times into a bound orbit: 69 years assuming 12.5% c can be obtained at departure from the solar system. Sirius A thus offers the opportunity of flyby exploration plus deceleration into a bound orbit of the companion white dwarf after relatively short times of interstellar travel.

  13. Movement Demands and Perceived Wellness Associated With Preseason Training Camp in NCAA Division I College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Flynn, Patrick J; Climstein, Mike; McLellan, Christopher P

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the movement demands of preseason practice in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology and to assess perceived wellness associated with preseason practice to determine whether GPS-derived variables from the preceding day influence perceived wellness the following day. Twenty-nine players were monitored using GPS receivers (Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) during 20 preseason practices. Individual observations (n = 550) were divided into offensive and defensive position groups. Movement variables including low-, medium-, high-intensity, and sprint distance, player load, and acceleration and deceleration distance were assessed. Perceived wellness ratings (n = 469) were examined using a questionnaire which assessed fatigue, soreness, sleep quality, sleep quantity, stress, and mood. A 1-way analysis of variance for positional movement demands and multilevel regressions for wellness measures were used, followed by post hoc testing to evaluate the relational significance between categorical outcomes of perceived wellness scores and movement variables. Results demonstrated significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total, high-intensity, and sprint distance, along with greater acceleration and deceleration distances for the defensive back and wide receiver position groups compared with their respective offensive and defensive counterparts. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in movement variables were demonstrated for individuals who responded more or less favorably on each of the 6 factors of perceived wellness. Data from this study provide novel quantification of the position-specific physical demands and perceived wellness associated with college football preseason practice. Results support the use of position-specific training and individual monitoring of college football players.

  14. Perceived Wellness Associated With Practice And Competition In Ncaa Division I Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Flynn, Patrick J; Siam, Ty K; McLellan, Christopher P

    2017-08-15

    The present study assessed the influence of movement demands resulting from weekly practice sessions and games, on perceived wellness measurements taken post-game (Sunday) and 48 hours pre-game (Thursday) throughout the in-season period in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I football players. Thirty players were monitored using GPS receivers (Catapult Innovations OptimEye S5, Melbourne, Australia) during 12 games and 24 in-season practices. Movement variables included low-intensity distance, medium-intensity distance, high-intensity distance, sprint distance, total distance, player load, and acceleration and deceleration distance. Perceived wellness, including fatigue, soreness, sleep quality and quantity, stress, and mood, was examined using a questionnaire on a 1-5 Likert scale. Multi-level mixed linear regressions determined the differential effects of movement metrics on perceived wellness. Post-hoc tests were conducted to evaluate the pair-wise differentials of movement and significance for wellness ratings. Notable findings included significantly (p<0.05) less player load, low-intensity distance, medium-intensity distance, high-intensity distance, total distance, and acceleration and deceleration distance at all intensities, in those reporting more favorable (4-5) ratings of perceived fatigue and soreness on Sunday. Conversely, individuals reporting more favorable Sunday perceived stress ratings demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher player load, low-intensity and medium-intensity distance, total distance, low-intensity and medium-intensity deceleration distance, and acceleration distance at all intensities than individuals reporting less favorable (1-2) perceived stress ratings. Data from the present study provide a novel investigation of perceived wellness associated with college football practice and competition. Results support the use of wellness questionnaires for monitoring perceived wellness in NCAA division I college

  15. Metal cask RT-5000 for the dry storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyov, A.I.; Kazeev, V.G.; Krayev, V.S.; Shcherbina, A.N.; Churikov, Y.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    Presentation of new-type cask, developed at RFNC-VNIITF, is in the article. The prototype model of the shipping cask was subjected to tests imitating normal shipment conditions (free fall, pressing, and impact) and to tests imitating emergency situation during shipment (a drop from the 9-m height onto a pin is replaced by acceleration of the shipping cask at a guide rail of the rocket-catapult installation (RCI), a 1-m drop onto a pin, heat tests a 30-minutes fire at the temperature of for 8500 C, submergence to the depth of 15 and 200 meters). After each test the hermeticity preservation is examined. Parallel with the real testing, a mathematical simulation of physical processes induced by the corresponding tests was conducted at the RFNC-VNIITF. The required parameters obtained from the tests are used to calibrate the calculation methods. As a result it has been possible to obtain a good agreement between the results of calculations and experiments; this will allow the mathematic simulation to be used wider. The advantage of the RT-5000 metal cask in comparison with metal-concrete analogs are as follows: SFA are placed into the RT-5000 entirely without cutting into two bunches of fuel elements; the expensive hot doom is not required for automatic cutting the SFA and for loading the bunches of fuel elements into intermediate cases; the possibility remains to transport the RT-5000 without reloading SFA after 50-year storage, although this is a problem for the metal-concrete casks.

  16. Resilin and chitinous cuticle form a composite structure for energy storage in jumping by froghopper insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Stephen R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many insects jump by storing and releasing energy in elastic structures within their bodies. This allows them to release large amounts of energy in a very short time to jump at very high speeds. The fastest of the insect jumpers, the froghopper, uses a catapult-like elastic mechanism to achieve their jumping prowess in which energy, generated by the slow contraction of muscles, is released suddenly to power rapid and synchronous movements of the hind legs. How is this energy stored? Results The hind coxae of the froghopper are linked to the hinges of the ipsilateral hind wings by pleural arches, complex bow-shaped internal skeletal structures. They are built of chitinous cuticle and the rubber-like protein, resilin, which fluoresces bright blue when illuminated with ultra-violet light. The ventral and posterior end of this fluorescent region forms the thoracic part of the pivot with a hind coxa. No other structures in the thorax or hind legs show this blue fluorescence and it is not found in larvae which do not jump. Stimulating one trochanteral depressor muscle in a pattern that simulates its normal action, results in a distortion and forward movement of the posterior part of a pleural arch by 40 μm, but in natural jumping, the movement is at least 100 μm. Conclusion Calculations showed that the resilin itself could only store 1% to 2% of the energy required for jumping. The stiffer cuticular parts of the pleural arches could, however, easily meet all the energy storage needs. The composite structure therefore, combines the stiffness of the chitinous cuticle with the elasticity of resilin. Muscle contractions bend the chitinous cuticle with little deformation and therefore, store the energy needed for jumping, while the resilin rapidly returns its stored energy and thus restores the body to its original shape after a jump and allows repeated jumping.

  17. Toward a unified model of substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.; Fukui, K.; Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous models of substorms have been proposed so far, and they are roughly divided into two categories, i.e., the outside-in category that is represented by the near-Earth neutral line (NENL) model and the inside-out category represented by the current disruption model or the ballooning instability model. Controversies have been raised for many years over the validity of those models. However, in recent years we have obtained important clues to solve this long-standing issue by analyzing THEMIS probe data for substorms and pseudo-substorms separately. [Fukui et al., 2017] The key is the plasma pressure in the equatorial region, and it was about 1.3 times higher in substorms, than the pseudo-substorm in the region between X -7 and -8 Re. However, no difference was found beyond X -10 Re. Therefore, the spatial gradient of the plasma pressure in the region of X -7.5 Re must be a necessary condition for the occurrence of substorm. Abrupt earthward flows originated from the catapult current sheet relaxation and subsequent magnetic reconnection at the NENL just prior to the onset is a common signature for both substorm and pseudo-substorm, which seems to be essentially a result of the tearing instability in the magnetotail. [Uchino and Machida, 2015] The subsequent earthward flows must initiate some instability, quite likely the ballooning instability around the flow braking region. Substorms do not occur only with the magnetic reconnection. If there is enough plasma pressure gradient, the system can develop into a substorm. Otherwise, it will end up with a pseudo-substorm. We emphasize that both NENL model and the ballooning instability model are partially correct but incomplete, and the true model of substorm can be constructed by synthesizing multiple models of substorm including at least these two models.

  18. Activity Profiles in International Women's Team Handball Using PlayerLoad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Eirik H; Luteberget, Live S; Spencer, Matt

    2017-08-01

    Team handball matches place diverse physical demands on players, which may result in fatigue and decreased activity levels. However, previous speed-based methods of quantifying player activity may not be sensitive for capturing short-lasting team-handball-specific movements. To examine activity profiles of a women's team handball team and individual player profiles, using inertial measurement units. Match data were obtained from 1 women's national team in 9 international matches (N = 85 individual player samples), using the Catapult OptimEye S5. PlayerLoad/min was used as a measure of intensity in 5- and 10-min periods. Team profiles were presented as relative to the player's match means, and individual profiles were presented as relative to the mean of the 5-min periods with >60% field time. A high initial intensity was observed for team profiles and for players with ≥2 consecutive periods of play. Substantial declines in PlayerLoad/min were observed throughout matches for the team and for players with several consecutive periods of field time. These trends were found for all positional categories. Intensity increased substantially in the final 5 min of the first half for team profiles. Activity levels were substantially lower in the 5 min after a player's most intense period and were partly restored in the subsequent 5-min period. Possible explanations for the observed declines in activity profiles for the team and individual players include fatigue, situational factors, and pacing. However, underlying mechanisms were not accounted for, and these assumptions are therefore based on previous team-sport studies.

  19. Validity of Real-Time Data Generated by a Wearable Microtechnology Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Dan; Whitehead, Sarah; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of global positioning system (GPS) and micro-electrical-mechanical-system (MEMS) data generated in real time through a dedicated receiver. Postsession data acted as the criterion as it is used to plan the volume and intensity of future training and is downloaded directly from the device. Twenty-five professional rugby league players completed 2 training sessions wearing an MEMS device (Catapult S5, firmware version: 5.27). During sessions, real-time data were collected through the manufacturer receiver and dedicated software (Openfield v1.14), which was positioned outdoors at the same location for every session. The GPS variables included total-, low- (0-3 m·s), moderate- (3.1-5 m·s), high- (5.1-7 m·s), and very high-speed (>7.1 m·s) distances. Micro-electrical-mechanical-system data included total session PlayerLoad. When compared to postsession data, mean bias for total-, low-, moderate-, high-, and very high-speed distances were all trivial, with the typical error of the estimate (TEE) small, small, trivial, trivial and small, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients for total-, low-, moderate-, high- and very-high-speed distances were nearly perfect, nearly perfect, perfect, perfect, and nearly perfect, respectively. For PlayerLoad, mean bias was trivial, whereas TEE was moderate and correlation nearly perfect. Practitioners should be confident that when interpreting real-time speed-derived metrics, the data generated in real-time are comparable with those downloaded directly from the device postsession. However, practitioners should refrain from interpreting accelerometer-derived data (i.e., PlayerLoad) or acknowledge the moderate error associated with this real-time measure.

  20. Statistical visualization of the Earth's magnetotail and the implied mechanism of substorm triggering based on superposed-epoch analysis of THEMIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Machida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the physical mechanism responsible for substorm triggering, we performed a superposed-epoch analysis using plasma and magnetic-field data from THEMIS probes. Substorm onset timing was determined based on auroral breakups detected by all-sky imagers at the THEMIS ground-based observatories. We found earthward flows associated with north–south auroral streamers during the substorm growth phase. At around X = −12 Earth radii (RE, the northward magnetic field and its elevation angle decreased markedly approximately 4 min before substorm onset. Moreover, a northward magnetic-field increase associated with pre-onset earthward flows was found at around X = −17 RE. This variation indicates that local dipolarization occurs. Interestingly, in the region earthwards of X = −18 RE, earthward flows in the central plasma sheet (CPS reduced significantly approximately 3 min before substorm onset, which was followed by a weakening of dawn-/duskward plasma-sheet boundary-layer flows (subject to a 1 min time lag. Subsequently, approximately 1 min before substorm onset, earthward flows in the CPS were enhanced again and at the onset, tailward flows started at around X = −20 RE. Following substorm onset, an increase in the northward magnetic field caused by dipolarization was found in the near-Earth region. Synthesizing these results, we confirm our previous results based on GEOTAIL data, which implied that significant variations start earlier than both current disruption and magnetic reconnection, at approximately 4 min before substorm onset roughly halfway between the two regions of interest; i.e. in the catapult current sheet.

  1. Maximum Distance and High-Speed Distance Demands by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Roll, Brad; Peacock, Corey A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the average and maximum distances traveled by National Collegiate Athletic Association division I football athletes during competitive games. Using global positioning system devices (Catapult Sports), total and low-, moderate-, and high-speed distances were quantified by each position. Understanding maximal workloads can enhance conditioning practice periodization protocols. A total of 40 football athletes were included in the analysis. For the data to be included, athletes were required to participate in ≥75% of the offensive or defensive snaps for any given game. There was a total of 286 data downloads from 13 different games for 8 different football positions. Data were calculated and compared by offensive and defensive position to establish the mean, SD, and maximum distances (in meters) traveled during competitive games. A total maximum distance range (Max Range) was established to account for athletes who accumulated in-game total distances greater than the M + 1SD for each position. A percent was also calculated to highlight how often athletes accumulated distance workloads in the Max Range. One-way analysis of variance revealed there was a main effect of football position for all distance variables (p ≤ 0.001). Regardless of position, 12.0-16.7% of the time athletes accumulated in-game total distances in the Max Range. Conditioning and practice periodization protocols for distance should be position specific or individualized to avoid under or over conditioning. In addition, using a Max Range for distance can help ensure athletes are achieving distance workloads that are similar to the demands of a competitive game.

  2. Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, Billy T; Gabbett, Tim J; Johnston, Rich D; Jenkins, David G

    2017-07-01

    Collision frequency during rugby league matches is associated with team success, greater and longer lasting fatigue and increased injury risk. This study researched the sensitivity and specificity of microtechnology to count collision events during rugby league matches. Diagnostic accuracy study. While wearing a microtechnology device (Catapult, S5), eight professional rugby league players were subjected to a total of 380 collision events during matches. Video footage of each match was synchronised with microtechnology data. The occurrence of each collision event was coded in comparison with whether that event was or was not detected by microtechnology. Microtechnology detected 371 true-positive collision events (sensitivity=97.6±1.5%). When low-intensity (<1 PlayerLoad AU), short duration (<1s) events were excluded from the analysis, specificity was 91.7±2.5%, accuracy was 92.7±1.3%, positive likelihood ratio was 11.4×/÷1.4 and the typical error of estimate was 7.8%×/÷1.9 (d=0.29×/÷1.9, small). Microtechnology collisions were strongly and positively correlated with video coded collision events (r=0.96). The ability of microtechnology to detect collision events improved as the intensity and duration of the collision increased. Microtechnology can identify 97.6% of collision events during rugby league match-play. The typical error associated with measuring contact events can be reduced to 7.8%, with accuracy (92.7%) and specificity (91.7%) improving, when low-intensity (<1 PlayerLoad AU) and short duration (<1s) collision reports are excluded. This provides practitioners with a measurement of contact workload during professional rugby league matches. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comparison of GPS Workload Demands in Match Play and Small-Sided Games by the Positional Role in Youth Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenham, Mathew; Barron, David J; Fry, John; Hurst, Howard H; Figueirdo, Antonio; Atkins, Steve

    2017-06-01

    The external demands of small-sided games (SSGs) according to the positional role are currently unknown. Using a Catapult Minimax X3 5 Hz GPS, with a 100 Hz tri-axial accelerometer, we compared the accumulated tri-axial player workload per min (PLacc·min -1 ) during friendly youth match play (MP) (11 vs. 11) and SSGs (2 vs. 2, 3 vs. 3, and 4 vs. 4). Significant differences existed between all SSGs and MP for PLacc·min -1 (F = 21.91, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.38), and individual X (F = 27.40, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.43), Y (F = 14.50, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.29) and Z (F = 19.28, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.35) axis loads. Across all conditions, mean PLacc·min -1 was greater for midfielders ( p = 0.004, CI: 0.68, 4.56) and forwards ( p = 0.037, CI: 0.08, 3.97) than central defenders. In all conditions, greater Y axis values existed for wide defenders ( p = 0.024, CI: 0.67, 1.38), midfielders ( p = 0.006, CI: 0.18, 1.50) and forwards ( p = 0.007, CI: 0.17, 0.15) compared to central defenders. Midfielders reported greater Z axis values compared to central defenders ( p = 0.002, CI: 0.40, 2.23). We concluded that SSGs elicited greater external loads than MP, and previous studies may have underestimated the demands of SSGs.

  4. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías López-Alba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen and PLA (polylactic acid matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD

  5. Quantus

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoest, Tim

    Cold quantum gases and in particular Bose-Einstein condensates represent a new state of matter which gives insights into a broad range of phenomena in fundamental physics as well as it offers prospects for novel quantum sensors. Today's BEC experiments achieve routinely near-zero temperatures at about 100 nK. Microgravity will substantially extend the science of quantum gases towards nowadays inaccessible regimes of lowest temperatures, macroscopic dimensions, and unequalled durations of unperturbed evolution of these distinguished quantum objects. Within the QUANTUS project, a compact, robust and mobile experiment for the creation of a BEC in the ZARM droptower Bremen is realized. All of the experiment is implemented in a standard drop capsule with 60 cm diameter and a total length of 286 cm, therefore 173 cm for the experiment. In this talk, the current status of the experiment at the droptower in Bremen will be presented. The experimental sequence as well as the preparation of the BEC will be described in detail, as well as the dynamics of the condensate in and after release of the magnetic trap. Experimental data will be compared with theoretical simulations. Different mechanisms for the release of the atoms like switch off the trap or transfer to untrapped states will be discussed. In future, the catapult system at the droptower opens new spheres with microgravity times up to 9 seconds and thus magnetic traps in the sub-Hertz regime. New robust techniques in quantum optics and atom cooling are established within this project, which opens new routes for cold quantum gases also in other microgravity platforms like ballistic rockets or space carrier.

  6. Statistical visualization of the Earth's magnetotail and the implied mechanism of substorm triggering based on superposed-epoch analysis of THEMIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.; Nosé, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J. P.

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physical mechanism responsible for substorm triggering, we performed a superposed-epoch analysis using plasma and magnetic-field data from THEMIS probes. Substorm onset timing was determined based on auroral breakups detected by all-sky imagers at the THEMIS ground-based observatories. We found earthward flows associated with north-south auroral streamers during the substorm growth phase. At around X = -12 Earth radii (RE), the northward magnetic field and its elevation angle decreased markedly approximately 4 min before substorm onset. Moreover, a northward magnetic-field increase associated with pre-onset earthward flows was found at around X = -17 RE. This variation indicates that local dipolarization occurs. Interestingly, in the region earthwards of X = -18 RE, earthward flows in the central plasma sheet (CPS) reduced significantly approximately 3 min before substorm onset, which was followed by a weakening of dawn-/duskward plasma-sheet boundary-layer flows (subject to a 1 min time lag). Subsequently, approximately 1 min before substorm onset, earthward flows in the CPS were enhanced again and at the onset, tailward flows started at around X = -20 RE. Following substorm onset, an increase in the northward magnetic field caused by dipolarization was found in the near-Earth region. Synthesizing these results, we confirm our previous results based on GEOTAIL data, which implied that significant variations start earlier than both current disruption and magnetic reconnection, at approximately 4 min before substorm onset roughly halfway between the two regions of interest; i.e. in the catapult current sheet.

  7. HST/COS FUV Spectrophotometry of the Key Binary Solar Twins 16 Cyg A&B: Astrophysical Laboratories for the Future Sun and Older Solar Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward

    2014-10-01

    The fortuitous location of the wide G1.5V/G2.5V binary 16 Cyg A&B as the brightest stars in the Kepler Field is a "game changer," permitting the determination of the stars' fundamental properties from asteroseismolgy analyses. Recent studies returned precise determinations of the stars' basic properties including masses and age (6.8+/-0.4 Gyr), along with the rotation periods. Thus, 16 Cyg A&B are now the oldest solar-mass analogs with reliable ages and physical properties. Only the Sun has better determined physical properties. 16 Cyg A&B now serve as old-age anchors for Rotation-Age-Activity-Irradiance relations (and Gyrochronology studies) for solar-type stars. Extensive Ca II HK spectrophotometry reveals low levels of chromospheric emission are below the lowest values for our Sun. These stars serve as critical test beds for studying solar/stellar dynamos for stars less active than the Sun. These advances have catapulted 16 Cyg A&B into a prominent place in solar/stellar astrophysics for studying the evolution, internal structure, magnetic dynamos, angular momentum loss, and FUV irradiances of old solar-mass stars. Although 16 Cyg has been observed from X-ray - IR, there are no observations in the FUV region where most of the crucial diagnostic chromospheric & transition region emissions occur. We request COS FUV medium resolution (G130M, G160M) spectra (six orbits/star). This permits the important FUV (1150-1750A) line emission strengths, profiles and Doppler shifts to be analyzed and compared with the Sun and other solar-analogs. This program is complemented by Ca II HK, high precision uvby observations, and by proposed Chandra X-ray coronal observations.

  8. Bio-electrosprays: from bio-analytics to a generic tool for the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2011-03-07

    Electrosprays or electrospraying is a process by which an aerosol is generated between two charged electrodes. This aerosol generation methodology has been known for well over a century, and has undergone exploration in aerosol and materials sciences, to many other areas of research and development. In one such exploration, electrosprays were partnered with mass spectrometry for the accurate characterisation of molecules. This technology now widely referred to as electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI MS) significantly contributes to molecular analysis and cancer biology to name a few. In fact these findings were recognised by the Chemistry Nobel Committee in 2002, and have catapulted electrosprays to many areas of research and development. In this review, the author wishes to introduce and discuss another such recent discovery, where electrosprays have been investigated for directly handling living cells and whole organisms. Over the past few years these electrosprays now referred to as "bio-electrosprays" have undergone rigorous developmental studies both in terms of understanding all the associate physical, chemical and biological sciences for completely assessing their effects, if any on the direct handling of living biological materials. Therefore, the review will bring together all the work that has contributed to fully understanding that bio-electrosprays are an inert technology for directly handling living biological materials, while elucidating some unique features they possess over competing technologies. Hence, demonstrating this approach as a flexible methodology for a wide range of applications spanning bio-analytics, diagnostics to the possible creation of synthetic tissues, for repairing and replacing damaged/ageing tissues, to the targeted and controlled delivery of personalised medicine through experimental and/or medical cells and/or genes. Therefore, elucidating the far reaching ramifications bio-electrosprays have to our health sciences

  9. Inductive matrix completion for predicting gene-disease associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Nagarajan; Dhillon, Inderjit S

    2014-06-15

    Most existing methods for predicting causal disease genes rely on specific type of evidence, and are therefore limited in terms of applicability. More often than not, the type of evidence available for diseases varies-for example, we may know linked genes, keywords associated with the disease obtained by mining text, or co-occurrence of disease symptoms in patients. Similarly, the type of evidence available for genes varies-for example, specific microarray probes convey information only for certain sets of genes. In this article, we apply a novel matrix-completion method called Inductive Matrix Completion to the problem of predicting gene-disease associations; it combines multiple types of evidence (features) for diseases and genes to learn latent factors that explain the observed gene-disease associations. We construct features from different biological sources such as microarray expression data and disease-related textual data. A crucial advantage of the method is that it is inductive; it can be applied to diseases not seen at training time, unlike traditional matrix-completion approaches and network-based inference methods that are transductive. Comparison with state-of-the-art methods on diseases from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database shows that the proposed approach is substantially better-it has close to one-in-four chance of recovering a true association in the top 100 predictions, compared to the recently proposed Catapult method (second best) that has bigdata.ices.utexas.edu/project/gene-disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. THROUGH THE EYES OF THE LEARNER: A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF AN URBAN INDIAN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India, being the second most populated country in the world, a sizable school going population is the result of a positive and proactive response to the governmental efforts on basic education. This has catapulted the responsibility of schools and their environs in shaping young impressionable minds due to their sheer number. This study aims at exploring and investigating qualities and characteristics of an urban Indian school through critical post occupancy evaluation of the school environs through the eyes of the children. To initiate this study, a premier school of Nagpur city, exemplifying a typical urban school, was identified for a pilot study. The methodology encompassed interviewing the Principal, observation by the researchers and interaction with students to understand and critically analyze usage pattern by principal users of the school. The design of the tools for user response was devised keeping in mind the age of the students and their ability to communicate spatial experiences. The paper served as a fact-finding mission and in its outcomes led to an identification of the major variables of the spatial environs of schools. It brought to fore an understanding, which the mandatory prerequisites of school infrastructure lack in a humane vision that is so imperative to educational environments. It facilitated in pinpointing the lacunae existing in the National Curriculum Framework, which is a governmental guideline for all schools in India. In conclusion, the article emphasizes the urgency in the necessary ‘humanization’ of the schools to the happiness and contentment of the young who are nurtured within its spaces.

  11. Status of Electrostatic Accelerometer Development for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On Mission (GRACE FO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Eddy; Boulanger, Damien; Christophe, Bruno; Foulon, Bernard; Liorzou, Françoise; Lebat, Vincent; Huynh, Phuong-Anh

    2015-04-01

    The GRACE FO mission, led by the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), is an Earth-orbiting gravity mission, continuation of the GRACE mission, which will produce an accurate model of the Earth's gravity field variation providing global climatic data during five years at least. The mission involves two satellites in a loosely controlled tandem formation, with a micro-wave link measuring the inter-satellites distance variation. Earth's mass distribution non-uniformities cause variations of the inter-satellite distance. This variation is measured to recover gravity, after subtracting the non-gravitational contributors, as the residual drag. ONERA (the French Aerospace Lab) is developing, manufacturing and testing electrostatic accelerometers measuring this residual drag applied on the satellites. The accelerometer is composed of two main parts: the Sensor Unit (including the Sensor Unit Mechanics - SUM - and the Front-End Electronic Unit - FEEU) and the Interface Control Unit - ICU. In the Accelerometer Core, located in the Sensor Unit Mechanics, the proof mass is levitated and maintained at the center of an electrode cage by electrostatic forces. Thus, any drag acceleration applied on the satellite involves a variation on the servo-controlled electrostatic suspension of the mass. The voltage on the electrodes providing this electrostatic force is the measurement output of the accelerometer. The impact of the accelerometer defaults (geometry, electronic and parasitic forces) leads to bias, misalignment and scale factor error, non-linearity and noise. Some of these accelerometer defaults are characterized by tests with micro-gravity pendulum bench on ground and with drops in ZARM catapult. The Critical Design Review was achieved successfully on September 2014. The Engineering Model (EM) was integrated and tested successfully, with ground levitation, drops, Electromagnetic Compatibility and thermal vacuum. The integration of the first Flight Model has begun on December 2014

  12. Tests Results of the Electrostatic Accelerometer Flight Models for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On Mission (GRACE FO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, E.; Boulanger, D.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Lebat, V.; Huynh, P. A.; Liorzou, F.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE FO mission, led by the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), is an Earth-orbiting gravity mission, continuation of the GRACE mission, which will produce an accurate model of the Earth's gravity field variation providing global climatic data during five years at least. The mission involves two satellites in a loosely controlled tandem formation, with a micro-wave link measuring the inter-satellites distance variation. Earth's mass distribution non-uniformities cause variations of the inter-satellite distance. This variation is measured to recover gravity, after subtracting the non-gravitational contributors, as the residual drag. ONERA (the French Aerospace Lab) is developing, manufacturing and testing electrostatic accelerometers measuring this residual drag applied on the satellites. The accelerometer is composed of two main parts: the Sensor Unit (including the Sensor Unit Mechanics - SUM - and the Front-End Electronic Unit - FEEU) and the Interface Control Unit - ICU. In the Accelerometer Core, located in the Sensor Unit Mechanics, the proof mass is levitated and maintained at the center of an electrode cage by electrostatic forces. Thus, any drag acceleration applied on the satellite involves a variation on the servo-controlled electrostatic suspension of the mass. The voltage on the electrodes providing this electrostatic force is the output measurement of the accelerometer. The impact of the accelerometer defaults (geometry, electronic and parasitic forces) leads to bias, misalignment and scale factor error, non-linearity and noise. Some of these accelerometer defaults are characterized by tests with micro-gravity pendulum bench on ground and with drops in ZARM catapult. The Critical Design Review was achieved successfully on September 2014. The Engineering Model (EM) was integrated and tested successfully, with ground levitation, drops, Electromagnetic Compatibility and thermal vacuum. The integration of the two Flight Models was done on July 2015. The

  13. The C1q family of proteins: insights into the emerging non-traditional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane eGhebrehiwet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders—including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh and colleagues showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al., which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. Recent evidence also shows that C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNFα-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the TNF family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral cytokine-like activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.

  14. Validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units for assessing athlete movement demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Kelly, Stephen J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and interunit reliability of 10 Hz (Catapult) and 15 Hz (GPSports) Global Positioning System (GPS) units and investigate the differences between these units as measures of team sport athlete movement demands. A team sport simulation circuit was completed by 8 trained male participants. The movement demands examined included: total distance covered (TD), average peak speed, and the distance covered, time spent, and the number of efforts performed low-speed running (0.00-13.99 km · h(-1)), high-speed running (14.00-19.99 km · h(-1)), and very high-speed running (>20.00 km · h(-1)). The degree of difference between the 10 Hz and the 15 Hz GPS units and validity was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Pearson's correlations were also used for validity assessment. Interunit reliability was established using percentage typical error of measurement (%TEM) and intraclass correlations. The findings revealed that 10 Hz GPS units were a valid (p > 0.05) and reliable (%TEM = 1.3%) measure of TD. In contrast, the 15 Hz GPS units exhibited lower validity for TD and average peak speed. Further, as the speed of movement increased the level of error for the 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units increased (%TEM = 0.8-19.9). The findings from this study suggest that comparisons should not be undertaken between 10 Hz and 15 Hz GPS units. In general, the 10 Hz GPS units measured movement demands with greater validity and interunit reliability than the 15 Hz units, however, both 10 Hz and 15 Hz units provided the improved measures of movement demands in comparison to 1 Hz and 5 Hz GPS units.

  15. Accelerated deflation promotes homogeneous airspace liquid distribution in the edematous lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Nguyen, Tam L; Perlman, Carrie E

    2017-04-01

    Edematous lungs contain regions with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. Liquid is trapped in flooded alveoli by a pressure barrier-higher liquid pressure at the border than in the center of flooded alveoli-that is proportional to surface tension, T Stress is concentrated between aerated and flooded alveoli, to a degree proportional to T Mechanical ventilation, by cyclically increasing T , injuriously exacerbates stress concentrations. Overcoming the pressure barrier to redistribute liquid more homogeneously between alveoli should reduce stress concentration prevalence and ventilation injury. In isolated rat lungs, we test whether accelerated deflation can overcome the pressure barrier and catapult liquid out of flooded alveoli. We generate a local edema model with normal T by microinfusing liquid into surface alveoli. We generate a global edema model with high T by establishing hydrostatic edema, which does not alter T , and then gently ventilating the edematous lungs, which increases T at 15 cmH 2 O transpulmonary pressure by 52%. Thus ventilation of globally edematous lungs increases T , which should increase stress concentrations and, with positive feedback, cause escalating ventilation injury. In the local model, when the pressure barrier is moderate, accelerated deflation causes liquid to escape from flooded alveoli and redistribute more equitably. Flooding heterogeneity tends to decrease. In the global model, accelerated deflation causes liquid escape, but-because of elevated T -the liquid jumps to nearby, aerated alveoli. Flooding heterogeneity is unaltered. In pulmonary edema with normal T , early ventilation with accelerated deflation might reduce the positive feedback mechanism through which ventilation injury increases over time. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We introduce, in the isolated rat lung, a new model of pulmonary edema with elevated surface tension. We first generate hydrostatic edema and then ventilate gently to increase surface tension. We investigate the

  16. Variability of GPS units for measuring distance in team sport movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke J; Aughey, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    To examine the difference in distance measured by two global positioning system (GPS) units of the same model worn by the same player while performing movements common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian football players completed two trials of the straight line movement (10, 20, 40 m) at four speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), two trials of the changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and five trials of a team sport running simulation circuit. To assess inter-unit variability for total and high intensity running (HIR) distance measured in matches, data from eight field players were collected in three Australian Hockey League (AHL) matches during the 2009 season. Each subject wore two GPS devices (MinimaxX v2.5, Catapult, Australia) that collected position data at 5 Hz for each movement and match trial. The percentage difference ±90% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine differences between units. Differences (±90% CI) between the units ranged from 9.9 ± 4.7% to 11.9 ± 19.5% for straight line running movements and from 9.5 ± 7.2% to 10.7 ± 7.9% in the COD courses. Similar results were exhibited in the team sport circuit (11.1 ± 4.2%). Total distance (10.3 ± 6.2%) and HIR distance (10.3 ± 15.6) measured during the match play displayed similar variability. It is recommended that players wear the same GPS unit for each exercise session to reduce measurement error. The level of between-unit measurement error should be considered when comparing results from players wearing different GPS units.

  17. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Griese

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development. This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks.

  18. Break free from the product life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Youngme

    2005-05-01

    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling.

  19. Investigation of a robust tendon-sheath mechanism for flexible membrane wing application in mini-UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shian; Tjahjowidodo, Tegoeh; Lee, Hsuchew; Lai, Benedict

    2017-02-01

    Two inherent issues manifest themselves in flying mini-unmanned aerial vehicles (mini-UAV) in the dense area at tropical climate regions, namely disturbances from gusty winds and limited space for deployment tasks. Flexible membrane wing (FMW) UAVs are seen to be potentials to mitigate these problems. FMWs are adaptable to gusty airflow as the wings are able to flex according to the gust load to reduce the effective angle-of-attack, thus, reducing the aerodynamic loads on the wing. On the other hand, the flexible structure is allowing the UAV to fold in a compact package, and later on, the mini-UAV can be deployed instantly from the storage tube, e.g. through a catapult mechanism. This paper discusses the development of an FMW UAV actuated by a tendon-sheath mechanism (TSM). This approach allows the wing to morph to generate a rolling moment, while still allowing the wing to fold. Dynamic characteristics of the mechanism that exhibits the strong nonlinear phenomenon of friction on TSM are modeled and compensated for. A feed-forward controller was implemented based on the identified nonlinear behavior to control the warping position of the wing. The proposed strategy is validated experimentally in a wind tunnel facility by creating a gusty environment that is imitating a realistic gusty condition based upon the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results demonstrate a stable and robust wing-warping actuation, even in gusty conditions. Accurate wing-warping can be achieved via the TSM, while also allowing the wings to fold.

  20. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT

  1. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Inspiring the Next Generation of Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambara, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    catapults and bridges, egg drop "lunar landers", egg-passenger car crashes, cardboard boat races (with human passengers), and working roller coasters made with only paper and tape. Each project requires minimal, low-cost materials commonly found at home or in local stores. I will share the most common student misperceptions about inquiry and problem-solving I have observed while working alongside my students during these projects.

  3. Two Islands, One Commodity: Cuba, Java, and the Global Sugar Trade (1790-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Curry-Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar had become, by the eighteenth century, a global commodity. Originating in East Asia, plantations in the Americas fed the growing taste for its use in Europe, with its consumption increasingly popularised. The 1791 Revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti and the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade prompted shifts in the epicentres of sugar, the most important of these being arguably to Cuba and Java. These two fertile islands saw the burgeoning development of sugar-plantation systems with major inputs of foreign capital and forced labour. In the process the two islands each, respectively, became central to the very much truncated Spanish and Dutch colonial empires left after the Napoleonic wars and the Latin American wars of liberation; and by the mid-nineteenth century in the case of Cuba, and by the late nineteenth century in the case of Java, they had been catapulted to global sugar pre-eminence. There has been an abundance of study on the two islands each in their own right, but none systematically examines their parallel trajectories. Yet the question arises as to how sugar came to dominate the agriculture, industry and trade of these two islands; and how these two islands in particular, in two different colonial systems and parts of the world, should rise to sugar pre-eminence in the way they did and when they did. Are there connections and similarities between the two that help explain this phenomenon? This article analyses the conditions that led Java and Cuba to become the prime cane-sugar exporters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initiative for this came from the linkages between their dominant elites and the transnational, transimperial networks of trade and capital. This furthered the stimulation of technological and scientific innovation in both, enabled not only through the introduction of the latest advances in machinery and method, but also the immigration of technical skilled workers from Europe and North

  4. Public-Private Collaborations with Earth-Space Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    ; the World Biomimetic Foundation in Spain who is interested in advancing the use of biomimicry to provide technical solutions in many industries; Satellite Application Catapult in London, England who interested in pursuing U.S. collaborations with the Space and Life Sciences Innovation Centre under development in Scotland; and DLR in Cologne, Germany who developed :envihab, a collaborative facility for partners to pursue research and technology projects of mutual interest. The NHHPC has sponsored two global networking forums on innovation by partners Wyle, NASA, and DLR, was featured in the 2013 Humans in Space Symposium Panel on "NHHPC and :envihab - reach out to Future Markets," and is working on an international meeting for Spring 2014 in Cologne with :envihab.

  5. Player Monitoring in Indoor Team Sports: Concurrent Validity of Inertial Measurement Units to Quantify Average and Peak Acceleration Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Mareike; Roecker, Kai; Gehring, Dominic; Mahler, Hubert; Gollhofer, Albert

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA) system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK) during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory ( n = 56). A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF) and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF), Kalman-Filter (KF)] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6%) and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8%) both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6%) regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 - 17.8%). Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that IMU

  6. Liquid jet formation through the interactions of a laser-induced bubble and a gas bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of the liquid jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair are investigated and compared with the jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair. The strobe photography experimental method and numerical simulations are implemented to obtain the parameter space of the optimum liquid jet, i.e. highest speed and lowest diameter. It is found that due to the enhanced “catapult effect”, which is induced by the protrusion of the first bubble into the second bubble and the flip back of the elongated part of the first bubble, the optimum liquid jet of the second bubble of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair compared to that of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair is 54 %, 65 % and 11 % faster in speed, and 4 %, 44 % and 64 % smaller in diameter, for the 500 μm, 50 μm and 5 μm sized bubbles, respectively. The optimum dimensionless distance for the optimum jet of the laser-induced and the gas bubble is around 0.7, when the maximum bubble radius increases from ∼ 5μm to ∼500 μm, which is different from the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pairs. Besides, the optimum jet of the laser-induced bubble appeared when the bubbles are equal sized, while that of the gas bubble is independent of the relative bubble size, i.e. the liquid jet of the gas bubble has higher robustness in real liquid jet assisted applications when the laser-induced bubble size varies. However, the jet of bubble 2 could maintain a high speed (20 m/s - 35 m/s and a low diameter (∼5 % of the maximum bubble diameter over a big range of the dimensionless distance (0.6 - 0.9 for both of the 50 μm and 500 μm sized laser-induced equal sized anti-phase bubble pairs.

  7. Fiabilidad intra-participante de diferentes modelos de dispositivos GPS implementados en un partido de Fútbol 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen Castellano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la fiabilidad intra-participante de tres modelos de GPS (Global Positioning System MinimaxX (Catapult Innovations, Australia, SPI10 y WiSpi (GPSports, Australia que operan a una frecuencia de 5,1 y 1 Hz, respectivamente. Se midieron distancias recorridas a distintas intensidades a 5 jugadores de fútbol (edad, 20,1 ± 1,2 años; altura, 176,3 ± 9,9 cm; peso, 63,5 ± 8,4 kg en un partido de entrenamiento de 33 min, en un campo de fútbol-7 (6 jugadores de campo y 1 portero. La distancia total recorrida (DT media fue de 3.288,8 m para los modelos MinimaxX, 3.050,3 m para el WiSPI y de 3.247,5 m para el SPI10. La velocidad máxima obtenida por cada modelo fue de 30.3 km·h-1 en los dispositivos MinimaxX, y de 25,1 y de 25.2 km·h-1 en los dispositivos WiSPI y SPI10, respectivamente. Se estimó el coeficiente de variación (CV entre los 3 modelos estudiados para la distancia recorrida en cada uno de los 4 niveles de velocidad, así como para la distancia total recorrida, y la velocidad media y máxima, siendo el tamaño de la muestra la principal limitación. En base a los resultados podemos concluir que los diferentes dispositivos presentan una alta fiabilidad para medir la distancia total recorrida y las recorridas en categorías de baja velocidad. Sin embargo la velocidad de los desplazamientos realizados durante el partido condiciona la fiabilidad de los diferentes dispositivos, aumentando la dispersión de las medidas obtenidas (CV a medida que se incrementa la velocidad de carrera; especialmente cuando se supera la velocidad de 13 km·h-1.

  8. Liquid jet formation through the interactions of a laser-induced bubble and a gas bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Liu; Zhao, Xiong-Tao; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2017-10-01

    The mechanisms of the liquid jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair are investigated and compared with the jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair. The strobe photography experimental method and numerical simulations are implemented to obtain the parameter space of the optimum liquid jet, i.e. highest speed and lowest diameter. It is found that due to the enhanced "catapult effect", which is induced by the protrusion of the first bubble into the second bubble and the flip back of the elongated part of the first bubble, the optimum liquid jet of the second bubble of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair compared to that of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair is 54 %, 65 % and 11 % faster in speed, and 4 %, 44 % and 64 % smaller in diameter, for the 500 μm, 50 μm and 5 μm sized bubbles, respectively. The optimum dimensionless distance for the optimum jet of the laser-induced and the gas bubble is around 0.7, when the maximum bubble radius increases from ˜ 5μm to ˜500 μm, which is different from the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pairs. Besides, the optimum jet of the laser-induced bubble appeared when the bubbles are equal sized, while that of the gas bubble is independent of the relative bubble size, i.e. the liquid jet of the gas bubble has higher robustness in real liquid jet assisted applications when the laser-induced bubble size varies. However, the jet of bubble 2 could maintain a high speed (20 m/s - 35 m/s) and a low diameter (˜5 % of the maximum bubble diameter) over a big range of the dimensionless distance (0.6 - 0.9) for both of the 50 μm and 500 μm sized laser-induced equal sized anti-phase bubble pairs.

  9. The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Till, Kevin; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Weakley, Jonathon; Rock, Andrew; Jones, Ben

    2017-07-01

    Repeated physical contact in rugby union is thought to contribute to post-match fatigue; however, no evidence exists on the effect of contact activity during field-based training on fatigue responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of contact during training on fatigue markers in rugby union players. Twenty academy rugby union players participated in the cross-over study. The magnitude of change in upper- and lower-body neuromuscular function (NMF), whole blood creatine kinase concentration [CK] and perception of well-being was assessed pre-training (baseline), immediately and 24 h post-training following contact and non-contact, field-based training. Training load was measured using mean heart rate, session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and microtechnology (Catapult Optimeye S5). The inclusion of contact during field-based training almost certainly increased mean heart rate (9.7; ±3.9%) and sRPE (42; ±29.2%) and resulted in likely and very likely greater decreases in upper-body NMF (-7.3; ±4.7% versus 2.7; ±5.9%) and perception of well-being (-8.0; ±4.8% versus  -3.4; ±2.2%) 24 h post-training, respectively, and almost certainly greater elevations in [CK] (88.2; ±40.7% versus 3.7; ±8%). The exclusion of contact from field-based training almost certainly increased running intensity (19.8; ±5%) and distance (27.5; ±5.3%), resulting in possibly greater decreases in lower-body NMF (-5.6; ±5.2% versus 2.3; ±2.4%). Practitioners should be aware of the different demands and fatigue responses of contact and non-contact, field-based training and can use this information to appropriately schedule such training in the weekly microcycle.

  10. Acceleration of Cherenkov angle reconstruction with the new Intel Xeon/FPGA compute platform for the particle identification in the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC will upgrade its detector by 2018/2019 to a ‘triggerless’ readout scheme, where all the readout electronics and several sub-detector parts will be replaced. The new readout electronics will be able to readout the detector at 40 MHz. This increases the data bandwidth from the detector down to the Event Filter farm to 40 TBit/s, which also has to be processed to select the interesting proton-proton collision for later storage. The architecture of such a computing farm, which can process this amount of data as efficiently as possible, is a challenging task and several compute accelerator technologies are being considered for use inside the new Event Filter farm. In the high performance computing sector more and more FPGA compute accelerators are used to improve the compute performance and reduce the power consumption (e.g. in the Microsoft Catapult project and Bing search engine). Also for the LHCb upgrade the usage of an experimental FPGA accelerated computing platform in the Event Building or in the Event Filter farm is being considered and therefore tested. This platform from Intel hosts a general CPU and a high performance FPGA linked via a high speed link which is for this platform a QPI link. On the FPGA an accelerator is implemented. The used system is a two socket platform from Intel with a Xeon CPU and an FPGA. The FPGA has cache-coherent memory access to the main memory of the server and can collaborate with the CPU. As a first step, a computing intensive algorithm to reconstruct Cherenkov angles for the LHCb RICH particle identification was successfully ported in Verilog to the Intel Xeon/FPGA platform and accelerated by a factor of 35. The same algorithm was ported to the Intel Xeon/FPGA platform with OpenCL. The implementation work and the performance will be compared. Also another FPGA accelerator the Nallatech 385 PCIe accelerator with the same Stratix V FPGA were tested for performance. The results show that the Intel

  11. Pattern of paediatric corneal laceration injuries in the University of port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omobolanle Adio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered. Methods Records of all children between the ages of 1-18 yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient’s Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA, source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician. Results Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes between the ages of 0–18 years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8 years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7 years (SD ± 3.67. Only one presented within 24 hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n = 8, 22.2%. Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n = 4, 11% to no light perception (NLP (n = 5, 13.9%. Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3% carried out within 7 days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3 months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%, 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%. Conclusion Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5 days and who did not have any intraocular

  12. Prosthetic model, but not stiffness or height, affects the metabolic cost of running for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-07-01

    Running-specific prostheses enable athletes with lower limb amputations to run by emulating the spring-like function of biological legs. Current prosthetic stiffness and height recommendations aim to mitigate kinematic asymmetries for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations. However, it is unclear how different prosthetic configurations influence the biomechanics and metabolic cost of running. Consequently, we investigated how prosthetic model, stiffness, and height affect the biomechanics and metabolic cost of running. Ten athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations each performed 15 running trials at 2.5 or 3.0 m/s while we measured ground reaction forces and metabolic rates. Athletes ran using three different prosthetic models with five different stiffness category and height combinations per model. Use of an Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter prosthesis reduced metabolic cost by 4.3 and 3.4% compared with use of Freedom Innovations Catapult [fixed effect (β) = -0.177; P < 0.001] and Össur Flex-Run (β = -0.139; P = 0.002) prostheses, respectively. Neither prosthetic stiffness ( P ≥ 0.180) nor height ( P = 0.062) affected the metabolic cost of running. The metabolic cost of running was related to lower peak (β = 0.649; P = 0.001) and stance average (β = 0.772; P = 0.018) vertical ground reaction forces, prolonged ground contact times (β = -4.349; P = 0.012), and decreased leg stiffness (β = 0.071; P < 0.001) averaged from both legs. Metabolic cost was reduced with more symmetric peak vertical ground reaction forces (β = 0.007; P = 0.003) but was unrelated to stride kinematic symmetry ( P ≥ 0.636). Therefore, prosthetic recommendations based on symmetric stride kinematics do not necessarily minimize the metabolic cost of running. Instead, an optimal prosthetic model, which improves overall biomechanics, minimizes the metabolic cost of running for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The metabolic cost of running for

  13. Nonlinear optical and optoelectronic studies of topological insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, James W.

    Since their experimental discovery in 2008, topological insulators have been catapulted to the forefront of condensed matter physics research owing to their potential to realize both exciting new technologies as well as novel electronic phases that are inaccessible in any other material class. Their exotic properties arise from a rare quantum organization of its electrons called "topological order,'' which evades the conventional broken symmetry based-classification scheme used to categorize nearly every other state of ordered matter. Instead, topologically ordered phases are classified by topological invariants, which characterize the phase of an electron's wavefunction as it moves through momentum space. When a topologically ordered phase is interfaced with an ordinary phase, such as the vacuum, a novel metallic state appears at their shared boundary. In topological insulators, this results in the formation of a two-dimensional metallic state that spans all of its surfaces. The surface state electronic spectrum is characterized by a single linearly dispersing and helically spin-polarized Dirac cone that is robust against disorder. The helical nature of the surface Dirac cone is highly novel because the Dirac electrons carry a net magnetic moment and are capable of transporting 100% spin-polarized electrical currents, which are the long-sought electronic properties needed for many spin-based electronic applications. However, owing to the small bulk band gap and intrinsic electronic doping inherent to these materials, isolating the surface electronic response from the bulk has proven to be a major experimental obstacle. In this thesis, we demonstrate the means by which light can be used to isolate and study the surface electronic response of topological insulators using optoelectronic and nonlinear optical techniques. In chapter 1, we overview the physics of topological order and topological insulators. In chapter 2, we show how polarized light can be used to

  14. Extension for prevention: is it relevant today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, J W; Summitt, J B

    1998-08-01

    Extension for prevention has been an integral part of dentistry for over 100 years. Because this concept advocated the removal of sound tooth structure, it was not totally accepted at the turn of the century. The advent of the gold casting catapulted extension for prevention into general acceptance. In 1883, Webb presented a concept of "prevention of extension of decay". This concept advocated a proximal cavity preparation extending toward the buccal and lingual aspects of the tooth so that contact with adjacent teeth would not be at the margins. The separation of the margins, along with proper restoration contours, was thought to promote natural cleansing of the embrasures with saliva and fluids in the diet. GV Black's 1891 idea of "extension for prevention" was to provide extension of the preparation to the facial and lingual line angles in order to bring about "self-cleansing" margins via food excursion. Black's concept also included extending preparations through fissures to allow cavosurface margins to be on non-fissured enamel. Black integrated the extension of the proximal margins with his concept of an occlusal isthmus for a Class II amalgam preparation one-third the faciolingual width of the occlusal surface. Challenges to this concept of extension for prevention were immediate; and, by the 1950's, narrower, more conservative preparations were seen by a few as being more effective in preserving teeth. Not only occlusal width was reassessed, but the need to routinely extend proximal margins to the buccal and lingual line angles was also questioned. By the mid-1960's and early 1970's a more conservative approach to amalgam preparation was advocated and was being taught in some dental schools. Today, a standardized outline form should not be used or taught as a principle of cavity preparation. In areas where fissure caries has necessitated a preparation extending into dentin, a composite resin or dental amalgam restoration should be placed, and a fissure

  15. Polymerase chain reaction: basic protocol plus troubleshooting and optimization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Todd C

    2012-05-22

    In the biological sciences there have been technological advances that catapult the discipline into golden ages of discovery. For example, the field of microbiology was transformed with the advent of Anton van Leeuwenhoek's microscope, which allowed scientists to visualize prokaryotes for the first time. The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of those innovations that changed the course of molecular science with its impact spanning countless subdisciplines in biology. The theoretical process was outlined by Keppe and coworkers in 1971; however, it was another 14 years until the complete PCR procedure was described and experimentally applied by Kary Mullis while at Cetus Corporation in 1985. Automation and refinement of this technique progressed with the introduction of a thermal stable DNA polymerase from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus, consequently the name Taq DNA polymerase. PCR is a powerful amplification technique that can generate an ample supply of a specific segment of DNA (i.e., an amplicon) from only a small amount of starting material (i.e., DNA template or target sequence). While straightforward and generally trouble-free, there are pitfalls that complicate the reaction producing spurious results. When PCR fails it can lead to many non-specific DNA products of varying sizes that appear as a ladder or smear of bands on agarose gels. Sometimes no products form at all. Another potential problem occurs when mutations are unintentionally introduced in the amplicons, resulting in a heterogeneous population of PCR products. PCR failures can become frustrating unless patience and careful troubleshooting are employed to sort out and solve the problem(s). This protocol outlines the basic principles of PCR, provides a methodology that will result in amplification of most target sequences, and presents strategies for optimizing a reaction. By following this PCR guide, students should be able to: • Set up reactions and thermal cycling

  16. Electrostatic Accelerometer for the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On Mission (GRACE FO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Eddy; Boulanger, Damien; Christophe, Bruno; Foulon, Bernard; Liorzou, Françoise; Lebat, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    micro-gravity pendulum bench and with drops in ZARM catapult. The post-processing needed to achieve the performance, in particular with regards to the temperature stability, will be explained.

  17. SOME REASONS OF DISPLACES OF THE NOMADIC TRIBES IN EURASIA AND EXAMPLE OF THE BLACK DEATH IN CAFFA, 1346

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then

  18. Fluid fragmentation shapes rain-induced foliar disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, T; Bourouiba, L

    2015-03-06

    Plant diseases represent a growing threat to the global food supply. The factors contributing to pathogen transmission from plant to plant remain poorly understood. Statistical correlations between rainfalls and plant disease outbreaks were reported; however, the detailed mechanisms linking the two were relegated to a black box. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we focus on the impact dynamics of raindrops on infected leaves, one drop at a time. We find that the deposition range of most of the pathogen-bearing droplets is constrained by a hydrodynamical condition and we quantify the effect of leaf size and compliance on such constraint. Moreover, we identify and characterize two dominant fluid fragmentation scenarios as responsible for the dispersal of most pathogen-bearing droplets emitted from infected leaves: (i) the crescent-moon ejection is driven by the direct interaction between the impacting raindrop and the contaminated sessile drop and (ii) the inertial detachment is driven by the motion imparted to the leaf by the raindrop, leading to catapult-like droplet ejections. We find that at first, decreasing leaf size or increasing compliance reduces the range of pathogen-bearing droplets and the subsequent epidemic onset efficiency. However, this conclusion only applies for the crescent moon ejection. Above a certain compliance threshold a more effective mechanism of contaminated fluid ejection, the inertial detachment, emerges. This compliance threshold is determined by the ratio between the leaf velocity and the characteristic velocity of fluid fragmentation. The inertial detachment mechanism enhances the range of deposition of the larger contaminated droplets and suggests a change in epidemic onset pattern and a more efficient potential of infection of neighbouring plants. Dimensionless parameters and scaling laws are provided to rationalize our observations. Our results link for the first time the mechanical properties of foliage with the

  19. Player Monitoring in Indoor Team Sports: Concurrent Validity of Inertial Measurement Units to Quantify Average and Peak Acceleration Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that

  20. Estado social de derecho o estado de opinión: dilema sin resolver en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José Cadrazco Salcedo

    2010-01-01

    catapult or a ruleror government at a particular status.Key Words:Social State of Law, State of Opinion, Government, Democracy, Constitution, Population, Surveys, Media,Social Rights.

  1. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. II. Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Rhamphini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    We describe the kinematics and performance of the natural jump in the weevil Orchestes fagi (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its jumping apparatus with underlying anatomy and functional morphology. In weevils, jumping is performed by the hind legs and involves the extension of the hind tibia. The principal structural elements of the jumping apparatus are (1) the femoro-tibial joint, (2) the metafemoral extensor tendon, (3) the extensor ligament, (4) the flexor ligament, (5) the tibial flexor sclerite and (6) the extensor and flexor muscles. The kinematic parameters of the jump (from minimum to maximum) are 530-1965 m s -2 (acceleration), 0.7-2.0 m s -1 (velocity), 1.5-3.0 ms (time to take-off), 0.3-4.4 μJ (kinetic energy) and 54-200 (g-force). The specific joint power as calculated for the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement is 0.97 W g -1 . The full extension of the hind tibia during the jump was reached within up to 1.8-2.5 ms. The kinematic parameters, the specific joint power and the time for the full extension of the hind tibia suggest that the jump is performed via a catapult mechanism with an input of elastic strain energy. A resilin-bearing elastic extensor ligament that connects the extensor tendon and the tibial base is considered to be the structure that accumulates the elastic strain energy for the jump. According to our functional model, the extensor ligament is loaded by the contraction of the extensor muscle, while the co-contraction of the antagonistic extensor and flexor muscles prevents the early extension of the tibia. This is attributable to the leverage factors of the femoro-tibial joint providing a mechanical advantage for the flexor muscles over the extensor muscles in the fully flexed position. The release of the accumulated energy is performed by the rapid relaxation of the flexor muscles resulting in the fast extension of the hind tibia propelling the body into air. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. El espejismo nacional-socialista. La relación entre dos catedráticos de Prehistoria, Oswald Menghin y Julio Martínez Santa-Olalla (1935-1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mederos Martín, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oswald Menghin, Professor of Prehistoric Man at the University of Vienna from 1922-45, supported the unity of Austria with Germany, and a sympathizer about the NSDAP ideas on the need to avoid racial mixing between Aryans and Jews. During his time as Professor at the University of Fouad in Cairo from 1930-33 he came into contact with Hermann Junker. This radicalized Menghin’s views and, as a result, he wrote his book, Spirit and Blood. The Basic Principles of Race, Language, Culture and Nation. His time as Rector of the University of Viena from 1936 to 1937 catapulted him into politics: he was a board member of the Austrian fascist party, Vaterländische Front from 1936 to 1937 and was appointed Minister of Education between March and May 1938, just after Hitler’s invasion of Austria. As Minister, he applied for membership in the NSDAP, but because his prior membership in secret Catholic organizations, it was not accepted until June 1940. Menghin was in contact with Martinez Santa-Olalla, after the celebration of the Jubilee of the Institute for Cultural Morphology at Frankfurt in June and July 1938. After Almagro Basch’s research period in Germany and Austria in January and February 1942 and his own visit to Barcelona in June 1942, however, Menghin chose to distance from Martinez Santa-Olalla, not visiting Madrid, cutting the epistolary relationship and reporting negatively about him to the SS-Ahnenerbe. After being imprisoned in two American concentration camps between May 1945 and February 1947, Menghin fled to Argentina in 1948, followed shortly afterwards by his wife and daughter. In Argentina Menghin was supported by Jose Imbelloni, director of the Ethnographic Museum at the University of Buenos Aires since 1947, who hired him as a researcher without teaching. He also received support from Martinez Santa-Olalla through the Spanish Ambassador, Jose Maria de Areilza, and from the Professor of History at the University of Buenos Aires

  3. Effects of acceleration level on lumbar spine injuries in military populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Baisden, Jamie L; Pintar, Frank A; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S

    2015-06-01

    belonging to helicopter crash-type loadings. Peak axial forces for all specimens ranged from 4.8 to 7.2 kN. Ejection-type loaded specimens sustained single-level injuries to the L1 vertebra; one injury was stable and the other was unstable. Helicopter crash-type loaded specimens sustained injuries at inferior levels, including bilateral facet dislocation at L4-L5 and L2-L4 compression fractures, and all specimens were considered unstable at least at one spinal level. These findings suggest that the severity of spinal injuries increase with increasing acceleration levels and, more importantly, injuries shift inferiorly from the thoracolumbar junction to lower lumbar levels. Acknowledging that the geometry and load carrying capacity of vertebral bodies increase in the lower lumbar spine, involvement of inferior levels in trauma sparing the superior segments at greater acceleration inputs agree with military literature of caudal shift in injured levels. The present study offers an experimental explanation for the clinically observed caudal migration of spinal trauma in military populations as applied to high-speed aircraft ejection catapult and helicopter crashes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Experimental application of pulsed Ho:YAG laser-induced liquid jet as a novel rigid neuroendoscopic dissection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Hirano, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Tokitada; Menezes, Viren; Jokura, Hidefumi; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Sato, Yasuhiko; Saito, Tsutomu; Shirane, Reizo; Tominaga, Teiji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Although water jet technology has been considered as a feasible neuroendoscopic dissection methodology because of its ability to perform selective tissue dissection without thermal damage, problems associated with continuous use of water and the ensuing fountain-effect-with catapulting of the tissue-could make water jets unsuitable for endoscopic use, in terms of safety and ease of handling. Therefore, the authors experimented with minimization of water usage during the application of a pulsed holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser-induced liquid jet (LILJ), while assuring the dissection quality and the controllability of a conventional water jet dissection device. We have developed the LILJ generator for use as a rigid neuroendoscope, discerned its mechanical behavior, and evaluated its dissection ability using the cadaveric rabbit ventricular wall. The LILJ generator is incorporated into the tip of a stainless steel tube (length: 22 cm; internal diameter: 1.0 mm; external diameter: 1.4 mm), so that the device can be inserted into a commercial, rigid neuroendoscope. Briefly, the LILJ is generated by irradiating an internally supplied water column within the stainless steel tube using the pulsed Ho:YAG laser (wave length: 2.1 microm, pulse duration time: 350 microseconds) and is then ejected through the metal nozzle (internal diameter: 100 microm). The Ho:YAG laser pulse energy is conveyed through optical quartz fiber (core diameter: 400 microm), while cold water (5 degrees C) is internally supplied at a rate of 40 ml/hour. The relationship between laser energy (range: 40-433 mJ/pulse), standoff distance (defined as the distance between the tip of the optical fiber and the nozzle end; range: 10-30 mm), and the velocity, shape, pressure, and average volume of the ejected jet were analyzed by means of high-speed camera, PVDF needle hydrophone, and digital scale. The quality of the dissection plane, the preservation of blood vessels, and the penetration depth

  5. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    above mentioned process, the thick clouds surrounding Earth-Moon were causing heavy storms and on the outer surface of the rolling Moon, wherever small cavities - or pockets - existed, these would fill up with water. Then, due to the Moon's changing tilt, these pockets were sealed by sediments and as a result, small water tanks are scattered on the successive layers of the Moon, from its centre to its surface. . As this sphere (the Moon) continued to grow, the Earth-Moon system was displaying a double-planet image. The Moon's reverse rolling velocity increased according to the increase of its mass and volume. As the temperature on the surface of the Earth continued to fall, a larger number of bigger sized solid masses were descending from the poles towards the equator, and the Moon could no longer aggregate them. The gathering and interference of solid rocks of great mass acted as the catapult on which the Moon bounced off the Earth and was put into orbit around it.

  6. Reliability of Triaxial Accelerometry for Measuring Load in Men's Collegiate Ice Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, Erik H; Fitzgerald, John S; Dietz, Calvin C; Snyder, Eric M; Peterson, Ben J

    2017-05-01

    Van Iterson, EH, Fitzgerald, JS, Dietz, CC, Snyder, EM, and Peterson, BJ. Reliability of triaxial accelerometry for measuring load in men's collegiate ice hockey. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1305-1312, 2017-Wearable microsensor technology incorporating triaxial accelerometry is used to quantify an index of mechanical stress associated with sport-specific movements termed PlayerLoad. The test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad in the environmental setting of ice hockey is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad in ice hockey players during performance of tasks simulating game conditions. Division I collegiate male ice hockey players (N = 8) wore Catapult Optimeye S5 monitors during repeat performance of 9 ice hockey tasks simulating game conditions. Ordered ice hockey tasks during repeated bouts included acceleration (forward or backward), 60% top-speed, top-speed (forward or backward), repeated shift circuit, ice coasting, slap shot, and bench sitting. Coefficient of variation (CV), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and minimum difference (MD) were used to assess PlayerLoad reliability. Test-retest CVs and ICCs of PlayerLoad were as follows: 8.6% and 0.54 for forward acceleration, 13.8% and 0.78 for backward acceleration, 2.2% and 0.96 for 60% top-speed, 7.5% and 0.79 for forward top-speed, 2.8% and 0.96 for backward top-speed, 26.6% and 0.95 for repeated shift test, 3.9% and 0.68 for slap shot, 3.7% and 0.98 for coasting, and 4.1% and 0.98 for bench sitting, respectively. Raw differences between bouts were not significant for ice hockey tasks (p > 0.05). For each task, between-bout raw differences were lower vs. MD: 0.06 vs. 0.35 (forward acceleration), 0.07 vs. 0.36 (backward acceleration), 0.00 vs. 0.06 (60% top-speed), 0.03 vs. 0.20 (forward top-speed), 0.02 vs. 0.09 (backward top-speed), 0.18 vs. 0.64 (repeated shift test), 0.02 vs. 0.10 (slap shot), 0.00 vs. 0.10 (coasting), and 0.01 vs. 0

  7. Astronomers Trace Microquasar's Path Back in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Astronomers have traced the orbit through our Milky Way Galaxy of a voracious neutron star and a companion star it is cannibalizing, and conclude that the pair joined more than 30 million years ago and probably were catapulted out of a cluster of stars far from the Galaxy's center. Path of Microquasar and Sun Path of Microquasar (red) and Sun (yellow) through the Milky Way Galaxy for the past 230 million years. Animations: GIF Version MPEG Version CREDIT: Mirabel & Rodrigues, NRAO/AUI/NSF The pair of stars, called Scorpius X-1, form a "microquasar," in which material sucked from the "normal" star forms a rapidly-rotating disk around the superdense neutron star. The disk becomes so hot it emits X-rays, and also spits out "jets" of subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light. Using precise positional data from the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and from optical telescopes, Felix Mirabel, an astrophysicist at the Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics of Argentina and French Atomic Energy Commission, and Irapuan Rodrigues, also of the French Atomic Energy Commission, calculated that Scorpius X-1 is not orbiting the Milky Way's center in step with most other stars, but instead follows an eccentric path far above and below the Galaxy's plane. Scorpius X-1, discovered with a rocket-borne X-ray telescope in 1962, is about 9,000 light-years from Earth. It is the brightest continuous source of X-rays beyond the Solar System. The 1962 discovery and associated work earned a share of the 2002 Nobel Prize in physics for Riccardo Giacconi. Mirabel and Rodrigues used a number of published observations to calculate the path of Scorpius X-1 over the past few million years. "This is the most accurate determination we have made of the path of an X-ray binary," said Mirabel. By tracing the object's path backward in time, the scientists were able to conclude that the neutron star and its companion have been traveling together for more than 30

  8. Research Frontiers and Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahron, H.

    2018-02-01

    Researchers and academics do research to address the current and future needs of the nation. They have to be alert and sensitive to demands of their surrounding that can be largely be classed into the community, industry and government to complete the quadruple helix that intertwines the three into the fourth segment i.e. the academia. The current buzzwords that ought to catch the attention of academia are Translational Research, Niche Area, Sustainable Development Growth (SDG), Internet of Things (IoT), 4th Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0), Big Data, Transformasi Nasional 2050 (TN50) and Bottom 40% (B40). UiTM’s niche areas that have been declared to KPT are (a) Sustainable Technology and Economy, and (b) Social Engineering and Creative Media. These are very much in line with 17 Sustainable Development Goals declared by the United Nation in 2012 with the goal of integrating planetary stability with the target of fighting poverty and securing human wellbeing. Internet of Things that swarms the globe brings about the seamless integration of physical objects with information network through internet connectivity. This flourishing development hails the advent of 4th Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0) that is inevitable where industrial automation and data exchange in the manufacturing technology rapidly includes cyber-physical system through IoT, cloud computing and cognitive computing. IR 4.0 should catapult productivity into hyper-drive to meet the needs of global consumers. The tremendous growth of cyber activities that encompass all aspects of life presents the inevitable progression into the dimension of Big Data. It is a new data ecosystem that is very large and complex, rendering the traditional data processing software inadequate and obsolete. A new breed of ICT experts are required to handle the enormousness of the task of capturing, storing, analyzing, searching, sharing, transferring, visualizing, updating and most importantly, information privacy. Closer to

  9. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity. What injury can occur to a rock climber hanging by a crimp hold? 12-1 What Is Physics? 12-2 Equilibrium. 12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium. 12-4 The Center of Gravity. 12-5 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium. 12-6 Indeterminate Structures. 12-7 Elasticity. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 13 Gravitation. What lies at the center of our Milky Way galaxy? 13-1 What Is Physics? 13-2 Newton's Law of Gravitation. 13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition. 13-4 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface. 13-5 Gravitation Inside Earth. 13-6 Gravitational Potential Energy. 13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's Laws. 13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Energy. 13-9 Einstein and Gravitation. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 14 Fluids. What causes ground effect in race car driving? 14-1 What Is Physics? 14-2 What Is a Fluid? 14-3 Density and Pressure. 14-4 Fluids at Rest. 14-5 Measuring Pressure. 14-6 Pascal's Principle. 14-7 Archimedes' Principle. 14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion. 14-9 The Equation of Continuity. 14-10 Bernoulli's Equation. Review & SummaryQuestionsProblems. Chapter 15 Oscillations. What is the "secret" of a skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 16 Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition

  11. Methods of Mathematical and Computational Physics for Industry, Science, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Roderick V. N.; Voss, Frands

    2006-11-01

    Many industrial problems provide scientists with important and challenging problems that need to be solved today rather than tomorrow. The key role of mathematical physics, modelling, and computational methodologies in addressing such problems continues to increase. Science has never been exogenous to applied research. Gigantic ships and steam engines, repeating catapult of Dionysius and the Antikythera `computer' invented around 80BC are just a few examples demonstrating a profound link between theoretical and applied science in the ancient world. Nowadays, many industrial problems are typically approached by groups of researchers who are working as a team bringing their expertise to the success of the entire enterprise. Since the late 1960s several groups of European mathematicians and scientists have started organizing regular meetings, seeking new challenges from industry and contributing to the solution of important industrial problems. In particular, this often took the format of week-long workshops originally initiated by the Oxford Study Groups with Industry in 1968. Such workshops are now held in many European countries (typically under the auspices of the European Study Groups with Industry - ESGI), as well as in Australia, Canada, the United States, and other countries around the world. Problems given by industrial partners are sometimes very difficult to complete within a week. However, during a week of brainstorming activities these problems inevitably stimulate developing fruitful new ideas, new approaches, and new collaborations. At the same time, there are cases where as soon as the problem is formulated mathematically, it is relatively easy to solve. Hence, putting the industrial problem into a mathematical framework, based on physical laws, often provides a key element to the success. In addition to this important first step, the value in such cases is the real, practical applicability of the results obtained for an industrial partner who presents

  12. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steve

    2008-11-01

    The Polish physicist Józio (Joseph, Josh, Jo) Rotblat was catapulted into the public eye when he (and the 'Pugwash Conferences' organization) received the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. His life prior to that had been most distinguished but conducted well out of the public eye. Born and raised as a Jewish physicist in pre-World War II Poland, and thus potentially educationally disadvantaged, he battled away for education and scientific achievement. He came to Liverpool University just before the outbreak of World War II, worked in James Chadwick's laboratory on the early beginnings of neutron fission physics, moved to Los Alamos to take part in the US-UK collaborative Manhattan Project to build a nuclear bomb and was motivated by a desire to rid Poland of Nazi 'racial cleansing'. On realizing the US-UK goal was somewhat wider, he resigned this work and dedicated his life to the peaceful uses of radiation and the campaigns to rid the world of the potential world-eliminating possibility of nuclear war. For this purpose he interacted with Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell, and in July 1957 founded the 'Pugwash Conferences', named for a small fishing village in Nova Scotia, Canada where the first was held. Along the way his personal life was no less dramatic. Cruel events conspired, and his wife Tola remained in Poland and was killed in the Nazi extermination camp at Majdanek. He grieved for his beloved Poland and those left behind or unaccounted for. He was suspected by some Americans of being a spy and had his personal papers and family artefacts impounded. After the war he was Professor of Medical Physics at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London for 30 years up to retirement. After John Roberts, he was the second editor of this journal Physics in Medicine and Biology from 1961-72 (see e.g. Bob Burns' paper in our 50th birthday issue, 2006. Kit Hill's little book which chronicles the life and times of Rotblat weaves together the key events in his personal and professional

  13. Pinning Down Properties of TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    TRAPPIST-1, a nearby ultracool dwarf star, was catapulted into the public eye roughly a year ago when it was determined to host seven transiting, Earth-sized planets three of which are located in its habitable zone. But how correct are the properties weve measured for this system?TRAPPIST-1 is a very small, dim star its only 11% the diameter of the Sun which makes it easier for us to learn about its planets from transit data. [ESO]Intrigue of TRAPPIST-1One reason the TRAPPIST-1 system is of particular interest to scientists is that its small star (roughly the size of Jupiter) means that the system has a very favorable planet-to-star ratio. This makes it possible to learn a great deal about the properties of the planets using current and next-generation telescopes.The observations we expect to be able to make of TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets of the planet atmospheres, surface conditions, and internal compositions, for example will allow us to test planet formation and evolution theories and assess the prospects of habitability for Earth-sized planets orbiting cool M dwarfs.Why Stellar Measurements MatterThe parallax motion of TRAPPIST-1 in dec (top) and R.A. (bottom) as a function of day. Observations were made between 2013 and 2016 and then folded over a year. [Van Grootel et al. 2018]In order to make these measurements, however, we first need very precise measurements of the host stars parameters. This is because transiting exoplanet parameters are generally determined relative to those of the host. A few examples:Determining how much irradiation a planet receives requires knowing the luminosity of the host star and planets orbit size. The latter is calculated based on the host stars mass.Determining the planets radius requires knowing the host stars radius, as the planets transit depth tells us only the star-to-planet radius ratio.Determining whether or not the planet is able to retain an atmosphere and therefore whether it has exhibited long-term habitability requires

  14. RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF 10 HZ GPS DEVICES FOR SHORT-DISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen Castellano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of GPS technology for training and research purposes requires a study of the reliability, validity and accuracy of the data generated (Petersen et al., 2009. To date, studies have focused on devices with a logging rate of 1 Hz and 5 Hz (Coutts and Duffield, 2010; Duffield et al., 2010; Jennings et al., 2010; MacLeod et al., 2009; Petersen et al., 2009; Portas et al., 2010, although it seems that more frequent sampling can increase the accuracy of the information provided by these devices (Jennings et al., 2010; MacLeod et al., 2009, Portas et al., 2010. However, we are unaware of any study of the reliability and accuracy of GPS devices using a sampling frequency of 10 Hz. Thus, the aim of the present research was to determine the reliability and accuracy of GPS devices operating at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz, in relation here to sprints of 15 m and 30 m and using both video and photoelectric cells.Nine trained male athletes participated in the study. Each participant completed 7 and 6 linear runs of 15 m and 30 m, respectively (n = 117, with only one GPS device being used per participant. Each repetition required them to complete the route as quickly as possible, with 1 min recovery between sets. Distance was monitored through the use of GPS devices (MinimaxX v4.0, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia operating at the above mentioned sampling frequency of 10 Hz. In addition, all tests were filmed with a video camera operating at a sampling frequency of 25 frames. Data were collected during what were considered to be good GPS conditions in terms of the weather and satellite conditions (number of satellites = 10.0 ± 0.2 and 10.3 ± 0.4 for sprints of 15 m and 30 m, respectively.Distance was measured using a tape measure. Electronic timing gates (TAG- Heuer, CP 520 Training model, Switzerland were used to obtain a criterion sprint time accurate to 0.01 s, with gates being placed at the beginning and end of the route (Petersen et

  15. La réservation de sièges dans les corps élus en Inde Reservation of Seats in Elected Bodies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Annoussamy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La Constitution de 1950 a prévu la réservation des sièges à la chambre basse fédérale et dans les assemblées législatives des Etats fédérés en faveur des castes répertoriées (anciens intouchables et des tribus répertoriées, proportionnellement à leur effectif dans la population totale. Ce procédé a eu pour effet d'éveiller et de développer la conscience politique de ces catégories qui ont maintenant des partis politiques à eux. Cependant la réservation qui avait été conçue comme une mesure provisoire devant durer 10 ans a été renouvelée tous les 10 ans, aucun parti politique n'osant s'y opposer de peur de perdre les voix de ces catégories de population.Cette réservation a été étendue aux sièges des conseils municipaux et aux postes de maires par une révision constitutionnelle de 1992. Mais son application a  soulevé des protestations sur le terrain, les gens de caste élevée ne voulant pas accepter comme maire un ancien intouchable.La même révision a réservé aux femmes 1/3 de postes de maires et de sièges dans les conseils municipaux. Pour l'instant les élues sont des prête-noms pour leur mari, père ou frère. Cela ne tire pas à conséquence dans les conseils mais les femmes sans aucune idée de l'administration catapultées au rôle de maire éprouvent des difficultés.Un projet de révision constitutionnelle  accordant la même réservation aux femmes à la chambre basse fédérale et dans les assemblées des Etats, élaborée en 1996 sur la recommandation  de Nations unies n'arrive pas à recueillir l'adhésion des partis politiques dominés par les hommes.The Constitution of India which came into force in 1950 provides for the reservation of seats in the lower house of the Union and the legislative assemblies of States in favour of Scheduled castes (ex -intouchables and Scheduled tribes proportionately to their number in the total population. That measure had the effect of arousing and

  16. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    underneath me; I really wanted to be catapulted into a different culture. Going to teach in Zimbabwe just meant fulfilling an awful lot of things in one go really - teaching science as well as going to live in a completely different place and being the only white person for 60 miles. But I didn't want to teach in a school forever. With something like science communication, and the joy of working on this exhibition at @Bristol for example, I've been able to try to appeal to all ages and kinds of people. And I've also been able to use different media, such as hands-on exhibits or computers, give talks or run events. What do you think the role of the exhibition is? We're much more interested in getting people excited, motivated and inspired by science and natural history rather than just trying to get across facts. We also think it's important to enable people to feel more confident about their own science and feel they can have a view about science issues. Do you have a wide range of visitors from primary school children to adults? Absolutely. I think a lot of people see hands-on science centres as being places for kids and we really wanted to make sure that teenagers, adults and senior citizens would see it as a place that was appropriate for them. So we actually split the exhibition up into four different areas in order to appeal to different age groups in different ways. For instance our area on the brain and body is more appropriate for teenagers, adults and senior citizens; small children will still find fun things to do, but there are other areas that are much more engaging for them. Whereas for adults finding out about themselves, finding out what they react to emotionally, finding out more about sex and reproduction, is something that they have responded to really well. And the great thing has been seeing teenagers coming in, choosing to come to a science centre on a Saturday afternoon. Quite a few teenagers have said that they came here with their families and now

  17. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 16. Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition for Waves. 16-10 Interference of Waves. 16-11 Phasors. 16-12 Standing Waves. 16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 17. Waves--II. How can an emperor penguin .nd its mate among thousands of huddled penguins? 17-1 What Is Physics? 17-2 Sound Waves. 17-3 The Speed of Sound. 17-4 Traveling Sound Waves. 17-5 Interference. 17-6 Intensity and Sound Level. 17-7 Sources of Musical Sound. 17-8 Beats. 17-9 The Doppler Effect. 17-10 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 18. Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. How can a dead rattlesnake detect and strike a reaching hand? 18-1 What Is Physics? 18-2 Temperature. 18-3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. 18-4 Measuring Temperature. 18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales. 18-6 Thermal Expansion. 18-7 Temperature and Heat. 18-8 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids. 18-9 A Closer Look at Heat and Work. 18-10 The First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-11 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-12 Heat Transfer Mechanisms. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 19. The Kinetic Theory of Gases. How can cooling

  18. An Interview with David Dabydeen on Literature and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzbeh Babaee

    2016-07-01

    suffering, and the sheer injustices of colonial rule. Yet, we became acquainted with Samuel Johnson’s DICTIONARY and the magical properties of the English language; with the lyricism and storytelling of the Bible, of Shakespeare, of Victorian poetry. These new texts supplemented the ones we brought from Africa and India ( the KORAN, the RAMAYANA . Ancient and living Carib, Arawak and other Amerindian stories fertilised the situation.  We rewrote and reimagined our inheritance, hence Walcott, Naipaul, Jean Rhys, Pauline Melville, Grace Nichols, John Agard, and a host of others. I write about the injustice (historical, but also self-inflicted in our postcolonial condition but more about the urge to creativity and expression that emerged from being on the margins; the fierce resolve to become educated, literate, creative, venturing beyond boundaries. Our postcolonial politicians may have failed us repeatedly, but I am forever astonished at how resilient Guyanese are.  When I visit parts of India,  parts of China,  the nature of poverty there is brutal and overwhelming. We don’t have that level of deprivation, because we have created the means of survival and the prospect of abundance, whether on the plate or on the page.   RB: Do you believe that there is any nation on earth that enjoys true freedom and independence? DD: I don’t know what true freedom or independence mean, we are all constrained and liberated and catapulted into creativity by being with each other. However, I recall what Walcott said about slavery: that the enslaved African being herded to the cane fields would have seen something sensationally beautiful along the way, given how lush Caribbean landscapes are. A hummingbird or kiskadee or blue-saki or brightly coloured viper…Walcott said that such encounters with beauty were moments of freedom which could only be partially understood, partially described, because they also contained the seeds of tragedy and terror. If you venture into Guyana