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Sample records for catalytic upgrading coal

  1. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, T.T. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Liu, P.K.T. (Aluminum Co. of America, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  2. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  3. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  4. Brown coal - on the way to industrial-scale upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main fields of development of Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG (Rheinbraun) in the field of brown coal upgrading are reported, i.e. production of synthesis gas, SNG, and liquid products. The Rheinbraun research programme involves the processes of high-temperature-Winkler gasification, hydrogasification, hydroliquefaction, tube stills, and methanation plants. In the long run, nuclear power will be indispensable for base load power supply so that brown coal can be upgraded instead of being used directly for electric power generation. (HS) [de

  5. Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Sethi

    2009-03-21

    WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

  6. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-04-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. © FEMS 2016.

  7. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Sj?blom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the produc...

  8. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

  9. Immediate catalytic upgrading of soybean shell bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, Melisa; Sedran, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of soybean shell and the immediate catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over an equilibrium FCC catalyst was studied in order to define its potential as a source for fuels and chemicals. The experiments of pyrolysis and immediate catalytic upgrading were performed at 550 °C during 7 min with different catalysts to oil relationships in an integrated fixed bed pyrolysis-conversion reactor. The results were compared under the same conditions against those from pine sawdust, which is a biomass source commonly used for the production of bio-oil. In the pyrolysis the pine sawdust produced more liquids (61.4%wt.) than the soybean shell (54.7%wt.). When the catalyst was presented, the yield of hydrocarbons increased, particularly in the case of soybean shell, which was four time higher than in the pyrolysis. The bio-oil from soybean shell produced less coke (between 3.1 and 4.3%wt.) in its immediate catalytic upgrading than that from pine sawdust (between 5 and 5.8%wt.), due to its lower content of phenolic and other high molecular weight compounds (three and five times less, respectively). Moreover, soybean shell showed a higher selectivity to hydrocarbons in the gasoline range, with more olefins and less aromatic than pine sawdust. - Highlights: • Soybean shell is a possible source of fuels with benefits as compared to pine sawdust. • Bio-oils upgraded over FCC catalyst in an integrated pyrolysis-conversion reactor. • Pine sawdust bio-oil had more phenols than soybean shell bio-oil. • Soybean shell bio-oil produced more hydrocarbons in gasoline range and less coke.

  10. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Final report, September 21, 1989--November 20, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, T.T. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Liu, P.K.T. [Aluminum Co. of America, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Webster, I.A. [Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  11. Cells on fibers to degrade PAH and upgrade coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    There are over 2000 sites contaminated with PAH's from coal burning plants. White rot fungus degrades phenanthrene and anthracene, but the fungus needs air to grow. When grown on old cardboard boxes and buried, air is entrapped in the corrugations for growth of the fungus. When holes are put in the valleys of the corrugations and rotated in a half full reactor, drops are formed. Mass transfer to drops is much faster than to a flat surface, as described in Patent 5,256,570, so the fungus grows faster. Low rank coal can be upgraded to more valuable products with the fungus, say some Australians, but the problem is supplying oxygen. Celite can be entrapped in the fibers to ferment coal derived synthesis gas. The paper describes these processes

  12. Catalytic Hydroisomerization Upgrading of Vegetable Oil-Based Insulating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu-Phuong Phan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high biodegradability, high dielectric strength, and good thermal stability, vegetable oil is under consideration as an alternative transformer fluid for power system equipment, replacing traditional petroleum-based insulating oils. Its main drawbacks are its poor low-temperature properties arising from the crystallization of its long-chain normal paraffins, and its lower oxidative stability arising from its higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Hydroisomerization/isomerization over bifunctional catalysts is considered to be an efficient pathway to upgrade vegetable oil-based insulating oil; this converts saturated/unsaturated long-chain fatty acids to branched isomers. The efficiency of this process depends crucially on the behavior of the catalyst system. This paper extensively reviews recent results on the influence that the metal phase and acidity, the effects of pore channels, and the balance between metal and acid sites have upon the activity and selectivity of catalytic hydroisomerization.

  13. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  14. Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Johanson, Edwin S.

    1983-01-01

    An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

  15. Catalytic processing of coal and biomass to carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Y.G.; Ugay, M.Y. [Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis of carbon materials is rather new and promising field of a catalyst application. The high potentialities of catalytic processes in the carbon materials production are connected with the catalyst ability to regulate the structure and some properties of carbon products, to increase the process affectivity and ecological safety. The new catalytic methods, developed by authors for the producing of different types of carbon products from coal and biomass raw materials, are described in the present paper. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Low and medium heating value coal gas catalytic combustor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion with both low and medium heating value coal gases obtained from an operating gasifier was demonstrated. A practical operating range for efficient operation was determined, and also to identify potential problem areas were identified for consideration during stationary gas turbine engine design. The test rig consists of fuel injectors, a fuel-air premixing section, a catalytic reactor with thermocouple instrumentation and a single point, water cooled sample probe. The test rig included inlet and outlet transition pieces and was designed for installation into an existing test loop.

  17. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  18. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  19. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  20. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  1. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  2. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  3. Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To address the issues of greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuels, vegetable oilseeds, especially non-food oilseeds, are used as an alternative fuel resource. Vegetable oil derived from these oilseeds can be upgraded into hydrocarbon biofuel. Catalytic cracking and hydroprocessing are two of the most promising pathways for converting vegetable oil to hydrocarbon biofuel. Heterogeneous catalysts play a critical role in those processes. The present review summarizes current progresses and remaining challenges of vegetable oil upgrading to biofuel. The catalyst properties, applications, deactivation, and regeneration are reviewed. A comparison of catalysts used in vegetable oil and bio-oil upgrading is also carried out. Some suggestions for heterogeneous catalysts applied in vegetable oil upgrading to improve the yield and quality of hydrocarbon biofuel are provided for further research in the future.

  4. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunarno [Chemical Engineering Department, Riau University, Kampus Binawidya KM 12,5 Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Budiman, Arief, E-mail: abudiman@ugm.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281(Indonesia); Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K1A, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  5. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarno, Rochmadi, Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  6. Experimental optimization of catalytic process in-situ for heavy oil and bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.; Fishwick, R.P.; Leeke, G.A.; Wood, J. [Birmingham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rigby, S.P.; Greaves, M. [Bath Univ., Bath (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Peak crude oil production is expected to occur in the second decade of this century, followed by a phase of permanent decline in conventional crude oil production. However, very large resources of heavy oil and bitumen exist throughout the world, most notably in Canada and Venezuela. The high viscosity and density of these non-conventional crude oils require more energy intensive operations for production and upgrading, and also for transportation. As such, they are more costly to extract. This paper described some of the technological innovations that are being considered to extract heavier oil supplies with reduced environmental impact. The toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) process and its catalytic added-on (CAPRI) process combine in-situ combustion with catalytic upgrading using an annular catalyst packed around a horizontal producer well. Results of an experimental study concerning optimization of catalyst type and operating conditions showed that CAPRI can effect further upgrading of partially upgraded THAI oil, with upgrading levels of viscosity and API gravity dependent upon temperature and flow rate. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarno; Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  8. Hot treatment and upgrading of syngas obtained by co-gasification of coal and wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Filomena; André, Rui Neto; Carolino, Carlos; Miranda, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays there is a great interest in producing energy through co-gasification of low grade coals and waste blends to increase the use of alternative feedstocks with low prices. The experimental results showed that the viability of co-gasification to process such blends and that by the right manipulation of coal and biomass or waste blends, syngas treatment and upgrading may be simplified and the cost of the overall process may be reduced. Blends of three different coal grades (sub-bitumi...

  9. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  10. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...... generation bio-ethanol plants. Shipping industry on the other hand is looking for clean alternative fuels in order to meet stricter fuel quality and emission standards. To convert lignin into a renewable marine diesel fuel will both accelerate the development of modern bio-refinery and transfer the marine...

  11. In Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Low-Rank Coal for the Conversion of Heavy Oils into Light Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighter tars are largely useful in chemical industries but their quantity is quite little. Catalytic cracking is applied to improve the yield of light tars during pyrolysis. Consequently, in situ upgrading technique through a MoS2 catalyst has been explored in this research work. MoS2 catalyst is useful for the conversion of high energy cost into low energy cost. The variations in coal pyrolysis tar without and with catalyst were determined. Meanwhile, the obtained tar was analyzed using simulated distillation gas chromatograph and Elemental Analyzer. Consequently, the catalyst reduced the pitch contents and increased the fraction of light tar from 50 to 60 wt.% in coal pyrolysis tar. MoS2 catalyst increased the liquid yield from 18 to 33 (wt.%, db and decreased gas yield from 27 to 12 (wt.%, db compared to coal without catalyst. Moreover, it increased H content and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio by 7.9 and 3.3%, respectively, and reduced the contents of nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen elements by 8.1%, 15.2%, and 23.9%, respectively, in their produced tars compared to coal without catalyst.

  12. Effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological characteristics of the upgraded brown coal water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Datin Fatia; Muta'alim; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Upgraded brown coal water mixture (UBCWM) preparation by using an Indonesian upgraded coal produced by upgraded brown coal (UBC) process, was carried out to study the effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological behavior of the UBCWM. Three kinds of anionic dispersing additives, naphthalene sulfonic formaldehyde condensate (NSF), poly (meth) acrylate (PMA) and poly styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) and three kinds of stabilizing additives, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), rhansam gum (S-194) and gellan gum (S-60) were used in this study. Results indicate that the addition of NSF 0.3 wt.% together with S-194 0.01 wt.% is effective in preparing UBCWM with good slurryability and stability, based on its rheological characteristics with the apparent viscosity at shear rate of 100 s - 1 and yield stress at zero point of shear rate. The rheological behavior of all of the UBCWM that prepared, exhibits non-Newtonian Bingham plastic. From the economical point of view, the price of S-194 is expensive. On the other hand, CMC is cheap and abundant. Therefore, the addition of CMC 0.01 wt.% together with NSF 0.3 wt.% is also effective in preparing UBCWM with good fluidity and stability. (author)

  13. Ex situ thermo-catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors using a traveling wave microwave reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muley, P.D.; Henkel, C.E.; Aguilar, G.; Klasson, K.T.; Boldor, D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ex-situ microwave reactor was used to heat catalyst bed for pyrolysis upgrading. • Results were compared with conventional catalytic reactor. • Microwave heating yielded higher aromatic compounds. • Catalyst deactivation due to coking was lower in microwave reactor. • 30% decrease in energy input for microwave reactor. - Abstract: Microwave heating offers a number of advantages over conventional heating methods, such as, rapid and volumetric heating, precise temperature control, energy efficiency and lower temperature gradient. In this article we demonstrate the use of 2450 MHz microwave traveling wave reactor to heat the catalyst bed for thermo-catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors. HZSM-5 catalyst was tested at three different temperatures (290°, 330° and 370 °C) at a catalyst to biomass ratio of 2. Results were compared with conventional heating and induction heating method of catalyst bed. The yields of aromatic compounds and coke deposition were dependent on temperature and method of heating. Microwave heating yielded higher aromatic compounds and lower coke deposition. Microwave heating was also energy efficient compared to conventional reactors. The rate of catalyst deterioration was lower for catalyst heated in microwave system.

  14. Preparation of carbonized biomass water mixture and upgraded coal water mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, D.F.; Usui, H.; Komoda, Y.; Daulay, B. [Research & Development Centre for Mineral & Coal Technology, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2006-11-15

    Biomass is the third largest primary energy resource in the world after coal and oil. Due to its huge potential, the renewable and the corresponding positive role for CO{sub 2} reduction, the use of carbonized biomass for energy purpose is expected to increase. The carbonized biomass comes from agricultural waste and forest by-product. Carbonized plant and carbonized coconut cell biomass were mixed with water to study the possibilities of slurry preparation as a carbonized biomass water mixture (CBWM). Beside that, the upgraded coal by an upgraded brown coal (UBC) process was also studied to produce a UBC water mixture (UBCWM) with high coal concentration. The rheological characteristics of CBWM and UBCWM have been conducted by using a stress controlled rheometer. The results indicate that the maximum concentrations of the carbonized plant, carbonized coconut cell biomass, and UBC were 35.9, 51.2, and 61.5 wt%, when respectively using 0.3 wt% of naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSF), polymethacrylate (PMA), and NSF as dispersing additives, and 0.1 wt% of carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizing additive.

  15. Combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE) technology - an economical alternative for heavy water upgraders using water distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryland, D.K.; Sadhankar, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Heavy water upgrading is a unique and crucial part of a CANDU power station. Water distillation (DW) systems are used for heavy water upgrading in all CANDU stations. The DW upgrader is designed to take advantage of the difference in relative volatility (a measure of separation of isotopes) between H 2 O and D 2 O. However, the low relative volatility of the H 2 O/D 2 O system requires large number of stages (long columns) and large reflux ratios (large reboiler loads) - thus resulting in significant capital and operating costs. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) technology as an economical alternative to the DW system. CECE-based upgraders have been demonstrated in pilot scale facilities at AECL Chalk River Laboratories and in Hamilton, Ontario. This design is based on catalytic hydrogen isotope exchange between water and hydrogen gas. (author)

  16. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  17. Fundamentals of Hydrocarbon Upgrading to Liquid Fuels and Commodity Chemicals over Catalytic Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao

    Promising new technologies for biomass conversion into fuels and chemical feedstocks rely on the production of bio-oils, which need to be upgraded in order to remove oxygen-containing hydrocarbons and water. A high oxygen concentration makes bio-oils acidic and corrosive, unstable during storage, and less energetically valuable per unit weight than petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Although there are efficient processes for the production of bio-oils, there are no efficient technologies for their upgrading. Current technologies utilize traditional petroleum refining catalysts, which are not optimized for biomass processing. New upgrading technologies are, therefore, urgently needed for development of sustainable energy resources. Development of such new technologies, however, is severely hindered by a lack of fundamental understanding of how oxygen and oxygen-containing hydrocarbons derived from biomass interact with promising noble-metal catalysts. In this study, kinetic reaction measurements, catalyst characterization and quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory were combined for determining adsorption modes and reaction mechanisms of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen on surfaces of catalytic noble-metal nanoparticles. The results were used for developing improved catalyst formulations and optimization of reaction conditions. The addition of molybdenum to platinum catalysts was shown to improve catalytic activity, stability, and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation of acetic acid, which served as a model biomass compound. The fundamental results that describe interactions of oxygen and hydrocarbons with noble-metal catalysts were extended to other reactions and fields of study: evaluation of the reaction mechanism for hydrogen peroxide decomposition, development of improved hydrogenation catalysts and determination of adsorption modes of a spectroscopic probe molecule.

  18. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  19. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and D. Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme consists of four classes of projects: (a) Detector and Systems upgrades which are ongoing and largely (though not entirely) target LS1. (b) Full system upgrades for three projects that are preparing TDRs: Pixels, HCAL and L1 Trigger. The projects target completion by LS2. (c) Infrastructure consolidation and upgrades to improve operational robustness and to support the above projects. (d) Phase 2 replacement of the Tracker and major upgrades of the Trigger and Forward Detectors. For (a) and (c), detailed costing exists and is being integrated into a common reporting system. The schedule milestones for each project will be linked into the overall schedule planning for LS1. For the three TDR projects, the designs have progressed significantly since the Technical Proposal in 2010. Updated detailed cost estimates and schedules will be prepared with the TDRs to form the basis for tracking the projects through completion. To plan the upgrades and the supporting simulati...

  20. Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology; Teihin`itan kaishitsu ni yoru CWM seizo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsurui, M.; Suto, Y.; Asakura, M. [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, J.; Yui, M.; Takano, S. [Japan COM Co. Ltd., Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    A CWM manufacturing technology was developed by means of upgrading low rank coals. Even though some low rank coals have such advantages as low ash, low sulfur and high volatile matter content, many of them are merely used on a small scale in areas near the mine-mouths because of high moisture content, low calorification and high ignitability. Therefore, discussions were given on a coal fuel manufacturing technology by which coal will be irreversibly dehydrated with as much volatile matters as possible remaining in the coal, and the coal is made high-concentration CWM, thus the coal can be safely transported and stored. The technology uses a method to treat coal with hot water under high pressure and dry it with hot water. The method performs not only removal of water, but also irreversible dehydration without losing volatile matters by decomposing hydrophilic groups on surface and blocking micro pores with volatile matters in the coal (wax and tar). The upgrading effect was verified by processing coals in a pilot plant, which derived greater calorification and higher concentration CWM than with the conventional processes. A CWM combustion test proved lower NOx, lower SOx and higher combustion rate than for bituminous coal. The ash content was also found lower. This process suits a Texaco-type gasification furnace. For a production scale of three million tons a year, the production cost is lower by 2 yen per 10 {sup 3} kcal than for heavy oil with the same sulfur content. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  2. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriyanto, Heri [Chemical Engineering of University Sultan AgengTirtayasa, Indonesia Email: herfais@yahoo.com (Indonesia); Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  3. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-01-01

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%

  4. Upgraded Coal Interest Group -- A vision for coal-based power in 1999 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.; Battista, J.; Stopek, D.; Akers, D.

    1999-01-01

    The US is at a critical junction. Global competition is now a reality for a large number of US businesses and, ultimately, almost all US businesses will compete to one degree or another in the global marketplace. Under these circumstances, maintaining and improving the standard of living of US citizens requires a plentiful supply of low-cost electric energy to reduce the cost of providing goods and services both in the US an abroad. At the same time, segments of the public demand increased environmental restrictions on the utility industry. If the electric utility industry is to successfully respond to the goals of reducing electricity costs, maintaining reliability, and reducing emissions, fuels technology research is critical. For coal-fired units, fuel cost typically represents from 60--70% of operating costs. Reducing fuel cost, reduces operating costs. This can provide revenue that could be used to finance emissions control systems or advanced type of boilers resulting from post-combustion research. At the same time, improving coal quality reduces emissions from existing boilers without the need for substantial capital investment by the utility. If quality improvements can be accomplished with little or no increase in fuel costs, an immediate improvement in emissions can be achieved without an increase in electricity costs. All of this is directly dependent on continued and expanded levels of research on coal with the cooperation and partnership between government and industry. The paper describes enhanced fuel technologies (use of waste coal, coal water slurries, biomass/composite fuels, improved dewatering technologies, precombustion control of HAPs, dry cleaning technologies, and international coal characterization) and enhanced emission control technologies

  5. Upgrading of high moisture low rank coal to hydrogen and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, C.; Berger, R. [Stuttgart University - Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD), Pfaffenwaldring 23, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Androutsopoulos, G.P. [National Technical University of Athens - 9 Heroon Polytechneiou, GR-15780 Zographou (Greece); Mizan, A. [Public Power Corporation SA - 30 Chalkokondili, GR-10432 Athens (Greece); Nikolaos, K. [Centre For Research and Technology, Hellas Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications - 6th km Charilaou-Thermi Road, GR-57001 Thermi-Thassaloniki (Greece); Massow, R. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG - Vom-stein-Strasse 39, D-03050 Cottbus (Germany); Hoehne, O. [Brandenburg University of Technology at Cottbus - Universitaetsplatz 3-4, D-03044 Cottbus (Germany); Bandi, A. [Zentrum fuer Solar Energie und Wasserstoff- Forschung - Industriestrasse 6, D-70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Weimer, T. [Ing. Buero fuer Verfahrens- und Energietechnik - Weimarerstrasse 10, D-71065 Sindelfingen (Germany); Corella, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid - Avenida de Seneca 2, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); McIlveen-Wright, D. [University of Ulster - Cromore Road, Co. Londonderry, BT52 1SA Coleraine, United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Seirlehner, L. [SCS Technology, SCS-Technology Verfahrenstechnik GmbH - Jaegerstrasse 18, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    The C2H upgrade project developed a new process for upgrading high moisture low rank brown coals yielding two valuable products: (1) a H2-rich fuel gas which can be used for high efficient power generation in a combined cycle or as a natural gas substitute; and (2) a pre-calcined feed for a cement clinker kiln consisting of CaO, CaSO4 and coal ash. The C2H upgrade process consists of two core reactors: (a) a steam gasifier with in situ CO2 capture by CaO, and (b) a sorbent regenerator with the possibility to produce a separate CO2 stream. The project evaluated the necessary aspects of process development: (A) Characterisation of coals and CaO-based sorbents: A European geological survey produced suitable locations for a C2H plant. A methodology for evaluation of calcium-based sorbents was developed; (B) Pilot scale gasification: Testing on three different reactor types was successfully completed (ABFB, PBFB, Rotary Kiln). A H2-rich (>85 vol. %) and CO2-lean gas with low tar content (< 2 g/Nm{sup 3}) was generated. Two continuous C2H pilot plants were designed for small-scale applications and large-scale power generation; (C) IGCC simulation: The C2H-based IGCC plant has a net electric efficiency of 45.0 %. With CO2 capture, the base efficiency decreases to 37.5 %. Utilisation of the pre-calcined feed in a cement plant yields savings in fuel (66 %) and CO2 emissions (88 %); and (D) Life-cycle analysis: The C2H-based IGCC process is economically competitive compared with conventional IGCC systems, especially for CO2 capture: the specific investment cost is estimated at < 1 500 euro/kW{sup e} and the CO2 mitigation cost is < 20 euro/ tonne CO2 avoided.

  6. Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Ted; Agblevor, Foster; Battaglia, Francine; Klein, Michael

    2013-01-18

    The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

  7. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Butler and J. Nash

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on the CMS upgrades was summarised, in a workshop held at Fermilab between 7th and 10th November, attended by more than 150 people, many of whom came from Europe and Asia. Important goals of the workshop were to begin to formulate a schedule for the upgrades and to determine project interdependencies. Input was received from all the upgrade working groups and will be combined into a first-pass schedule over the next several weeks. In addition, technical progress on each of the major subtasks was presented and plans for the near-term future were established. Slides from the more than 100 talks are located at: https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=153564 In the opening plenary session, Frank Zimmermann, of the CERN Beams Department, gave his view of the LHC luminosity evolution. The luminosity will increase faster than we assumed in designing the upgrades. CMS will need to re-evaluate the current upgrade plans and revise them if necessary. CMS Upgrade Physics coordinator...

  8. Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.

  9. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Oxygenates with Vacuum Gas Oil Using a Davison Circulating Riser Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Mark W. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Olstad, Jessica [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Parent, Yves [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Deutch, Steve [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Iisa, Kristiina [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Christensen, Earl [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Ben, Haoxi [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Black, Stuart [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Nimlos, Mark [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Magrini, Kim [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15523 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States

    2018-01-22

    We investigate and quantitate the changes in hydrocarbon product composition while evaluating the performance and operability of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Davison Circulating Riser (DCR) reactor system when biomass model compounds are cofed with traditional fluid catalyst cracking (FCC) feeds and catalyst: vacuum gas oil (VGO) and equilibrium zeolite catalyst (E-Cat). Three compounds (acetic acid, guaiacol, and sorbitan monooleate) were selected to represent the major classes of oxygenates present in biomass pyrolysis vapors. These vapors can contain 30-50% oxygen as oxygenates, which create conversion complications (increased reactivity and coking) when integrating biomass vapors and liquids into fuel and chemical processes long dominated by petroleum feedstocks. We used these model compounds to determine the appropriate conditions for coprocessing with petroleum and ultimately pure pyrolysis vapors only as compared with standard baseline conditions obtained with VGO and E-Cat only in the DCR. Model compound addition decreased the DCR catalyst circulation rate, which controls reactor temperature and measures reaction heat demand, while increasing catalyst coking rates. Liquid product analyses included 2-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (2D GCxGC TOFS), simulated distillation (SIM DIST), 13C NMR, and carbonyl content. Aggregated results indicated that the model compounds were converted during reaction, and despite functional group differences, product distributions for each model compound were very similar. In addition, we determined that adding model compounds to the VGO feed did not significantly affect the DCR's operability or performance. Future work will assess catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor to fungible hydrocarbon products using upgrading catalysts currently being developed at NREL and at Johnson Matthey.

  10. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  11. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  12. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    There is very good progress in the execution of the LS1 projects and in launching construction of the Phase 1 upgrades. We focus here on two main achievements since the last CMS Week. The approval of the third Phase 1 TDR The preparation of the L1 Trigger Upgrade Technical Design Report has been a major effort of the collaboration at the beginning of this year, especially to develop supporting Trigger menu and physics performance studies. These studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the upgraded system to ensure low lepton and jet trigger thresholds, leading to a significant increase of the acceptance for the Higgs measurements, in the associated production mode and in the ττ decays, as well as for the stop searches involving multiple jets in the final state. The TDR was submitted to the LHCC in May and approved at the June committee meeting. It is now a public document, completing the series of the three TDRs describing the Phase 1 upgrades, with the new Pixel system and the HCAL rea...

  13. Catalytic Unmixed Combustion of Coal with Zero Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Raul Subia; Wei Wei

    2005-12-01

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy-based technology for coal combustion with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Combustion of coal (UMC-Coal) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into two separate streams of high pressure CO{sub 2}-rich gas for sequestration, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air for producing electricity in gas turbine expanders. The UMC process utilizes an oxygen transfer material (OTM) and eliminates the need for an air separation unit (ASU) and a CO{sub 2} separation unit as compared to conventional gasification based processes. This is the final report for the two-year DOE-funded program (DE-FC26-03NT41842) on this technology that ended in September 30, 2005. The UMC technology development program encompassed lab- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UMC concept. The chemical feasibility of the individual UMC steps was established via lab-scale testing. A pilot plant, designed in a related DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974), was reconstructed and operated to demonstrate the chemistry of UMC process in a pilot-scale system. The risks associated with this promising technology including cost, lifetime and durability OTM and the impact of contaminants on turbine performance are currently being addressed in detail in a related ongoing DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974, Phase II). Results obtained to date suggest that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  14. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Tenth quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    This report concerns our research on base-catalyzed coal solubilization and a new approach for hydrogen addition. The work on base-catalyzed, chemical solubilization is continuing. this report is focused on the hydrogenation research. Specifically it deals with the use of arene chromium carbonyl complexes as reagents for the addition of dideuterium to coal molecules. In one phase of the work, he has established that the aromatic hydrocarbons in a representative coal liquid can be converted in very good yield to arene chromium carbonyl compounds. In a second phase of the work directly related to our objective of improved methods for catalytic hydrogenation, he has established that the aromatic constituents of the same coal liquid add dideuterium in the presence of added napththalene chromium carbonyl.

  15. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    , Ce1-xREExO2-δ (REE = Pr, Sm)) and metal oxides (LiMn2O4, Ag2O). Materials showing the highest activity in carbon black (Mn2O3, CeO2, Ce0.6Pr0.4O2-δ, Ag2O) were subsequently tested for catalytic activity toward bituminous coal, as revealed by both I-V-P curves and electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS). Catalytic activity was evaluated as a function of various physical characteristics of doped ceria and manganese-based materials....

  16. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    Didier Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme is making good progress on the LS1 and Phase 1 projects, in the planning for Phase 2. The construction of the ME4/2 muon chambers to be installed during LS1 has started and the two first CSC production chambers have been fully qualified. The three muon groups have recently established a set of milestones towards the completion of their project, that will be integrated in the detailed planning and scheduling for the shutdown work established by Technical Coordination. The project to replace the photo-detectors in the HF and HO calorimeters is also well advanced and at the validation stage. The operation of an HF slice with new multi-anode PMTs and back-end electronics has already been demonstrated in 2012. For the Phase 1 data-taking, as discussed in the Chamonix workshop, it is likely that the LHC performance will exceed the nominal luminosity and pile-up before the second shutdown, still scheduled in 2018. The collaboration is therefore pursuing a strategy to upgrade ...

  17. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    The three post-LS1 Phase 1 Upgrade projects (the L1-Trigger, Pixel Tracker, and HCAL) are all making excellent progress and are transitioning from the prototype to the execution phase. Meanwhile plans are developing for Phase 2, a major Upgrade programme targeting the third long shutdown, LS3. News on Phase 1 is included under the respective projects; we only provide a brief summary here. Phase 1 The plan for the L1 Trigger relies on the installation during the present shutdown of optical splitting for the Trigger input signals. This will allow the new Trigger system to be brought online and fully commissioned during beam operation in 2015, while CMS relies on the existing legacy Trigger for physics. Once fully commissioned the experiment can switch over to the new Trigger, which will provide greatly improved performance at high event pile-up, by 2016. System tests of the splitter system, and of the new architecture of the calorimeter trigger were very successful, and the work in LS1 is on-track. Prototype ...

  18. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2012-01-01

      Good progress is being made on the projects that will be installed during LS1. CSC chamber production for ME4/2 is progressing at a rate of four chambers per month, with 25 built so far, and the new electronics for ME1/1 is undergoing a pre-production integration testing. For the RPC chambers, gap production is underway with first deliveries to the chamber assembly sites at CERN and Ghent. The third site at Mumbai will begin production next month. For the PMT replacement in the forward hadron calorimeters (HF), the 1728 PMTs are all characterised and ready to be installed. Testing of the electronics boards is going well. Preparations to replace the HPDs in the outer calorimeter (HO) with SiPMs are also on-track. All components are at CERN and burn-in of the new front-end electronics is proceeding. There are three major upgrade projects targeting the period from LS1 through LS2: a new pixel detector, upgraded photo-detectors and electronics for HCAL, and development of a new L1 Trigger. The new ...

  19. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of Ni-Co Ternary Molten Salt Catalysts on Coal Catalytic Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Qi, Cong; Li, Liang; Li, Yimin; Li, Song

    2017-08-01

    In order to facilitate efficient and clean utilization of coal, a series of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystals are explored and the catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of Datong coal is investigated. The reaction mechanisms of coal are achieved by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a reactive kinetic model is constructed. The microcosmic structure and macerals are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The catalytic effects of ternary molten salt crystals at different stages of pyrolysis are analyzed. The experimental results show that Ni-Co ternary molten salt catalysts have the capability to bring down activation energy required by pyrolytic reactions at its initial phase. Also, the catalysts exert a preferable catalytic action on macromolecular structure decomposition and free radical polycondensation reactions. Furthermore, the high-temperature condensation polymerization is driven to decompose further with a faster reaction rate by the additions of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystal catalysts. According to pyrolysis kinetic research, the addition of catalysts can effectively decrease the activation energy needed in each phase of pyrolysis reaction.

  1. The influence of catalytic additives on kinetics of coal gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubek Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic coal gasification is a process that has the potential to become one of the efficient industrial technology of energy production. For this reason, the subject of this study was to analyze the kinetics of catalytic gasification of ‘Janina’ coal with steam. Isothermal measurements were performed at 800 °C, 900 °C, 950 °C and 1000 °C at a pressure of 1 MPa using cations of sodium, potassium and calcium as catalysts. During examination the thermovolumetric method was used. This method allows to determine the formation rates of a gaseous product such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide as well as their contribution to the resulting gas. Moreover, the influence of catalysts on the kinetics of CO and H2 formation at various temperatures was determined and the kinetics parameters were calculated with the use of isoconversional model, Random Pore Model and Grain Model. The obtained results confirmed the positive effect of catalysts on the coal gasification process. The catalytic measurements were characterized by higher reaction rate and shorter duration of the process, and the calculated values of the kinetic parameters were lower than for the gasification process without the addition of catalysts.

  2. The investigation of reducing PAHs emission from coal pyrolysis by gaseous catalytic cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Chun; Li, Guanlong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  3. The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  4. Catalytic upgrading of bio-oil produced from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Rajdeep; Adhikari, Sushil; Mahadevan, Ravishankar; Hassan, El Barbary; Dempster, Thomas A

    2018-03-01

    Upgrading of bio-oil obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae is necessary for it to be used as a fuel. In this study, bio-oil obtained from HTL of Nannochloropsis sp. was upgraded using five different catalysts (Ni/C, ZSM-5, Ni/ZSM-5, Ru/C and Pt/C) at 300 °C and 350 °C. The upgraded bio-oil yields were higher at 300 °C; however, higher quality upgraded bio-oils were obtained at 350 °C. Ni/C gave the maximum upgraded bio-oil yield (61 wt%) at 350 °C. However, noble metal catalysts (Ru/C and Pt/C) gave the better upgraded bio-oils in terms of acidity, heating values, and nitrogen values. The higher heating value of the upgraded bio-oils ranged from 40 to 44 MJ/kg, and the nitrogen content decreased from 5.37 to 1.29 wt%. Most of the upgraded bio-oils (35-40 wt%) were in the diesel range. The major components present in the gaseous products were CH 4 , CO, CO 2 and lower alkanes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

      LS1 and Phase 1 The detector projects targeting LS1 are progressing well, and a fully integrated schedule developed by Technical Coordination includes installation milestones and a detailed work-plan. The first chambers of the RPC system were produced and are being qualified. Production will ramp up this year to a rate of 20 chambers per month. 32 chambers of the CSC system have been fabricated for the ME4/2 CSC stations, and production proceeds at a rate of 4 per month. The new ME1/1 Front-End Board is in production and the off-detector electronics integration tests are ongoing. The new Theta Trigger Boards for the DT readout production is started and the relocation of the Sector Collector boards with new Optical Links as been successfully tested. All the components for the upgrade of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMTs have been received at CERN and assemblies are being qualified. The situation is similar for the Hadron Outer Calorimeter new SiPMs and readout modules. Three projects are plan...

  6. Development of decision- making mechanism in engineering design of phased coal mines technical upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, V. Yu; Petrova, T. V.; Novichikhin, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The approach to a choice of a new mine design and technical upgrade of operating coal mines is substantiated. The choice of the option is made in the following way: the elements of the mine technological system are defined, for each element of the system two levels of costs are allocated - capital and operational; a graph of alternative options of the system is formed by matrix enumeration taking into account the possibility of simultaneous application of different elements, up to 10 000 scenarios are formed; capital and operating costs of options are estimated in the form of coefficients as the cost-to-cost ratio in the base variant, which has already been implemented and the costs of which are already known; ranking of the options at the level of costs and the definition of the 10 preferred are performed. It is established that the application of partial enumeration allows the costs relative to the base variant to be reduced by 10 %; the main constraint of costs reduction is the need to comply with all conditions that ensure industrial safety.

  7. Characterization of upgraded hydrogel biochar from blended rice husk with coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Farhana; Alias, Azil Bahari; Talib, Norhayati; Rashid, Zulkifli Abd; Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim

    2017-12-01

    Rice husk biochar (RB) blended with coal fly ash (CFA) is used as a material to develop hydrogel for heavy metal removal. This combination, namely hydrogel rice husk biochar-coal fly ash (HRB-CFA) composite is synthesized by embedding the biochar into acrylamide (AAM) as monomer, with N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. While activated carbon (AC) remains an expensive material, HRB-CFA is attracting great interest for its use in the absorption of organic contaminants due to its low material cost and importance as renewable source for securing future energy supply in the environmental system. Although the CFA does not have the surface area as high as AC, certain metallic components that are naturally present in the CFA can play the catalytic role in the removal of heavy metal from wastewater. The percentage of heavy metal removal is depends on the parameters that influence the sorption process; the effect of pH solution, dosage of adsorbent, initial concentration of solution, and contact time. The aim of this study is to characterize HRB-CFA by performing several analyses such as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermogravimetric (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) methods. The results obtained revealed that the best hydrogel ratio is 0.5:0.5 of blended RB and CFA, as proven by BET surface area, pore volume and pore size of 3.5392 m2/g, 0.00849 cm3/g and 90.566 Å, and the surface morphology showed an increase in porosity size.

  8. Catalytic hydrothermal upgrading of crude bio-oils produced from different thermo-chemical conversion routes of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peigao; Wang, Bing; Xu, Yuping

    2015-06-01

    This study presents experimental results that compare the use of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), alcoholysis (Al), pyrolysis (Py) and hydropyrolysis (HPy) for the production of bio-oil from a microalga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and the catalytic hydrothermal upgrading of crude bio-oils produced by these four conversion routes. The yields and compositions of bio-oil, solid residue, and gases were evaluated and compared. HTL resulted in a bio-oil that has a higher energy density and superior fuel properties, such as thermal and storage stabilities, compared with the other three conversion routes. The N in crude bio-oils produced from Py and HPy is more easily removed than that in the bio-oils produced from HTL and Al. The upgraded bio-oils contain reduced amounts of certain O-containing and N-containing compounds and significantly increased saturated hydrocarbon contents. All of the upgraded bio-oils have a larger fraction boiling below 350°C than their corresponding crude bio-oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  10. Characterization of upgraded fast pyrolysis oak oil distillate fractions from sulfided and non-sulfided catalytic hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olarte, Mariefel V.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Ferrell, Jack R.; Christensen, Earl D.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lucke, Richard B.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Swita, Marie S.; Fioroni, Gina; Elliott, Douglas C.; Drennan, Corinne

    2017-08-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing of pyrolysis oils from biomass produces hydrocarbons that can be considered for liquid fuel production. This process requires removal of oxygen and cracking of the heavier molecular weight bio-oil constituents into smaller fragments at high temperatures and pressures under hydrogen. A comprehensive understanding of product oils is useful to optimize cost versus degree of deoxygenation. Additionally, a better understanding of the chemical composition of the distillate fractions can open up other uses of upgraded oils for potentially higher-value chemical streams. We present in this paper the characterization data for five well-defined distillate fractions of two hydroprocessed oils with different oxygen levels: a low oxygen content (LOC, 1.8% O, wet basis) oil and a medium oxygen content (MOC, 6.4% O, wet basis) oil. Elemental analysis and 13C NMR results suggest that the distillate fractions become more aromatic/unsaturated as they become heavier. Our results also show that the use of sulfided catalysts directly affects the S content of the lightest distillate fraction. Carbonyl and carboxylic groups were found in the MOC light fractions, while phenols were present in the heavier fractions for both MOC and LOC. PIONA analysis of the light LOC fraction shows a predominance of paraffins with a minor amount of olefins. These results can be used to direct future research on refinery integration and production of value-added product from specific upgraded oil streams.

  11. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  12. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  13. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  14. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  15. A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2011-01-01

    produce fuels of acceptable grade for the current infrastructure. HDO is evaluated as being a path to fuels in a grade and at a price equivalent to present fossil fuels, but several tasks still have to be addressed within this process. Catalyst development, understanding of the carbon forming mechanisms......As the oil reserves are depleting the need of an alternative fuel source is becoming increasingly apparent. One prospective method for producing fuels in the future is conversion of biomass into bio-oil and then upgrading the bio-oil over a catalyst, this method is the focus of this review article...

  16. Carbon-Increasing Catalytic Strategies for Upgrading Biomass into Energy-Intensive Fuels and Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Riisager, Anders; Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant organic carbon source and has received a great deal of interest as renewable and sustainable feedstock for the production of potential biofuels and value-added chemicals with a wide range of designed catalytic systems. However, those natural polymeric...... materials are composed of short-chain monomers (typically C6 and C5 sugars) and complex lignin molecules containing plenty of oxygen, resulting in products during the downstream processing having low-grade fuel properties or limited applications in organic syntheses. Accordingly, approaches to increase...

  17. Catalytic Graphitization of Coal-Based Carbon Materials with Light Rare Earth Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongyan; Lu, Guimin; Qiao, Wenming; Yu, Jianguo

    2016-08-30

    The catalytic graphitization mechanism of coal-based carbon materials with light rare earth elements was investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interface between light rare earth elements and carbon materials was carefully observed, and two routes of rare earth elements catalyzing the carbon materials were found: dissolution-precipitation and carbide formation-decomposition. These two simultaneous processes certainly accelerate the catalytic graphitization of carbon materials, and light rare earth elements exert significant influence on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of graphite. Moreover, by virtue of praseodymium (Pr), it was found that a highly crystallographic orientation of graphite was induced and formed, which was reasonably attributed to the similar arrangements of the planes perpendicular to (001) in both graphite and Pr crystals. The interface between Pr and carbon was found to be an important factor for the orientation of graphite structure.

  18. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalytic upgrading of gas from biofuels and implementation of electricity production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espenaes, Bengt-Goeran; Frostaeng, Sten [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    components concerned are typically aromatic hydrocarbons. These investigations were done using basic oxides (e.g. dolomite), and nickel-based catalysts. Data were collected at different gas compositions and temperatures. Interdependence of reaction rates of some most stable tar components was investigated with dolomite as catalyst. New insights were obtained concerning the reaction mechanism of the decomposition of aromatic compounds catalysed by dolomite. Among issues studied were relations between pore structure and catalytic ability, and influences from the conditions during calcination. The role of intermediate carbon formation on dolomite during decomposition of aromatic hydrocarbons was investigated. Several suggested kinetic rate model equations were evaluated. Internal surface areas of calcined dolomite of different origin were investigated and correlated to their catalytic activity. Kinetics of tar conversion with dolomite and nickel catalysts was included in reactor models. Different models were formulated and tested for different types of reactors. A model for the physical degradation behaviour of dolomite and carry-over of fines in fluidized beds was formulated. A number of new suggested catalysts and catalyst combinations were tested. One interesting new approach is to use a SiO{sub 2} material with large surface area in combination with another catalyst, e.g. dolomite. Another novel catalyst gave very good conversion of benzene at 480 deg C in a 'clean' synthetic gas mixture. Further testing of this catalyst at realistic conditions will be needed. Relations between raw materials and tar formation was investigated in experiments with thermal and catalytic treatment in a secondary reactor after a pyrolyser and comparisons were done with results from gasification. Tar products distribution and amounts were found to be influenced by feedstock. These differences decrease with increasing cracking temperature and efficiency of the catalyst. The sampling and

  20. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Compounds via C-C Coupling Reactions. Computational and Experimental Studies of Acetaldehyde and Furan Reactions in HZSM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Evans, Tabitha J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cheng, Lei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nimlos, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mukarakate, Calvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robichaud, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Assary, Rajeev S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Curtiss, Larry A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-02

    These catalytic C–C coupling and deoxygenation reactions are essential for upgrading of biomass-derived oxygenates to fuel-range hydrocarbons. Detailed understanding of mechanistic and energetic aspects of these reactions is crucial to enabling and improving the catalytic upgrading of small oxygenates to useful chemicals and fuels. Using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have investigated the reactions of furan and acetaldehyde in an HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, a representative system associated with the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors. Comprehensive energy profiles were computed for self-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde coupling and furan coupling) and cross-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde + furan) of this representative mixture. Major products proposed from the computations are further confirmed using temperature controlled mass spectra measurements. Moreover, the computational results show that furan interacts with acetaldehyde in HZSM-5 via an alkylation mechanism, which is more favorable than the self-reactions, indicating that mixing furans with aldehydes could be a promising approach to maximize effective C–C coupling and dehydration while reducing the catalyst deactivation (e.g., coke formation) from aldehyde condensation.

  1. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  2. Recent technological advances in the application of nano-catalytic technology to the enhanced recovery and upgrading of bitumen and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Almao, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    enhanced recovery. In this way the process is a combination of Enhanced heavy oil recovery with upgrading reactions. This process is currently being developed for demonstration in the fields of Latin-American national oil companies. It is particularly suitable for reservoirs in which the heavy oil is partly mobile and is not flooded by aquifers, although the presence of water in the reservoir is not an impediment. For heavy oil reservoirs seriously impacted by the presence of aquifers, the nano-catalytic technology can still be implemented on field though with some additional investment and reduced synergies; however still providing a significant solution for the production of transportable oil with substantial benefits. The key advantage for these technologies being, on top of their clear economic competitiveness, the significant reduction of emissions and the elimination of solid hydrocarbon wastes, which makes them 'real' field/remote upgrading solutions. The most relevant features in the development of nano-catalytic technologies for Field and In Situ (in reservoir) upgrading will be deployed for this talk. (orig.)

  3. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  4. In Situ Catalytic Upgrading of Heavy Crude with CAPRI: Influence of Hydrogen on Catalyst Pore Plugging and Deactivation due to Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abarasi Hart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy crude oil is known to have low hydrogen-to-carbon ratios compared to light oil. This is due to the significant content of carbon-rich species such as resins and asphaltenes; hence their upgrading is commonly through carbon-rejection. However, carbon-rejection promotes rapid fouling of catalyst and pore plugging, yielding low upgraded oil and consequently low fuel distillate fractions when distilled. The roles of hydrogen-addition on in situ catalytic upgrading were investigated at pre-established conditions (425 °C, LHSV 11.8 h−1, and 20–40 bars using a simulated fixed-bed reactor that mimics the annular sheath of catalyst (CAPRI surrounding the horizontal producer well of the Toe-to-Heel Air Injection (THAI process. It was found that with H-addition, the upgraded oil American Petroleum Institute (API gravity increased to about 5° compared to 3° obtained with N2 above 13° (THAI feed oil. The fuel distillate fractions increased to 62% (N2, 20 bar, 65% (H2, 20 bar, and 71.8% (H2, 30 bar relative to 40.6% (THAI feed oil; while the coke contents of the catalyst after experiments were 35.3 wt % (N2, and 27.2 wt % (H2. It was also found that catalyst pore plugging and deactivation due to coke was significantly lower under hydrogen than with nitrogen; hence the catalyst is less susceptible to coke fouling when the upgrading reaction is carried out under hydrogen. The coke fouling further decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure while the API gravity of the upgraded oil marginally increases by 0.3° for every 10 bar increase in pressure from 20 to 40 bar.

  5. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  6. Coal upgrading based on the high temperature reactor - engineering and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Neis, H.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the high temperature reactor in the FRG was opened with the aim of economically producing electricity which might be achieved with the next project works. Moreover, the HTR supplies process heat of very high temperature which may be used with metallic heat exchangers in the range up to 1000 0 C. From these reasons and regarding the world power prospects and the special power situation in our own country, the FRG began to develop methods of upgrading fossil primary energy sources using high-temperature heat from the HTR about 15 years ago. Meanwhile great progress has been achieved in research, development and test works; the modules are developed to a great extent. Economical service is expected for future utilization of selected processes. Problems to be still accomplished are first of all related to system testing as well as further exhaustion of the HTR's temperature potential. The proposed extension of the AVR to some process heat facility offers the possibility of testing the system in a low-cost and accelerated manner. (author)

  7. Biomass gasification with steam and oxygen mixtures at pilot scale and with catalytic gas upgrading. Pt. 1: performance of the gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, M.A.; Caballero, M.A.; Olivares, A.; Perez, P.; Frances, E. [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Corella, J. [University `Complutense` of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Biomass gasification with steam + O{sub 2} mixtures is studied at small pilot plant (10-20 kg/h) scale. The gasifier used is a turbulent fluidised bed of 15 cm. i.d. and 3.3 m high. The pilot plant has a downstream slip flow to study the catalytic upgrading of the raw gas. A guard bed with dolomite and a catalytic bed with a steam reforming catalyst are used and eight different commercial catalysts have been tested to date. Product distribution from the gasifier, including gas proposition and tar content in the gas, are here shown in detail at different (steam + oxygen)/biomass and (H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2}) ratios and gasification temperatures (800-880{sup o}C). (author)

  8. Directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapor produced by prairie cordgrass pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 using a two stage reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking is one of the most promising processes for thermochemical conversion of biomass to advanced biofuels in recent years. However, current effectiveness of catalysts and conversion efficiency still remain challenges. An investigation of directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapors produced in prairie cordgrass (PCG pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5 in a two stage packed-bed reactor was carried out. The Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst was synthesized using an impregnation method. Fresh and used catalysts were characterized by BET and XRD. The effects of catalysts on pyrolysis products yields and quality were examined. Both catalysts improved bio-oil product distribution compared to non-catalytic treatment. When PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with absence of catalyst, the produced bio-oils contained higher alcohols (10.97% and furans (10.14%. In contrast, the bio-oils contained the second highest hydrocarbons (34.97%)and the highest phenols (46.97% when PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with Ni/HZSM-5. Bio-oils containing less ketones and aldehydes were produced by both Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5, but no ketones were found in Ni/HZSM-5 treatment compared to HZSM-5 (2.94%. The pyrolysis gas compositions were also affected by the presenting of HZSM-5 or Ni/HZSM-5 during the catalytic upgrading process. However, higher heating values and elemental compositions (C, H and N of bio-chars produced in all treatments had no significant difference.

  9. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  10. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  11. Catalytic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Hanafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of dealuminated Y-zeolites impregnated by 0.5 wt% Pt catalysts promoted by different amounts of Ni, Pd or Cr (0.3 and 0.6 wt% were prepared and characterized as hydrocracking catalysts. The physicochemical and structural characterization of the solid catalysts were investigated and reported through N2 physisorption, XRD, TGA-DSC, FT-IR and TEM techniques. Solid catalysts surface acidities were investigated through FT-IR spectroscopy aided by pyridine adsorption. The solid catalytic activities were evaluated through hydroconversion of n-hexane and n-heptane employing micro-catalytic pulse technique directly connected to a gas chromatograph analyzer. The thermal stability of the solids was also investigated up to 800 °C. Crystallinity studies using the XRD technique of all modified samples proved analogous to the parent Y-zeolite, exhibiting nearly an amorphous and microcrystalline character of the second metal oxides. Disclosure of bimetallic catalysts crystalline characterization, through XRD, was not viable. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms for all samples concluded type I adsorption isotherms, without any hysteresis loop, indicating that the entire pore system is composed of micropores. TEM micrographs of the solid catalysts demonstrate well-dispersed Pt, Ni and Cr nanoparticles having sizes of 2–4 nm and 7–8 nm, respectively. The catalytic activity results indicate that the bimetallic (0.5Pt–0.3Cr/D18H–Y catalyst is the most active towards n-hexane and n-heptane isomerization while (0.5Pt–0.6Ni/D18H–Y catalyst can be designed as most suitable as a cracking catalyst.

  12. Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 1: Hot gas upgrading by the catalytic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. of Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-01

    Commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts are used for hot gas cleaning and upgrading in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. The gasifier used was an atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed with an internal diameter of 15 cm and a total height of 3.2 m and was continuously fed with 5--20 kg of biomass/h. Eight different catalysts from four different manufacturers (BASF AG, TOPSOE A/S, ICI, and UCI) have been tested. They were located in a downflow fixed-bed reactor of 4 cm i.d. placed in a slip flow after the gasifier. A guard bed with a calcined dolomite was also used before the catalytic bed to decrease the tar content in the raw gas below the limit of 2 g of tar/m{sup 3}{sub n}, thus avoiding the catalyst deactivation by coke formation. The main variables studied were the temperature of the catalytic bed and the gas composition in the bed. Effects concerning tar elimination will be reported in part 2 of this work. This paper is mainly devoted to characterization of catalysts and to upgrading of the flue gas. H{sub 2} and CO contents increased by 4--14 and 1--8 vol%, dry basis, respectively. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and steam contents decreased by 0--14, 87--99, and 2--6 vol %, dry basis, respectively. Other parameters varied in the following ways: the lower heating value decreased by 0.3--1.7 MJ/m{sup 3}{sub n}, gas yield increased by 0.1--0.4 m{sup 3}{sub n}/kg of biomass daf, and apparent thermal efficiency increased by 1--20%. The results presented allow screening of the best catalysts to get an upgraded and useful gas in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures.

  13. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  14. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  15. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  16. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 8. Heteroatom Removal by Catalytic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mentioned previously, three liquid streams (rectisol naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil) are produced at the GPGP as a result of coal gasification...oil stream is compared to the profiles of JP-4 and JP-8 in Figure 1. As recovered, the tar oil stream is somewhat variable, depending on coal ...insolubles (0.5 micron filter). phenols or cresylic acids. The remaining two-thirds of the tar oil stream could be hydrotreated to produce jet fuel

  17. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Macro-Mesoporous Aluminosilicates for Catalytic Steam Gasification of Heavy Oil Fractions for On-Site Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam gasification of extra-heavy oil (EHO fractions was studied using functionalized aluminosilicates, with NiO, MoO3, and/or CoO nanoparticles with the aim of evaluating the synergistic effect between active phase and the support in heavy oil on-site upgrading. Catalysts were characterized by chemical composition through X-ray Fluorescence, surface area, and pore size distribution through N2 adsorption/desorption, catalyst acidity by temperature programmed desorption (TPD, and metal dispersion by pulse H2 chemisorption. Batch adsorption experiments and catalytic steam gasification of adsorbed heavy fractions was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis and were performed with heavy oil model solutions of asphaltenes and resins (R–A in toluene. Effective activation energy estimation was used to determine the catalytic effect of the catalyst in steam gasification of Colombian EHO. Additionally, R–A decomposition under inert atmosphere was conducted for the evaluation of oil components reactions with active phases and steam atmosphere. The presence of a bimetallic active phase Inc.reases the decomposition of the heavy compounds at low temperature by an increase in the aliphatic chains decomposition and the dissociation of heteroatoms bonds. Also, coke formation after steam gasification process is reduced by the application of the bimetallic catalyst yielding a conversion greater than 93%.

  18. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  19. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  1. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Negative Effect of Calcination to Catalytic Performance of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 Catalyst in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Nurhadi, M., Kusumawardani, R., Nur, H. (2018. Negative Effect of Calcination to Catalytic Performance of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 Catalyst in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 113-118 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1171.113-118

  3. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles supported on mesoporous N-doped carbon and their catalytic ability for biofuel upgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Li, Yi; Gong, Yutong; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haoran; Wang, Yong

    2012-10-17

    We report a catalyst made of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on mesoporous N-doped carbon, Pd@CN(0132), which was shown to be highly active in promoting biomass refining. The use of a task-specific ionic liquid (3-methyl-1-butylpyridine dicyanamide) as a precursor and silica NPs as a hard template afforded a high-nitrogen-content (12 wt %) mesoporous carbon material that showed high activity in stabilizing Pd NPs. The resulting Pd@CN(0.132) catalyst showed very high catalytic activity in hydrodeoxygenation of vanillin (a typical model compound of lignin) at low H(2) pressure under mild conditions in aqueous media. Excellent catalytic results (100% conversion of vanillin and 100% selectivity for 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol) were achieved, and no loss of catalytic activity was observed after six recycles.

  4. Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Aromatic Fuels and High Value Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortright, Randy [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Rozmiarek, Bob [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Van Straten, Matt [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-28

    The principal objective of this project was to develop a fully integrated catalytic process that efficiently converts lignocellulosic feedstocks (e.g. bagasse, corn stover, and loblolly pine) into aromatic-rich fuels and chemicals. Virent led this effort with key feedstock support from Iowa State University. Within this project, Virent leveraged knowledge of catalytic processing of sugars and biomass to investigate two liquefaction technologies (Reductive Catalytic Liquefaction (USA Patent No. 9,212,320, 2015) and Solvolysis (USA Patent No. 9,157,030, 2015) (USA Patent No. 9,157,031, 2015)) that take advantage of proprietary catalysts at temperatures less than 300°C in the presence of unique solvent molecules generated in-situ within the liquefaction processes.

  5. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  6. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  8. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  9. Pyrolysis of marine biomass to produce bio-oil and its upgrading using a novel multi-metal catalyst prepared from the spent car catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabegh, Mahzad Yaghmaei; Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Khosh, Akram Ghanbari; Tavasoli, Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    In order to reduce the economic and environmental consequences caused by spent car catalyst, we herein report for the first time a novel promising multi-metal catalyst prepared from spent car catalytic converters to upgrade the pyrolysis bio-oils. The physico-chemical properties of prepared catalyst were characterized by XRD, EDS, FESEM, and FT-IR analyses. The thermal stability of the multi-metal catalyst was studied with TGA. To investigate the activity of the catalyst, Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) into bio-products was carried out via a fixed bed reactor with and without catalyst at the temperature of 500°C. Although the catalyst didn't catalyze the gasification reaction, bio-oil was upgraded over the catalyst. The main effect of the catalyst on the bio-oil components is deoxygenating of nitrogen compounds and promotion the ketonization reaction, which converts acid to ketone and declines the corrosive nature of bio-oil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. In situ catalytic hydrogenation of model compounds and biomass-derived phenolic compounds for bio-oil upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Zhongzhi Yang; Chung-yun Hse; Qiuli Su; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The renewable phenolic compounds produced by directional liquefaction of biomass are a mixture of complete fragments decomposed from native lignin. These compounds are unstable and difficult to use directly as biofuel. Here, we report an efficient in situ catalytic hydrogenation method that can convert phenolic compounds into saturated cyclohexanes. The process has...

  11. Catalytic upgrading of sugar fractions from pyrolysis oils in supercritical mono-alcohols over Cu doped porous metal oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang; Venderbosch, Hendrikus; Bottari, Giovanni; Krawzcyk, Krzysztof K.; Barta, Katalin; Heeres, Hero Jan

    In this work, we report on the catalytic valorization of sugar fractions, obtained by aqueous phase extraction of fast pyrolysis oils, in supercritical methanol (scMeOH) and ethanol (scEtOH) over a copper doped porous metal oxide (Cu-PMO). The product mixtures obtained are, in principle, suitable

  12. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified coal char from low-rank coal by sulfonation, titanium impregnation and followed by alkyl silylation possesses high catalytic activity in styrene oxidation. The surface of coal char was undergone several steps as such: modification using concentrated sulfuric acid in the sulfonation process, impregnation of 500 mmol titanium(IV isopropoxide and followed by alkyl silylation of n-octadecyltriclorosilane (OTS. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and hydrophobicity. The catalytic activity of the catalysts has been examined in the liquid phase styrene oxidation by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the alkyl silylation could enhance the catalytic activity of Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0. High catalytic activity and reusability of the o-Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0 were related to the modification of local environment of titanium active sites and the enhancement the hydrophobicity of catalyst particle by alkyl silylation. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 24th May 2016; Revised: 11st October 2016; Accepted: 18th October 2016 How to Cite: Nurhadi, M. (2017. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 55-61 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61

  13. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ex-situ catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and polypropylene to upgrade bio-oil quality by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dengle; Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Ruan, Roger; Zhao, Yunfeng; Fan, Liangliang; Tayier, Maimaitiaili; Liu, Yuhuan

    2017-10-01

    Microwave-assisted fast co-pyrolysis of lignin and polypropylene for bio-oil production was conducted using the ex-situ catalysis technology. Effects of catalytic temperature, feedstock/catalyst ratio, and lignin/polypropylene ratio on product distribution and chemical components of bio-oil were investigated. The catalytic temperature of 250°C was the most conducive to bio-oil production in terms of the yield. The bio-oil yield decreased with the addition of catalyst during ex-situ catalytic co-pyrolysis. When the feedstock/catalyst ratio was 2:1, the minimum char and coke values were 21.22% and 1.54%, respectively. The proportion of cycloalkanes decreased and the aromatics increased with the increasing catalyst loading. A positive synergistic effect was observed between lignin and polypropylene. The char yield dramatically deceased and the bio-oil yield improved during co-pyrolysis compared with those during lignin pyrolysis alone. The proportion of oxygenates dramatically and the minimum value of 6.74% was obtained when the lignin/polypropylene ratio was 1:1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Catalytic Upgrading of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to Drop-in Biofuels by Solid Base and Bifunctional Metal-Acid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohre, Ashish; Saha, Basudeb; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-12-07

    Design and synthesis of effective heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of biomass intermediates into long chain hydrocarbon precursors and their subsequent deoxygenation to hydrocarbons is a viable strategy for upgrading lignocellulose into distillate range drop-in biofuels. Herein, we report a two-step process for upgrading 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to C9 and C11 fuels with high yield and selectivity. The first step involves aldol condensation of HMF and acetone with a water tolerant solid base catalyst, zirconium carbonate (Zr(CO3 )x ), which gave 92 % C9 -aldol product with high selectivity at nearly 100 % HMF conversion. The as-synthesised Zr(CO3 )x was analysed by several analytical methods for elucidating its structural properties. Recyclability studies of Zr(CO3 )x revealed a negligible loss of its activity after five consecutive cycles over 120 h of operation. Isolated aldol product from the first step was hydrodeoxygenated with a bifunctional Pd/Zeolite-β catalyst in ethanol, which showed quantitative conversion of the aldol product to n-nonane and 1-ethoxynonane with 40 and 56 % selectivity, respectively. 1-Ethoxynonane, a low oxygenate diesel range fuel, which we report for the first time in this paper, is believed to form through etherification of the hydroxymethyl group of the aldol product with ethanol followed by opening of the furan ring and hydrodeoxygenation of the ether intermediate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan

    The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the

  17. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapors with Nano Metal Oxides: An Analytical Py-GC/MS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis of poplar wood followed with catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors was performed using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The catalysts applied in this study were nano MgO, CaO, TiO2, Fe2O3, NiO and ZnO. These catalysts displayed different catalytic capabilities towards the pyrolytic products. The catalysis by CaO significantly reduced the levels of phenols and anhydrosugars, and eliminated the acids, while it increased the formation of cyclopentanones, hydrocarbons and several light compounds. ZnO was a mild catalyst, as it only slightly altered the pyrolytic products. The other four catalysts all decreased the linear aldehydes dramatically, while the increased the ketones and cyclopentanones. They also reduced the anhydrosugars, except for NiO. Moreover, the catalysis by Fe2O3 resulted in the formation of various hydrocarbons. However, none of these catalysts except CaO were able to greatly reduce the acids.

  18. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  19. Recent increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electric generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    The most effective control technology available for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired boilers is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Installation of SCR on coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) has grown substantially since the onset of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) first cap and trade program for oxides of nitrogen in 1999, the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program. Installations have increased from 6 units present in 1998 in the states that encompass the current Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) ozone season program to 250 in 2014. In recent years, however, the degree of usage of installed SCR technology has been dropping significantly at individual plants. Average seasonal NOx emission rates increased substantially during the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) program. These increases coincided with a collapse in the cost of CAIR allowances, which declined to less than the cost of the reagent required to operate installed SCR equipment, and was accompanied by a 77% decline in delivered natural gas prices from their peak in June of 2008 to April 2012, which in turn coincided with a 390% increase in shale gas production between 2008 and 2012. These years also witnessed a decline in national electric generation which, after peaking in 2007, declined through 2013 at an annualized rate of -0.3%. Scaling back the use of installed SCR on coal-fired plants has resulted in the release of over 290,000 tons of avoidable NOx during the past five ozone seasons in the states that participated in the CAIR program. To function as designed, a cap and trade program must maintain allowance costs that function as a disincentive for the release of the air pollutants that the program seeks to control. If the principle incentive for reducing NOx emissions is the avoidance of allowance costs, emissions may be expected to increase if costs fall below a critical value, in the absence of additional state or federal

  20. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  1. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  3. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  5. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  6. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative

  7. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1991-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines or ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes and/or Lewis acids under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics do transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, with the aid of homogeneous, bimetallic catalysts, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  8. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  9. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system three-dimensional catalytic electro-Fenton (3DCEF, catalyst of sewage sludge based activated carbon which loaded Fe3O4) integrating with membrane bioreactor (3DCEF-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. The results indicated that 3DCEF-MBR represented high efficiencies in eliminating COD and total organic carbon, giving the maximum removal efficiencies of 80% and 75%, respectively. The integrated 3DCEF-MBR system significantly reduced the transmembrane pressure, giving 35% lower than conventional MBR after 30 days operation. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation and bacteria self repair function were the mechanisms for 3DCEF-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated 3DCEF-MBR was expected to be the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Soft-chemical synthesis and catalytic activity of Ni-Al and Co-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs intercalated with anions with different charge density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Takei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-Al and Ni-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs intercalated with three types of anionic molecules, dodecylsulfate (C12H25SO4−, DS, di-2-ethylsulfosuccinate ([COOC2H3EtBu]2C2H3SO3−, D2ES, and polytungstate (H2W12O4210−, HWO were prepared by means of ion-exchange and co-precipitation processes. With the use of DS and D2ES as intercalation agents, high crystallinity was maintained after intercalation into the LDHs. In the case of HWO, the intercalated LDHs could be obtained by ion-exchange as well as co-precipitation with a decline in the crystallinity; however, unreacted LDH was detected in the ion-exchange samples, and some unwanted phases such as hydroxide and pyrochlore were generated by the co-precipitation process. The maximum specific surface area and pore volume of the Ni-Al sample with intercalated HWO, prepared by the ion-exchange process were 74 m2/g and 0.174 mL/g, respectively. The occupancies of DS, D2ES, and HWO within the interlayer space were approximately 0.3–0.4, 0.5–0.6, and 0.1–0.2, respectively, in the Co-Al and Ni-Al LDHs. Analysis of the catalytic activity demonstrated that the DS-intercalated Ni-Al LDH sample exhibited relatively good catalytic activity for conversion of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone.

  11. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Quarterly summary, June 1, 1991--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1991-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines or ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes and/or Lewis acids under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics do transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, with the aid of homogeneous, bimetallic catalysts, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  12. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalytic Depolymerization and Upgrading of Lignin for Vanillin Production: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-545

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Examine catalytic conversion of lignin using multifunctional catalysts that are able to depolymerize and oxidize lignin to a vanillin-rich stream. Examine separation processes for isolation of vanillin from product mixtures. Conduct preliminary experiments to determine if deconstructed lignin streams can be metabolized by Pseudomonas putida.

  14. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1996 survey for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the coal infrastructure propagation in Indonesia; 1996 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan infura seibi chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Phase 1 survey in fiscal 1996 was conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In the survey, conducted were collection of data on coal fields and site surveys, collection of data on inland transportation and site surveys, collection of data on harbors and site surveys, and worked out were a simplified database and a coal transportation plan by optimization of the coal chain system. The area for survey is the periphery of the Musi River of South Sumatra. The results of the simulation by LP models were as follows: When the coal of Bukit Asam coal mine is $25/t in price, only coal of 5500Kcal/kg is profitable, and when $27/t in price, coal of 4500Kcal/kg also becomes profitable. This shows that if the coal is of good quality, it can pay arriving at Suralaya, independent of the distance of transportation. 47 figs., 63 tabs.

  16. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Influence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installations on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Fajardo, Oscar A; Deng, Jianguo; Duan, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies have been widely used to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs). Field measurements of emission characteristics of four conventional CFPPs indicated a significant increase in particulate ionic species, increasing PM 2.5 emission with FGD and SCR installations. The mean concentrations of PM 2.5 from all CFPPs tested were 3.79 ± 1.37 mg/m 3 and 5.02 ± 1.73 mg/m 3 at the FGD inlet and outlet, respectively, and the corresponding contributions of ionic species were 19.1 ± 7.7% and 38.2 ± 7.8%, respectively. The FGD was found to enhance the conversion of NH 3 slip from the SCR to NH 4 + in the PM 2.5 , together with the conversion of SO 2 to SO 4 2- , and increased the primary NH 4 + and SO 4 2- aerosol emissions by approximately 18.9 and 4.2 times, respectively. This adverse effect should be considered when updating the emission inventory of CFPPs and should draw the attention of policy-makers for future air pollution control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Some retrofit considerations for revitalizing and upgrading the Oji-River coal-fired thermal power station for service in 21st century Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguejofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this article is to show that in the context of sustainable development, coal and its downstream power generation industry could complement petroleum and hydroelectric industries in the national power generation scheme. The continued utilization of coal in power generation schemes in the world as well as environmental pollution caused by other fossil fuels were examined. These were presented as justifications for the proposed reintegration of coal as a complement to hydropower and oil/gas sources of electric energy in Nigeria. The scheme of power generation in the Oji-River thermal station was reviewed to enhance the appreciation of the retrofit models to be presented for the revitalization of the plant. Subsequently, two sustainable development retrofit models were considered for the revitalization of the Oji-River thermal power station and enhanced industrial civilization of the Oji neighbourhood. To ensure self-sufficiency, the paper shows how the two retrofit models depend on abundant locally available resources, namely, coal, limestone, water and air.

  19. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  20. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  1. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  2. Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

  3. NOCA upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The network operations control area (NOCA) of the space flight operations facility (SFOF) is being upgraded in both hardware and software capabilities to provide the visibility and operability necessary for the operations control function to be performed within the present technological environment of the tracking network. The hardware implementation currently in progress is addressed. It provides a standard operating console with increased display capacity and improved ergonomics as a replacement for the existing, outmoded, circular consoles original to the SFOF.

  4. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  5. Pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to upgrade woody biomass pyrolysis bio-oil into transportation fuels by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation : (HDO) using nanospring (NS) supported catalyst via the following research objectives: (1) develop nanospring-based : catalysts (nan...

  6. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  7. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly ash in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Martinez, L.S.; Baum, B.M.; Galeano, V.C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of pulverized-coal-fired power plants (PCFPP) are usually regarded as fuel range in terms of sulphur and ash contents. These units may give severe environmental problems of fly ash emissions as a result of lower SO{sub 3} contents in the flue gas (FG) because the electrical resistivity of the solid particles is correspondingly lower, with consequent adverse effects on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency. More stringent air pollution laws cause many power companies to burn lower sulphur coal under boilers in plants that formerly burned higher S coal or ran with abnormal operational conditions (only remediable by shutdown and repairs). This presentation of the GASOX process is a contribution to the improvement of existing technology for flue gas conditioning (FGC), which is defined as a control system for (ESP) efficiency in PCFPP.

  8. NIMROD Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuenschel, S.; Hagel, K.; Kohley, Z.; May, L.; Natowitz, J. B.; Wada, R.; Yennello, S. J.

    2007-10-01

    The 4 pi detection array NIMROD has been recently upgraded. The upgrade increased granularity in the backward direction and improved Si coverage. NIMROD is now composed of 10 forward annular rings (˜3-90 degrees) and a hemisphere of the ISiS array (90-176 degrees). There is complete Si coverage in the regions of 3-45 and 90-176 degrees. The forward region is composed of ten telescopes of 300 micron Si and CsI as well as two super telescopes of 150 and 500 micron Si with CsI per ring. The ISiS portion has complete Si coverage in the form of 500 micron Si with the CsI. Additionally, modular treatment of signals has been implemented. Handling signals in this way retains the telescope grouping of detectors in the electronics as long as possible. Towards this end, motherboards holding Zepto System preamplifiers were installed on the reaction chamber for preamplification of the Si signals at the earliest opportunity. The improved detector system has been used in a first experiment with 86,78Kr+64,58Ni systems. Performance of the detector system during the experiment will be presented.

  9. Influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of ag /gama-al/sub 2/o/sub 3/ for hydrogenation of coal slime pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Rong, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper, introducing variable conditional factors with Ag/AL/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst, selects five variables to investigate the influences of experimental conditions on Ag/Al2O/sub 3/ catalytic activity and define the optimal process conditions. These variables include Ag loading amount, calcinations temperature, calcinations time, reduction temperature, reduction time. X ray diffraction (XRD), hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to characterize the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, active center structure and state and those of carrier were emphatically studied, In the meantime the effects of active center and carrier on catalytic activity are studied. The results showed that: (1) In the range of 600 degree C-900 degree C, the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with different loading showed little difference when changing loading amount, in the range of 900 degree C-1100 degree C, when the loading was 5%, the catalytic activity was very high; From the XRD and SEM characterizations, when the loading was 5%, it showed strong intensity diffraction peak of Ag crystal, crystal Ag is the most important activity center to promote hydrogen yield. (2) the catalytic activity of Ag/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at 450 degree C was considerably higher than that at 400 degree C and 500 degree C. By BET, XRD and SEM characterization, it can be seen, the diffraction peaks intensity of Ag crystal at 450 degree C is higher and sharper than that at 400 degree C and 500 degree C and with the increase of calcinations temperature, the specific surface area of catalysts also increased. (3) In the range of 600 degree C - 1000 degree C, the effects of calcinations time can be negligible, while, with temperature higher than 1000 degree C, 4-hour-calcinations-time catalyst exhibits a more noticeable catalytic activity than 3-hour and 5-hour catalyst do; From the XRD

  10. Effects of microwave irradiation treatment on physicochemical characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Lichao; Zhang, Yanwei; Wang, Zhihua; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Typical Chinese lignites with various ranks are upgraded through microwave. • The pore distribution extends to micropore region, BET area and volume increase. • FTIR show the change of microstructure and improvement in coal rank after upgrading. • Upgraded coals exhibit weak combustion similar to Da Tong bituminous coal. • More evident effects are obtained for raw brown coal with relative lower rank. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of microwave irradiation treatment on coal composition, pore structure, coal rank, function groups, and combustion characteristics of typical Chinese low-rank coals. Results showed that the upgrading process (microwave irradiation treatment) significantly reduced the coals’ inherent moisture, and increased their calorific value and fixed carbon content. It was also found that the upgrading process generated micropores and increased pore volume and surface area of the coals. Results on the oxygen/carbon ratio parameter indicated that the low-rank coals were upgraded to high-rank coals after the upgrading process, which is in agreement with the findings from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Unstable components in the coal were converted into stable components during the upgrading process. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that the combustion processes of upgraded coals were delayed toward the high-temperature region, the ignition and burnout temperatures increased, and the comprehensive combustion parameter decreased. Compared with raw brown coals, the upgraded coals exhibited weak combustion characteristics similar to bituminous coal. The changes in physicochemical characteristics became more notable when processing temperature increased from 130 °C to 160 °C or the rank of raw brown coal was lower. Microwave irradiation treatment could be considered as an effective dewatering and upgrading process

  11. Role of fuel upgrading for industry and residential heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Gentile, R.H. [KFx Atlantic Partners, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Koppleman Series C Process is presently being used in pilot plant tests with Wyoming coal to upgrade the Powder River Basin coal containing 30 wt% moisture and having a heating value of 8100 Btu/lb to a product containing less than 1 wt% moisture and having a heating value of 12,200 Btu/lb. This process is described.

  12. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  13. Catalytic cracking with deasphalted oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, W.I.; Taylor, J.L.; Peck, L.B.; Mosby, J.F.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic cracking process. It comprises: hydrotreating resid; thereafter deasphalting the hydrotreated resid to produce substantially deasphalted oil; catalytically cracking the hydrotreated oil in a catalytic cracking unit in the presence of a cracking catalyst to produce upgraded oil leaving coked catalyst; and regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of a combustion-supporting gas comprising excess molecular oxygen in an amount greater than the stoichiometric amount required for substantially completely combusting the coke on the catalyst to carbon dioxide.

  14. Study of the Feasibility of a Coal-to-Liquids Plant in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Syngas Treatment – Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Synthesis & Upgrading...200 MW of electricity to export – Export waste heat for district heating – Use of technologies that recover as much waste heat as possible in the...Separation Unit Coal Preparation Gasifier Syngas Treatment F-T and Upgrading Power Generation oxygen dried coal or slurried coal raw syngas syngas

  15. Effect of properties of iron compounds on the catalytic activity in direct coal liquefaction; Tetsu kagobutsu no keitai to sekitan ekika kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shimasaki, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    When considering merchandising scale of the coal liquefaction process, it is a preliminary condition that metal used for its catalyst is rich in resource volume, cheap in production cost, without pollution, and so forth, and application of cheap iron ore and ferrous compounds to disposable catalyst is desired. As liquefaction activity of the iron ore was hitherto improved by its micro crushing, its mechanical crush had a limit of about 2 {mu}m in mean particle diameter. However, together with recent crushing technique, crushers with high performance were developed, and then micro crushing by sub-micron became possible industri8ally even for iron ore. In this study, three kinds of Australian iron ores such as limonite of ferric hydroxide type iron ore, pyrite of ferrous sulfide type, and hematite of ferric oxide type were micro crushed to examine coal liquefaction activity and hydrogenation reaction activity of 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) and also relationship between properties and activity of catalyst for the latter before and after reaction. 11 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept - Task 2: Evaluation of Process Steps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    A novel direct coal liquefaction technology is being investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates under DOE Contract DE-AC22-95PC95050. The novel concept consists of a new approach to coal liquefaction chemistry which avoids some of the inherent limitations of current high-temperature thermal liquefaction processes. The chemistry employed is based on hydride ion donation to solubilize coal at temperatures (350-400{degrees}C) significantly lower than those typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. The process concept being explored consists of two reaction stages. In the first stage, the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second, the products are catalytically upgraded to acceptable refinery feedstocks. The program explores not only the initial solubilization step, but integration of the subsequent processing steps, including an interstage solids-separation step, to produce distillate products. A unique feature of the process concept is that many of the individual reaction steps can be decoupled, because little recycle around the liquefaction system is expected. This allows for considerable latitude in the process design. Furthermore, this has allowed for each key element in the process to be explored independently in laboratory work conducted under Task 2 of the program.

  18. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  19. Influences of Different Preparation Conditions on Catalytic Activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 for Hydrogenation of Coal Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of catalysts of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was prepared by equivalent volume impregnation method. The effects of the metal loading, calcination time, and calcination temperatures of Ag and Co, respectively, on the catalytic activity were investigated. The optimum preparing condition of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was decided, and then the influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was analyzed. The results showed the following: (1 at the same preparation condition, when silver loading was 8%, the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 showed higher catalyst activity, (2 the catalyst activity had obviously improved when the cobalt loading was 8%, while it was weaker at loadings 5% and 10%, (3 the catalyst activity was influenced by different calcination temperatures of silver, but the influences were not marked, (4 the catalyst activity can be influenced by calcination time of silver, (5 different calcination times of cobalt can also influence the catalyst activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3, and (6 the best preparation conditions of the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 were silver loading of 8%, calcination temperature of silver of 450°C, and calcinations time of silver of 4 h, while at the same time the cobalt loading was 8%, the calcination temperature of cobalt was 450°C, and calcination time of cobalt was 4 h.

  20. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  1. Influence of the hydrothermal dewatering on the combustion characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Lichao; Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Chang; Wang, Zhihua; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of hydrothermal dewatering performed at different temperatures on the combustion characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals with different coalification maturities. It was found that the upgrading process significantly decreased the inherent moisture and oxygen content, increased the calorific value and fixed carbon content, and promoted the damage of the hydrophilic oxygen functional groups. The results of oxygen/carbon atomic ratio indicated that the upgrading process converted the low-rank coals near to high-rank coals which can also be gained using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the combustion processes of upgraded coals were delayed toward the high temperature region, and the upgraded coals had higher ignition and burnout temperature. On the other hand, based on the higher average combustion rate and comprehensive combustion parameter, the upgraded coals performed better compared with raw brown coals and the Da Tong bituminous coal. In ignition segment, the activation energy increased after treatment but decreased in the combustion stage. The changes in coal compositions, microstructure, rank, and combustion characteristics were more notable as the temperature in hydrothermal dewatering increased from 250 to 300 °C or coals of lower ranks were used. - Highlights: • Typical Chinese lignites with various ranks are upgraded by hydrothermal dewatering. • Upgraded coals exhibit chemical compositions comparable with that of bituminous coal. • FTIR show the change of microstructure and improvement in coal rank after upgrading. • Upgraded coals exhibit difficulty in ignition but combust easily. • More evident effects are obtained for raw brown coal with relative lower rank.

  2. Upgrading Uncompetitive Products Economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    the k products in T that can be upgraded to not be dominated by any products in P at the lowest cost. This problem is non-trivial due to not only the large data set sizes, but also to the many possibilities for upgrading a product. We identify and provide solutions for the different options...... for upgrading an uncompetitive product, and combine the solutions into a single solution. We also propose a spatial join-based solution that assumes P and T are indexed by an R-tree. Given a set of products in the same R-tree node, we derive three lower bounds on their upgrading costs. These bounds are employed...... by the join approach to prune upgrade candidates with uncompetitive upgrade costs. Empirical studies with synthetic and real data show that the join approach is efficient and scalable....

  3. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  4. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  5. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans

  6. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, Susila; Tang, Y.N.

    1994-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans. ((orig.))

  7. NSLS control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-12-31

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans.

  8. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  9. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Description of Accomplishments 6 Project Overview 6 Fuel Production 6 Coal - tar Blending 6 Solvent Extraction of Coals 7 Co-coking 10 Fuel Stability 12...site source with a suitable refinery stream, followed by hydrotreating the blend and distilling; adding coal to the feed being sent to a delayed coker...followed by hydrotreating the coker liquids and distilling; and "co-processing," the catalytic hydrogenation of a slurry of coal in a petroleum stream

  10. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  11. Upgrading of Gasification Gases by means of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor: WGS Catalysts and Inorganic Palladium Membranes HENRECA Project (ENE2004-07758-CO2-01). Final Report; Estudios de Enriquecimiento en H{sub 2} de Gases de Gasificacion mediante el Uso Reactor Catalitico de Membranas: Catalizadores WGS y Membranas Inorganicas de Paladio. Informe Final Proyecto HENRECA (ENE2004-07758-C02-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Barreiro Carou, M. del

    2008-07-01

    The combination of a CO catalytic converter with a highly hydrogen selective membrane out stands as a very promising technology for the upgrading of biomass gasification gases. The advantages of this combined system over the traditional two stages WGS technology has been investigated within the HENRECA project, financed under the Spanish PN 2004-2007 of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This project started in September 2004 and had a duration of three years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in three main activities: the study of the catalytic activity of WGS catalysts synthesised by the other partner of the project (University Rey Juan Carlos), the design of the reaction-separation system and the design and construction of a bench-scale pilot plant where the performance of the membranes prepared by URJC and the catalytic membrane system were investigated. This report describes the activities carried out within the project and the main results obtained. (Author) 14 ref.

  12. Maputo Port traffic boosted by South African coal exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    Volumes through the Port of Maputo in Southern Mozambique have increased steadily over the last two years, with transport traffic in export coals from South Africa showing a two and a half times increase. This article describes facilities at the dedicated coal handling terminal which has recently been upgraded. Major users of the facilities are outlined.

  13. Coal liquefaction co-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafis, D. A.; Humbach, M. J. [UOP, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA); Gatsis, J. G. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA). Engineered Materials Research Center

    1988-09-19

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is used to enhance operations at moderate reaction conditions. A three-year research program has been completed to study the feasibility of this technology. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardini, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2018, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10$^{33}$/cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead-time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  15. Optics upgrade for switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

  16. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  17. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-01-23

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  18. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  19. The LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piucci, Alessio

    2017-07-01

    During the LHC Run 1 the LHCb experiment has successfully performed a large number of high precision measurements in heavy flavour physics using 3 fb-1 of data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV. In LHC Run 2 the LHCb is expected to integrate an additional 5 fb-1 data, however many of the measurements will remain limited by statistics. For this reason LHCb will undergo in 2020 a major upgrade during the Long Shutdown 2 of LHC, with the aim to collect 50 fb-1 of data by 2028. To achieve this goal the LHCb detector readout rate will be upgraded from the current 1 MHz to the LHC bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. The luminosity delivered to the experiment will increase by a factor five, up to 2 ṡ 1033 cm-2 s-1. The online selection of events will be uniquely performed by a pure software trigger, improving the trigger efficiencies. In order to sustain the increased luminosity and readout rate, all the sub-detectors will be upgraded. The architecture of the upgraded DAQ system and trigger strategy will be presented, as well an overview of the sub-detector upgrades.

  20. Transportable upgraded crude : Aquaconversion technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, R.; Rojas, J.D.; Zacarias, L.; Delgado, O.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Martinez, S.; Segovia, X.; Pena, J.P.; Granadillo, F.; Jamal, A.; De Pablos, C.; Medina, H.; Delgado, A.; Obregon, Y. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Residue and Heavy Crude Processing Dept.; Argenis, H.; Breindembach, J.A.; Urbina, N. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Analytic Dept.; Negrin, M. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Pilot Plant Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The vast reserves of extra-heavy crude oil in Venezuela require lower-capital-cost technologies to make them available to the oil market. Most heavy oil commercialization in Venezuela is done by dilution. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) Intevep has developed Aquaconversion, a catalytic steam conversion process capable of converting residue and heavy or extra-heavy crude oil in the producing field into transportable upgraded crude, thus reducing the use of light crude as diluents which can be valued in the market. The process produces higher residue conversion at the same product stability compared with other thermal conversion process such as visbreaking. For this purpose, Aquaconversion requires the addition of a water steam and the presence of a catalytic component that can be added as homogeneous chemical additives. This paper provided background information on the Orinoco oil belt and the thermal cracking process and Aquaconversion technology. Applications of the technology were also described with particular reference to wellhead use for making transportable upgraded crude, and the refinery application to replace visbreaking units. It was concluded that Aquaconversion technology is better than the visbreaking process because it reduces dehydrogenation and condensation reactions, increasing the product stability which increases the reaction temperature and vacuum residue conversion. It also reduces viscosity. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. OMEGA upgrade staging options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.H.; Shoup, M.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how they are designing an upgrade to its 24-beam OMEGA laser system, OMEGA is a frequency tripled, all-rod system capable of producing 2 kJ at 0.8 ns on target. Important direct-drive-target-ignition physics could be investigated with an upgraded system capable of producing a shaped pulse consisting of a long (5ns) low-intensity, foot, smoothly transitioning into a short (0.5 ns), intense, compression pulse. The total pulse energy is 30 kJ, which, from target-irradiation uniformity considerations, must be distributed over 60 beams

  2. The UKIRT Upgrades Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Andy; Davies, John; Robson, Ian

    Tim Hawarden presented this paper to the 30th anniversary workshop, just a month before his untimely death. The editors have done their best to convert his talk into this paper, and gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Nick Rees (a member of the Upgrades team, now at Diamond Light Source). Tim's discussion concerned the UKIRT Upgrades Project, which ran through the 1990s and transformed the telescope and made it truly competitive on the world stage for operation into the twenty-first century. The reference list at the end of the paper is comprehensive; some of these are referred to in the paper itself and some are included for completeness only.

  3. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  4. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  5. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  6. LHCb VELO upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Karol; LHCb VELO Upgrade Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm-2 s-1. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 μm2 pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The foil will be manufactured through milling and possibly thinned further by chemical etching. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates. The current status of the VELO upgrade is described and latest results from operation of irradiated sensor assemblies are presented.

  7. Upgrade of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  8. Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kai; Lafleur, Todd; Wu, Xu; Chai, Jiajue; Wu, Guosheng; Xie, Xianmei

    2015-04-25

    Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone (GVL), produced from renewable cellulosic biomass, with selective conversion to biofuels pentyl valerate (PV) and pentane in one pot using a bifunctional Pd/HY catalyst is described. Excellent catalytic performance (over 99% conversion of GVL, 60.6% yield of PV and 22.9% yield of pentane) was achieved in one step. These biofuels can be targeted for gasoline and jet fuel applications.

  9. Novel electrochemical process for coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1989-07-01

    The feasibility of two distinctly different routes to coal conversion at low severity conditions was investigated. An electrochemical approach utilizing both the electro-oxidation and electro-reduction routes was employed. The electro-oxidation route consists of an electrochemical reaction involving H{sub 2}O and coal, leading to the breakup of coal molecules. The observed reaction rate has been explained as a combination of the coal and pyrite electro-oxidation currents. Organic sulfur has been identified as the contributing factor for the observation of more than 100% H{sub 2} production current efficiency with several coal samples. Also, an attractive coal pre-treatment process has been identified which results in production of useful products and simultaneous upgrading of the coal. Electrochemical oxidation of coal with H{sub 2}O leads to the production of hydrogen, CO{sub 2}, simultaneous removal of pyritic sulfur, and significant reduction of ash content. There is also indirect evidence that the organic sulfur may be removed in the process. A preliminary economic evaluation of this process has projected a cost advantage of > $8 per ton of Illinois {number sign}2 coal. A lab-scale cell has been successfully employed in this study for generating process data useful for future design calculations. This study also explored the electro-reduction route of coal conversion and has successfully demonstrated production of liquid products from different coal types at low severity conditions. A variety of aliphatic and aromatic compounds have been identified in the products. Coal type appeared to be the most important parameter affecting the product spectrum. 32 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7~TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  11. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00575876

    2011-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  12. Improvement of devolatilization and control of low-temperature oxidation by vacuum drying and tar coating treatments of low-rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidin; Ogaki, Y.; Nakata, Y.; Usui, H. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Graduate School for Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Upgrading of low-rank coal by means of a combined process of vacuum drying and tar coating has been conducted in order to suppress low-temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal. Some advantages on improvement of devolatilization and control of low-temperature oxidation have been observed. This upgrading technique was able to produce the upgraded coals comparable to bituminous coal particularly in moisture, volatile matter and carbon contents. Total weight loss and devolatilization significantly increased with an increase of the upgrading temperature, from 29.5 and 10.5%, respectively at 200{sup o}C to 36.5 and 21.9%, respectively, at 300{sup o}C. Moreover, upgraded coals showed a lower propensity to oxygen attack and low-temperature oxidation.

  13. Optimizing pyrolysis gasoline upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupard, V.; Cosyns, J.; Debuisschert, Q.; Travers, Ph. [Axens (France). Kinetics and Catalysis Div.

    2002-06-01

    Stringent environmental regulations for European Gasoline will mean decrease in Pygas in Gasoline pool. Pygas upgrading routes have been developed to produce added value products such as dicyclopentadiene, cyclopentane, improved olefin cracking stocks and desulfurized aromatic streams. Examples will be presented with Economics. New generation Nickel/Palladium catalysts in the 1{sup st} stage Pygas hydrogenation units will be discussed related to increasing capacity and service life. (orig.)

  14. LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Karol

    2017-02-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×10{sup 33} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 μm{sup 2} pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The foil will be manufactured through milling and possibly thinned further by chemical etching. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO{sub 2} coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates. The current status of the VELO upgrade is described and latest results from operation of irradiated sensor assemblies are presented.

  15. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of $2\\times10^{33} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have $55\\times55 \\mu m^{2}$ pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separate...

  16. The LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    de Capua, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-3, will transform the experiment to a triggerless system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm, enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm−2 s −1 . The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current strip detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will allow for fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction in the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 µm2 pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC. The VeloPix builds on the currently available Timepix3, modified to deliver a radiation hard design capable of an order of magnitude increase in output rate. The hottest regions will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s, yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO...

  17. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosil Suárez, Álvaro; LHCb VELO Upgrade Group

    2016-07-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2019, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm. The upgraded detector will run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm-2 s-1 and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy flavour sector with unprecedented precision. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The detector comprises silicon pixel sensors with 55×55 μm2 pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC, based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The detector halves are retracted when the beams are injected and closed at stable beams, positioning the first sensitive pixel at 5.1 mm from the beams. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates.

  18. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosil Suárez, Álvaro, E-mail: alvaro.dosil@usc.es

    2016-07-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2019, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm. The upgraded detector will run at luminosities of 2×10{sup 33} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy flavour sector with unprecedented precision. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The detector comprises silicon pixel sensors with 55×55 μm{sup 2} pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC, based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The detector halves are retracted when the beams are injected and closed at stable beams, positioning the first sensitive pixel at 5.1 mm from the beams. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO{sub 2} coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates.

  19. ATLAS Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000/fb by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new...

  20. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  1. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  2. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  3. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  4. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  5. Catalytic and Gas-Solid Reactions Involving HCN over Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    In coal-fired combustion systems solid calcium species may be present as ash components or limestone added to the combustion chamber. In this study heterogeneous reactions involving HCN over seven different limestones were investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed quartz reactor at 873-1,173 K....... The results indicate that heterogeneous oxidation of HCN is important in calciners and fluidized-bed combustors with limestone addition or when burning coals with an ash with a high catalytic activity....

  6. The pore structure in processed Victorian Brown coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P J; Snook, I K; Treimer, W

    2002-08-01

    Changes in the pore structure of Victorian Brown coal when upgraded with heated gases under pressure are investigated. We show that the results obtained from ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements agree with previous results using small-angle X-ray scattering results but that USANS may also be used to investigate the meso porosity. Findings from small-angle scattering are confirmed using electron microscopy. We also show evidence from electron diffraction that thermal conditions within the brown coals during the upgrade procedure may be far more extreme than previously thought.

  7. The pore structure in processed Victorian brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, P.J.; Snook, I.K.; Treimer, W. [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia). School of Physics

    2002-07-01

    Changes in the pore structure of Victorian Brown coal when upgraded with heated gases under pressure are investigated. It is shown that the results obtained from ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements agree with previous results using small-angle X-ray scattering results but that USANS may also be used to investigate the meso porosity. Findings from small-angle scattering are confirmed using electron microscopy. Evidence is given from electron diffraction that thermal conditions within the brown coals during the upgrade procedure may be far more extreme than previously thought.

  8. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  9. The ATLAS Upgrade programme

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    After the ¯rst successful years of LHC running, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades leading eventually to about ¯ve times the design-luminosity some 10-years from now. Coping with the high instantaneous and integrated luminosity will be a great challenge for the ATLAS detector and will require changes in most of the subsystems, specially those at low radii and large pseudorapidity, as well as in its trigger architecture. Plans to consolidate and improve the physics capabilities of the current detector over the next decade are summarized in this paper.

  10. Upgrading Enterprise Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDunn, R

    2005-04-28

    This presentation will describe the process we went through this past year to upgrade our enterprise search tool from a very old version of Inktomi to the latest version of Verity Ultraseek. We started with requirements gathering and then compared requirements against several available products to determine which product to choose. After purchasing the product, we worked through several defined phases of implementation and customization, with initial rollout late January 2004. Finally, we will show you where we are today and describe future search plans.

  11. The Bevalac Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.; Frias, R.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.R.; Hunt, D.B.; Krebs, G.F.; Krupnick, J.T.; Lewis, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact.

  12. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  13. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    van Beuzekom, Martin; Ketel, Tjeerd; Gershon, Timothy; Parkes, Christopher; Reid, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a vital piece of apparatus for allowing precision measurements in hadronic physics. It provides not only superb impact parameter resolutions but also excellent momentum resolution, both important discriminating tools for precision high energy physics. This poster focuses on the R&D going into the future LHCb VELO detector. At present there are two proposed options for the upgrade; pixel chips or strip detectors. The LHCb upgrade is designed with higher luminosities and increased yields in mind. In order to get more out of the LHCb detector changes to the front end electronics will have to be made. At present, the first level hardware trigger is sets a limiting factor on the maximum efficiency for hadronic channels. As the VELO is positioned so close the proton-proton interaction region, whatever the choice of sensor, we will require efficient cooling and some proposed solutions are outlined. The LHCb TimePix telescope has had a very successful years running, with various devic...

  14. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, M

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb −1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. (paper)

  15. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  16. The LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Panman, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of LHCb is to measure the effects of new particles or forces beyond the Standard Model. Results obtained from data collected in 2010 and 2011 show that the detector is robust and functioning well. While LHCb will be able to measure a host of interesting channels in heavy flavour decays in the upcoming few years, a limit of about 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data per year cannot be overcome without upgrading the detector. The LHC machine does not face such a limitation. With the upgraded detector, read out at 40 MHz, a much more flexible software-based triggering strategy will allow a large increase not only in data rate, as the detector would collect 5 fb$^{-1}$ per year, but also the ability to increase trigger efficiencies especially in decays to hadronic final states. In addition, it will be possible to change triggers to explore different physics as LHC discoveries point us to the most interesting channels. Our physics scope extends beyond that of flavour. Possibilities for interesting discoveries exis...

  17. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  18. ATLAS detector upgrade prospects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb $^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ...

  19. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb -1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb -1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV.

  20. HP upgrade operational streamlining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, David R.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mccollums, D.; Seery, Paul J.; Ricklefs, Randall L.

    1993-01-01

    New computer technology and resources must be successfully integrated into CDSLR station operations to manage new complex operational tracking requirements, support the on site production of new data products, support ongoing station performance improvements, and to support new station communication requirements. The NASA CDSLR Network is in the process of upgrading station computer resources with HP UNIX workstations, designed to automate a wide range of operational station requirements. The primary HP upgrade objective was to relocate computer intensive data system tasks from the controller computer to a new advanced computer environment designed to meet the new data system requirements. The HP UNIX environment supports fully automated real time data communications, data management, data processing, and data quality control. Automated data compression procedures are used to improve the efficiency of station data communications. In addition, the UNIX environment supports a number of semi-automated technical and administrative operational station tasks. The x window user interface generates multiple simultaneous color graphics displays, providing direct operator visibility and control over a wide range of operational station functions.

  1. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  2. Effect of hydrothermal dewatering on the slurryability of brown coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yujie; Liu Jianzhong; Wang Ruikun; Zhou Junhu; Cen Kefa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Brown coals are upgraded by hydrothermal dewatering. ► The moisture content and oxygen functional groups decrease during the process. ► The point of zero charge and the contact angle rise as the temperature increases. ► The products were highly hydrophobic. ► The improvement on slurryability of solid products were examined. - Abstract: Two brown coals from China were dewatered under hydrothermal dewatering (HTD) conditions at 250–320 °C for 1 h in a 2 L autoclave. The hydrothermally dewatered products were used to prepare coal water slurry (CWS) with a lower viscosity than brown raw coal slurry. Moreover, the coal rank and heat value of the brown coal increased as the inherent moisture and oxygen content decreased during the HTD process. The maximum solid concentration of CWS prepared from XiMeng coal increased from 45.7% to 59.3%, whereas that of CWS prepared from BaoTou coal increased from 53.7% to 62.1%, after being dewatered at 320 °C. The improvement in the slurryability of brown coal significantly depended on the final temperature of the HTD process, the mechanism of which can be explained by the chemical analysis of oxygen functional groups, zeta potential, and the contact angle of the surface between coal and water. The oxygen functional groups, the oxygen/carbon ratio and hydrogen/carbon ratio in brown coal decreased, indicating that the coal rank was upgraded during the HTD process. As a result, both the point of zero charge and the contact angle increased, implying that the HTD products were highly hydrophobic.

  3. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  4. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  5. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  6. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  7. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  8. Upgrading the ATLAS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.H.; Ferraretto, M.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ''in-house'' software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed

  9. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  10. The ATLAS upgrade program

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, C

    2014-01-01

    After the first successful LHC run in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades leading eventually to about above times the design-luminosity in about ten years. The larger luminosity will allow to perform precise measurements of the just discovered Higgs boson and to continue searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Coping with the high instantaneous and integrated luminosity will be a great challenge for the ATLAS detector and will require changes in most of the subsystems, specially those at low radii and large pseudorapidity, as well as in its trigger architecture. Plans to consolidate and, whenever possible, to improve the physics performance of the current detector over the next decade are summarized in this paper.

  11. LHCb: The LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Borghi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the LHC. The operation and the results obtained from the data collected in 2010 and 2011 demonstrate that the detector is robust and functioning very well. However, the limit of ~1 fb$^{–1}$ of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. We therefore plan for an upgraded spectrometer by 2018 with a 40 MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system that will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency, especially in the hadronic channels

  12. The ATLAS upgrade program

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the rst successful LHC run in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades leading eventually to about ve times the design-luminosity in about ten years. The larger luminosity will allow to perform precise measurements of the just discovered Higgs boson and to continue searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Coping with the high instantaneous and integrated luminosity will be a great challenge for the ATLAS detector and will require changes in most of the subsystems, specially those at low radii and large pseudorapidity, as well as in its trigger architecture. Plans to consolidate and, whenever possible, to improve the physics performance of the current detector over the next decade are summarized in this paper.

  13. The Fermilab ACNET upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.; Johnson, G.; Winterowd, L.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network (ACNET) upgrade consists of a new physical medium (IEEE 802.5 token ring), additions to the calling sequence and added processor support. ACNET is the accelerator control backbone network for all data communication. A proprietary network was replaced by an IEEE standard enabling an open network with excellent characteristics for the control system. The calling sequence was enhanced for the added capabilities of the token-ring interface such as 'gather-read' and 'scatter-write'. In addition to prior support of DEC PDP11s under RS11M and VAXs under VMS, the ACNET calling sequence was implemented in the language C for the IBM PC with MS-DOS and Motorola 680x0 with MTOS using VME bus. Additional support is in progress for Intel 80x86 with MTOS using Multibus II. (orig.)

  14. The Fermilab ACNET upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Charlie; Johnson, Glenn; Winterowd, Lin

    1990-08-01

    The Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network (ACNET) upgrade consists of a new physical medium (IEEE 802.5 token ring), additions to the calling sequence and added processor support. ACNET is the accelerator control backbone network for all data communication. A proprietary network was replaced by an IEEE standard enabling an open network with excellent characteristics for the control system. The calling sequence was enhanced for the added capabilities of the token-ring interface such as "gather-read" and "scatter-write". In addition to prior support of DEC PDP11s under RS11M and VAXs under VMS, the ACNET calling sequence was implemented in the language C for the IBM PC with MS-DOS and Motorola 680 x0 with MTOS using VME bus. Additional support is in progress for Intel 80 x86 with MTOS using Multibus II.

  15. SNS proton power upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, M.; DeGraff, B.; Galambos, J.; Kim, S.-H.

    2017-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is preparing for the Proton Power Upgrade (PPU) project to increase the output energy of the accelerator from 1.0 GeV to 1.3 GeV. As part of this project with the combination of increasing the output energy and beam current, the beam power capability will be doubled from 1.4MW to 2.8MW. In this project, seven new high beta cryomodules housing 28 superconducting niobium cavities will be added to the LINAC tunnel. Lessons learned from over ten years of operation will be incorporated into the new cryomodule and cavity design. The design and the fabrication of these cryomodules and how these will be integrated into the existing accelerator will be detailed in this paper.

  16. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  17. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 260 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  18. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  19. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  20. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.

    1995-07-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the July to September 1994 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in noncatalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manji, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results obtained are reported in this report.

  1. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    The incitement for decreasing the modern society's dependency on fossil based fuel and energy is both environmentally and politically driven. Development of biofuels could be part of the future solution. The combination of ash pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of the produced bio-oil has been...... identied as a prospective route to bio-fuels. The upgrading is most favorably done by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), producing bio-fuels at a quality equivalent to conventional fossil fuels. The topic of this Ph.D. thesis has been the development of active and stable catalysts for this reaction. In the search...

  2. Clean coal combustion in domestic sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.; Kubica, K.; Sciazko, M. [Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    Combustion of raw coal in existing domestic furnaces with a low efficiency (usually below 50%) is a source of pollutants generation like dust, SO{sub 2} and PAH including cancerogenic BAP, resulting in serious environmental problems. Emission of pollutants depends on solid fuels quality and fuel combustion parameters. Pollutants emission can be decreased by the use of upgraded coal derived solid fuels or replacement of old heating appliances with new ones with high thermal efficiency and ecological affectivity. Several ecological fuels manufacturing methods have been elaborated in the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal. Thermal and emission tests of heating devices and solid fuels were performed with the use of IChPW experimental plant. Results were confirmed in heating devices in real heating objects. Taking results into account proposal of legal regulation for Polish domestic sector was elaborated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Clean coal combustion in domestic sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.; Kubica, K.; Sciazko, M. (Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland))

    1998-01-01

    Combustion of raw coal in existing domestic furnaces with a low efficiency (usually below 50%) is a source of pollutants generation like dust, SO[sub 2] and PAH including cancerogenic BAP, resulting in serious environmental problems. Emission of pollutants depends on solid fuels quality and fuel combustion parameters. Pollutants emission can be decreased by the use of upgraded coal derived solid fuels or replacement of old heating appliances with new ones with high thermal efficiency and ecological affectivity. Several ecological fuels manufacturing methods have been elaborated in the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal. Thermal and emission tests of heating devices and solid fuels were performed with the use of IChPW experimental plant. Results were confirmed in heating devices in real heating objects. Taking results into account proposal of legal regulation for Polish domestic sector was elaborated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  5. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  7. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  8. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  9. Coal and the competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Arlington, VA (United States). FT Energy

    2000-07-01

    24 overheads/viewgraphs outline a presentation on competition in the US coal industry. It discussed four main subjects: key factors driving coal demand (environmental regulations, electric utility deregulation; competition with natural gas, inter-regional coal competition, supply availability and pricing; and the export market and competition from off-shore coal sources); coal's ability to boost market share; shifts in coal distribution and the risk of more branded coal; and attempts to keep more regional sources of coal in business. State tax incentives for coal use in Arizona, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia and Alabama were discussed.

  10. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  11. EVALUATION AND MITIGATION OF VISIBLE ACIDIC AEROSOL PLUMES FROM COAL FIRED POWER BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of sulfur trioxide during the combustion of coal can increase significantly following the installation and operation of selective catalytic reduction systems for reduction of nitrogen oxides. This can in turn lead to adverse environmental impacts, including visible...

  12. Superhilac upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1985-05-01

    This project will increase the uranium output of the Bevalac heavy-ion facility from the currently available 10 7 to 5 x 10 7 ions/pulse, allowing accurate Lamb shift measurements to be made in U 90+ and U 91+ with important applications to the testing of quantum electrodynamics and the development of an x-ray laser. The injected beam intensity will be increased to make better use of the 10emA output space-charge limit of the Wideroe linac. Components will include a new high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source along with an improved high current, high voltage Cockcroft-Walton power supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line will be upgraded with additional focusing to manage the increased space-charge forces and with an improved vacuum to reduce charge exchange losses. Finally, the phase matching between the 23MHz Wideroe linac and the 70MHz Alvarez linac will be improved by the addition of the appropriate buncher cavities. Physics design is underway and detailed engineering is scheduled to begin in October 1985, with installation slated for the 1986 summer shutdown

  13. ATLAS Future Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00225024; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  14. The Atlas upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    ATLAS is a heavy-ion accelerator system consisting of a 9-MV tandem electrostatic injector coupled to a superconducting linac. A project now well advanced will upgrade the capabilities of ATLAS immensely by replacing the tandem and its negative-ion source with a positive-ion injector that consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a 12-MV superconducting injector linac of novel design. This project will increase the beam intensity 100 fold and will extend the projectile-mass range up to uranium. Phase 1 of the work, which is nearing completion in late 1988, will provide an injector comprising the ECR source and its 350-kV voltage platform, beam analysis and bunching systems, beam lines, and a prototype 3-MV linac. The ECR source and its voltage platform are operational, development of the new class of low-frequency interdigital superconducting resonators required for the injector linac has been completed, and assembly of the whole system is in progress. Test runs and then routine use of the Phase 1 injector systems are planned for early 1989, and the final 12-MV injector linac will be commissioned in 1990. 12 refs., 6 figs

  15. Altair performance and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

    2014-07-01

    Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

  16. Alberta propylene upgrading prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    A very significant byproduct recovery and purification scheme is at present being prepared by TransCanada Midstream (TCMS). Alberta Economic Development commissioned an independent study to identify propylene supply options while proceeding with the evaluation of various propylene derivatives with regard to their fit with the Alberta context. Identification of chemical companies with derivative interests was also accomplished. By 2005, it is estimated that 280 kilo-tonnes of propylene will be available on an annual basis from byproduct sources. Those sources are oil sands upgraders, ethylene plants and refineries. The ranges of impurities and supply costs vary between the different sources. An option being considered involves pipeline and rail receipt with a major central treating and distillation facility for the production of polymer grade (PG) propylene with propane and other smaller byproducts. Special consideration was given to three chemicals in this study, namely: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and acrylic acid (AA). Above average growth rates were identified for these chemicals: demand is growing at 6 to 7 per cent a year for both PP and ACN, while demand for AA grows at 8 per cent annually. Two other possibilities were identified, propylene oxide (PO) and phenol. The study led to the conclusion that low capital and operating costs and shipping costs to the Pacific Rim represent advantages to the development of propylene derivatives in the future in Alberta. 4 refs., 87 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  18. Mongolia - Vocational Education - Equipment Upgrades

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Evaluation design The impact evaluation sought to identify the causal impact of exposure to equipment upgrades on subsequent outcomes. Insofar as we were not able to...

  19. Effects of microelement content on reactivity of semicoke and brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, A.P.; Petrovskaya, L.K.; Laktionova, N.V.

    1987-06-01

    Effects of trace amounts of selected elements in brown coal from Czechoslovakia, GDR, Poland and USSR on coal reactivity during gasification at 900 C using carbon dioxide were analyzed under laboratory conditions. Catalytic effects of trace amounts of the following elements were investigated: manganese, barium, beryllium, boron, lead, gallium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, vanadium, copper and yttrium. Manganese, barium, beryllium and lead were best catalysts. Catalytic effects of individual trace elements and their mixtures were also determined. Regression analysis was used. 7 refs.

  20. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  1. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  2. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  3. Upgrading inflatable door seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)

  4. Catalytic cracking of bio-oil to organic liquid product (OLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, K L; Tamidi, A M; Yusup, S; Lee, K T; Ahmad, M M

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this paper is to find the optimum operating condition to upgrade the EFB-derived pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) to liquid fuel, mainly gasoline using Taguchi Method. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that the optimum operating condition for heterogeneous catalytic cracking process is at 400 degrees C, 15min of reaction time using 30g of catalyst weight where operating at this condition produced the highest yield of gasoline fraction which is 91.67 wt.%. This observation proves that EFB-derived pyrolysis oil could be upgraded via heterogeneous catalytic cracking to produce gasoline.

  5. Catalytic Oligopeptide Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Noda, Hidetoshi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Kumagai, Naoya

    2018-02-02

    Waste-free catalytic assembly of α-amino acids is fueled by a multiboron catalyst that features a characteristic B 3 NO 2 heterocycle, providing a versatile catalytic protocol wherein functionalized natural α-amino acid units are accommodated and commonly used protecting groups are tolerated. The facile dehydrative conditions eliminate the use of engineered peptide coupling reagents, exemplifying a greener catalytic alternative for peptide coupling. The catalysis is sufficiently robust to enable pentapeptide synthesis, constructing all four amide bond linkages in a catalytic fashion.

  6. Processing options for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harji, A.N.; Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Meysami, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 178 billion barrels of oil can be recovered from Alberta's vast heavy oil reserves. The challenge lies in the logistics of recovering, upgrading and transporting the oil to market. The Canadian Energy Research Institute conducted a recent study to determine market potential by 2007 for diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil produced from upgraded bitumen. The viability for a wide range of bitumen feedstocks was assessed along with the sensitivity of refinery demand to their prices. The 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen include PADD 2 in the United States, western Canada, and Ontario. Bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline and cannot be processed by most of the existing refineries. Therefore, in order to develop a mass market for the product, bitumen must undergo the energy intensive upgrading process at existing refineries. The factors impacting which method of upgrading is most suitable were discussed with particular attention to the impact that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may have on Alberta's bitumen resource in terms of costs of complying with greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. The authors emphasized that it is crucial to customize an upgrading project to meet site and market specific factors. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Harji, A.

    2002-01-01

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  8. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  9. Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Model Studies on Reaction Pathways for the Carbohydrate Fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wildschut, J.; Arentz, J.; Rasrendra, C. B.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis oil can be upgraded by a catalytic hydrotreatment (250-400 degrees C, 100-200 bar) using heterogeneous catalysts such as Ru/C to hydrocarbon-like products that can serve as liquid transportation fuels. Insight into the complex reaction pathways of the various component fractions during hydrotreatment is desirable to reduce the formation of by-products such as char and gaseous components. This paper deals with the catalytic hydrotreatment of representative model components for t...

  10. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, John A.; Simpson, Theodore B.

    1991-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture is drained of excess water and dried at atmospheric pressure leaving catalyst deposited on the agglomerates. The agglomerates then are fed to an extrusion device where they are formed into a continuous ribbon of extrudate and fed into a hydrogenation reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The catalytic hydrogenation converts the extrudate primarily to liquid hydrocarbons in the reactor. The liquid drained in recovering the agglomerates is recycled.

  11. Hydrogen assisted biological biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria

    Wind and biomass are promoted worldwide as sustainable forms of energy. Anaerobic digestion of biomass produces biogas with ∼50−70% CH4 and 30−50% CO2. However, biogas with >90% CH4 content has higher heating value, can be injected into the natural gas grid or used as alternative to natural gas...... as vehicle fuel. Methods currently available for biogas upgrading mainly consists of physicochemical CO2 removal, requiring the use of chemical substances and energy input and, thus, increasing process costs. This PhD project proposes an alternative to existing biogas upgrading technologies, where H2......, produced by water electrolysis, using excess of electricity from wind mills, is coupled with the CO2 contained in the biogas to convert them to CH4. This process is defined as biological biogas upgrading and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea that couples CO2 with H2 to produce...

  12. Environmental upgrading of a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetto, V.; Vendrame, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article refers to an experimental study concerning the vegetative upgrading of a closed-down landfill (once used for industrial waste disposal). The aim was to check the possibility of reconstructing or aiding the natural growth of a vegetation in keeping with the surrounding area, in a tried environment such as that of landfills. The original idea contained in the approved project - which meant to generically upgrade the territory by planting species belonging to the grassy layer, shrubs and trees - has, with time, undergone some changes. On the basis of both the knowledge acquired during management and of a more accurate analysis of the territory, the experiment was preferred to aim at finding out which were the species, both continental and Mediterranean, able to gradually adjust to the surrounding landscape, leaving to natural selection the task to decide which species were more suitable to the upgrading of closed-down landfills, and which planting technique was more effective [it

  13. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  14. Advanced new technologies for residue upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, D.

    1997-01-01

    Viewgraphs summarizing UOP technologies for residue are provided. The upgrading technologies include: (1) Aquaconversion, (2) the Discriminatory Destructive Distillation process (3D), and (3) the RCD uniflex process. The Aquaconversion process is based on catalytic hydrovisbreaking. It makes use of a homogeneous (liquid phase) catalyst. The hydrogen is derived from water. The advantages of this process are improved residue stability and quality at higher conversion levels, high synthetic crude yields, low operational complexity, reduced transportation costs. The 3D process is a unique carbon rejection contaminant removal process which can process whole crudes through viscous residues. FCC type equipment is used. Performance characteristics and advantages of the process were highlighted. The RCD uniflex process makes use of proven fixed bed and ebullated bed technologies in a new process configuration in which the fixed bed system is located upstream of the ebullated bed system. In this process, the catalyst volume increases exponentially with increasing processing severity. Performance characteristics, design features, benefits and development progress to date are described. 1 tab., 21 figs

  15. Upgrading of high metals Venezuelan residua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, J.M.; Aquino, L.; Pachano, J.

    1981-03-01

    This paper presents pilot plant results obtained in the n-butane deasphalting and hydrotreatment (HDT) of a Tia Juana Pesado visbroken residuum of ca. 600 ppM Ni+V. Two process options were considered in the HDT unit: direct processing of a 64 ppM Ni+V deasphalted oil (DAO-60), to blend back the product with the heavy distillates (VGO) and HDT of a 25 ppM Ni+V feed (DAO-25), made up by blending the DAO-60 with the corresponding VGO. The final product obtained could be used as a fuel oil blending component and/or a feed to a catalytic cracking unit (FCC). High metals residua can be upgraded into valuable products by solvent deasphalting, followed by hydrotreatment (HDT) of the deasphalted oils (DAO). Two process options were studied in the HDT unit: direct HDT of the DAO and HDT of a blend made up by the DAO and the corresponding VGO. The results presented in this paper show that the HDT of the diluted feed looks more attractive: less severe processing conditions are required and the used catalyst shows a smaller reduction in pore volume and surface area, and hence, a longer catalyst life. The hydrotreated product from the diluted feed could go to a FCC unit to maximize gasoline production.

  16. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  17. Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan

  18. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  19. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  20. Reflections on a digital upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjalli, M.

    2013-07-01

    Upon receiving US NRC's approval in 2010, the first RPS/ESPS digital upgrade using TELEPERM® XS technology was successfully installed in Spring of 2011 at the first Unit of a three-unit station, followed by the 2nd Unit installation in spring of 2012. Both Units' systems have been operating flawlessly since installation. After about two years of operation, a reflection on digital upgrades and lessons learned, from a vendor perspective, provides valuable insight for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  1. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  2. Argonne's atlas control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system

  3. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  4. Low-temperature catalytic conversion of carbonaceous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laws of the rate of carbon conversion in steam atmosphere at a temperature in modes of the catalytic low-temperature treatment of peat, brown coal, semi-coke from peat and brown coal are obtained by experiments. Increasing of the rate of carbon conversion in temperature range up to 500 °C is achieved by using of catalysts. The possibility of using results is associated with the burners, a working zone of which is porous filling from carbonaceous particles.

  5. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  6. Heterogeneously catalyzed coal hydroliquefaction: screening of catalysts and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarreta, J.; Arias, P.L.; Marco, I. de; Chomon, M.J.; Caballero, B.; Cambra, J.F.; Guemez, B.; Fierro, J.L.G. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Escuel de Ingenieros de Bilbao)

    1994-03-01

    This project is centred upon the study of the activities of different catalysts in one-step coal liquefaction processes. A series of alumina supported catalysts was prepared by multistep impregnation, including a conventional CoMo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and other preparations containing Zn as a second promoter, and the alumina was acidified with different fluorine contents. These catalysts were extensive physicochemically characterized and their hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and hydrogenation (HYD) activities were tested using a model compound (thiophene). The results obtained indicate that partial substitution of Co by Zn does not affect the HDS and HYD activities and that fluorination diminishes these activities because of textural changes of the carrier. The prepared catalysts were tested in coal liquefaction and their activities were compared to those of cheap iron containing dispersion catalysts such as red mud, Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] aerosol, and Cottrell and pyrite ashes (by-products of the sulphur acid industry). Prior to the study and comparison of the catalyst activities and exploration of the influence of various operating conditions (temperature, tetralin/coal ratio, type of solvent and operating pressure) on catalytic and non-catalytic coal liquefaction was performed. The coal used in most of the experiments was a Spanish subbituminous A coal. Additionally, a comparison of all the catalysts was carried out with a standard high volatile bituminous coal. Supported catalysts present higher activities than iron-based catalysts. Among these catalysts, red mud proved to be the most active. Catalytic experiments using anthracene oil as solvent and CoZnMo/fluorinated alumina catalysts present maximum yields indicating that Zn as second promoter and carrier acidification to be beneficial in coal liquefaction with solvents similar to those used in real plants. 41 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  8. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenbach, A.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akaslompolo, S.; Angioni, C.; Atanasiu, C. V.; Balden, M.; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brudgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Chankin, A.; Classen, I.G.J.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; de Marne, P.; D' Inca, R.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fahrbach, H. U.; Fattorini, L.; Fischer, R.; Flaws, A.; Funfgelder, H.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gal, K.; Munoz, M. G.; Geiger, B.; Adamov, M. G.; Giannone, L.; Giroud, C.; Gorler, T.; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Gunter, S.; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hicks, N.; Hobirk, J.; Hohnle, H.; Holzl, M.; Hopf, C.; Horton, L.; Huart, M.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kasemann, C. P.; Kalvin, S.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H. J.; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Kollotzek, H.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lohs, A.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Lunt, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maier, H.; Maggi, C.; Mank, K.; Manso, M. E.; Maraschek, M.; Martin, P.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Muller, H. W.; Munich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Park, H. K.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polochiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Prechtl, M.; Puschel, M. J.; Putterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reiter, B.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Sandmann, W.; Santos, J.; Sassenberg, K.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Serra, F.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sips, A.C.C.; Sommer, F.; Stabler, A.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Szepesi, T.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Urso, L.; Varela, P.; Vincente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Vorpahl, C.; Wagner, D.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Wigger, C.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Wursching, E.; Yadikin, D.; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the

  9. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenbach, A.; ASDEX Upgrade team,; EUROfusion MST1 Team,

    2017-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were designed

  10. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron r...

  11. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohm, H.; Adamek, J.; Angioni, C.

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with a fully W-covered wall in 2007 and 2008. Stationary H-modes at the ITER target values and improved H-modes with H up to 1.2 were run without any boronization. The boundary conditions set by the full W wall (high enough ELM frequency, high enough central heating and...

  12. Application of gamma-ray densitometry in developing primary upgrading processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.D.S.; Patmore, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray densitometry has been applied in developing processes for upgrading heavy oils, refinery residua, tar sand bitumen and coal into synthetic crudes. These processes normally operate at high temperatures and pressures, thus non-invasive monitors are highly desirable. Examples of applications at CANMET are given for the following three areas: gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid multiphase flow hydrodynamic studies, monitoring of ash concentration and measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of liquids. (author)

  13. Co-Processing Coal and Natural Gas by the Hynol Process for Enhanced Methanol Production and Reduced CO2 Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1997-01-01

    ...) catalytic methanol synthesis. The Hynol Process is a total recycle process. Using a process simulation computer program, mass and energy balances and yields and efficiency data have been obtained for a range of natural gas to coal feedstock ratios...

  14. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum, natural gas and coal supply most of the energy consumed worldwide and their massive utilization has allowed our society to reach high levels of development in the past century.[...

  15. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  16. Coal - and the terminals that handle it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, J.

    2009-02-15

    The Maputo Coal Terminal commonly known as Terminal de Carvao de Matola Limitada (TCM) is a Mozambican company owned by the Grindrod Group. TCM was built in the 1960s and is undergoing a three-phase upgrade which will expand to a 6 mt terminal by August 2010. The Abbot Point X25 Port Expansion Project remains on target for completion by the end of June 2009, increasing the export capacity of this Queensland port to 25 mtpa. A second phase of expansion will increase this to 50 mtpa by 2011. 6 photos.

  17. Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis Oil : Model Studies on Reaction Pathways for the Carbohydrate Fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Arentz, J.; Rasrendra, C. B.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis oil can be upgraded by a catalytic hydrotreatment (250-400 degrees C, 100-200 bar) using heterogeneous catalysts such as Ru/C to hydrocarbon-like products that can serve as liquid transportation fuels. Insight into the complex reaction pathways of the various component fractions

  18. Coal Producer's Rubber Waste Processing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, Evgeniya; Papin, Andrey; Nevedrov, Alexander; Cherkasova, Tatyana; Ignatova, Alla

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of rubber-containing waste, the bulk of which are worn automobile tires and conveyor belts, is produced at coal mining and coal processing enterprises using automobile tires, conveyor belts, etc. The volume of waste generated increases every year and reaches enormous proportions. The methods for processing rubber waste can be divided into three categories: grinding, pyrolysis (high and low temperature), and decomposition by means of chemical solvents. One of the known techniques of processing the worn-out tires is their regeneration, aimed at producing the new rubber substitute used in the production of rubber goods. However, the number of worn tires used for the production of regenerate does not exceed 20% of their total quantity. The new method for processing rubber waste through the pyrolysis process is considered in this article. Experimental data on the upgrading of the carbon residue of pyrolysis by the methods of heavy media separation, magnetic and vibroseparation, and thermal processing are presented.

  19. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  20. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  1. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  2. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  3. Application, Deactivation, and Regeneration of Heterogeneous Catalysts in Bio-Oil Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The massive consumption of fossil fuels and associated environmental issues are leading to an increased interest in alternative resources such as biofuels. The renewable biofuels can be upgraded from bio-oils that are derived from biomass pyrolysis. Catalytic cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO are two of the most promising bio-oil upgrading processes for biofuel production. Heterogeneous catalysts are essential for upgrading bio-oil into hydrocarbon biofuel. Although advances have been achieved, the deactivation and regeneration of catalysts still remains a challenge. This review focuses on the current progress and challenges of heterogeneous catalyst application, deactivation, and regeneration. The technologies of catalysts deactivation, reduction, and regeneration for improving catalyst activity and stability are discussed. Some suggestions for future research including catalyst mechanism, catalyst development, process integration, and biomass modification for the production of hydrocarbon biofuels are provided.

  4. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  5. Pricing and Market Segmentation with Software Upgrades.

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, R.; Carr, S. C.

    2005-01-01

    Upgrades are endemic in the software industry and create the possibility that customers might either postpone purchase or buy early on and never upgrade: When will a customer upgrade? Is it better to upgrade now or to wait for an improved version? When should we release an improved product? How much should we charge for each version? Should we give discounts on upgrades to existing customers? Will today’s sales be cannibalized by the anticipated improved version? We focus on pricing and how i...

  6. Take control of upgrading to Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Start on the right foot with Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard! Little is more exciting and unnerving than a major operating system upgrade for your Mac, but thousands of people have upgraded to Panther and Tiger calmly and successfully with the advice in Joe Kissell's previous hit Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's expert guidance, developed over innumerable test installations, walks you through the six steps necessary before upgrading, which of Leopard's three installation options is right for you, how to perform the actual upgrade, and post-installation checking and cleanup.

  7. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissianski, Vitali V.; Loc Ho; Maly, Peter M.; Zamansky, Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The FFR can be retrofit to existing boilers and can be configured in several ways depending on the boiler, coal characteristics, and NO x control requirements. Fly ash generated by the technology will be a saleable byproduct for use in the cement and construction industries. FFR can also reduce NO x by 60%-70%, achieving an emissions level of 0.15 lb/10 6 Btu in many coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO x Burners. Total process cost is expected to be one third to one half of that for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Activities during reporting period included design, manufacture, assembly, and shake down of the coal gasifier and pilot-scale testing of the efficiency of coal gasification products in FFR. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Data suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to the gasification was more significant for less reactive coals with low volatiles content. Experimental results also suggested that the efficiency of NO x reduction in FFR was higher when air was used as a transport media. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with that of basic reburning was achieved with air transport. Temperature and residence time in the gasification zone also affected the efficiency of NO x reduction

  8. Changes in New Source Review and coal-fired generation, potential benefits to producers of low sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI, Boulder, CO (USA)

    2003-10-01

    On August 27, 2003, the US EPA issued its final ruling on revisions to the New Source Review (NSR) provision of the Clean Air Act. The new NSR helps define routine maintenance, repair and replacement (RMRR) at coal-fired and other generating units. Specifically, the new rule clarifies RMRR and exempts coal-fired units from federal rules that require operators to install pollution-control equipment when they perform upgrades designed to maintain the life of the units. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wolbers, Stephen; Barker, B; Bledsoe, S; Boes, T; Bowden, Mark; Cancelo, Gugstavo I; Dürling, G; Forster, B; Haynes, B; Hendricks, B; Kasza, T; Kutschke, Robert K; Mahlum, R; Martens, Michael A; Mengel, M; Olsen, M; Pavlicek, V; Pham, T; Piccoli, Luciano; Steimel, Jim; Treptow, K; Votava, Margaret; Webber, Robert C; West, B; Zhang, D

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980s, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  10. MIPP Plastic Ball electronics upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, Boris; MIPP Collaboration

    2009-10-01

    An upgrade electronics design for Plastic Ball detector is described. The Plastic Ball detector was a part of several experiments in the past and its back portion (proposed to be used in Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP)) consists of 340 photomultipliers equipped with a sandwich scintillator. The scintillator sandwich has fast and slow signal component with decay times 10 ns and 1 μs, respectively. The upgraded MIPP experiment will collect up to 12,000 events during each 4 s spill and read them out in ˜50 s between spills. The MIPP data acquisition system will employ deadtime-less concept successfully implemented in Muon Electronics of Dzero experiment at Fermilab An 8-channel prototype design of the Plastic Ball Front-End (PBFE) implementing these requirements is discussed. Details of the schematic design, simulation and prototype test results are discussed.

  11. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  12. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  13. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  14. MAST Upgrade – Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Joe, E-mail: Joe.Milnes@ccfe.ac.uk; Ayed, Nizar Ben; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O’Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Outlines unique capability of MAST-U, including divertor and diagnostic capability. • Describes progress made in the manufacture and assembly of key MAST-U components. • Highlights the design challenges that have been overcome. • Lists the key lessons learned thus far in the project. - Abstract: The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: (1) testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); (2) adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and (3) exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progress in delivering the upgraded diagnostic capability, the modification and upgrading of the NBI heating systems and the complete overhaul of the machine control infrastructure, including a new control room with full remote participation facilities.

  15. The upgraded WIYN bench spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia M.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Willmarth, Daryl; Glaspey, John; Poczulp, Gary; Blanco, Dan; Britanik, Lana; McDougall, Eugene; Corson, Charles; Liang, Ming; Keyes, Joe; Jacoby, George

    2010-07-01

    We present the as-built design overview and post-installation performance of the upgraded WIYN Bench Spectrograph. This Bench is currently fed by either of the general-use multi-fiber instruments at the WIYN 3.5m telescope on Kitt Peak, the Hydra multi-object positioner, and the SparsePak integral field unit (IFU). It is very versatile, and can be configured to accommodate low-order, echelle, and volume phase holographic gratings. The overarching goal of the upgrade was to increase the average spectrograph throughput by ~60% while minimizing resolution loss (three major thrusts: (1) a new CCD was provided with a nearly constant 30% increase is throughput over 320-1000 nm; (2) two Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings were delivered; and (3) installed a new all-refractive collimator that properly matches the output fiber irradiance (EE90) and optimizes pupil placement. Initial analysis of commissioning data indicates that the total throughput of the system has increased 50-70% using the 600 l/mm surface ruled grating, indicating that the upgrade has achieved its goal. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that overall image resolution meets the requirement of <20% loss.

  16. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the January to March 1995 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in non-catalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manjii, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results are reported herein. In order to evaluate the role of the different components in resids, the resids were separated into hexane soluble materials and hexane insoluble materials. The hexane solubles, which should contain the naphthenes present in the resid, and the untreated whole resids were reacted with coal at equivalent liquefaction conditions and at the same conditions as when the resids were reacted individually.

  17. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  18. Towards novel biogas upgrading processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalova, E.

    2013-06-01

    Biogas production has considerable development possibilities not only in Finland but all over the world since it it the easiest way of creating value out of various waste fractions and represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Development of efficient biogas upgrading technology has become an important issue since it improves the quality of biogas and for example facilitating its injection into the natural gas pipelines. Moreover, such upgrading contributes to resolving the issue of increasing CO{sub 2} emissions and addresses the increasing climate change concerns. Together with traditional CO{sub 2} capturing technologies a new class of recently emerged sorbents such as ionic liquids is claimed as promising media for gas separations. In this thesis, an extensive comparison of the performance of different solvents in terms of CO{sub 2} capture has been performed. The focus of the present study was on aqueous amine solutions and their mixtures, traditional ionic liquids, 'switchable' ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s in order to reveal the best option for biogas upgrading. The CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency for the most promising solvents achieved values around 50-60 L CO{sub 2}/L absorbent. These values are superior to currently widely applied water wash biogas upgrading system. Regeneration of the solvent mixtures appeared to be challenging since the loss of initial efficiency upon CO{sub 2} release was in excess of 20-40 vol %, especially in the case of aqueous amine solutions. In contrast, some of the ionic liquids displayed reversible behavior. Thus, for selected 'switchable' ionic and poly(ionic liquid)s the CO{sub 2} absorption/regeneration cycles were performed 3-4 times without any notable efficiency decrease. The viscosity issue, typical for ionic liquids upon CO{sub 2} saturation, was addressed and the information obtained was evaluated and related to the ionic interactions. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds

  19. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  20. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  1. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  2. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  3. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  4. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  5. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    and Production. 5. Reservoir Geology. 6. Oil Sands: Mining and Processing. 7. Cold Production. 8. Enhanced Recovery. 9. Heavy Oil Production: Pumping Systems. 10. Examples of Large Heavy Oil Projects. Part 3. Surface Transport. 11. Heavy Oil dilution. 12. Aqueous Emulsions. 13. Core Annular Flow. 14. Surface Pumps for Transport: Selection and Limitations. Part 4. Upgrading. 15. De-asphalting with Heavy Paraffinic Solvents. 16. Vis-breaking. 17. Coking. 18. Catalytic Hydrotreatment and Hydro-conversion: Fixed Bed, Moving Bed, Ebullated Bed and Entrained Bed. Part 5. Environmental Issues. 19. Reservoir and Production. 20. Upgrading. 21. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. 22. CO 2 Mass Balance: and Integrated Approach. Part 6. Ongoing Technological Challenges. 23. In Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil and Bitumen. 24. Process Work-flows. Conclusion. Abbreviations. Glossary. Nomenclature

  6. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  7. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, H.; Angioni, C.; Arslanbekov, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from ASDEX Upgrade are presented. An improved understanding of energy and particle transport emerges in terms of a 'critical gradient' model for the temperature gradients. Coupling this to particle diffusion explains most of the observed behaviour of the density profiles, in particular the finding that strong central heating reduces the tendency for density profile peaking. Internal transport barriers with T e and T i in excess of 20 keV (but not simultaneously) have been achieved. By shaping the plasma, a regime with small type II ELMs has been established. Here, the maximum power deposited on the target plates was greatly reduced at constant average power. Also, an increase of the ELM frequency by injection of shallow pellets was demonstrated. ELM free operation is possible in the QH-mode regime previously found in DIII-D which has also been established on ASDEX Upgrade. Regarding stability, a regime with benign NTMs was found. During ECCD stabilisation of NTMs, β N could be increased well above the usual onset level without a reappearance of the NTM. ECRH and ECCD have also been used to control the sawtooth repetition frequency at a moderate fraction of the total heating power. The inner wall of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel has increasingly been covered with tungsten without detrimental effects on plasma performance. Regarding scenario integration, a scenario with a large fraction of non inductively driven current (≥ 50%), but without internal transport barrier has been established. It combines improved confinement (τ E =τ ITER98 ∼ 1:2) and stability (β N ≤ 3:5) at high Greenwald fraction (n e =n GW ∼ 0:85) in steady state and with type II ELMy edge. (author)

  9. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, A.; Aguiam, D.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2017-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were designed...... and non-inductive operation up to a plasma current of  Ip = 0.8 MA could be obtained at low plasma density. Plasma exhaust is studied under conditions of high neutral divertor pressure and separatrix electron density, where a fresh boronization is not required. Substantial progress could be achieved...

  10. CMS upgrade and future plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoepfner Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CMS plans for operation at the LHC phase-II unprecedented in terms of luminosity thus resulting in serious consequences for detector performance. To achieve the goal to maintain the present excellent performance of the CMS detector, several upgrades are necessary. To handle the high phase-II data rates, the readout and trigger systems are redesigned using recent technology developments. The high particle rates will accelerate detector aging and require replacement of the tracker and forward calorimeters. In addition, the muon system will be extended.

  11. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  12. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  13. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  14. Upgrade of the AGS H- linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Buxton, W.; Kponou, A.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Raparia, D.

    1994-01-01

    The AGS linac presently accelerates 25 mA of H - to 200 MeV at a 5 Hz rep-rate and 500 μs pulse width. The Booster takes 4 pulses every 3.8 seconds, and the remaining pulses are used for isotope production. The authors are in the process of upgrading the linac to increase the average current delivered for isotope production by more than a factor of two, while at the same time expecting to decrease linac downtime. Various aspects of this upgrade are discussed, including the upgrade of the control system, new high power transmission line, transport line vacuum, and rf power supply system upgrades

  15. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  16. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  17. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  18. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the property that in 0.12 M sulfuric acid medium titanium(IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of titanium is

  19. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  20. ALICE Upgrades: Plans and Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration consolidated and completed the installation of current detectors during LS1 with the aim to accumulate 1 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb-Pb collisions during Run 2 corresponding to about 10 times the Run 1 integrated luminosity. In parallel, the ALICE experiment has a rich detector upgrade programme scheduled during the second LHC long shutdown (LS2, 2018-2019) in order to fully exploit the LHC Runs 3 and 4. The main objectives of this programme are: improving the tracking precision and enabling the read-out of all Pb-Pb interactions at a rate of up to 50 kHz, with the goal to record an integrated luminosity of 10 nb$^{-1}$ after LS2 in minimum-bias trigger mode. This sample would represent an increase by a factor of one hundred with respect to the minimum-bias sample expected during Run 2. The implementation of this upgrade programme, foreseen in LS2, includes: a new low-material Inner Tracking System at central rapidity with a forward rapidity extension to add vertexing capabilities to the current M...

  1. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  2. BNFL Magnox - Upgrades and enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udbinac, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, generic models, restrictive budgets,and general shortages of resources have limited the scope of the UK's older Magnox simulators. Nevertheless, the simulators evolved slowly over time, becoming more like their reference plants, as resources became available. Three years ago, the Training and Development Branch of Magnox Electric plc took a giant leap, investing significant resources into the modernization of their training simulators. New hardware was built, including a new simulator room. The simulator software was ported from Unix running on outdated servers to new servers running Microsoft Windows NT. Perhaps most significantly, major model enhancements were made to key plant systems to significantly increase the likeness of each simulator to its reference plant. The upgrade to NT, the addition of state-of-the-art instructor stations, and some of the model enhancements were achieved with SimPort, an all-inclusive simulation package provided by DS and S. This paper will provide a more detailed view of the Magnox modular simulators, including how they are used and how they have benefited from the enhancements and upgrades implemented during the project. (author)

  3. Upgrade and modernization of NBSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    The NBSR, a 20-MW research reactor operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has become the leading US laboratory in neutron research. About 1000 scientists from 200 industries, government and foreign laboratories, and universities conducted experiments at the NBSR in 19931. Since 1990, when the first instruments in the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) became available, the number of research participants has doubled. A major program of modernization and facility upgrade was initiated in order to meet this growing demand, and to assure safe and reliable reactor operations for 30 additional years. A scheduled shutdown, begun in late May 1994, is nearing completion at this writing (May 1995). To upgrade the CNRF, the D 2 0 cold neutron source has been replaced with a liquid hydrogen cold source, and the remaining four neutron guides are being installed. In addition, the primary and secondary cooling systems have been modernized with the installation of plate heat exchangers, and the refueling system has been completely refurbished. Periodic maintenance is also being done. The entire D20 primary coolant inventory is about to be replaced, and new shim arms have been installed

  4. MPTS Operation and Recent Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, B. P.; Diallo, A.; Labik, G.; Stevens, D. R.

    2011-10-01

    NSTX's Multi-Point Thomson Scattering (MPTS) diagnostic has supported plasma operation for over ten years, during which time a phased implementation has been pursued. The measurements span the horizontal midplane covering around 90 percent of the full-bore confined plasma and the scrape-off layer (SOL). While beginning with one 30-Hz Nd:YAG laser and 10 radial positions, MPTS has operated with a second laser - combined frequency of 60 Hz - and 30 radial positions during the past six years. A recent upgrade brings the total number of radial positions to 42. While most of the 12 new channels are set to improve spatial resolution in the pedestal and internal transport barrier (ITB) regions, a limited number of extra channels have been added to the inner edge and the SOL. Many of the new channels resulted from the splitting of existing fiber bundles, an option that had been left open in MPTS's original design. The 42-channel configuration is planned to begin operation during the 2011 NSTX experimental run. Experimental results will be presented. Future plans for the upcoming NSTX center-stack upgrade will be discussed. U.S. Dept. of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  6. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  7. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  8. Improving Competitiveness of U.S. Coal Dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkinos, Angelos [Energetics, Inc., Colubmia, MD (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The Improving Competitiveness of U.S. Coal Dialogue held in September 2017 explored a broad range of technical developments that have the potential to improve U.S. coal competitiveness in domestic and overseas markets. The workshop is one in a series of events hosted by DOE to gather expert input on challenges and opportunities for reviving the coal economy. This event brought together coal industry experts to review developments in a broad range of technical areas such as conventional physical (e.g. dense-medium) technologies, and dry coal treatments; thermal, chemical, and bio-oxidation coal upgrading technologies; coal blending; and applications for ultrafine coal and waste streams. The workshop was organized to focus on three main discussion topics: Challenges and Opportunities for Improving U.S. Coal Competitiveness in Overseas Markets, Mineral Processing, and Technologies to Expand the Market Reach of Coal Products. In each session, invited experts delivered presentations to help frame the subsequent group discussion. Throughout the discussions, participants described many possible areas of research and development (R&D) in which DOE involvement could help to produce significant outcomes. In addition, participants discussed a number of open questions—those that the industry has raised or investigated but not yet resolved. In discussing the three topics, the participants suggested potential areas of research and issues for further investigation. As summarized in Table ES-1, these crosscutting suggestions centered on combustion technologies, coal quality, coal processing, environmental issues, and other issues. The discussions at this workshop will serve as an input that DOE considers in developing initiatives that can be pursued by government and industry. This workshop generated strategies that described core research concepts, identified implementation steps, estimated benefits, clarified roles of government and industry, and outlined next steps. While

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese energy system, a major CO2 emitter, relies heavily on fossil fuels, especially coal. Coal will continue to play a major role in the new installed power generation capacity in the future, which will cause unavoidable environmental problems. Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are essential...... for emissions reduction in the power sector. In general, CCTs cover coal upgrading, efficiency improvements, advanced technologies and zero emissions technologies. Besides these, CCTs also include other emissions reduction technologies and comprehensive utilization technologies in China.This paper review...... generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC...

  10. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  11. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  12. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  13. Carry-over of fossil fuel impurities during processes of upgrading and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Pringle, T.G.; Tiefenbach, B.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental constraints on future fossil fuel utilization, e.g., requirements to minimize solid wastes and fugitive aerosol emissions including acidic components, require that additional information such as the trace element content of fuel stocks and the fate of trace components during processing for fuel extraction, up-grading and combustion, continue to be sought. Among the methods suited for fossil fuel trace analysis, the nuclear-based techniques. INAA, photon activation (IPAA) and PIXE have been adapted in this laboratory. Results obtained by several nuclear methods are compared in accuracy and application to coals and their derivative products and residues, including studies on pilot plant coal hydroliquefaction, and on Canadian coal fired electric generating units and to several Canadian peats. Results obtained for thermal coals and their ashes, synfuel and other heavy oil feedstocks are presented. The results indicate that appreciable fractions of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, and the halogens are carried over into the liquid fuels and some tendency is seen for similar behavior among groups or families of elements which have distinctive associations with mineral components in fossil fuels. The capabilities of radioanalytical techniques to contribute to fossil fuel studies both at the research stage (such as pilot plant coal conversion) and at the full-scale level of thermal station power production are reviewed

  14. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  15. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  16. Coal and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  17. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  18. Possible scenarios for the LHC injector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The possible upgrade of the LHC injector chain is a crucial step towards the LHC luminosity upgrade beyond 1034 cm-2s-1. It is also a mandatory requirement for the LHC energy upgrade well beyond the ultimate value of 7.56 TeV per beam. By pushing the accelerator parameters to the ultimate performance we can increase to 1.7×1011 the bunch population and eventually reach a peak luminosity of 2.3×1034 cm-2s-1. To go beyond, a considerable improvement of the LHC parameters, such as ß*, beam intensity, bunch length, number of circulating bunches is required. Finally, the upgrade of the injector complex and of the injection energy is another important ingredient to upgrade both peak and integrated luminosity up to an order of magnitude above the nominal value.

  19. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  20. Developing Queensland coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  1. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  2. Biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis over hierarchical ZSM-5 and Beta zeolites modified with Mg and Zn oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernando, H.; Moreno, I.; Fermoso, J.; Ochoa-Hernández, Cristina; Pizarro, P.; Coronado, J. M.; Čejka, Jiří; Serrano, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 289-304 ISSN 2190-6815 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : catalytic fast pyrolysis * hierarchial zeolite * bio -oil upgrading Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry

  3. Biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis over hierarchical ZSM-5 and Beta zeolites modified with Mg and Zn oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernando, H.; Moreno, I.; Fermoso, J.; Ochoa-Hernández, Cristina; Pizarro, P.; Coronado, J. M.; Čejka, Jiří; Serrano, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 289-304 ISSN 2190-6815 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : catalytic fast pyrolysis * hierarchial zeolite * bio-oil upgrading Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry

  4. Role of potassium exchange in catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over ZSM-5: Formation of alkyl phenols and furans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass with ZSM-5 type zeolites is a commonly considered in situ upgrading technique for the production of partially deoxygenated bio-oils. The acidity and structure of ZSM-5 catalysts favor the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from oxygenates present in the pyrolysis...

  5. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  6. MHD phenomena at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Pinches, S.D.; Sesnic, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Yu, Q.; Zohm, M.

    2001-01-01

    The onset of neoclassical tearing modes leads to the most serious β limit at ASDEX Upgrade. The β p value for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes is found to be proportional to the ion gyro-radius for collisionless plasmas as proposed by the ion polarisation current model. Larger collisionalities have a stabilizing effect. Sawtooth crashes or fishbones can trigger the mode, and in a few cases it appears spontaneously. Fishbones are shown to be able to cause magnetic reconnection. The fractional energy loss due to a (3,2) mode saturates for large pressures at around 25 %. In discharges with large impurity accumulation unusual MHD phenomena such as cascades of high-n tearing modes and modes driven by positive pressure gradients have been found. (author)

  7. MHD phenomena at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Pinches, S.D.; Sesnic, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Yu, Q.; Zohm, H.

    1999-01-01

    The onset of neoclassical tearing modes leads to the most serious β limit at ASDEX Upgrade. The β p value for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes is found to be proportional to the ion gyro-radius for collisionless plasmas as proposed by the ion polarisation current model. Larger collisionalities have a stabilizing effect. Sawtooth crashes or fishbones can trigger the mode, and in a few cases it appears spontaneously. Fishbones are shown to be able to cause magnetic reconnection. The fractional energy loss due to a (3,2) mode saturates for large pressures at around 25%. In discharges with large impurity accumulation unusual MHD phenomena such as cascades of high-n tearing modes and modes driven by positive pressure gradients have been found. (author)

  8. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  9. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  10. ATR technical specification upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications were initially developed with the content and format specified in ANSI/ANS-15.1, The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors. The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  11. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  12. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  13. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  14. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  15. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  16. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  17. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Torries, T.; Labys, W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  18. Upgrading nuclear safeguards in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Maribeth; Murakami, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    When the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, Kazakhstan inherited 1,410 nuclear warheads. Within three years, by 1994, Kazakhstan had formally acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and transferred its last nuclear warhead to Russia in April 1995. Its NPT safeguards agreement with the IAEA came into force in 1994 and all facilities are under safeguards. In February 2004 Kazakhstan signed the Additional Protocol to its IAEA safeguards agreement, though this not yet in force. Kazakhstan played a key role during the Soviet era as a supplier and processor of uranium. The BN-350 fast reactor at Aktau (formerly Shevchenko), on the shore of the Caspian Sea, successfully produced up to 135 MWe of electricity and 80,000 m3/day of potable water over some 27 years until it was closed down in mid-1999. The IAEA being involved in upgrading the nuclear material accountancy and control systems of all Member States requested, Japan and Sweden to conduct independent evaluations at the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC), and specifically at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP) and identified areas that could be improved with respect to nuclear material accountancy and control. In June 2003 the Agency, with four Member States and the European Union, undertook a programme to upgrade the nuclear accountancy and control systems within Kazakhstan with special emphasis on the UMP in Ust-Kamenogorsk in northeast Kazakhstan. The current IAEA programme is focused on upgrading hardware and software systems and the training of personnel in Kazakhstan. Due to the complexity of the facility, special emphasis is on training personnel and upgrading systems at the UMP. At the UMP the focus is on reducing the uncertainty in the hold-up (material which cannot be cleaned out) in the process lines, better determining the amount of nuclear material that is released from the facility as waste or retained at the facility as waste, increasing the ability of the facility to more

  19. India clamours for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2000-10-01

    The steadily deteriorating quality of coal provided by government-owned companies in India has persuaded coal users to follow the lead of the World Bank and call for deregulation of the sector to allow quality coal to be procured at competitive prices from the global market.Some 24 opencast mines belonging to Coal India Limited subsidiaries were to be expanded to produce 112 mta of coal but the World Bank terminated a loan of 507 million dollars from the total sanctioned loan of 1.06 bn. CIL refuses to accept that the loan was terminated because the government failed to meet the terms and conditions imposed at the time of the loan sanction. In addition to slow demand from the power sector, the state-owned coal companies have found the World Bank terms impossible to meet. The favourable debt market in India has come to their aid but even this will not enable the quality of coal to be improved for use in many power plants. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board has called for the formation of a joint venture with the private sector to explore for and supply quality coal. 1 photo.

  20. Imported coal remains flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, F.

    1982-01-01

    The new law on coal tariff quotas is one year old. During this period hard coal imports increased by 1 million tons, in spite of the slowed down economic activities and the wait-and-see attitude of consumers. The author gives a first survey.

  1. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  2. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  3. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  4. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  6. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  7. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  8. The effect of coal type and pyrolysis temperature on the electrochemical activity of coal at a solid carbon anode in molten carbonate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. A.; Glenn, M.; Donne, S. W.

    2015-04-01

    A systematic assessment of the electrochemical activity of two different parent coal types, pyrolysed at temperatures between 500 and 900 °C higher heating temperature (HHT), is presented in this work. Analysis shows that certain coal chars are catalytically activated in molten carbonate media at 600 °C, however activity does not appear to follow trends established for ashless carbon sources. It is seen here that it is not possible to predict activity based solely on electrical resistance, surface functionalization, or the BET surface area of pyrolysed coals. Instead, it is suggested that coal ash type, abundance and distribution plays a pivotal role in activating the coal char to allow fast electrochemical oxidation through a catalytically enhanced pathway. Activation from ash influence is discussed to result from wetting of the molten carbonate media with the carbon surface (change in polarity of electrode surface), through ash mediated oxide adsorption and transfer to carbon particles, or possibly through another catalytic pathway not yet able to be predicted from current results.

  9. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  10. Upgrade Planning for the ATLAS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    “A series of upgrades leading to those required for the HL-LHC phase ff ATLAS is described with emphasis on those relating to the tracking part of the experiment. Aspects of the proposed ATLAS HL-LHC tracker layout and recent results on prototyping performance are presented. The wider context of ATLAS Upgrade planning is also briefly discussed along with current understanding of scheduling. The expected performance of the upgraded tracker in the presence of high pile-up is shown to motivate the baseline detector choices although possible alternative layouts are also mentioned.”

  11. Possible Scenarios for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2107593

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible scenarios to upgrade the LHC luminosity beyond 1034 cm−2s−1. By pushing the accelerator parameters to the ultimate performance we can increase to 1.7 1011 the bunch population and eventually reach a peak luminosity of 2.3×1034 cm−2s−1. To go beyond, a considerable improvement of the LHC parameters, such as ß*, beam intensity, bunch length, number of circulating bunches is required. Finally, the upgrade of the injector complex and of the injection energy is another important ingredient to upgrade both peak and integrated luminosity up to an order of magnitude above the nominal value.

  12. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome A. Ramirez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can be modified towards meeting fuel standards using strategies such as solvent extraction, distillation, hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking. This article presents a review of the upgrading technologies available, and how they might be used to make HTL bio-crude into a transportation fuel that meets current fuel property standards.

  13. Catalytic production of aromatics and olefins from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.O.; Rodewald, P.G.; Weisz, P.B.

    1980-08-01

    Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-like plant materials offer the possibility of relatively simple and energy-efficient processing to liquid fuels or petrochemicals. The use of such highly reduced photosynthesis products as potential fuels has been advocated by Calvin and coworkers, and Buchanan and coworkers have evaluated several hundred plant species for the presence of hydrocarbons. The yield of extracted oils may exceed 10 wt % of the plant dry weight. Some field growth studies of the most promising of these plants are underway, e.g., by Calvin in California, by Native Plants, Inc., and by the Diamond Shamrock Co., in conjunction with the University of Arizona, mostly with Euphorbia and related genera. Exploratory studies were performed to determine if direct catalytic upgrading of the hydrocarbon-like plant constituents could be carried out. A preliminary report has been published recently. A variety of plant materials were shown to be upgraded to liquid premium fuels by relatively simple catalytic processing over Mobil's shape selective zeolite, ZSM-5. The present paper contains additional information on the conversion of a variety of plant materials with special emphasis on the production of petrochemicals, and discusses key mechanistic aspects of the reactions. Feedstocks were chosen to represent different types of plant materials: corn oil, castor oil and jojoba seed oil; plant extracts from Euphorbia lathyrus and Grindelia squarrosa; and hydrocarbons obtained by tapping of trees such as copaiba oil and natural rubber latex.

  14. Prospects for the development of coal-steam plants in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of the technical state of the modern coal-fired power plants and quality of coal consumed by Russian thermal power plants (TPP) is provided. Measures aimed at improving the economic and environmental performance of operating 150-800 MW coal power units are considered. Ways of efficient use of technical methods of NO x control and electrostatic precipitators' upgrade for improving the efficiency of ash trapping are summarized. Examples of turbine and boiler equipment efficiency upgrading through its deep modernization are presented. The necessity of the development and introduction of new technologies in the coal-fired power industry is shown. Basic technical requirements for a 660-800 MW power unit with the steam conditions of 28 MPa, 600/600°C are listed. Design solutions taking into account features of Russian coal combustion are considered. A field of application of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers and their effectiveness are indicated. The results of development of a new generation coal-fired TPP, including a steam turbine with an increased efficiency of the compartments and disengaging clutch, an elevated steam conditions boiler, and a highly efficient NO x /SO2 and ash particles emission control system are provided. In this case, the resulting ash and slag are not to be sent to the ash dumps and are to be used to a maximum advantage. Technical solutions to improve the efficiency of coal gasification combined cycle plants (CCP) are considered. A trial plant based on a 16 MW gas turbine plant (GTP) and an air-blown gasifier is designed as a prototype of a high-power CCP. The necessity of a state-supported technical reequipment and development program of operating coal-fired power units, as well as putting into production of new generation coal-fired power plants, is noted.

  15. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  16. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  18. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  19. Upgrading of PWR plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tomonori; Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakaishi, Hirokazu.

    1989-01-01

    For the education and training of operators in electric power plants, simulators have been employed, and it is well known that their effect is great. There are operation training simulators which simulate the dynamic characteristics of plants and all the machinery and equipment that operators handle, and train the procedure of restoration at the time of abnormality in plants, education simulators which can analyze the dynamic characteristics of plants efficiently in a short time, and offer information by visualizing phenomena with three-dimensional display and others so as to be easily understandable, and forecast simulators which do the analysis forecasting plant behavior at the time of abnormality in plants, and investigate the necessity of the guide for operation procedure and the countermeasures at the time of emergency. In this explanation, the upgrading of operation training simulators which have been put already in training is discussed. The constitution of simulator system and the instructor function, the outline of PWR plant simulation models comprising thermal flow model, pump model, leak model and so on, the techniques of increasing simulator speed, and the example of analysis using the NUPAC code are reported. (K.I.)

  20. The LHCb Vertex Locator Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumlak, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty LHCb detector is a dedicated flavour physics experiment, designed to efficiently detect decays of b- and c-hadrons to perform precise studies of CP violation and rare decays. At the end of Run 2, many of the LHCb measurements will remain statistically dominated. In order to increase the trigger yield for purely hadronic channels, the hardware trigger will be removed, and the full detector will be read out at 40 MHz. This, in combination with the five-fold increase in luminosity necessitates radical changes to LHCb's electronics with entire subdetector replacements required in some cases. The Vertex Locator (VELO) surrounding the interaction region is used to reconstruct the proton-proton collision points (primary vertices) and decay vertices of long-lived particles (secondary vertices). The upgraded VELO will be equipped with silicon hybrid pixel sensors, each read out by VeloPix ASICs. The highest occupancy ASICs will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhit/s and produce an output data rate of over 15 Gbit/s, with a total rate of 1.6 Tbit/s anticipated for the whole detector. Selected highlights of this challenging and ambitious project are described in this paper.

  1. ETA-II accelerator upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, D.G.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hibbs, S.M.; Sampayan, S.E.; Petersen, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements to the ETA-II linear induction electron accelerator. The accelerator's cells have been carefully reconditioned to raise the maximum accelerating gap voltage from approximately 100 kV to 125 kV. Insulators of Rexolite plastic in a new ''zero-gap'' arrangement replaced the alumina originals after several alternative materials were investigated. A new multi-cable current feed system will be used to eliminate pulse reflection interactions encountered in earlier experiments. Improved alignment fixtures have been installed to help minimize beam perturbation due to poorly aligned intercell magnets between 10-cell groups. A stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) has been utilized to enhance overall magnetic alignment, and to characterize irreducible alignment errors. These changes are in conjunction with an expansion of the accelerator from a 20-cell to a 60-cell configuration. When completed, the upgraded accelerator is expected to deliver 2.5 kA of electron beam current at 7.5 MeV in bursts of up to fifty 70-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. A 5.5-meter-long wiggler will convert the energy into 3-GW microwave pulses at 140 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)

  2. The software upgrade of NICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Emanuel; Guido, Vincenzo; Oliva, Ernesto

    2008-08-01

    NICS (the Near Infrared Camera Spectrometer) is a cooled near-infrared camera-spectrometer that has been developed in the late 90's at the INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory for the Ø3.5 m "Telescopio Nazionale Galileo" (TNG) at the La Palma Observatory. The instrument has been operating for regular scientific observations since the beginning of 2001. During the 2001-2007 period it has been used in about 410 nights yielding data which contributed to the production of 60 refereed papers which collected a total of more than 800 citations. At the age of 8 years, NICS is still among the most efficient and versatile infrared instruments existing worldwide. To improve its observational efficiency, we have designed and we are currently developing new control software and GUI interfaces. The former has been devised to optimize the low level tasks (in particular the motors controls), the latter to simplify the communications between the observer and the instrument. We give here a short description of NICS software upgrade.

  3. Human-machine interface upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Chab, V.

    2002-01-01

    The article describes a new human-machine interface that was installed at the VR-1 training reactor. The human-machine interface upgrade was completed in the summer 2001. The interface was designed with respect to functional, ergonomic and aesthetic requirements. The interface is based on a personal computer equipped with two displays. One display enables alphanumeric communication between the reactor operator and the nuclear reactor I and C. The second display is a graphical one. It presents the status of the reactor, principal parameters (as power, period), control rods positions, course of the reactor power. Furthermore, it is possible to set parameters, to show the active core configuration, to perform reactivity calculations, etc. The software for the new human-machine interface was produced with the InTouch developing tool of the Wonder-Ware Company. It is possible to switch the language of the interface between Czech and English because of many foreign students and visitors to the reactor. Microcomputer based communication units with proper software were developed to connect the new human-machine interface with the present reactor I and C. The new human-machine interface at the VR-1 training reactor improves the comfort and safety of the reactor utilisation, facilitates experiments and training, and provides better support for foreign visitors. (orig.)

  4. Disruption studies on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Egorov, S.; Finken, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Disruptions generate large thermal and mechanical stresses on the tokamak components and are occasionally responsible for damages to the machine. For a future reactor disruptions have a significant impact on the design since all loading conditions must be analyzed in accordance with stricter design criteria (due to safety or difficult maintenance). Therefore the uncertainties affecting the predicted stresses must be reduced as much as possible with a more comprehensive set of measurements and analyses in this generation of experimental machines, and avoidance/predictive methods must be developed further. Disruption studies on ASDEX Upgrade are focused on these subjects, namely on: (1) understanding the physical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon in order to learn to avoid it or to predict its occurrence and to mitigate its effects; (2) analyzing the effects of disruptions on the machine to determine the functional dependence of the thermal and mechanical loads upon the discharge parameters. This allows, firstly, to dimension or reinforce the machine components to withstand these loads and, secondly, to extrapolate them to tokamaks still in the design phase; (3) learning to mitigate the consequence of disruptions, i.e. thermal loads, mechanical forces and runaways with injection of impurity pellets or gas. This paper is focused on most recent results concerning points, i.e. on the analysis of the degree of asymmetry of the forces and on the use of impurity puff for mitigation

  5. Anatomy of an upgrade event in the upgrade era, and implications for the LHCb trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, C

    2014-01-01

    This document studies the rates at which particles of interest are produced within the LHCb detector acceptance, in both Run 1 and Upgrade conditions. We present the event rates that could be selected by an idealised trigger system during the LHCb Upgrade, and compare these to the rates selected by the Run 1 trigger system. We discuss the implications of our findings for the proposed LHCb Upgrade trigger.

  6. CANDU Digital Control Computer upgrade options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, M.S.; De Grosbois, J.; Qian, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of Digital Control Computers (DCC) in CANDU power plants to the present day. Much of this evolution has been to meeting changing control or display requirements as well as the replacement of obsolete, or old and less reliable technology with better equipment that is now available. The current work at AECL and Canadian utilities to investigate DCC upgrade options, alternatives, and strategies are examined. The dependence of a particular upgrade strategy on the overall plant refurbishment plans are also discussed. Presently, the upgrade options range from replacement of individual obsolete system components, to replacement of the entire DCC hardware without changing the software, to complete replacement of the DCCs with a functionally equivalent system using new control computer equipment and software. Key issues, constraints and objectives associated with these DCC upgrade options are highlighted. (author)

  7. Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F. H.

    1998-01-01

    In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP(Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to up grade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported. Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system ''on line'' while still saving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided

  8. Recovery Act. Tapoco project. Cheoah upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Paul [Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2013-10-02

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  9. IOP Physics benchmarks of the VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068636

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb Experiment at the LHC is successfully performing precision measurements primarily in the area of flavour physics. The collaboration is preparing an upgrade that will start taking data in 2021 with a trigger-less readout at five times the current luminosity. The vertex locator has been crucial in the success of the experiment and will continue to be so for the upgrade. It will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector and this paper discusses the performance benchmarks of the upgraded detector. Despite the challenging experimental environment, the vertex locator will maintain or improve upon its benchmark figures compared to the current detector. Finally the long term plans for LHCb, beyond those of the upgrade currently in preparation, are discussed.

  10. Backbone upgrades and DEC equipment replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancamp, Warren

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Science Internet (NSI) dual protocol backbone is outlined. It includes DECnet link upgrades to match TCP/IP link performance. It also includes the integration of backbone resources and central management. The phase 1 transition process is outlined.

  11. Initial performance of upgraded Tevatron cryogenic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, B.L.

    1996-09-01

    Fermilab began operating a re-designed satellite refrigerator systems in November 1993. Upgrades were installed to operate the Tevatron at a magnet temperature of 3.5 K, approximately 1K lower than the original design. Refrigerator upgrades included new valve boxes, larger reciprocating expanders, the installation of cold vapor compressors, new sub-atmospheric instrumentation and an entirely new distributed controls system. Cryogenic system reliability data for Colliding Physics Run 1B is presented emphasizing a failure analysis for each aspect of the upgrade. Comparison to data for Colliding Physics Run 1A (previous to upgrade) is presented to show the impact of a major system overhaul. New operational problems and their solutions are presented in detail

  12. Upgrading of solid biofuels and feedstock quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burvall, Jan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    1998-06-01

    This paper treats upgrading of biomass to pellets, briquettes and powder and the quality needed of the initial feedstock. The main raw materials are wood and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) 5 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Positive train control test bed interoperability upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed to support additional PTC testing configurations under Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Task Order 270. The scope of work provided additional PTC Co...

  14. Characterization and suitability of superclean coals for hydroliquefaction feedstocks: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam

    1989-05-30

    Superclean coals have been studied for their suitability as liquefaction feedstocks. The effects of ash and sulfur contents and two catalysts on a hydrogen donor solvent liquefaction reaction have been studied. Experiments were run using a unique coal of small particle size (90% <22 microns). The coal was characterized in terms of its chemical and its physical properties. This information made it possible to determine the effects of the static tube flotation separation on the coal. Once characterized the coals were liquefied in the hydrogen donor tetralin under a hydrogen atmosphere of 500 psig. The first series of experiments was to determine the effects of the ash on the liquefaction reaction. The second group of experiments dealt with the effects of catalysts (ammonium molybdate and titanium carbide) on low ash coals at various conditions. A model for batch liquefaction in a hydrogen donor solvent is then developed. This model is based on the assumption that the reaction is due to two competing mechanisms; (1) a thermal decomposition of the coal and (2) a catalytic reaction. The thermal reaction produces unwanted products while the catalytic reaction produces the desired products. To accurately model the batch system, mass transfer is considered. 51 refs., 50 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  16. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  17. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  18. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  19. Combined coal gasification and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduction using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ehrensberger, K.; Steinfeld, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The coal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} system was experimentally studied at PSI solar furnace. The reactants were directly exposed to a solar flux irradiation of 3,000 suns (1 sun = 1 kW/m{sup 2}). The combined gasification of coal and reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} proceeded rapidly after only one second exposure, suggesting an efficient heat transfer and chemical conversion by direct solar energy absorption at the reaction site. The proposed solar thermochemical process offers the possibility of converting coal to a cleaner fluid fuel with a solar-upgraded calorific value. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  20. Upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221618; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In coming years the LHC is expected to undergo upgrades to increase both the energy of proton-proton collisions and the instantaneous luminosity. In order to cope with these more challenging LHC conditions, upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system will be required. This talk will focus on some of the key aspects of these upgrades. Firstly, the upgrade period between 2019-2021 will see an increase in instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. Upgrades to the Level 1 trigger system during this time will include improvements for both the muon and calorimeter triggers. These include the upgrade of the first-level Endcap Muon trigger, the calorimeter trigger electronics and the addition of new calorimeter feature extractor hardware, such as the Global Feature Extractor (gFEX). An overview will be given on the design and development status the aforementioned systems, along with the latest testing and validation results. \\\\ By 2026, the High Luminosity LHC will be able to deliver 14 TeV collisions ...

  1. Pulsed power supply for Nova Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, J.L.; Kajs, J.P.; Walls, A.; Weldon, W.F.; Zowarka, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work carried out at the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT). A baseline design of the Nova Upgrade has been completed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Nova Upgrade is an 18 beamline Nd: glass laser design utilizing fully relayed 4x4 30 cm aperture segmented optical components. The laser thus consists of 288 independent beamlets nominally producing 1.5 to 2.0 MJ of 0.35 μm light in a 3 to 5 ns pulse. The laser design is extremely flexible and will allow a wide range of pulses to irradiate ICF targets. This facility will demonstrate ignition/gain and the scientific feasibility of ICF for energy and defense applications. The pulsed power requirements for the Nova Upgrade are given. CEM-UT was contracted to study and develop a design for a homopolar generator/inductor (HPG/inductor) opening switch system which would satisfy the pulsed power supply requirements of the Nova Upgrade. The Nd:glass laser amplifiers used in the Nova Upgrade will be powered by light from xenon flashlamps. The pulsed power supply for the Nova Upgrade powers the xenon flashlamps. This design and study was for a power supply to drive flashlamps

  2. The ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Siddhanta, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    The long term plan of ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a detailed investigation and characterisation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). ALICE has devised a comprehensive upgrade strategy to enhance its physics capabilities and to exploit the LHC running conditions after the second long shutdown of the LHC scheduled in 2019-20. The upgraded ALICE will focus on high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta, which will significantly improve the performance with respect to the present experimental set up. The upgrade strategy is based on the fact that after LS2 LHC will progressively increase its luminosity with Pb beams eventually reaching an interaction rate of about 50 kHz. To exploit the new LHC capabilities, several existing detectors will undergo a substantial upgrade and new detectors will be added. Within this upgrade strategy, the Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade forms an important cornerstone, providing precise measurements for...

  3. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1997-08-26

    Task 3 work was concluded this quarter. Filtration characteristics of first-stage products were determined in off-line tests. The one-liter autoclave first-stage reactor was successfully operated with an in-line filter. Construction of the 300 mL second-stage catalytic upgrading continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was completed. The reactor system underwent shake-down trials, was modified and subsequently used in tests with first-stage products. The economic evaluation of the conceptual process design continued using data from first- and second-stage tests. First-stage catalyst costs were estimated based on usage rates currently being employed. Task 4 was authorized; a Work Plan was drafted for approval.

  4. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  5. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  7. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  8. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapours over Sodium-Based Catalyst; A Study on teh State of Sodium on the Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Gupta, K.B. Sai Sankar; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2015-01-01

    In situ upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours over Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts was studied in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 500 °C. Catalytic oil exhibits a significant improvement over its non-catalytic counterpart, such as lower oxygen content (12.3 wt % compared to 42.1 wt %), higher

  10. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scrubbing King Coal's dirty face : a new gasification project southeast of Edmonton hopes to make coal cleaner now and for future generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-15

    This article described the proposed Dodds-Roundhill Coal Gasification Project. This first commercial coal gasification plant in Canada will be developed by Edmonton-based Sherritt International Corporation, in a 50/50 partnership with the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan. The project will include a surface coal mine and a coal gasification facility located approximately 80 km southeast of Edmonton, Alberta. Coal gasification is emerging as a clean alternative for converting coal into energy products. It involves the gasification process which breaks down coal to produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, collectively known as synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas can then be used for fuel, as a petrochemical feedstock, or it can be further processed into hydrogen for use by bitumen upgraders and crude oil refineries in Alberta. Carbon dioxide, which is highly concentrated are relatively easy to capture will be either sequestered or used in enhanced oil recovery. Construction will begin in mid-2009 following project application and an environmental impact assessment. 3 figs.

  12. IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Many of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) scientific staff members were very active in R ampersand D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R ampersand D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately

  13. IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

  14. Design upgrading on Ignitor Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiaro, A.; Coletti, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ignitor is a high field compact machine conceived to achieve ignition in D-T plasma. The upgraded design of the Plasma Chamber (PC) and of the First Wall (FW) system consider the updated scenarios for IGNITOR vertical plasma disruption (VDE). The electromagnetic (EM) loads arising from halo currents and net horizontal force with the proper toroidal distribution have been envisaged. The dynamic elastic-plastic structural analysis of the PC has brought to a tayloring of the wall thickness such to reduce the displacements within the clearance with toroidal coil. A detailed 3D finite elements model has been developed in order to evaluate the electromagnetic loads on FW. The thermal loads arisen from plasma heat loads (peak value 1.8 MW/m 2 ) have been also considered. In any case the maximum calculated stresses are within the allowable limits. The relevant 3D virtual mockup software simulates the inside of the PC including the entire boom with end-effector. This allowed for the analysis of the boom kinematics to cover all positions with the various end-effectors to assess the Remote Handling task operations. The structural analysis of the IGNITOR machine Load Assembly has been performed taking into account the friction coefficients between the significant components. The non linear analysis takes into account for both the in-plane and the out-of-plane loads. The vertical plasma disruption conditions (VDE) result in bigger out-of-plane loads than the normal operating conditions. Keys of proper dimensions between the 30 o extension C-Clamps modules was adopted to assure structural stability. As far as the interlaminar shear stresses on toroidal field coils are concerned, the related safety factors are decreased respect to the normal operating conditions, but remaining around 2. (author)

  15. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  16. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise. Desirazu N Rao Bharath Wootla. General Article Volume 12 Issue ... Keywords. Catalytic antibodies; abzymes; hybridome technology; Diels– Alder reaction; Michaelis– Menten kinetics; Factor VIII.

  17. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  18. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  19. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  20. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-09-15

    As the energy demand grows, coal is more and more exported and its trade is very flourishing. Asian countries produce 61% of the world production and Japan is the biggest coal importer: 27% of the world exports. The world reserves are huge: 860 billions tonnes which represents 130 years of today's production. The use of coal is very polluting and the quest of a clean coal is a challenge for the next decade. Different ways of improvement are currently developed: -) the use of more efficient filters to block polluting releases, -) the recovery of the energy of the smokes, -) a higher thermal yield through the use of supercritical cycles, or the addition of a gasification step to a combined cycle, or the simultaneous production of power, heat and chemical by-products, and -) the storage of CO{sub 2} produced in deep geological reservoirs. (A.C.)

  1. Uranium in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facer, J.F. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    United States production of coal in 1977 was 695 million short tons of which 477 million tons were burned in power plants. The ash from these power plants was about 67 million tons containing an estimated 900 tons U 3 O 8 , assuming 14 percent ash from the type of coal used by utilities and 12 ppM U contained in ash. Perhaps 1 to 3 percent of the domestic uranium requirement could be met from coal ash, provided processing technology could be developed for uranium recovery at acceptable costs. However, the environmental problems for disposal of the slimy leached ash would be enormous. The average uranium grade of coal in the United States is less than half of that of the Earth's crust. Burning the coal concentrates the contained uranium in the ash from 2 to 20 times. However, even at 20 times concentration, the percent uranium in coal ash is less than 1/100 of the grade of the uranium ore being processed today from conventional deposits. Although it is conceivable that some coal ash might contain enough uranium to make the ash an economic source of uranium, this is not now the case for ash from any major coal-fired power plant in the United States. During 1963 to 67, about 180,000 tons of uranium-bearing carbonaceous rock from the southwestern part of the Williston Basin were mined and processed to recover about 1 million pounds of U 3 O 8 . None of this material has been mined since 1967. The uranium reserves of the area are small, and the environmental problems with calcining the lignitic material may be prohibitive. Some other uraniferous coal and lignite could be mined and processed as a uranium ore, but less than half of one percent of the domestic $30 reserves are in coal. A few samples of mid-continent coal have been reported to contain about 100 ppM U but little is known about the size of such deposits or the likelihood that they will be mined and used for power plant fuel to produce a high-uranium ash

  2. Catalytic interface erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, H.; Cohen, E.G.D.

    1995-01-01

    We study interface erosion processes: catalytic erosions. We present two cases. (1) The erosion of a completely occupied lattice by one single moving particle starting from somewhere inside the lattice, considering deterministic as well as probabilistic erosion rules. In the latter case, the eroded regions appear to have interfaces with continuously tunable fractal dimensions. (2) The kinetic roughening of an initially flat surface, where ballistic or diffusion-limited particles, which remain intact themselves, erode the surface coming from the outside, using the same erosion rules as in (1). Many features resembling realistic interfaces, for example, islands and inlets, are generated. The dependence of the surface width on the system size is due to both the erosion mechanism and the way particles move before reaching the surface

  3. Catalytic detritiation of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.; Lamberger, P.H.; Ellis, R.E.; Mills, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot-scale system has been used at Mound Laboratory to investigate the catalytic detritiation of water. A hydrophobic, precious metal catalyst is used to promote the exchange of tritium between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen at 60 0 C. Two columns are used, each 7.5 m long by 2.5 cm ID and packed with catalyst. Water flow is 5-10 cm 3 /min and countercurrent hydrogen flow is 9,000-12,000 cm 3 /min. The equipment, except for the columns, is housed in an inert atmosphere glovebox and is computer controlled. The hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of a portion of the water stream. Enriched gaseous tritium is withdrawn for further enrichment. A description of the system is included along with an outline of its operation. Recent experimental data are discussed

  4. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  5. Coal utilization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.C.D.; Formoso, M.L.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts at presenting a database on environmental pollution due to coal-fired power plants and coal-mining, according to regional and national bibliography available to the authors. Data on air, water and soil pollution in Rio Grande do Sul and Pollution due to mining in Santa Catarina are presented. The paper consists of a bibliographic compilation, with the quantification of polluting factors. (author)

  6. Coal pillar design procedures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    York, G

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available ). ..................................................................................................................25 Figure 1-3 Stress in coal pillar versus pillar compression. After Wagner (1980).......................27 Figure 1-4 Frequency of pillar collapse versus the design safety factor. ..................................38 Figure 1-5 Frequency... ......................................................................................57 Table 2-6 Calculation of factor of safety of pillars at collapsed sites in Klip River coal field.......................................................................................................................58 Table 2-7 Summary...

  7. Coal transporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevski, Goce; Sazdov, Dushko; Tasevski, Apostol

    1999-01-01

    Installation of transporting systems in coal open pits in Macedonia was connected with construction and purchasing of the equipment from foreign companies. During 1998 Electric Power Company of Macedonia in connection with needs of the Oslomej Thermal Power Plant and delivery conditions,decided to give this task to domestic companies. This paper presents the planning activities an the implementation of the new coal transporting system. (Author)

  8. Improvements in monitoring coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.R.C.; Tulloch, A.T.; Basterfield, A.

    1984-01-01

    An instrument for determining a first characteristic of a material, eg ash in coal, by X-radiation comprises a turntable with material feeding means. An X-radiation source and detector unit determines the first characteristic, and a microwave source and detector unit, determine a second characteristic of the material, eg moisture in coal. The turntable is transparent to microwaves in at least the region traversed by the microwaves. (author)

  9. Oil from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurlow, G.G.

    1978-10-01

    Our great-grandchildren will view the petroleum age as a brief perturbation in the life-style of mankind, less than a hundred years in which we discovered, exploited, squandered and exhausted the natural resource of liquid petroelum laid down over many million years of pre-history. What the sources of energy in common use in our great-grandchildren's day will be is something we cannot know. By then, the need for liquid hydrocarbon fuels may have passed. What is more sure, however, is that for a while, man will want to continue to use the equipment and the methods familiar to him from this petroleum-product dominated age beyond the time when natural petroleum sources become scarce. During these decades there will be a need to produce liquid hydrocarbons from other sources and one of these sources, abundantly available at this time, will be coal. Converting coal to liquid basically entails accomplishing two steps: (1) the separation of the coal substance from the ash and impurities associated with the coal, and (2) breaking down the complex coal molecules into simpler molecules and increasing the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. It is also necessary, of course, to develop processes which will lead to the production of a range of liquid products to meet the demands of the commerical market, whether as fuels or as chemical feedstocks. Converting coal to a liquid needs energy, both heat and power, and hydrogen; if all these have to be generated starting from coal, their production may use approaching half of the Btu value of the coal fed to the plant. The economic advantage of one process over another will be mainly dependent on the products required and the price assigned to them and on the effectiveness with which the plant can be engineered to minimize energy loss and to operate effectively.

  10. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  11. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  12. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  13. Catalytic conversion of methane to methanol using Cu-zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayon, Evalyn Mae C; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Ranocchiari, Marco; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of methane to value-added liquid chemicals is a promising answer to the imminent demand for fuels and chemical synthesis materials in the advent of a dwindling petroleum supply. Current technology requires high energy input for the synthesis gas production, and is characterized by low overall selectivity, which calls for alternative reaction routes. The limitation to achieve high selectivity is the high C-H bond strength of methane. High-temperature reaction systems favor gas-phase radical reactions and total oxidation. This suggests that the catalysts for methane activation should be active at low temperatures. The enzymatic-inspired metal-exchanged zeolite systems apparently fulfill this need, however, methanol yield is low and a catalytic process cannot yet be established. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems have been described which stabilize the intermediate formed after the first C-H activation. The understanding of the reaction mechanism and the determination of the active metal sites are important for formulating strategies for the upgrade of methane conversion catalytic technologies.

  14. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhufeng; Zheng Xingzhou

    2005-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  15. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kallenbachthe ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-10-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were designed for a reduction of tungsten release during ICRF operation. As predicted, a factor two reduction on the ICRF-induced W plasma content could be achieved by the reduction of the sheath voltage at the antenna limiters via the compensation of the image currents of the central and side straps in the antenna frame. There are two main operational scenario lines in AUG. Experiments with low collisionality, which comprise current drive, ELM mitigation/suppression and fast ion physics, are mainly done with freshly boronized walls to reduce the tungsten influx at these high edge temperature conditions. Full ELM suppression and non-inductive operation up to a plasma current of {{I}\\text{p}}=0.8 MA could be obtained at low plasma density. Plasma exhaust is studied under conditions of high neutral divertor pressure and separatrix electron density, where a fresh boronization is not required. Substantial progress could be achieved for the understanding of the confinement degradation by strong D puffing and the improvement with nitrogen or carbon seeding. Inward/outward shifts of the electron density profile relative to the temperature profile effect the edge stability via the pressure profile changes and lead to improved/decreased pedestal performance. Seeding and D gas puffing are found to effect the core fueling via changes in a region of high density on the high field side (HFSHD). The integration of all above mentioned operational scenarios will be feasible and naturally obtained in a large device where the edge is more opaque for neutrals and higher plasma temperatures provide a lower collisionality. The combination of exhaust control with pellet fueling has been successfully

  16. Competition between coal and gas for large scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, B.

    1997-01-01

    The relative competitiveness of coal- and gas-fired generation will be affected by distinctive country and market factors as well as site specific considerations, regarding such factors as environment, market structure and economics (such as fuel and plant costs). National and international politics have an impact on all three factors and any decision on the development of generation plant must take into account both current and future political climates. An analysis suggests that, at the present time, upgrading existing coal stations is attractive compared with new combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs). However, this conclusion is highly dependent on the site specific nature of existing plant and the anticipated future environmental regime. Increased environmental pressure, particularly in the area of CO 2 emissions, would result in CCGTs being the first choice plant option. (R.P.)

  17. Coal recovery from a coal waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanski Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities and efficiency of coal recovery from the waste material located at the Central Coal Waste Dump in Poland were presented in this paper. The waste material includes significant amount of fly ash. Research conducted into determination of energetic properties of such wastes showed that the average ash content was 75.75% and the average gross calorific value was 7.81 MJ/kg. Coal was gravitationally separated from the waste material in a pulsatory jig and in a spiral washer including size fractions: 30-5 and 8-0 mm (this was crushed to a size <3.2 mm, respectively. The application of the pulsatory jig (pulse classifier allowed to obtain a high-quality energetic concentrate with the ash content lower than 12% and the gross calorific value higher than 26 MJ/kg (with average yield 7.8%. The spiral separator gave much worse results. The average gross calorific value for the concentrate was 11.6 MJ/kg, with the high ash content 56.5% and yield approximately 26%.

  18. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy to incre......A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy...... to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...... them to choose relevant energy-saving solutions as well as clarifying the financial consequences and opportunities....

  19. Five TWh saved on profitable upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne.

    1999-01-01

    Article. In Norway, a project is planned to evaluate the upgrading potential of the hydroelectric power sector. The article criticizes the authorities for not supporting the upgrading of hydroelectric power plants in their eager to promote the development of wind power. An important contribution of the planned project will be a book from which the utilities may get advice on measures of upgrading. Generators and control systems account for 80% of the faults and interruptions in the power utilities. The turbine technology has made important progress in the 1990s. By pure upgrading measures alone, the turbine efficiencies may be increased enough for an additional 3 TWh to be taken out from the Norwegian hydroelectric power system. Today, the price of imported carbon-based Danish power determines whether the utilities find it profitable to rehabilitate the hydroelectric plants. The energy potential of upgrading is estimated to be 5 TWh. This energy can be generated with known technology and with no serious consequences for the environment

  20. Safety upgrades to the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAbreu, B.; Mark, J.M.; Mutterback, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The NRU (National Research Universal) Reactor is a 135 MW thermal research facility located at Chalk River Laboratories, and is owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. One of the largest and most versatile research reactors in the world, it serves as the R and D workhorse for Canada's CANDU business while at the same time filling the role as one of the world's major producers of medical radioisotopes. AECL plans to extend operation of the NRU reactor to approximately the year 2005 when a new replacement, the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) will be available. To achieve this, AECL has undertaken a program of safety reassessment and upgrades to enhance the level of safety consistent with modem requirements. An engineering assessment/inspection of critical systems, equipment and components was completed and seven major safety upgrades are being designed and installed. These upgrades will significantly reduce the reactor's vulnerability to common mode failures and external hazards, with particular emphasis on seismic protection. The scheduled completion date for the project is 1999 December at a cost approximately twice the annual operating cost. All work on the NRU upgrade project is planned and integrated into the regular operating cycles of the reactor; no major outages are anticipated. This paper describes the safety upgrades and discusses the technical and managerial challenges involved in extending the operating life of the NRU reactor. (author)

  1. Upgrading Probability via Fractions of Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frič Roman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of “Grundbegriffe” by A. N. Kolmogorov (published in 1933 on education in the area of probability and its impact on research in stochastics cannot be overestimated. We would like to point out three aspects of the classical probability theory “calling for” an upgrade: (i classical random events are black-and-white (Boolean; (ii classical random variables do not model quantum phenomena; (iii basic maps (probability measures and observables { dual maps to random variables have very different “mathematical nature”. Accordingly, we propose an upgraded probability theory based on Łukasiewicz operations (multivalued logic on events, elementary category theory, and covering the classical probability theory as a special case. The upgrade can be compared to replacing calculations with integers by calculations with rational (and real numbers. Namely, to avoid the three objections, we embed the classical (Boolean random events (represented by the f0; 1g-valued indicator functions of sets into upgraded random events (represented by measurable {0; 1}-valued functions, the minimal domain of probability containing “fractions” of classical random events, and we upgrade the notions of probability measure and random variable.

  2. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  3. Developments towards the LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid Vidal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.cid.vidal@cern.ch

    2016-09-21

    The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a silicon strip detector surrounding the interaction region of the LHCb experiment. The upgrade of the VELO is planned to be installed in 2019–2020, and the current detector will be replaced by a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at a rate of 40 MHz. The new detector is designed to withstand the radiation dose expected at an integrated luminosity of 50 fb{sup −1}. The detector will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, read out by the VeloPix ASIC that is being developed based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The prototype sensors for the VELO upgrade are being irradiated in five different facilities and the post-irradiation performance is being measured with testbeams, and in the lab. These proceedings present the VELO upgrade and briefly discuss the results of the sensor testing campaign. - Highlights: • The VELO is the detector surrounding the LHCb collision point. • After its upgrade, the VELO will be capable of reading out at a rate of 40 MHz. • The detector will be composed of Si pixel sensors, read out by the VeloPix ASIC. • The irradiated prototype sensors for the VELO upgrade are currently being tested.

  4. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  5. Preliminary business plan: Plzen district heating system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The district heating system of the City of Plzen, Czech Republic, needs to have physical upgrades to replace aging equipment and to comply with upcoming environmental regulations. Also, its ownership and management are being changed as a result of privatization. As majority owner, the City has the primary goal of ensuring that the heating needs of its customers are met as reliably and cost-effectively as possible. This preliminary business plan is part of the detailed analysis (5 reports in all) done to assist the City in deciding the issues. Preparation included investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of market value of assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flow. The district heating system consists of the Central Plzen cogeneration plant, two interconnected heating plants [one supplying both hot water and steam], three satellite heating plants, and cooperative agreements with three industrial facilities generating steam and hot water. Most of the plants are coal-fired, with some peaking units fired by fuel oil.

  6. Maximum conversion of heavy hydrocarbons. Product stability dictates thermal and catalytic conversion rates of residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennico, A.; Peries, J.P. (Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)); Laurent, J.; Espeillac, M.

    1992-01-01

    The maximum conversion achieved by thermal cracking is limited by the fuel stability. The same holds for catalytic hydrotreating. ASVAHL has studied for many years the relation between conversion and product stability in thermal and catalytic processes. Thermal Mode: Several solutions are proposed to increase the conversion of the TERVAHL T visbreaking process such as the use of hydrogen (TERVAHL H) and possibly the addition of a few ppm of a dispersed catalyst (TERVAHL C). Catalytic Mode: The conversion of the HYVAHL residue hydrotreating process may be increased either by adding a hydrovisbreaking furnace before the hydrotreating step (HYVAHL T) or by adding an existing visbreaking downstream the hydrotreating step. These various routes enable the ASVAHL processes to maximize the marketable light product quantities in function of the residue to be upgraded and the fuel qualities to be assured. (orig.).

  7. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  8. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  9. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  10. 11th annual conference on clean coal technology, proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Topics covered at the conference include coal combustion technology, multi-purpose coal conversion technology (including entrained-bed coal flash pyrolysis process (CPX), hydrogen production from coal and coal liquefaction), coal ash utilization technology, next general technology (including dry coal cleaning technologies and coal conversion by supercritical water) and basic coal utilization technology (including ash behaviour during coal gasification).

  11. Coal: geology, resources and reserves. Political economy of mineral coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, Maurice; Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2014-04-01

    A first article indicates the different types of coal (lignite, coking coal, thermal coal) and their calorific power. The author discusses the geology and genesis of coal, and then evokes the various extraction techniques. He comments the definition used regarding resources and reserves, comments various resource assessments, and discusses the future evolution of resources and reserves. He comments the consequences of coal geology for perspectives and costs of production. The second article comments the strong increase of World coal consumption since 1980 (a table is given with data for each continent), outlines that thermoelectricity is the engine of coal demand, that extraction costs and transport costs remained limited (when extraction costs become too high, the mining site is generally closed). The author comments the development of international trade on very competitive markets, and outlines that national coal policies are much different among countries

  12. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Payne, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  13. Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Fishman, N.S.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns

  14. Catalytic upgrading of gas from biofuels and implementation of electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Hepola, J.; Heiskanen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Kinetic modelling of tar model compound (benzene) reaction with CO{sub 2} over dolomite (Kalkkimaa dolomite) catalyst has been carried out. This modelling has been based mainly on results obtained in earlier project. However, some additional tests have been made to complete the data. The data obtained was fitted to four different Langmuir-Hinshelwood type of kinetic rate equations in order to find the best suited model for the reaction. The model that best described the data assumed single site benzene adsorption and non-dissociative CO{sub 2} adsorption. Kinetical modelling work was continued by studies considering steam reforming of tar. Reaction rates were measured with large excess of water to benzene then with stoichiometric ratio of water to benzene and in simulated gasification gas. Conditions free of external (film) and internal (pore) diffusion effects were used. Reactor was operated both in differential and integral modes. Preliminary modelling was carried out and kinetical parameters for simple first order reaction model were calculated. During the first half of the year complementary experiments concerning earlier studies on sulfur poisoning of nickel catalysts were carried out. The experiments were performed in fixed bed tube reactors and in a TPH-reactor of VTT. In addition, several analytical methods for determining the nature of adsorbed sulfur on the catalyst surface was used. During the other part of the year two complementary report drafts concerning sulfur poisoning of nickel catalysts at hot gas cleaning conditions of gasification gas were prepared. (orig.)

  15. Catalytic transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis for reductive upgrading of furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, David; Aellig, Christof; Hermans, Ive

    2014-01-01

    The sequential transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran was studied over in situ reduced, Fe2 O3 -supported Cu, Ni, and Pd catalysts, with 2-propanol as hydrogen donor. The remarkable activity of Pd/Fe2 O3 in both transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis is attributed to a strong metal-support interaction. Selectivity towards hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation, and ring-hydrogenation products is shown to strongly depend on the Pd loading. A significant enhancement in yield to 62%, of 2-methylfuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran was observed under continuous flow conditions. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. SYMPTOMS OF UPGRADING CONSUMPTION IN RURAL HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Gutkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the structure of expenditure in rural households paying attention to the upgrading of consumption. The research material used in the present study was individual data from the household budget survey for 2004, 2006 and 2012 which is conducted annually by the Central Statistical Offi ce of Poland. In the conducted study a conventional statistical analysis and multivariate statistical method was used. The process of upgrading the structure of consumer spending is observed in all types of rural households. Disposable incomes are the main determinant affecting consumption models in rural households and their level of upgrading. Socio-demographic characteristics play an increasingly important role in shaping consumer expenditure in rural households. Decreasing spending on consumer staples, and increasing spending on goods of a higher order are observed in the structure of expenses.

  17. LHC Interaction Region Upgrade Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC is starting operation with beam in 2008. The primary goal of CERN and the LHC community is to ensure that the collider is operated efficiently, maximizing its physics reach, and to achieve the nominal performance in the shortest term. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injector complex. A well substantiated and coherent scenario for the first phase of the upgrade, which is foreseen in 2013, is now approved by CERN Council. In this paper, we present the goals and the proposed conceptual solution for the Phase-I upgrade of the LHC interaction regions. This phase relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology, with the target of increasing the luminosity by a factor of 2-3 with respect to the nominal luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1, while maximising the use of the existing infrastructure.

  18. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  19. Upgrades to the International Space Station Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.; Nur, Mononita; Takada, Kevin C.; Carter, Layne

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Water Recovery System (WRS) includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications aim to reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to improve the WPA through the use of reverse osmosis membrane technology to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multi-filtration Bed and improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor to reduce the operational temperature and pressure. For the UPA, this paper discusses progress on various concepts for improving the reliability of the system, including the implementation of a more reliable drive belt, improved methods for managing condensate in the stationary bowl of the Distillation Assembly, and evaluating upgrades to the UPA vacuum pump.

  20. A Review of Thermal Co-Conversion of Coal and Biomass/Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime Hilaire Tchapda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is relatively cleaner than coal and is the only renewable carbon resource that can be directly converted into fuel. Biomass can significantly contribute to the world’s energy needs if harnessed sustainably. However, there are also problems associated with the thermal conversion of biomass. This paper investigates and discusses issues associated with the thermal conversion of coal and biomass as a blend. Most notable topics reviewed are slagging and fouling caused by the relatively reactive alkali and alkaline earth compounds (K2O, Na2O and CaO found in biomass ash. The alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM present and dispersed in biomass fuels induce catalytic activity during co-conversion with coal. The catalytic activity is most noticeable when blended with high rank coals. The synergy during co-conversion is still controversial although it has been theorized that biomass acts like a hydrogen donor in liquefaction. Published literature also shows that coal and biomass exhibit different mechanisms, depending on the operating conditions, for the formation of nitrogen (N and sulfur species. Utilization aspects of fly ash from blending coal and biomass are discussed. Recommendations are made on pretreatment options to increase the energy density of biomass fuels through pelletization, torrefaction and flash pyrolysis to reduce transportation costs.

  1. Mill performance of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Bennett; G. O' Brien; D. Holcombe [CoalTech Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Evaluating the potential performance of coal blends for use as pulverised fuel (PF) in power plants and pulverised coal injection (PCI) into blast furnaces requires knowledge of the size distribution of the organic and mineral matter components of a blend, especially when there are significant differences in the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) of the component coals. The size distribution of the organic matter impacts on combustibility of thermal and PCI coal blends and handleability of PCI coal blends. Petrography techniques were used to examine four size fractions from the PF of single coals and blends to measure the size distribution of maceral groups. For most coals, a good estimate of a blend's size distribution can be made assuming that the size distribution of the individual coals, milled under the same conditions, are added together in the proportions of the blend. The exception is when a very soft coal (HGI 90) is blended with a very hard coal (HGI 35). In this case preferential milling (more reporting to the smaller size fractions) of the softer coal occurred. All coals studied in this project show some sign of preferential grinding of the softer maceral group when the coal was milled individually or in a blend. It is only when there is a large difference in the relative strength of the maceral groups of the coals blended that the preferential milling of a coal in a blend is observed in the size distribution of the blend. The results indicate that the breakage characteristics (change in size reduction per unit of energy) of maceral groups in individual coals do not change when they are blended with other coals. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  3. Catalytic hydrotreatment of fast-pyrolysis oil using non-sulfided bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts on a delta-Al2O3 support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, A. R.; Khromova, S. A.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis oil from lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive energy carrier. However, to improve the product characteristics such as a reduced polarity and higher thermal stability, upgrading is required. We here report activities on the catalytic hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil using

  4. Catalytic Membrane Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Sault, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    The proposed "catalytic membrane sensor" (CMS) was developed to generate a device which would selectively identify a specific reagent in a complex mixture of gases. This was to be accomplished by modifying an existing Hz sensor with a series of thin films. Through selectively sieving the desired component from a complex mixture and identifying it by decomposing it into Hz (and other by-products), a Hz sensor could then be used to detect the presence of the select component. The proposed "sandwich-type" modifications involved the deposition of a catalyst layered between two size selective sol-gel layers on a Pd/Ni resistive Hz sensor. The role of the catalyst was to convert organic materials to Hz and organic by-products. The role of the membraneo was to impart both chemical specificity by molecukir sieving of the analyte and converted product streams, as well as controlling access to the underlying Pd/Ni sensor. Ultimately, an array of these CMS elements encompassing different catalysts and membranes were to be developed which would enable improved selectivity and specificity from a compiex mixture of organic gases via pattern recognition methodologies. We have successfully generated a CMS device by a series of spin-coat deposited methods; however, it was determined that the high temperature required to activate the catalyst, destroys the sensor.

  5. Bright outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  6. Coal processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  7. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  8. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  9. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  10. Coal fire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Genderen, J.L.; Prakash, A.; Gens, R.; Van Veen, B.; Liding, Chen; Tao, Tang Xiao; Feng, Guan

    2000-07-01

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  11. Instrumentation and control doctrine for VVER upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernette, R.; Cucciniello, J.; Trebot, R.

    1997-01-01

    The main results are reported of analyses carried out on the WWER-400 and WWER-1000 series, and the reasons are summed up underlying the decision to establish a policy of WWER instrumentation and control upgrading. It is shown that such a policy forms a key stage in any upgrading project and contributes to the improvement of reactor safety at several levels: it helps to optimize the integration of safety requirements; it makes it easier to achieve a high level of automation and a better man-machine interaction; it should raise the culture of reactor safety. Four annexes demonstrate the factual fundamentals and structure of such a policy. (A.K.)

  12. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  13. CMS DT Upgrade The Sector Collector Relocation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079704

    2016-01-01

    The Sector Collector relocation is the first stage of the upgrade program for the Drift Tubes subdetector of the CMS experiment. It was accomplished during Long Shutdown 2013-2014, and consisted in the relocation of the second-level trigger and readout electronics from the experimental to the service cavern, relieving the environmental constraints and improving accessibility for maintenance and upgrade. Extending the electrical links would degrade reliability, so the information is converted to optical with a custom system capable of dealing with the DC-unbalanced data. Initially, present electronics are used, so optical-to-copper conversion has also been installed.

  14. Take control of upgrading to Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Installing a major new version of Mac OS X should be exciting and fun, but without proper guidance you may find it nerve-wracking or even risk losing valuable files. Fortunately, many thousands of people have upgraded Mac OS X calmly and successfully with Joe Kissell's previous best-selling Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's friendly, expert steps-developed over innumerable test installations-help you to avoid trouble, understand what's going on when you install Snow Leopard, and easily recover from problem

  15. Exchange of experience: sieve analyses of coal and coal paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-02-01

    This report consisted of a cover letter (now largely illegible) and a graph. The graph showed percentages of material left behind as residue on sieves of various mesh sizes, graphed against the mesh sizes themselves. The materials for which data were shown were both dry coal and coal paste from Ludwigshafen, Scholven, Gelsenberg, and Poelitz. The dry coal from Poelitz seemed to be by far the least finely-ground, but the coal paste from Poelitz seemed to be the most finely-ground. The values for coal paste from the other three plants were very close together over most of the range of mesh sizes. The dry coal from Gelsenberg seemed to be the most finely-ground dry coal, while the dry coals from Scholven and Ludwigshafen gave similar values over most of the range of mesh sizes. In all cases, the coal paste from a plant was more finely-ground than the dry coal from the same plant, but for Gelsenberg, the difference between the two was not nearly as great as it was for the other plants, especially Poelitz. For example, for a sieve with about 3,600 cells per square centimeter, only about 10% of the Poelitz coal paste was retained versus about 85% of the Poelitz dry coal retained, whereas the corresponding figures for Gelsenberg materials were about 36% versus about 53%.

  16. Power generation from lignite coal in Bulgaria - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Gadjanov, P.; Panchev, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bulk of lignite coal produced in Bulgaria is used as fuel for the thermal power plants (TPP) built in Maritsa East coal field. A small part of it goes to production of briquettes and to fuel the auxiliary power plants of industrial enterprises. The total installed capacity of the power plants in the region of Maritsa East is 2490 MW, and the electric power generated by them is about 30% of the total power generated in the country. It should be noted that these power plants were subjected to a number of rehabilitations aiming to improve their technical and economic parameters. Irrespective of that, however, solution has still to be sought to a number of problems related to utilisation of the low-grade lignite coal for power generation. On the whole, they can be divided in the following groups: Those related to lignite coal mining can be referred to the first group. Lignite coal is mined in comparatively complicated mining and geological conditions characterized mainly by earth creep and deformation. The second group of problems is related to coal quality control. It is a fact of major significance that the quality indices of coal keep changing all the time in uneven steps without any definite laws to govern it. That creates hard problems in the process of coal transportation, crushing and combustion. The next group of problems concerns operation and upgrading of the power generation equipment. That applies especially to the existing boilers which bum low-grade fuel in order to improve their operation in terms of higher thermal efficiency, controllability, reliability, improved environmental indices, etc. An increasingly high importance is attached to environmental impact problems incident to lignite coal utilisation. Abatement of sulphur oxide emissions and dust pollution is a problem solution of which cannot wait. The possibilities for partial solution of the environmental problems through increasing the thermal efficiency of facilities at the thermal Power

  17. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  18. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  19. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  20. Distribution of chlorine in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Fenghua; Ren Deyi; Zhang Shuangquan [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Resource and Engineering; Zhang Wang [Antaibao Opencast Mine, Pingshuo, Shanxi (China)

    1998-12-31

    The current advance of study on chlorine in coal is reviewed. The concentrations of chlorine in 45 Chinese coal samples are determined on whole coal basis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sequential chemical extraction method is put forward to determine the occurrence modes of chlorine in coal. The research shows that Chinese coals are not chlorine-rich ones compared with those from other countries. In coal from Pingshuo Antaibao Opencast Mine, 46.70%--91.78% of chlorine is in a water-soluble state, 5.20%--48.38% of it is organic chlorine bonded to coal molecules, and only 4.92%--18.78% is an organic one in an ion-exchange state; the proportions of organic chlorine increase with the decrease in ash of coal.