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Sample records for catalytic efficient form

  1. Reversible tetramerization of human TK1 to the high catalytic efficient form is induced by pyrophosphate, in addition to tripolyphosphates, or high enzyme concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    of ATP is necessary for tetramerisation and how the reaction velocity is influenced by the enzyme concentration. The results show that only two or three of the phosphate groups of ATP are necessary for tetramerisation, and that kinetics and tetramerisation are closely related. Furthermore, enzyme...... concentration was found to have a pivotal effect on catalytic efficiency.......Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide metabolism catalyzing the first step in the synthesis of dTTP by the transfer of a gamma-phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate to the 5´-hydroxyl group of thymidine forming dTMP. Human TK1 is cytosolic...

  2. Efficient catalytic combustion in integrated micropellistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bársony, I; Ádám, M; Fürjes, P; Dücső, Cs; Lucklum, R; Hirschfelder, M; Kulinyi, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses two of the key issues of the development of catalytic combustion-type sensors: the selection and production of active catalytic particles on the micropellistor surface as well as the realization of a reliable thermal conduction between heater element and catalytic surface, for the sensing of temperature increase produced by the combustion. The report also demonstrates that chemical sensor product development by a MEMS process is a continuous struggle for elimination of all uncertainties influencing reliability and sensitivity of the final product

  3. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  4. Highly Efficient Catalytic Cyclic Carbonate Formation by Pyridyl Salicylimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Saravanan; Park, Joonho; Byun, Jeehye; Jung, Yousung; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2018-03-21

    Cyclic carbonates as industrial commodities offer a viable nonredox carbon dioxide fixation, and suitable heterogeneous catalysts are vital for their widespread implementation. Here, we report a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 addition to epoxides based on a newly identified active catalytic pocket consisting of pyridine, imine, and phenol moieties. The polymeric, metal-free catalyst derived from this active site converts less-reactive styrene oxide under atmospheric pressure in quantitative yield and selectivity to the corresponding carbonate. The catalyst does not need additives, solvents, metals, or co-catalysts, can be reused at least 10 cycles without the loss of activity, and scaled up easily to a kilogram scale. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the nucleophilicity of pyridine base gets stronger due to the conjugated imines and H-bonding from phenol accelerates the reaction forward by stabilizing the intermediate.

  5. Highly efficient catalytic reductive degradation of various organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aDepartment of Applied Sciences (Chemical Science Division), GUIST, Gauhati University, ... Highly improved catalytic reductive degradation of different organic dyes, in the ... was prepared by a facile co-precipitation method using ultra-high dilute aqueous solutions. ...... face chemical-modification for engineering the intrin-.

  6. Significant Improvement of Catalytic Efficiencies in Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Choong Eui; Yoon, Mi Young; Choi, Doo Seong

    2005-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids as reaction media can confer many advantages upon catalytic reactions over reactions in organic solvents. In ionic liquids, catalysts having polar or ionic character can easily be immobilized without additional structural modification and thus the ionic solutions containing the catalyst can easily be separated from the reagents and reaction products, and then, be reused. More interestingly, switching from an organic solvent to an ionic liquid often results in a significant improvement in catalytic performance (e.g., rate acceleration, (enantio)selectivity improvement and an increase in catalyst stability). In this review, some recent interesting results which can nicely demonstrate these positive 'ionic liquid effect' on catalysis are discussed

  7. Fluorine-doped carbon nanotubes as an efficient metal-free catalyst for destruction of organic pollutants in catalytic ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2018-01-01

    Metal-free carbon materials have been presented to be potential alternatives to metal-based catalysts for heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, yet the catalytic performance still needs to be enhanced. Doping carbon with non-metallic heteroatoms (e.g., N, B, and F) could alter the electronic structure and electrochemical properties of original carbon materials, has been considered to be an effective method for improving the catalytic activity of carbon materials. Herein, fluorine-doped carbon nanotubes (F-CNTs) were synthesized via a facile method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The as-synthesized F-CNTs exhibited notably enhanced catalytic activity towards catalytic ozonation for the degradation of organic pollutants. The oxalic acid removal efficiency of optimized F-CNTs was approximately two times as much as that of pristine CNTs, and even exceeded those of four conventional metal-based catalysts (ZnO, Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , and MnO 2 ). The XPS and Raman studies confirmed that the covalent CF bonds were formed at the sp 3 C sites instead of sp 2 C sites on CNTs, not only resulting in high positive charge density of C atoms adjacent to F atoms, but remaining the delocalized π-system with intact carbon structure of F-CNTs, which then favored the conversion of ozone molecules (O 3 ) into reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributed to the high oxalic acid removal efficiency. Furthermore, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies revealed that superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) and singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) might be the dominant ROS that responsible for the degradation of oxalic acid in these catalytic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The proteolytic system of pineapple stems revisited: Purification and characterization of multiple catalytically active forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matagne, André; Bolle, Laetitia; El Mahyaoui, Rachida; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Crude pineapple proteases extract (aka stem bromelain; EC 3.4.22.4) is an important proteolytic mixture that contains enzymes belonging to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. Numerous studies have been reported aiming at the fractionation and characterization of the many molecular species present in the extract, but more efforts are still required to obtain sufficient quantities of the various purified protease forms for detailed physicochemical, enzymatic and structural characterization. In this work, we describe an efficient strategy towards the purification of at least eight enzymatic forms. Thus, following rapid fractionation on a SP-Sepharose FF column, two sub-populations with proteolytic activity were obtained: the unbound (termed acidic) and bound (termed basic) bromelain fractions. Following reversible modification with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG), both fractions were further separated on Q-Sepharose FF and SP-Sepharose FF, respectively. This procedure yielded highly purified molecular species, all titrating ca. 1 mol of thiol group per mole of enzyme, with distinct biochemical properties. N-terminal sequencing allowed identifying at least eight forms with proteolytic activity. The basic fraction contained previously identified species, i.e. basic bromelain forms 1 and 2, ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain (MEROPS identifier: C01.027). Furthermore, a new proteolytic species, showing similarities with basic bomelain forms 1 and 2, was discovered and termed bromelain form 3. The two remaining species were found in the acidic bromelain fraction and were arbitrarily named acidic bromelain forms 1 and 2. Both, acidic bromelain forms 1, 2 and basic bromelain forms 1, 2 and 3 are glycosylated, while ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain are not. The eight protease forms display different amidase activities against the various substrates tested, namely small synthetic chromogenic compounds (DL-BAPNA and Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-pNA), fluorogenic compounds

  9. Improvement of the catalytic efficiency of a hyperthermophilic xylanase from Bispora sp. MEY-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Wang

    Full Text Available Extremophilic xylanases have attracted great scientific and industrial interest. In this study, a GH10 xylanase-encoding gene, Xyl10E, was cloned from Bispora sp. MEY-1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Deduced Xyl10E shares the highest identities of 62% and 57% with characterized family GH10 xylanases from Talaromyces leycettanus and Penicillium canescens (structure 4F8X, respectively. Xyl10E was most active at 93 to 95°C and pH 4.0, retained more than 75% or 48% of the initial activity when heated at 80°C or 90°C for 30 min, respectively, and hardly lost activity at pH 1.0 to 7.0, but was completely inhibited by SDS. Two residues, A160 and A161, located on loop 4, were identified to play roles in catalysis. Mutants A160D/E demonstrated higher affinity to substrate with lower Km values, while mutants A161D/E mainly displayed elevated Vmax values. All of these mutants had significantly improved catalytic efficiency. According to the molecular dynamics simulation, the mutation of A160E was able to affect the important substrate binding site Y204 and then improve the substrate affinity, and the mutation of A161D was capable of forming a hydrogen bond with the substrate to promote the substrate binding or accelerate the product release. This study introduces a highly thermophilic fungal xylanase and reveals the importance of loop 4 for catalytic efficiency.

  10. Asymmetric Catalytic Aza-Diels-Alder/Ring-Closing Cascade Reaction Forming Bicyclic Azaheterocycles by Trienamine Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Barløse, Casper; Jørgensen, Julie; Carlsen, Bjørn Dreiø; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2017-01-01

    An asymmetric catalytic aza-Diels-Alder/ring-closing cascade reaction between acylhydrazones and in situ formed trienamines is presented. The reaction proceeds through a formal aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition, followed by a ring-closing reaction forming the hemiaminal ring leading to chiral bicyclic azaheterocycles in moderate to good yield (up to 71 %), good enantio- (up to 92 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to >20:1 d.r.). Furthermore, transformations are presented to show the potential application of the formed product. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Catalytic ozonation of oxalate with a cerium supported palladium oxide: An efficient degradation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Weiwei; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The cerium supported palladium oxide (PdO/CeO 2) at a low palladium loading was found very effective in catalytic ozonation of oxalate, a probe compound that is difficult to be efficiently degraded in water with hydroxyl radical oxidation and one of the major byproducts in ozonation of organic matter. The oxalate was degraded into CO 2 during the catalytic ozonation. The molar ratio of oxalate degraded to ozone consumption increased with increasing catalyst dose and decreasing ozone dosage and pH under the conditions of this study. The maximum molar ratio reached around 1, meaning that the catalyst was highly active and selective for oxalate degradation in water. The catalytic ozonation, which showed relatively stable activity, does not promote hydroxyl radical generation from ozone. Analysis with ATR-FTIR and in situ Raman spectroscopy revealed that 1) oxalate was adsorbed on CeO 2 of the catalyst forming surface complexes, and 2) O 3 was adsorbed on PdO of the catalyst and further decomposed to surface atomic oxygen (*O), surface peroxide (*O 2), and O 2 gas in sequence. The results indicate that the high activity of the catalyst is related to the synergetic function of PdO and CeO 2 in that the surface atomic oxygen readily reacts with the surface cerium-oxalate complex. This kind of catalytic ozonation would be potentially effective for the degradation of polar refractory organic pollutants and hydrophilic natural organic matter. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Catalytic ozonation of oxalate with a cerium supported palladium oxide: An efficient degradation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The cerium supported palladium oxide (PdO/CeO 2) at a low palladium loading was found very effective in catalytic ozonation of oxalate, a probe compound that is difficult to be efficiently degraded in water with hydroxyl radical oxidation and one of the major byproducts in ozonation of organic matter. The oxalate was degraded into CO 2 during the catalytic ozonation. The molar ratio of oxalate degraded to ozone consumption increased with increasing catalyst dose and decreasing ozone dosage and pH under the conditions of this study. The maximum molar ratio reached around 1, meaning that the catalyst was highly active and selective for oxalate degradation in water. The catalytic ozonation, which showed relatively stable activity, does not promote hydroxyl radical generation from ozone. Analysis with ATR-FTIR and in situ Raman spectroscopy revealed that 1) oxalate was adsorbed on CeO 2 of the catalyst forming surface complexes, and 2) O 3 was adsorbed on PdO of the catalyst and further decomposed to surface atomic oxygen (*O), surface peroxide (*O 2), and O 2 gas in sequence. The results indicate that the high activity of the catalyst is related to the synergetic function of PdO and CeO 2 in that the surface atomic oxygen readily reacts with the surface cerium-oxalate complex. This kind of catalytic ozonation would be potentially effective for the degradation of polar refractory organic pollutants and hydrophilic natural organic matter. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  14. An efficient catalytic reductive amination: A facile one-pot access to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient catalytic reductive amination: A facile one-pot access to ... itors and in the manufacture of detergents and plastics.1 ... ammoniaborane/Ti(OiPr)4,5e ... demonstrated the first method for synthesis of 1,2- ... and column chromatography (Silica gel, n-hexane/ethyl .... supporting information at www.ias.ac.in/chemsci.

  15. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  16. Efficient, crosswise catalytic promiscuity among enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mark F; Hollfelder, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The observation that one enzyme can accelerate several chemically distinct reactions was at one time surprising because the enormous efficiency of catalysis was often seen as inextricably linked to specialization for one reaction. Originally underreported, and considered a quirk rather than a fundamental property, enzyme promiscuity is now understood to be important as a springboard for adaptive evolution. Owing to the large number of promiscuous enzymes that have been identified over the last decade, and the increased appreciation for promiscuity's evolutionary importance, the focus of research has shifted to developing a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for promiscuity and the origins of tolerant or restrictive specificity. We review the evidence for widespread crosswise promiscuity amongst enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer, including several members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, where large rate accelerations between 10(6) and 10(17) are observed for both native and multiple promiscuous reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chemistry and mechanism of phosphatases, diesterases and triesterases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strong-Form Efficiency with Monopolistic Insiders

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Chau; Dimitri Vayanos

    2008-01-01

    We study market efficiency in an infinite-horizon model with a monopolistic insider. The insider can trade with competitive market makers and noise traders, and observes privately the expected growth rate of asset dividends. In the absence of the insider, this information would be reflected in prices only after a long series of dividend observations. Thus, the insider's information is 'long-lived.' Surprisingly, however, the monopolistic insider chooses to reveal her information very quickly,...

  18. Iron doped fibrous-structured silica nanospheres as efficient catalyst for catalytic ozonation of sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Jianlong; Yang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic environments due to their large production and extensive application. In this paper, the iron doped fibrous-structured silica (KCC-1) nanospheres (Fe-KCC-1) was prepared, characterized, and applied as a catalyst for catalytic ozonation of sulfamethazine (SMT). The effects of ozone dosage, catalyst dosage, and initial concentration of SMT were examined. The experimental results showed that Fe-KCC-1 had large surface area (464.56 m2 g -1 ) and iron particles were well dispersed on the catalyst. The catalyst had high catalytic performance especially for the mineralization of SMT, with mineralization ratio of about 40% in a wide pH range. With addition of Fe-KCC-1, the ozone utilization increased nearly two times than single ozonation. The enhancement of SMT degradation was mainly due to the surface reaction, and the increased mineralization of SMT was due to radical mechanism. Fe-KCC-1 was an efficient catalyst for SMT degradation in catalytic ozonation system.

  19. Eco efficiency of urban form and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Irmeli

    2007-01-01

    Urban planning and transportation system solutions and decisions have a large-scale significance for eco efficiency, the consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of greenhouse gas and other emissions, and the costs caused by communities.Planning solutions may impact on greenhouse gas emissions by 10 % at regional level, by 20 % at local community level and even by 200 % at local dwelling area level. Impact on emissions caused by transportation is even bigger: at least double compared to the impact on total emissions. Similarly large impacts can be seen concerning consumption of energy and other natural resources as well as costs.The most important factors in sustainable urban and transportation planning are at dwelling area level: location, structure, building density, house types, space heating systems, at community and regional level: area density, energy consumption and production systems, location of and distances between dwellings, working places and services, transportation systems, possibilities of walking and cycling, availability of public transport, and necessity for use of private cars. The presentation is based on the author's research and case studies from 1992 to 2006. The assessment method EcoBalance was developed to assess sustainability of communities and it has been applied at different planning levels: regional plans, local master plans and detailed plans. The EcoBalance model estimates the total consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of emissions and wastes and the costs caused directly and indirectly by communities on a life-cycle basis

  20. Catalytic efficiency is a better predictor of arsenic toxicity to soil alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziquan; Tian, Haixia; Lu, Guannan; Zhao, Yiming; Yang, Rui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; He, Wenxiang

    2018-02-01

    Arsenic (As) is an inhibitor of phosphatase, however, in the complex soil system, the substrate concentration effect and the mechanism of As inhibition of soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its kinetics has not been adequately studied. In this work, we investigated soil ALP activity in response to As pollution at different substrate concentrations in various types of soils and explored the inhibition mechanism using the enzyme kinetics. The results showed that As inhibition of soil ALP activity was substrate concentration-dependent. Increasing substrate concentration decreased inhibition rate, suggesting reduced toxicity. This dependency was due to the competitive inhibition mechanism of As to soil ALP. The kinetic parameters, maximum reaction velocity (V max ) and Michaelis constant (K m ) in unpolluted soils were 0.012-0.267mMh -1 and 1.34-3.79mM respectively. The competitive inhibition constant (K ic ) was 0.17-0.70mM, which was lower than K m , suggesting higher enzyme affinity for As than for substrate. The ecological doses, ED 10 and ED 50 (concentration of As that results in 10% and 50% inhibition on enzyme parameter) for inhibition of catalytic efficiency (V max /K m ) were lower than those for inhibition of enzyme activity at different substrate concentrations. This suggests that the integrated kinetic parameter, catalytic efficiency is substrate concentration independent and more sensitive to As than ALP activity. Thus, catalytic efficiency was proposed as a more reliable indicator than ALP activity for risk assessment of As pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Upward Trend in Catalytic Efficiency of Rare-Earth Triflate Catalysts in Friedel-Crafts Aromatic Sulfonylation Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Fritz; Le, Thach Ngoc; Nguyen, Vo Thu An

    2014-01-01

    A series of 14 lanthanide (Ln) triflates were investigated as sustainable catalysts for aromatic sulfonylation reactions under microwave irradiation. The catalytic efficiency of the early triflates La(OTf)3–Eu(OTf)3 is good for long irradiation times. For the later lanthanides, yields reaching over...... 90 % were achieved for short irradiation periods. This was the case especially for Tm(OTf)3, Yb(OTf)3, and Lu(OTf)3, of which Yb(OTf)3 was the most efficient. The upward trend in catalytic efficiency therefore correlates with the lanthanide sequence in the periodic table. The results can be explained...

  2. Efficient catalytic cycloalkane oxidation employing a "helmet" phthalocyaninato iron(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth S; Robinson, Jerome R; McCoy, Aaron M; McGaff, Robert W

    2011-06-14

    We have examined the catalytic activity of an iron(III) complex bearing the 14,28-[1,3-diiminoisoindolinato]phthalocyaninato (diiPc) ligand in oxidation reactions with three substrates (cyclohexane, cyclooctane, and indan). This modified metallophthalocyaninato complex serves as an efficient and selective catalyst for the oxidation of cyclohexane and cyclooctane, and to a far lesser extent indan. In the oxidations of cyclohexane and cyclooctane, in which hydrogen peroxide is employed as the oxidant under inert atmosphere, we have observed turnover numbers of 100.9 and 122.2 for cyclohexanol and cyclooctanol, respectively. The catalyst shows strong selectivity for alcohol (vs. ketone) formation, with alcohol to ketone (A/K) ratios of 6.7 and 21.0 for the cyclohexane and cyclooctane oxidations, respectively. Overall yields (alcohol + ketone) were 73% for cyclohexane and 92% for cyclooctane, based upon the total hydrogen peroxide added. In the catalytic oxidation of indan under similar conditions, the TON for 1-indanol was 10.1, with a yield of 12% based upon hydrogen peroxide. No 1-indanone was observed in the product mixture.

  3. Efficiency of Different Nitrogen Forms in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Kara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out with aim to determination the efficient of nitrogen forms (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea on nitrogen use efficient for buckwheat in Isparta during 2014 and 2015 years. All the examined characteristics were determined higher values in applied nitrogen forms according to non-nitrogen parcel. In compared to nitrogen forms, the highest grain yield (1456 and 1325 kg ha-1, biological yield (4873 and 4512 kg ha-1, 1000 grain weight (24.9 and 24.8 g, agronomic efficient (24.96% and 24.25%, recycling efficient (0.24% and 0.22% and utilization efficient (0.25% and 0.18% were obtained from ammonium sulfate, the highest protein content (11.37% and 12.44% and agro-physiological efficient (0.27% and 0.24% from ammonium nitrate in both years. Among the nitrogen forms weren’t significant differently in physiological efficient in both years, recycling and utilization efficient in the first year. The mineral nutrient content varied according to nitrogen forms. Generally, ammonium sulfate was positive effect to yield and some quality parameters.

  4. Testing the Weak Form Efficiency of Karachi Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad Haroon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an efficient market, share prices reflect all available information. The study of efficient market hypothesis helps to take right decisions related to investments. In this research,weak form efficiency has been tested of Karachi Stock Exchange—KSE covering the period of 2nd November 1991 to 2nd November 2011. Descriptive statistics indicated the absence of weak form efficiency while results of non-parametric tests, showed consistency as well. We employed non-parametric tests were KS Goodness-of-Fit test,run test and autocorrelation test to find out serial independency of the data. Results prove that KSE is not weak-form-efficient. This happens because KSE is an emerging market and there, it has been observed that information take time to be processed. Thus it can besaid that technical analysis may be applied to gain abnormal returns.

  5. Palladium Nanoparticle-Loaded Cellulose Paper: A Highly Efficient, Robust, and Recyclable Self-Assembled Composite Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangchao; Kaefer, Katharina; Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Vaz, Belén; Cartmell, Samantha E; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J; Yate, Luis; de Lera, Ángel R; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel strategy based on the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on filter paper for development of a catalytic system with high efficiency and recyclability. Oleylamine-capped Pd nanoparticles, dispersed in an organic solvent, strongly adsorb on cellulose filter paper, which shows a great ability to wick fluids due to its microfiber structure. Strong van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions between the particles and the substrate lead to nanoparticle immobilization, with no desorption upon further immersion in any solvent. The prepared Pd NP-loaded paper substrates were tested for several model reactions such as the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and nitro-to-amine reduction, and they display efficient catalytic activity and excellent recyclability and reusability. This approach of using NP-loaded paper substrates as reusable catalysts is expected to open doors for new types of catalytic support for practical applications.

  6. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 2: Model development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  7. New Metamaterials with Combined Subnano - and Mesoscale Topology for High-efficiency Catalytic Combustion Chambers of Innovative Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knysh, Yu A.; Xanthopoulou, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The object of the study is a catalytic combustion chamber that provides a highly efficient combustion process through the use of effects: heat recovery from combustion, microvortex heat transfer, catalytic reaction and acoustic resonance. High efficiency is provided by a complex of related technologies: technologies for combustion products heat transfer (recuperation) to initial mixture, catalytic processes technology, technology for calculating effective combustion processes based on microvortex matrices, technology for designing metamaterials structures and technology for obtaining the required topology product by laser fusion of metal powder compositions. The mesoscale level structure provides combustion process with the use of a microvortex effect with a high intensity of heat and mass transfer. High surface area (extremely high area-to-volume ratio) created due to nanoscale periodic structure and ensures catalytic reactions efficiency. Produced metamaterial is the first multiscale product of new concept which due to combination of different scale level periodic topologies provides qualitatively new set of product properties. This research is aimed at solving simultaneously two global problems of the present: ensure environmental safety of transport systems and power industry, as well as the economy and rational use of energy resources, providing humanity with energy now and in the foreseeable future.

  8. Small Molecules that Enhance the Catalytic Efficiency of HLA-DM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, M.; Moradi, B.; Seth, N.; Xing, X.; Cuny, G.; Stein, R.; Wucherpfenning, K.

    2006-01-01

    HLA-DM (DM) plays a critical role in Ag presentation to CD4 T cells by catalyzing the exchange of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules. Large lateral surfaces involved in the DM:HLA-DR (DR) interaction have been defined, but the mechanism of catalysis is not understood. In this study, we describe four small molecules that accelerate DM-catalyzed peptide exchange. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that these small molecules substantially enhance the catalytic efficiency of DM, indicating that they make the transition state of the DM:DR/peptide complex energetically more favorable. These compounds fall into two functional classes: two compounds are active only in the presence of DM, and binding data for one show a direct interaction with DM. The remaining two compounds have partial activity in the absence of DM, suggesting that they may act at the interface between DM and DR/peptide. A hydrophobic ridge in the DMβ1 domain was implicated in the catalysis of peptide exchange because the activity of three of these enhancers was substantially reduced by point mutations in this area

  9. Malbranchea cinnamomea: A thermophilic fungal source of catalytically efficient lignocellulolytic glycosyl hydrolases and metal dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Chhavi; Basotra, Neha; Singh, Surender; Di Falco, Marcos; Tsang, Adrian; Chadha, B S

    2016-01-01

    This study reports thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea as an important source of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The secretome analysis using LC-MS/MS orbitrap showed that fungus produced a spectrum of glycosyl hydrolases (cellulase/hemicellulase), polysaccharide lyases (PL) and carbohydrate esterases (CE) in addition to cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) indicating the presence of functional classical and oxidative cellulolytic mechanisms. The protein fractions in the secretome resolved by ion exchange chromatography were analyzed for ability to hydrolyze alkali treated carrot grass (ATCG) in the presence of Mn(2+)/Cu(2+). This strategy in tandem with peptide mass fingerprinting led to identification of metal dependent protein hydrolases with no apparent hydrolytic activity, however, showed 5.7 folds higher saccharification in presence of Mn(2+). Furthermore, adding different protein fractions to commercial cellulase (Novozymes: Cellic CTec2) resulted in enhanced hydrolysis of ATCG ranging between 1.57 and 3.43 folds indicating the enzymes from M. cinnamomea as catalytically efficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalytic Efficiency of Basidiomycete Laccases: Redox Potential versus Substrate-Binding Pocket Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Glazunova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are copper-containing oxidases that catalyze a one-electron abstraction from various phenolic and non-phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to water. It is well-known that laccases from various sources have different substrate specificities, but it is not completely clear what exactly provides these differences. The purpose of this work was to study the features of the substrate specificity of four laccases from basidiomycete fungi Trametes hirsuta, Coriolopsis caperata, Antrodiella faginea, and Steccherinum murashkinskyi, which have different redox potentials of the T1 copper center and a different structure of substrate-binding pockets. Enzyme activity toward 20 monophenolic substances and 4 phenolic dyes was measured spectrophotometrically. The kinetic parameters of oxidation of four lignans and lignan-like substrates were determined by monitoring of the oxygen consumption. For the oxidation of the high redox potential (>700 mV monophenolic substrates and almost all large substrates, such as phenolic dyes and lignans, the redox potential difference between the enzyme and the substrate (ΔE played the defining role. For the low redox potential monophenolic substrates, ΔE did not directly influence the laccase activity. Also, in the special cases, the structure of the large substrates, such as dyes and lignans, as well as some structural features of the laccases (flexibility of the substrate-binding pocket loops and some amino acid residues in the key positions affected the resulting catalytic efficiency.

  11. Characterization of catalytic efficiency parameters of brain cholinesterases in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Marcuschi, Marina; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Brain cholinesterases from four fish (Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum, Rachycentron canadum and Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized using specific substrates and selective inhibitors. Parameters of catalytic efficiency such as activation energy (AE), k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) as well as rate enhancements produced by these enzymes were estimated by a method using crude extracts described here. Despite the BChE-like activity, specific substrate kinetic analysis pointed to the existence of only acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain of the species studied. Selective inhibition suggests that C. macropomum brain AChE presents atypical activity regarding its behavior in the presence of selective inhibitors. AE data showed that the enzymes increased the rate of reactions up to 10(12) in relation to the uncatalyzed reactions. Zymograms showed the presence of AChE isoforms with molecular weights ranging from 202 to 299 kDa. Values of k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) were similar to those found in the literature.

  12. Testing weak form efficiency on the capital markets in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kršikapa-Rašajski Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak-form efficient market hypothesis assumes that participants on the financial markets are not able to achieve above-average returns based on historical prices. In order to establish the presence of a weak-form market efficiency in the Serbian market, the analysis incorporates daily data of the two most prominent indices on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, BELEX 15 and BELEX LINE, since their inception until 31 December 2014. Results obtained by the analysis and testing indicate that the capital market in Serbia can not be considered sufficiently efficient, more precisely it indicates that postulates assumed by the weak-form market efficiency are not fully met. Taking into account that the capital market in Serbia is still underdeveloped, primarily because of the small volumes, turnover and types of securities which are traded on the market, as well as the fact that it is not sufficiently regulated and transparent, lack of investors is noticeable. Consequently, analysis presented in this paper indicates a weak sustainability of the efficient market hypothesis in Serbia.

  13. Efficient implicit FEM simulation of sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2003-01-01

    For the simulation of industrial sheet forming processes, the time discretisation is one of the important factors that determine the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. For relatively small models, the implicit time integration method is preferred, because of its inherent equilibrium check.

  14. Energy Efficient Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor and Recuperator for Air Quality Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI’s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Previous efforts focused on integrating PCI’s HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight. Significant improvement was demonstrated over traditional approaches of integrating the HTCO with an external recuperative heat exchanger. While the critical target performance metrics were achieved, the thermal effectiveness of PCI’s recuperator remained a potential area of improvement to further reduce the energy requirements of the integrated system. Using the same material combinations and an improved recuperator design, the redesigned prototype has experimentally demonstrated 20 – 30% reduction (flow dependent) in steady state power consumption compared to the earlier prototype without compromising the destruction efficiency of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, design modifications and improvements allow our redesigned prototype to be more easily manufactured compared to traditional brazed plate-fin recuperator designs. The redesigned prototype was delivered to MSFC for validation testing. Here, we report and discuss the performance of the improved prototype HTCO unit with a high efficiency recuperative heat exchanger based on testing at PCI and MSFC. The device is expected to provide a reliable and robust means of disposing of trace levels of methane and VOCs by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water in order to maintain clean air in enclosed spaces, such as crewed spacecraft cabins.

  15. Iron Phthalocyanine as New Efficient Catalyst for Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Simple Aldehydes and Ketones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bata, P.; Notheisz, F.; Klusoň, Petr; Zsigmond, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, JAN 2015 (2015), s. 45-49 ISSN 0268-2605 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogenized complexes * catalytic transfer hydrogenation * reusable catalyst Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.452, year: 2015

  16. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  17. ABOUT FORMS, EFFICIENCY AND ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a holistic framework for analyzing, assessment and improvement of environmental management using “agrariansector” as an example. It incorporates an interdisciplinary approach (Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Ecology, Technology, Behavioral and Political Sciences and includes: specification of managerial actors, needs and spectrum of governing modes (institutional environment; private, collective, market, public modes at different level of decision-making (individual, farm, eco-system, local, regional, national, transnational, global; specification of critical socio-economic, natural, technological, behavioral etc. factors of managerial choice, and feasible spectrum of managerial forms; defining and assessing comparative and absolute efficiency of eco-management forms and system; improvement of forms of public intervention in eco-management.

  18. Efficient fully controlled up-to-date equipment for catalytic treatment of waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, Radek; Stulir, Roman; Cagas, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes research and development of a new unit for catalytic destruction of waste gases polluted mainly by volatile organic compounds (VOC), halogenated organic compounds (HOC) or carbon monoxide. Novel equipment has considerable advantages compared with commonly used arrangement (combustion chamber (catalytic reactor)-pipeline-heat exchanger). It is very compact and light and has the combustion chamber, catalytic reactor and heat exchanger integrated into one unit. Maximum utilizing heat losses in the combustion chamber and catalytic reactor is achieved. During the development of this unit experience from tests of previously developed equipment used for thermal treatment of waste gases was used, as well as from experimental studies of catalytic disposal of various VOC carried out in the newly built experimental unit. During the development calculation methods were created allowing design modifications of this unit for real industrial applications. The newly developed unit can be used in various branches of industry such as paint shops, refining plants, sewage treatment plants, food processing industry, pharmaceutical industry, but also in companies processing and transporting crude-oil or natural gas, etc

  19. Defect-meditated efficient catalytic activity toward p-nitrophenol reduction: A case study of nitrogen doped calcium niobate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yiguo; Huang, Shushu; Wang, Tingting; Peng, Liman; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A series of nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 was successfully prepared via ion-exchange method, which was found to be an efficient and green noble-metal-free catalyst toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 was found to be an efficient and green noble-metal-free catalyst toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. • Defective nitrogen and oxygen species were found to play synergetic roles in the reduction of p-nitrophenol. • Nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 showed photo-synergistic promotion effects toward p-nitrophenol reduction under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: This work reported on the synthesis of a series of nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 with tunable nitrogen content that were found to be efficient and green noble-metal-free catalysts toward catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. XPS and ESR results indicated that the introduction of nitrogen in Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 gave rise to a large number of defective nitrogen and oxygen species. Defective nitrogen and oxygen species were found to play synergetic roles in the reduction of p-nitrophenol. The underlying mechanism is completely different from those reported for metallic nanoparticles. Moreover, the more negative conduction band edge potential enabled nitrogen doped Ca 2 Nb 2 O 7 to show photo-synergistic effects that could accelerate the reduction rate toward p-nitrophenol under UV light irradiation. This work may provide a strategy for tuning the catalytic performance by modulating the chemical composition, electronic structure as well as surface defect chemistry

  20. Zinc oxide nanostructures and its nano-compounds for efficient visible light photo-catalytic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rania E.; Alnoor, Hatim; Elhag, Sami; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) in its nanostructure form is a promising material for visible light emission/absorption and utilization in different energy efficient photocatalytic processes. We will first present our recent results on the effect of varying the molar ratio of the synthesis nutrients on visible light emission. Further we will use the optimized conditions from the molar ration experiments to vary the synthesis processing parameters like stirring time etc. and the effect of all these parameters in order to optimize the efficiency and control the emission spectrum are investigated using different complementary techniques. Cathodoluminescence (CL) is combined with photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) as the techniques to investigate and optimizes visible light emission from ZnO/GaN light emitting diodes. We will then show and discuss our recent finding of the use of high quality ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient photo-degradation of toxic dyes using the visible spectra, namely with a wavelength up to 800 nm. In the end, we show how ZnO nanorods (NRs) are used as the first template to be transferred to bismuth zinc vanadate (BiZn2VO6). The BiZn2VO6 is then used to demonstrate efficient and cost effective hydrogen production through photoelectrochemical water splitting using solar radiation.

  1. 4. Seminar on efficient metal forming and machining: papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The 4th seminar on efficient metal forming and machining was held at the CSIR conference centre in Pretoria on 16 November 1982. This conference basically discussed the forming, fabrication and machining of metals which included the different methods used as well as new developments on tools manufacturing and their applications. The topics that were discussed cover subjects such as the creep feed grinding, thermal properties of coating materials and their effect on the efficiency of coated cutting tools, economic rough and finish milling, the design and application of high speed steel cutting tools, aluminium extrusion, the manufacturing and finishing of extrusion dies, broaching techniques, cold forming in the fastener industry, finishing methods for spiral, bevel and hypoid gears, laser cutting, press tool design, and productivity in the forging industry. Another topic that were discussed, is the current status of diamond and cubic boron nitride composites, their synthesis and roll in the production of a new range of ultra hard ceramic-type materials

  2. Highly efficient conversion of terpenoid biomass to jet-fuel range cycloalkanes in a biphasic tandem catalytic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaokun [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Li, Teng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tang, Kan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhou, Xinpei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lu, Mi [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ounkham, Whalmany L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Spain, Stephen M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Frost, Brian J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lin, Hongfei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    The demand for bio-jet fuels to reduce carbon emissions is increasing substantially in the aviation sector, while the scarcity of high-density jet fuel components limits the use of bio-jet fuels in high-performance aircrafts compared with conventional jet fuels. In this paper, we report a novel biphasic tandem catalytic process (biTCP) for synthesizing cycloalkanes from renewable terpenoid biomass, such as 1,8-cineole. Multistep tandem reactions, including C–O ring opening by hydrolysis, dehydration, and hydrogenation, were carried out in the “one-pot” biTCP. 1,8-Cineole was efficiently converted to p-menthane at high yields (>99%) in the biTCP under mild reaction conditions. Finally, the catalytic reaction mechanism is discussed.

  3. High-efficiency plasma catalytic removal of dilute benzene from air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hong-Yu; Shi, Chuan; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhao, De-Zhi; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ai-Min

    2009-01-01

    Achieving complete oxidation, good humidity tolerance and low energy cost is the key issue that needs to be addressed in plasma catalytic volatile organic compounds removal from air. For this purpose, Ag/HZSM-5 catalyst-packed dielectric barrier discharge using a cycled system composed of a storage stage and a discharge stage was studied. For dilute benzene removal from simulated air, Ag/HZSM-5 catalysts exhibit not only preferential adsorption of benzene in humid air at the storage stage but also almost complete oxidation of adsorbed benzene at the discharge stage. Five 'storage-discharge' cycles were examined, which suggests that Ag/HZSM-5 catalysts are very stable during the cycled 'storage-discharge' (CSD) plasma catalytic process. High oxidation rate of absorbed benzene as well as low energy cost can be achieved at a moderate discharge power. In an example of the CSD plasma catalytic remedy of simulated air containing 4.7 ppm benzene with 50% RH and 600 ml min -1 flow rate, the energy cost was as low as 3.7 x 10 -3 kWh m -3 air. This extremely low energy cost to remove low-concentration pollutants from air undoubtedly makes the environmental applications of the plasma catalytic technique practical.

  4. Silica Sulphuric Acid as an Efficient Catalyst for the Catalytic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    presence of a catalytic amount of silica sulphuric acid under micellar media in moderate to good yields. KEYWORDS. Sodium ... Production of aromatic nitro compounds is an important industrial process and involves the unsolved problems of ... V7 and Re9) and titanium and chromium silicates.10 Some of the procedures ...

  5. Influence and efficiency of catalytic stripper in organic carbon removal from laboratory generated soot aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalytic stripper (CS) is a device used to remove the semi-volatile, typically organic carbon, fraction by passing raw or diluted exhaust over an oxidation catalyst heated to 300˚C. The oxidation catalyst used in this study is a commercially available diesel oxidation ca...

  6. Cationic Phospholipids Forming Cubic Phases: Lipoplex Structure and Transfection Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2008-10-29

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  7. Cationic phospholipids forming cubic phases: lipoplex structure and transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; Macdonald, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 degrees C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 degrees C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  8. Efficient catalytic system for the direct transformation of lignocellulosic biomass to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luxin; Xi, Guoyun; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yu, Hongbing; Wang, Xiaochang

    2017-01-01

    A feasible approach was developed for the co-production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural from corncob via a new porous polytriphenylamine-SO 3 H (SPTPA) solid acid catalyst in lactone solvents. XRD, SEM, XPS, N 2 adsorption-desorption, elemental analysis, TG-DTA, acid-base titration and FTIR spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the catalyst. This study demonstrates and optimizes the catalytic performance of SPTPA and solvent selection. SPTPA was found to exhibit superior catalytic ability in γ-valerolactone (GVL). Under the optimum reaction conditions, simultaneously encouraging yields of furfural (73.9%) and 5-HMF (32.3%) were achieved at 448K. The main advantages of this process include reasonable yields of both 5-HMF and furfural in the same reaction system, practical simplicity for the raw biomass utilization, and the use of a safe and environmentally benign solvent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of ternary oxide for efficient photo catalytic conversion of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    Zn2GeO4 Nan rods were prepared by solution phase route. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Bruner-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The results revealed that Zn2GeO4 Nan rods with higher surface area have higher photo catalytic activity in photo reduction of CO2 than Zn2GeO4 prepared through solid-state reaction.

  10. Upgrading of bio-oil to boiler fuel by catalytic hydrotreatment and esterification in an efficient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Chen, Lungang; Kong, Wei; Wang, Tiejun; Zhang, Qi; Long, Jinxing; Xu, Ying; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Bio-oil can't be directly used as fuel due to its deteriorate properties. Here, an efficient catalytic upgrading process for the bio-oil, including esterification, hydrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation and depolymerization, is proposed with multifunctional catalyst Ni/SiO 2 –ZrO 2 and biomass-derived solvent ethanol. Results showed that esters, alcohols, phenolics, and cyclo-ketones were the main components in the upgraded bio-oil while aldehydes were removed completely via catalytic hydrogenation and acids were removed by catalytic esterification with supercritical ethanol. The pH value of upgraded bio-oil rose drastically from 2.38 to 5.24, and the high heating value increased to 24.4 MJ kg −1 . Comparison characterization on the upgraded and crude bio-oil using FT-IR, GPC (Gel permeation chromatography) and 13 C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) demonstrated that lignin-derived oligomers contained in crude bio-oil were further depolymerized over Ni/SiO 2 –ZrO 2 catalyst. The improved properties suggest that the upgraded bio-oil is more suitable to be used as boiler fuel. Furthermore, the loss of carbon is negligible because formation of coke is suppressed during the upgrading process. - Highlights: • Acid can be converted via catalytic esterification in supercritical ethanol. • Aldehydes can be removed completely during the upgrading process. • Lignin-derived oligomers were further depolymerized during the upgrading process. • Formation of coke is effectively inhibited during the upgrading process

  11. Identification of a third form of NaK-ATPase catalytic subunit in rat brain by photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, J.M.; Millan, N.M.; Ruoho, A.E.; Hokin-Neaverson, M.

    1987-01-01

    Using photoaffinity labeling, they have found a form of the NaK-ATPase catalytic subunit, α(-), in the rat brain that is distinct from the α and α(+) forms. Strong radiolabeling of α(-) was obtained with [ 125 I]azido-iodophenethylamido-succinyl-cymarin (AISC). AISC is a new cardiotonic steroid photolabel which they have synthesized and characterized chemically and biochemically. This compound labels α(-) better than the photolabels that they have previously reported. SDS-PAGE (5%) of photolabeled rat brain microsomes showed that α(-) migrated with faster mobility than the dog kidney α subunit. The α(-) appears to have different specificity for different cardiotonic steroids than either α(+) or α. The radiolabeling of rat brain α(+) and dog kidney α with [ 125 I]AISC was protectable by ouabain; in contrast, 1 mM ouabain did not reduce the [ 125 I]AISC-labeling of α(-), although the labeling was protected with 200 μM cymarin or AISC. The results indicate that the α(-) form of the NaK-ATPase in rat brain binds cymarin and its derivative but has little affinity for ouabain. It is possible that α(-) may be the translation product of the rat brain α(III) mRNA which has recently been described

  12. SS-mPEG chemical modification of recombinant phospholipase C for enhanced thermal stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling; Zeng, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Jingwen

    2018-05-01

    PEGylation is one of the most promising and extensively studied strategies for improving the properties of proteins as well as enzymic physical and thermal stability. Phospholipase C, hydrolyzing the phospholipids offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. However, the poor thermal stability and higher cost of production have restricted its industrial application. This study focused on improving the stabilization of recombinant PLC by chemical modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol-Succinimidyl Succinate (SS-mPEG, MW 5000). PLC gene from isolate Bacillus cereus HSL3 was fused with SUMO, a novel small ubiquitin-related modifier expression vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fraction of SUMO-PLC reached 80% of the total recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 80 °C and was relatively thermostable at 40-70 °C. It showed extensive substrate specificity pattern and marked activity toward phosphatidylcholine, which made it a typical non-specific PLC for industrial purpose. SS-mPEG-PLC complex exhibited an enhanced thermal stability at 70-80 °C and the catalytic efficiency (K cat /K m ) had increased by 3.03 folds compared with free PLC. CD spectrum of SS-mPEG-PLC indicated a possible enzyme aggregation after chemical modification, which contributed to the higher thermostability of SS-mPEG-PLC. The increase of antiparallel β sheets in secondary structure also made it more stable than parallel β sheets. The presence of SS-mPEG chains on the enzyme molecule surface somewhat changed the binding rate of the substrates, leading to a significant improvement in catalytic efficiency. This study provided an insight into the addition of SS-mPEG for enhancing the industrial applications of phospholipase C at higher temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction against cancer cells with a high pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingke; Shao, Yiran; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-04-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests promising applications in cancer treatments.Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests

  14. Gold Decorated Graphene for Rapid Dye Reduction and Efficient Electro Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhardha, R. S.; Kumar v, Lakshman; Kaniyoor, A.; Podila, R.; Kumar, V. S.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Ramaprabhu, S.; Rao, A.; Ramamurthy, S. S.; Clemson University Team; Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning Team; IITMadras Team

    2013-03-01

    A well known disadvantage in fabrication of metal-graphene composite is the use of surfactants that strongly adsorb on the surface and reduce the performance of the catalyst. Here, we demonstrate a novel one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by laser ablation of gold strip and simultaneous decoration of these on functionalized graphene derivatives. Not only the impregnation of AuNPs was linker free, but also the synthesis by itself was surfactant free. This resulted in in-situ decoration of pristine AuNPs on functionalized graphene derivatives. These materials were well characterized and tested for catalytic applications pertaining to dye reduction and electrooxidation. The catalytic reduction rates are 1.4 x 102 and 9.4x102 times faster for Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue dyes respectively, compared to earlier reports. The enhanced rate involves synergistic interplay of electronic relay between AuNPs and the dye, also charge transfer between the graphene system and dye. In addition, the onset potential for ethanol oxidation was found to be more negative ~ 100 mV, an indication of its promising application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  15. Evaluation of the conversion efficiency of ceramic and metallic three way catalytic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, H.; Costa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic and metallic three way catalytic converters have been compared to assess the influence of the substrate geometrical and physical parameters on the exhaust gas conversions for several vehicle operating conditions. Both catalysts were placed on a vehicle equipped with a 2.8 l DOHC V6 spark ignition engine that was tested on a chassis dynamometer under steady state conditions for several engine speeds and loads. The data obtained include exhaust gas species concentrations and temperature taken both upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter, as well as temperatures in various locations within the substrate of the catalysts. The experimental data revealed that: (i) at low space velocities, the ceramic substrate presents better conversions, particularly for HC and CO, as compared to the metallic substrate, possibly because of its lower thermal conductivity which facilitates local ignition; (ii) at high space velocities, the metallic substrate presents better conversions, as compared to the ceramic substrate, mainly because of its larger geometric surface area and lower transverse Peclet number; and (iii) in general, the HC conversion for small space velocities is kinetically controlled while for high space velocities it is mass transfer limited; both limitations are less pronounced for the CO conversion and insignificant for the NO x conversion

  16. Efficient free-form surface representation with application in orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.

    1999-03-01

    Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the study of growth of the craniofacial complex. The detection and correction of malocclusion and other dental abnormalities is one of the most important and critical phases of orthodontic diagnosis. This paper introduces a system that can assist in automatic orthodontics diagnosis. The system can be used to classify skeletal and dental malocclusion from a limited number of measurements. This system is not intended to deal with several cases but is aimed at cases more likely to be encountered in epidemiological studies. Prior to the measurement of the orthodontics parameters, the position of the teeth in the jaw model must be detected. A new free-form surface representation is adopted for the efficient and accurate segmentation and separation of teeth from a scanned jaw model. THe new representation encodes the curvature and surface normal information into a 2D image. Image segmentation tools are then sued to extract structures of high/low curvature. By iteratively removing these structures, individual teeth surfaces are obtained.

  17. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assesss the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at. % Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  18. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assess the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90 m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at% Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  19. On the functional form of an efficiency index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Keiding, Hans

    1998-01-01

    An input efficiency index gives a numeric assessment of the degree to which a given input combination falls short of being efficient in producing a fixed amount of output. This paper presents a system of axioms which characterise a certain family of efficiency indices containing the well-known Fa...

  20. Effect of process parameters and injector position on the efficiency of NOx reduction by selective non catalytic reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.; Mehmood, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Javed, M.T.; Waheed, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed to study the effect of atomizer pressure dilution of the reducing reagent and the injector position on the efficiency or the NOx reduction by a selective non-catalytic reduction technique using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a flow reactor in which flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane in air at stoichiometric amount of oxygen and the desired levels of initial NOx (400-450 ppm) were achieved by doping the flame with ammonia. The work was directed to investigate the effect of atomizer pressure, dilution of urea reagent and the injector position. The atomizer pressure was varied from 1 to 3bar and 20-25% increase in efficiency was observed by decreasing the pressure. Effect of dilution of urea solution was investigated by varying the strength of the solution from the 8 to 32% and 40-45% increase in the efficiency was observed. Effects of injector position was investigated by injecting the urea solution both in co current and counter current direction of the flue gases and 20-25% increase in the efficiency was observed in counter current direction. (author)

  1. Catalytic efficiency of natural and synthetic compounds used as laccase-mediators in oxidising veratryl alcohol and a kraft lignin, estimated by electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Arzola, K. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Arevalo, M.C. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: carevalo@ull.es; Falcon, M.A. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: mafalcon@ull.es

    2009-03-30

    The electrochemical properties of eighteen natural and synthetic compounds commonly used to expand the oxidative capacity of laccases were evaluated in an aqueous buffered medium using cyclic voltammetry. This clarifies which compounds fulfil the requisites to be considered as redox mediators or enhancers. Cyclic voltammetry was also applied as a rapid way to assess the catalytic efficiency (CE) of those compounds which oxidise a non-phenolic lignin model (veratryl alcohol, VA) and a kraft lignin (KL). With the exception of gallic acid and catechol, all assayed compounds were capable of oxidising VA with varying CE. However, only some of them were able to oxidise KL. Although the oxidised forms of HBT and acetovanillone were not electrochemically stable, their reduced forms were quickly regenerated in the presence of VA. They thus act as chemical catalysts. Importantly, HBT and HPI did not attack the KL via the same mechanism as in VA oxidation. Electrochemical evidence suggests that violuric acid oxidises both substrates by an electron transfer mechanism, unlike the other N-OH compounds HBT and HPI. Acetovanillone was found to be efficient in oxidising VA and KL, even better than the synthetic mediators TEMPO, violuric acid or ABTS. Most of the compounds produced a generalised increase in the oxidative charge of KL, probably attributed to chain reactions arising between the phenolic and non-phenolic components of this complex molecule.

  2. Catalytic efficiency of natural and synthetic compounds used as laccase-mediators in oxidising veratryl alcohol and a kraft lignin, estimated by electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Arzola, K.; Arevalo, M.C.; Falcon, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of eighteen natural and synthetic compounds commonly used to expand the oxidative capacity of laccases were evaluated in an aqueous buffered medium using cyclic voltammetry. This clarifies which compounds fulfil the requisites to be considered as redox mediators or enhancers. Cyclic voltammetry was also applied as a rapid way to assess the catalytic efficiency (CE) of those compounds which oxidise a non-phenolic lignin model (veratryl alcohol, VA) and a kraft lignin (KL). With the exception of gallic acid and catechol, all assayed compounds were capable of oxidising VA with varying CE. However, only some of them were able to oxidise KL. Although the oxidised forms of HBT and acetovanillone were not electrochemically stable, their reduced forms were quickly regenerated in the presence of VA. They thus act as chemical catalysts. Importantly, HBT and HPI did not attack the KL via the same mechanism as in VA oxidation. Electrochemical evidence suggests that violuric acid oxidises both substrates by an electron transfer mechanism, unlike the other N-OH compounds HBT and HPI. Acetovanillone was found to be efficient in oxidising VA and KL, even better than the synthetic mediators TEMPO, violuric acid or ABTS. Most of the compounds produced a generalised increase in the oxidative charge of KL, probably attributed to chain reactions arising between the phenolic and non-phenolic components of this complex molecule

  3. Efficient Catalytic Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium With Pd-decorated Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Choi, Hyun Chul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Heavy metal pollution is currently a serious environmental issue. Chromium (Cr) and chromium compounds are commonly found in wastewater discharged by various industries such as wood preservation, leather tanning, electroplating, metal finishing, and the production of chemicals. Pd nanoparticles can easily be introduced into CNTs by performing DCC-activated amidation. Our TEM and XRD results indicate that well-dispersed metallic Pd nanoparticles are anchored on the surface of the amidated CNTs. The XPS results suggest that the Pd content of the sample is approximately 9.8 atomic %. In comparison with the commercial Pd catalyst, the prepared Pd-CNTs were demonstrated to exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-NP by NaBH4. Moreover, the Pd-CNT catalyst can easily be separated by performing a simple filtration and reused over at least 10 cycles. This Pd-CNT catalyst is therefore believed to have significant potential for use as a reusable catalyst in the reduction of Cr(Vi)

  4. Efficient photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green using nickel tungstate material as photo-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaïli, N; Boudjamaa, A; Kebir, M; Bachari, K

    2017-03-01

    The present study focused on the evaluation of photo-catalytic and photo-electrochemical properties of the photo-catalyst based on nickel tungstate material prepared by a nitrate method through the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye's. The effect of catalyst loading and dye concentration was examined. Physico-chemical, optical, electrical, electrochemical, and photo-electrochemical properties of the prepared material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, optical reflectance diffuse (DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), current intensity, mott-shottky, and nyquist. XRD revealed the formation of monoclinic structure with a small particle size. BET surface area of the sample was around 10 m 2 /g. The results show that the degradation of MG was more than 80%, achieved after 3 h of irradiation at pH 4.6 and with a catalyst loading of 75 mg. Also, it was found that the dye photo-degradation obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic via Langmuir Hinshelwood model.

  5. In situ formed catalytically active ruthenium nanocatalyst in room temperature dehydrogenation/dehydrocoupling of ammonia-borane from Ru(cod)(cot) precatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Ayvalı, Tuğçe; Philippot, Karine

    2012-03-20

    The development of simply prepared and effective catalytic materials for dehydrocoupling/dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane (AB; NH(3)BH(3)) under mild conditions remains a challenge in the field of hydrogen economy and material science. Reported herein is the discovery of in situ generated ruthenium nanocatalyst as a new catalytic system for this important reaction. They are formed in situ during the dehydrogenation of AB in THF at 25 °C in the absence of any stabilizing agent starting with homogeneous Ru(cod)(cot) precatalyst (cod = 1,5-η(2)-cyclooctadiene; cot = 1,3,5-η(3)-cyclooctatriene). The preliminary characterization of the reaction solutions and the products was done by using ICP-OES, ATR-IR, TEM, XPS, ZC-TEM, GC, EA, and (11)B, (15)N, and (1)H NMR, which reveal that ruthenium nanocatalyst is generated in situ during the dehydrogenation of AB from homogeneous Ru(cod)(cot) precatalyst and B-N polymers formed at the initial stage of the catalytic reaction take part in the stabilization of this ruthenium nanocatalyst. Moreover, following the recently updated approach (Bayram, E.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 18889) by performing Hg(0), CS(2) poisoning experiments, nanofiltration, time-dependent TEM analyses, and kinetic investigation of active catalyst formation to distinguish single metal or in the present case subnanometer Ru(n) cluster-based catalysis from polymetallic Ru(0)(n) nanoparticle catalysis reveals that in situ formed Ru(n) clusters (not Ru(0)(n) nanoparticles) are kinetically dominant catalytically active species in our catalytic system. The resulting ruthenium catalyst provides 120 total turnovers over 5 h with an initial turnover frequency (TOF) value of 35 h(-1) at room temperature with the generation of more than 1.0 equiv H(2) at the complete conversion of AB to polyaminoborane (PAB; [NH(2)BH(2)](n)) and polyborazylene (PB; [NHBH](n)) units.

  6. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian

    2017-03-13

    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  7. Catalytic asymmetric epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated amides: efficient synthesis of beta-aryl alpha-hydroxy amides using a one-pot tandem catalytic asymmetric epoxidation-Pd-catalyzed epoxide opening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tetsuhiro; Kakei, Hiroyuki; Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Tosaki, Shin-Ya; Ohshima, Takashi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2002-12-11

    The catalytic asymmetric epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated amides using Sm-BINOL-Ph3As=O complex was succeeded. Using 5-10 mol % of the asymmetric catalyst, a variety of amides were epoxidized efficiently, yielding the corresponding alpha,beta-epoxy amides in up to 99% yield and in more than 99% ee. Moreover, the novel one-pot tandem process, one-pot tandem catalytic asymmetric epoxidation-Pd-catalyzed epoxide opening process, was developed. This method was successfully utilized for the efficient synthesis of beta-aryl alpha-hydroxy amides, including beta-aryllactyl-leucine methyl esters. Interestingly, it was found that beneficial modifications on the Pd catalyst were achieved by the constituents of the first epoxidation, producing a more suitable catalyst for the Pd-catalyzed epoxide opening reaction in terms of chemoselectivity.

  8. An efficient algorithm for calculation of the Luenberger canonical form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, D.; Sridhar, B.

    1973-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented to obtain the Luenberger canonical form for multivariable systems. A distinct feature of the method is that the canonical form is obtained directly and, if necessary, the similarity transformation can be computed. There is a substantial reduction in the amount of computation compared to Luenberger's method. The reduced computations along with Gaussian techniques lend greater inherent accuracy and the ability to refine the solution with additional computations. An example is presented to illustrate the technique.

  9. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO2 Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkara, Hisham [PhosphorTech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO2 reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO2 reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO2 into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  10. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 1: Influence of operating conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  11. MECHANISMS OF THE COMPLEX FORMATION BY d-METALS ON POROUS SUPPORTS AND THE CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE FORMED COMPLEXES IN REDOX REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of supported complexes of d metals in redox reactions with participation of gaseous toxicants, PH3, CO, O3, and SO2, depends on their composition. Owing to the variety of physicochemical and structural-adsorption properties of available supports, their influence on complex formation processes, the composition and catalytic activity of metal complexes anchored on them varies over a wide range. The metal complex formation on sup-ports with weak ion-exchanging properties is similar to that in aqueous solutions. In this case, the support role mainly adds up to the ability to reduce the activity of water adsorbed on them. The interaction between a metal complex and a support surface occurs through adsorbed water molecules. Such supports can also affect complex formation processes owing to protolytic reactions on account of acidic properties of sorbents used as supports. The catalytic activity of metal complexes supported on polyphase natural sorbents considerably depends on their phase relationship. In the case of supports with the nonsimple structure and pronounced ion-exchanging properties, for instance, zeolites and laminar silicates, it is necessary to take into account the variety of places where metal ions can be located. Such location places determine distinctions in the coordination environment of the metal ions and the strength of their bonding with surface adsorption sites and, therefore, the catalytic activity of surface complexes formed by theses metal ions. Because of the energy surface inhomogeneity, it is important to determine a relationship between the strength of a metal complex bonding with a support surface and its catalytic activity. For example, bimetallic complexes are catalytically active in the reactions of oxidation of the above gaseous toxicants. In particular, in the case of carbon monoxide oxidation, the most catalytic activity is shown by palladium-copper complexes in which copper(II is strongly

  12. Modeling and Re-Engineering of Azotobacter vinelandii Alginate Lyase to Enhance Its Catalytic Efficiency for Accelerating Biofilm Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Ho Jang

    Full Text Available Alginate is known to prevent elimination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Alginate lyase (AlgL might therefore facilitate treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cystic fibrosis patients. However, the catalytic activity of wild-type AlgL is not sufficiently high. Therefore, molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of AlgL might assist in enzyme engineering for therapeutic development. AlgL, isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, catalyzes depolymerization of alginate via a β-elimination reaction. AlgL was modeled based on the crystal structure template of Sphingomonas AlgL species A1-III. Based on this computational analysis, AlgL was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis to improve its catalytic activity. The kcat/Km of the K194E mutant showed a nearly 5-fold increase against the acetylated alginate substrate, as compared to the wild-type. Double and triple mutants (K194E/K245D, K245D/K319A, K194E/K245D/E312D, and K194E/K245D/K319A were also prepared. The most potent mutant was observed to be K194E/K245D/K319A, which has a 10-fold improved kcat value (against acetylated alginate compared to the wild-type enzyme. The antibiofilm effect of both AlgL forms was identified in combination with piperacillin/tazobactam (PT and the disruption effect was significantly higher in mutant AlgL combined with PT than wild-type AlgL. However, for both the wild-type and K194E/K245D/K319A mutant, the use of the AlgL enzyme alone did not show significant antibiofilm effect.

  13. Modeling and Re-Engineering of Azotobacter vinelandii Alginate Lyase to Enhance Its Catalytic Efficiency for Accelerating Biofilm Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chul Ho; Piao, Yu Lan; Huang, Xiaoqin; Yoon, Eun Jeong; Park, So Hee; Lee, Kyoung; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Cho, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is known to prevent elimination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Alginate lyase (AlgL) might therefore facilitate treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cystic fibrosis patients. However, the catalytic activity of wild-type AlgL is not sufficiently high. Therefore, molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of AlgL might assist in enzyme engineering for therapeutic development. AlgL, isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, catalyzes depolymerization of alginate via a β-elimination reaction. AlgL was modeled based on the crystal structure template of Sphingomonas AlgL species A1-III. Based on this computational analysis, AlgL was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis to improve its catalytic activity. The kcat/Km of the K194E mutant showed a nearly 5-fold increase against the acetylated alginate substrate, as compared to the wild-type. Double and triple mutants (K194E/K245D, K245D/K319A, K194E/K245D/E312D, and K194E/K245D/K319A) were also prepared. The most potent mutant was observed to be K194E/K245D/K319A, which has a 10-fold improved kcat value (against acetylated alginate) compared to the wild-type enzyme. The antibiofilm effect of both AlgL forms was identified in combination with piperacillin/tazobactam (PT) and the disruption effect was significantly higher in mutant AlgL combined with PT than wild-type AlgL. However, for both the wild-type and K194E/K245D/K319A mutant, the use of the AlgL enzyme alone did not show significant antibiofilm effect.

  14. Alternative Forms of International Cooperation: Comparing Their Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan

    1978-01-01

    The author, an economist, discusses nine forms of international cooperation according to their strengths, and invites representatives of other disciplines to comment on international cooperation. Discusses relevant concepts and the estimation of optimal procedures for cooperation. Available from: Unipub, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New…

  15. A General Catalytic Method for Highly Cost- and Atom-Efficient Nucleophilic Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Peter H; Filbrich, Isabel

    2018-05-23

    A general formamide-catalyzed protocol for the efficient transformation of alcohols into alkyl chlorides, which is promoted by substoichiometric amounts (down to 34 mol %) of inexpensive trichlorotriazine (TCT), is introduced. This is the first example of a TCT-mediated dihydroxychlorination of an OH-containing substrate (e.g., alcohols and carboxylic acids) in which all three chlorine atoms of TCT are transferred to the starting material. The consequently enhanced atom economy facilitates a significantly improved waste balance (E-factors down to 4), cost efficiency, and scalability (>50 g). Furthermore, the current procedure is distinguished by high levels of functional-group compatibility and stereoselectivity, as only weakly acidic cyanuric acid is released as exclusive byproduct. Finally, a one-pot protocol for the preparation of amines, azides, ethers, and sulfides enabled the synthesis of the drug rivastigmine with twofold S N 2 inversion, which demonstrates the high practical value of the presented method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Molecular improvements in microbial α-amylases for enhanced stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Madhavan, Aravind; Beevi, Ummalyma Sabeela; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Abraham, Amith; Pandey, Ashok; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-12-01

    α-Amylases is one of the most important industrial enzyme which contributes to 25% of the industrial enzyme market. Though it is produced by plant, animals and microbial source, those from microbial source seems to have potential applications due to their stability and economic viability. However a large number of α-amylases from different sources have been detailed in the literature, only few numbers of them could withstand the harsh industrial conditions. Thermo-stability, pH tolerance, calcium independency and oxidant stability and starch hydrolyzing efficiency are the crucial qualities for α-amylase in starch based industries. Microbes can be genetically modified and fine tuning can be done for the production of enzymes with desired characteristics for specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from microorganisms, their heterologous production and the recent molecular strategies which help to improve the properties of this industrial enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Efficiencies and Mechanisms of Catalytic Ozonation of Recalcitrant Petroleum Refinery Wastewater by Ce, Mg, and Ce-Mg Oxides Loaded Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmao Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of catalytic ozonation processes (COPs for the advanced treatment of recalcitrant petroleum refinery wastewater (RPRW is rapidly expanding. In this study, magnesium (Mg, cerium (Ce, and Mg-Ce oxide-loaded alumina (Al2O3 were developed as cost efficient catalysts for ozonation treatment of RPRW, having performance metrics that meet new discharge standards. Interactions between the metal oxides and the Al2O3 support influence the catalytic properties, as well as the efficiency and mechanism. Mg-Ce/Al2O3 (Mg-Ce/Al2O3-COP reduced the chemical oxygen demand by 4.7%, 4.1%, 6.0%, and 17.5% relative to Mg/Al2O3-COP, Ce/Al2O3-COP, Al2O3-COP, and single ozonation, respectively. The loaded composite metal oxides significantly increased the hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation. Surface hydroxyl groups (–OHs are the dominant catalytic active sites on Al2O3. These active surface –OHs along with the deposited metal oxides (Mg2+ and/or Ce4+ increased the catalytic activity. The Mg-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst can be economically produced, has high efficiency, and is stable under acidic and alkaline conditions.

  18. Seedless synthesis and efficient recyclable catalytic activity of Ag@Fe nanocomposites towards methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Salma Ahmed; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Khan, Zaheer

    2018-03-01

    This work demonstrates a competitive reduction method of synthesis of nanomaterials. In this method along cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the reduction of Ag+ and Fe3+ ions is achieved by ascorbic acid-to-bimetallic Ag@Fe yellow-colored nanomaterials. The shape of UV-visible spectra and wavelengths absorbed of Ag@Fe can be tuned from ca. 290-600 nm by controlling [CTAB] and [Ag+]. The apparent first-order rate constants were calculated within the approximation of 6.1 × 10-3 s-1. The as-prepared Ag@Fe NPs have been found to be very important catalyst in terms of depredate methyl orange in vicinity of sodium borohydride (NaBH4), which exhibits excellent efficiency and re-usability in the prototypical reaction. The cmc of cationic surfactant CTAB has been determined by conductivity method under different experimental conditions. In the presence of CTAB, Ag+ and Fe3+ ions reduce to Ag@Fe core/shell nanoparticles, comprehend a change in wavelength and intensity of SRP band. The apparent first-order rate constant, activation energy, and turnover frequency for the methyl orange reduction catalyzed by Ag@Fe NPs were found to be 1.6 × 10-3 s-1, 58.2 kJ mol-1, and 1.1 × 10-3 s-1, respectively.

  19. Indium triflate in 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogenphosphate: an efficient and green catalytic system for Friedel-Crafts acylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Hoang, Huy Manh; Chau, Duy-Khiem Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Indium triflate in the ionic liquid, 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogen phosphate ([i-BMIM]H2PO4), was found to show enhanced catalytic activity in the Friedel–Crafts acylation of various aromatic compounds with acid anhydrides. The catalytic system was easily recovered and reused without...

  20. Catalytic nanocrystalline coordination polymers as an efficient peroxidase mimic for labeling and optical immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čunderlová, Veronika; Hlaváček, Antonín; Horňáková, Veronika; Peterek, Miroslav; Němeček, Daniel; Skládal, Petr; Hampl, Aleš; Eyer, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    We report that nanocrystalline Prussian blue of the type Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 is a powerful peroxidase mimic for use in labeling of biomolecules. The cubic nanocrystals typically have a diameter of 15 nm and are capable of catalyzing the oxidation of colorless 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H 2 O 2 to form an intensively colored product with an absorption maximum at 662 nm. The determined pseudo turnover number is ∼20,000 s −1 which is the highest value reported for nanoparticles of a size comparable to common proteins. We also present a method for the biotinylation of the surface of these nanocrystals, and show their use in competitive bioaffinity based assays of biotin and human serum albumin. The limits of detection are 0.35 and 0.27 μg mL −1 , respectively. The results prove the applicability of coordination polymers for signal amplification and also their compatibility with the format of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. (author)

  1. Deuterohemin-Peptide Enzyme Mimic-Embedded Metal-Organic Frameworks through Biomimetic Mineralization with Efficient ATRP Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xinghuo; Chen, Jiawen; Liu, Ying; Han, Haobo; Ding, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Tang, Jun

    2017-08-16

    An enzyme mimic harboring iron porphyrin (DhHP-6) embedded in zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was constructed through a biomimetic mineralization approach to obtain composite DhHP-6@ZIF-8. The composite was then used as a catalyst in the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA 500 ) in which poly(PEGMA 500 ) could be synthesized with monomer conversion of 76.1% and M n of 45 900 g/mol, stronger than that obtained when using free DhHP-6 as a catalyst. More importantly, it could efficiently overcome the drawbacks of free DhHP-6 and achieve the easy separation of DhHP-6 from the catalytic system and the elimination of iron residues in the synthesized polymer. In addition, it exhibited an enhanced recyclability with monomer conversion of 75.7% after five cycles and favorable stability during the ATRP reaction with mimic-ZIF-8 composite developed through biomimetic mineralization can be potentially used as an effective catalyst for preparing well-defined polymers with biomedical applications.

  2. Testing the Weak Form Efficiency in Pakistan’s Equity, Badla and Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Abdul; Husain, Fazal

    2009-01-01

    The paper test the weak form market efficient hypothesis for Pakistan’s equity, badla and money markets with an aim to investigate which one of them is most efficient in the weak form sense. The analysis provides evidence, under the assumption of heteroscedasticity, that the KSE is weak-form efficient over the full-length sample period. Nevertheless, the analysis reports that over the same period the other two markets viz. badla and money are not weak form efficient. The badla market was effi...

  3. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of DNA Processing by Wild Type DNA-Glycosylase Endo III and Its Catalytically Inactive Mutant Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kladova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Endonuclease III (Endo III or Nth is one of the key enzymes responsible for initiating the base excision repair of oxidized or reduced pyrimidine bases in DNA. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of structural rearrangements of the specific and nonspecific DNA-duplexes during their interaction with Endo III is performed based on stopped-flow kinetic data. 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tCO, a fluorescent analog of the natural nucleobase cytosine, is used to record multistep DNA binding and lesion recognition within a temperature range (5–37 °C. Standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the specific steps are derived from kinetic data using Van’t Hoff plots. The data suggest that enthalpy-driven exothermic 5,6-dihydrouracil (DHU recognition and desolvation-accompanied entropy-driven adjustment of the enzyme–substrate complex into a catalytically active state play equally important parts in the overall process. The roles of catalytically significant amino acids Lys120 and Asp138 in the DNA lesion recognition and catalysis are identified. Lys120 participates not only in the catalytic steps but also in the processes of local duplex distortion, whereas substitution Asp138Ala leads to a complete loss of the ability of Endo III to distort a DNA double chain during enzyme–DNA complex formation.

  4. Improved catalytic efficiency, thermophilicity, anti-salt and detergent tolerance of keratinase KerSMD by partially truncation of PPC domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-06-14

    The keratinase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (KerSMD) is known for its high activity and pH stability in keratin degradation. However, catalytic efficiency and detergent tolerability need to be improved in order to be used for industrial application. In this work, we obtained several keratinase variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency, thermophilicity, and anti-salt and detergent tolerability by partially truncating the PPC domain of KerSMD. The variants all showed improved catalytic efficiency to synthetic substrate AAPF, with the V355 variant having the highest kcat /Km value of 143.6 s(-1) mM(-1). The truncation of keratinase had little effect on alkaline stability but obviously decreased collagenase activity, developing its potential application in leather treatment. The variants V380, V370, and V355 were thermophilic, with a 1.7-fold enhancement of keratinlytic activity at 60 °C when compared to the wild type. The entire truncation of PPC domain obtained the variant V355 with improved tolerance to alkalinity, salt, chaotropic agents, and detergents. The V355 variant showed more than a 40% improvement in activity under 15% (w/v) NaCl or 4% (w/v) SDS solution, showing excellent stability under harsh washing and unhairing conditions. Our work investigated how protein engineering affects the function of PPC domain of KerSMD.

  5. Preparation and characterization of LTA-type zeolite framework dispersed ruthenium nanoparticles and their catalytic application in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia–borane for efficient hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahmakiran, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ru(0)NPs-ZK-4 were prepared and characterized by advanced analytical techniques. ► They achieve the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane with TOF = 5410 h −1 and TTO = 36700. ► They maintain 85% of their activity even at the fifth catalytic run. - Abstract: The safe and efficient hydrogen storage and production are major obstacles to use hydrogen as an energy carrier. Therefore, significant efforts have been focused on the development of new materials for the chemical hydrogen storage and production. Of particular importance, ammonia–borane (NH 3 BH 3 ) is emerging as one of the most promising solid hydrogen carrier due to its high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (19.6 wt.%) and low molecular weight (30.8 g/mol). ammonia–borane can release hydrogen gas upon catalytic hydrolysis under mild conditions. Herein, the discovery of a new catalytic material, ruthenium nanoparticles stabilized by ZK-4 zeolite framework, for this important reaction has been reported. This new catalyst system was prepared by borohydride reduction of ruthenium(III)-exchanged ZK-4 zeolite in water at room temperature. The characterization of the resulting material by advanced analytical tools shows the formation of ZK-4 zeolite dispersed ruthenium nanoparticles (2.9 ± 0.9 nm). The catalytic performance of the resulting supported ruthenium nanoparticles depending on activity, lifetime and reusability was demonstrated in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia–borane. They were found to be highly active (initial TOF = 5410 h −1 ), long-lived (TTO = 36,700) and reusable catalyst (retaining of >85% of initial activity in the 5th reuse) in this important catalytic reaction at room temperature under air.

  6. Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition over High-Performance Ru/Graphene Nanocomposites for Efficient COx-Free Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly-dispersed Ru nanoparticles were grown on graphene nanosheets by simultaneously reducing graphene oxide and Ru ions using ethylene glycol (EG, and the resultant Ru/graphene nanocomposites were applied as a catalyst to ammonia decomposition for COx-free hydrogen production. Tuning the microstructures of Ru/graphene nanocomposites was easily accomplished in terms of Ru particle size, morphology, and loading by adjusting the preparation conditions. This was the key to excellent catalytic activity, because ammonia decomposition over Ru catalysts is structure-sensitive. Our results demonstrated that Ru/graphene prepared using water as a co-solvent greatly enhanced the catalytic performance for ammonia decomposition, due to the significantly improved nano architectures of the composites. The long-term stability of Ru/graphene catalysts was evaluated for COx-free hydrogen production from ammonia at high temperatures, and the structural evolution of the catalysts was investigated during the catalytic reactions. Although there were no obvious changes in the catalytic activities at 450 °C over a duration of 80 h, an aggregation of the Ru nanoparticles was still observed in the nanocomposites, which was ascribed mainly to a sintering effect. However, the performance of the Ru/graphene catalyst was decreased gradually at 500 °C within 20 h, which was ascribed mainly to both the effect of the methanation of the graphene nanosheet under a H2 atmosphere and to enhanced sintering under high temperatures.

  7. Efficient Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to 1-Butanol via the Guerbet Reaction over Copper- and Nickel-Doped Porous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhuohua; Vasconcelos, Anais Couto; Bottari, Giovanni; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Bonura, Giuseppe; Cannilla, Catia; Frusteri, Francesco; Barta, Katalin

    The direct conversion of ethanol to higher value 1-butanol is a catalytic transformation of great interest in light of the expected wide availability of bioethanol originating from the fermentation of renewable resources. In this contribution we describe several novel compositions of porous metal

  8. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  9. A non-acid-assisted and non-hydroxyl-radical-related catalytic ozonation with ceria supported copper oxide in efficient oxalate degradation in water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2012-06-01

    Oxalate is usually used as a refractory model compound that cannot be effectively removed by ozone and hydroxyl radical oxidation in water. In this study, we found that ceria supported CuO significantly improved oxalate degradation in reaction with ozone. The optimum CuO loading amount was 12%. The molar ratio of oxalate removed/ozone consumption reached 0.84. The catalytic ozonation was most effective in a neutral pH range (6.7-7.9) and became ineffective when the water solution was acidic or alkaline. Moreover, bicarbonate, a ubiquitous hydroxyl radical scavenger in natural waters, significantly improved the catalytic degradation of oxalate. Therefore, the degradation relies on neither hydroxyl radical oxidation nor acid assistance, two pathways usually proposed for catalytic ozonation. These special characters of the catalyst make it suitable to be potentially used for practical degradation of refractory hydrophilic organic matter and compounds in water and wastewater. With in situ characterization, the new surface Cu(II) formed from ozone oxidation of the trace Cu(I) of the catalyst was found to be an active site in coordination with oxalate forming multi-dentate surface complex. It is proposed that the complex can be further oxidized by molecular ozone and then decomposes through intra-molecular electron transfer. The ceria support enhanced the activity of the surface Cu(I)/Cu(II) in this process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Bridging Zirconia Nodes within a Metal–Organic Framework via Catalytic Ni-Hydroxo Clusters to Form Heterobimetallic Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platero-Prats, Ana E.; League, Aaron B.; Bernales, Varinia; Ye, Jingyun; Gallington, Leighanne C.

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with their well-ordered pore networks and tunable surface chemistries, offer a versatile platform for preparing well-defined nanostructures wherein functionality such as catalysis can be incorporated. Notably, atomic layer deposition (ALD) in MOFs has recently emerged as a versatile approach to functionalize MOF surfaces with a wide variety of catalytic metal-oxo species. Understanding the structure of newly deposited species and how they are tethered within the MOF is critical to understanding how these components couple to govern the active material properties. By combining local and long-range structure probes, including X-ray absorption spectroscopy, pair distribution function analysis and difference envelope density analysis, with electron microscopy imag-ing and computational modeling, we resolve the precise atomic structure of metal-oxo species deposited in the MOF NU-1000 through ALD. These analyses demonstrate that deposition of NiO x H y clusters occurs selectively within the smallest pores of NU-1000, between the zirconia nodes, serving to connect these nodes along the c-direction to yield hetero-bimetallic metal-oxo nanowires. Finally, this bridging motif perturbs the NU-1000 framework structure, drawing the zirconia nodes closer together, and also underlies the sintering-resistance of these clusters during the hydrogenation of light olefins.

  11. THE FORM OF THE COOKING VESSEL AND THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KRÄMER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the contribution of the form of the cooking vessel to the heat transfer efficiency of the stove/pot system. A rounded (convex pot bottom increases the surface available for heat transfer and, hence, heat transfer efficiency. We suggest that combustion-efficient stoves combined with rounded-bottom vessels compare favourably to the same stoves in combination with flat-bottom stoves. Clay pots with a rounded bottom correspond to African traditions. Nowadays metal pots with rounded bottoms are locally produced in some areas. Implications of pot forms for the outcome of Water Boiling Tests are also discussed.

  12. THE WEAK FORM OF INFORMATIONAL EFFICIENCY: CASE OF TUNISIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SIALA GUERMEZI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the weak form of market efficiency hypothesis over eleven Tunisian banks listed on the Tunisian Stock Exchange during the period July 2012 to June 2013. GARCH (1, 1 and its extension EGARCH (1,1 are developed in order to describe the sign and size of financial volatility asymmetry. The results indicate that the Tunisian stock market, in particular the banking sector would not show characteristics of market efficiency. Some of the bank securities asymmetrically reacted to good and bad news. The presence of the leverage effect would imply that negative innovation (news has a greater impact on volatility than a positive innovation (news. This implies that this sector is not efficient under the weak form of the hypothesis. The implication of rejecting the weak form of efficiency for investors is that they can better predict stock price movements and abnormal earnings.

  13. Improving the reversibility of thermal denaturation and catalytic efficiency of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase through stabilizing a long loop in domain B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    Full Text Available The reversibility of thermal denaturation and catalytic efficiency of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase were improved through site-directed mutagenesis. By using multiple sequence alignment and PoPMuSiC algorithm, Ser187 and Asn188, which located within a long loop in Domain B of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, were selected for mutation. In addition, Ala269, which is adjacent to Ser187 and Asn188, was also investigated. Seven mutants carrying the mutations S187D, N188T, N188S, A269K, A269K/S187D, S187D/N188T, and A269K/S187D/N188T were generated and characterized. The most thermostable mutant, A269K/S187D/N188T, exhibited a 9-fold improvement in half-life at 95°C and pH 5.5, compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. Mutant A269K/S187D/N188T also exhibited improved catalytic efficiency. The catalytic efficiency of mutant A269K/S187D/N188T reached 5.87×103±0.17 g·L-1·s-1 at pH 5.5, which is 1.84-fold larger than the corresponding value determined for the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the structure analysis showed that immobilization of the loop containing Ser187 and Asn188 plays a significant role in developing the properties of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase.

  14. Improving the reversibility of thermal denaturation and catalytic efficiency of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase through stabilizing a long loop in domain B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Duan, Xuguo; Chen, Sheng; Wu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The reversibility of thermal denaturation and catalytic efficiency of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase were improved through site-directed mutagenesis. By using multiple sequence alignment and PoPMuSiC algorithm, Ser187 and Asn188, which located within a long loop in Domain B of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, were selected for mutation. In addition, Ala269, which is adjacent to Ser187 and Asn188, was also investigated. Seven mutants carrying the mutations S187D, N188T, N188S, A269K, A269K/S187D, S187D/N188T, and A269K/S187D/N188T were generated and characterized. The most thermostable mutant, A269K/S187D/N188T, exhibited a 9-fold improvement in half-life at 95°C and pH 5.5, compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. Mutant A269K/S187D/N188T also exhibited improved catalytic efficiency. The catalytic efficiency of mutant A269K/S187D/N188T reached 5.87×103±0.17 g·L-1·s-1 at pH 5.5, which is 1.84-fold larger than the corresponding value determined for the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the structure analysis showed that immobilization of the loop containing Ser187 and Asn188 plays a significant role in developing the properties of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase.

  15. Efficient selective catalytic reduction of NO by novel carbon-doped metal catalysts made from electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Jingyi; Xu, Yunfeng; Su, Huimin; Li, Xiaoman; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Qian, Guangren; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2014-10-07

    Electroplating sludges, once regarded as industrial wastes, are precious resources of various transition metals. This research has thus investigated the recycling of an electroplating sludge as a novel carbon-doped metal (Fe, Ni, Mg, Cu, and Zn) catalyst, which was different from a traditional carbon-supported metal catalyst, for effective NO selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This catalyst removed >99.7% NO at a temperature as low as 300 °C. It also removed NO steadily (>99%) with a maximum specific accumulative reduced amount (MSARA) of 3.4 mmol/g. Gas species analyses showed that NO removal was accompanied by evolving N2 and CO2. Moreover, in a wide temperature window, the sludge catalyst showed a higher CO2 selectivity (>99%) than an activated carbon-supported metal catalyst. Structure characterizations revealed that carbon-doped metal was transformed to metal oxide in the sludge catalyst after the catalytic test, with most carbon (2.33 wt %) being consumed. These observations suggest that NO removal over the sludge catalyst is a typical SCR where metals/metal oxides act as the catalytic center and carbon as the reducing reagent. Therefore, our report probably provides an opportunity for high value-added utilizations of heavy-metal wastes in mitigating atmospheric pollutions.

  16. An unsaturated metal site-promoted approach to construct strongly coupled noble metal/HNb3O8 nanosheets for efficient thermo/photo-catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijuan; Xia, Yuzhou; Lin, Sen; Liang, Shijing; Wu, Ling

    2017-10-05

    Creating two-dimensional (2D) crystal-metal heterostructures with an ultrathin thickness has spurred increasing research endeavors in catalysis because of its fascinating opportunities in tuning the electronic state at the surface and enhancing the chemical reactivity. Here we report a novel and facile Nb 4+ -assisted strategy for the in situ growth of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on monolayer HNb 3 O 8 nanosheets (HNb 3 O 8 NS) constituting a 2D Pd/HNb 3 O 8 NS heterostructure composite without using extra reducing agents and stabilizing agents. The Pd NP formation is directed via a redox reaction between an oxidative Pd salt precursor (H 2 PdCl 4 ) and reductive unsaturated surface metal (Nb 4+ ) sites induced by light irradiation on monolayer HNb 3 O 8 NS. The periodic arrangement of metal Nb nodes on HNb 3 O 8 NS leads to a homogeneous distribution of Pd NPs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the direct redox reaction between the Nb 4+ and Pd 2+ ions leads to a strong chemical interaction between the formed Pd metal NPs and the monolayer HNb 3 O 8 support. Consequently, the as-obtained Pd/HNb 3 O 8 composite serves as a highly efficient bifunctional catalyst in both heterogeneous thermocatalytic and photocatalytic selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in water under ambient conditions. The achieved high activity originates from the unique 2D nanosheet configuration and in situ Pd incorporation, which leads to a large active surface area, strong metal-support interaction and enhanced charge transport capability. Moreover, this facile Nb 4+ -assisted synthetic route has demonstrated to be general, which can be applied to load other metals such as Au and Pt on monolayer HNb 3 O 8 NS. It is anticipated that this work can extend the facile preparation of noble metal/nanosheet 2D heterostructures, as well as promote the simultaneous capture of duple renewable thermal and photon energy sources to drive an energy efficient

  17. An application of almost marginal conditional stochastic dominance (AMCSD) on forming efficient portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Isnandar; Mardiana Putri Carissa, Siska; Pratiwi, Hasih

    2017-10-01

    Investors always seek an efficient portfolio which is a portfolio that has a maximum return on specific risk or minimal risk on specific return. Almost marginal conditional stochastic dominance (AMCSD) criteria can be used to form the efficient portfolio. The aim of this research is to apply the AMCSD criteria to form an efficient portfolio of bank shares listed in the LQ-45. This criteria is used when there are areas that do not meet the criteria of marginal conditional stochastic dominance (MCSD). On the other words, this criteria can be derived from quotient of areas that violate the MCSD criteria with the area that violate and not violate the MCSD criteria. Based on the data bank stocks listed on LQ-45, it can be stated that there are 38 efficient portfolios of 420 portfolios where each portfolio comprises of 4 stocks and 315 efficient portfolios of 1710 portfolios with each of portfolio has 3 stocks.

  18. Directed modification of L-LcLDH1, an L-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei, to improve its specific activity and catalytic efficiency towards phenylpyruvic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Fang; Li, Xue-Qing; Liu, Yan; Yuan, Feng-Jiao; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Min-Chen; Zhang, Ji-Ru

    2018-05-22

    To improve the specific activity and catalytic efficiency of L-LcLDH1, an NADH-dependent allosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase from L. casei, towards phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), its directed modification was conducted based on the semi-rational design. The three variant genes, Lcldh1 Q88R , Lcldh1 I229A and Lcldh1 T235G , were constructed by whole-plasmid PCR as designed theoretically, and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), respectively. The purified mutant, L-LcLDH1 Q88R or L-LcLDH1 I229A , displayed the specific activity of 451.5 or 512.4 U/mg towards PPA, by which the asymmetric reduction of PPA afforded L-phenyllactic acid (PLA) with an enantiomeric excess (ee p ) more than 99%. Their catalytic efficiencies (k cat /K m ) without D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate (D-FDP) were 4.8- and 5.2-fold that of L-LcLDH1. Additionally, the k cat /K m values of L-LcLDH1 Q88R and L-LcLDH1 I229A with D-FDP were 168.4- and 8.5-fold higher than those of the same enzymes without D-FDP, respectively. The analysis of catalytic mechanisms by molecular docking (MD) simulation indicated that substituting I229 in L-LcLDH1 with Ala enlarges the space of substrate-binding pocket, and that the replacement of Q88 with Arg makes the inlet of pocket larger than that of L-LcLDH1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the technology of the plasma nanostructuring of silicon to form highly efficient emission structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, V. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P. [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nanotechnologies in Microelectronics (Russian Federation); Shamanaev, A. A., E-mail: artemiy.shamanaev@tcen.ru [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    New methods for silicon nanostructuring and the possibility of raising the aspect ratios of the structures being formed are considered. It is shown that the technology developed relates to self-formation methods and is an efficient tool for improving the quality of field-emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by increasing the Si–CNT contact area and raising the efficiency of the heat sink.

  20. Testing the Weak-Form Market Efficiency of the Euronext Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian Dinică

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a trading system based on various simple moving average crossings, the paper examines the weak-form market efficiency of the wheat traded at the Euronext exchange. After optimizing over the sample period, the best strategy is selected and then applied over the out-of-sample period. The profitability of this strategy is then compared with the simple buy and hold strategy. The methodology is then repeated for different sub-samples in order to check the results’ robustness. The results show that the weak-form market efficiency hypothesis cannot be rejected for the wheat case.

  1. Market Returns and Weak-Form Efficiency: the case of the Ghana Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Frimpong, Joseph Magnus; Oteng-Abayie, Eric Fosu

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the weak-form efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the case of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) an emerging market. Daily returns from the Databank Stock Index (DSI) over a 5-year period 1999-2004 were used for the exercise. Random walk (RW) and GARCH(1,1) models are used as the basis for our analysis. The GSE DSI returns series exhibit volatility clustering, an indication of inefficiency on the GSE. The weak-form efficient market (random walk) hypothesis was rejected for t...

  2. FORMING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS BASED ON INCREASING OF THEIR INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHVETS V. J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Key challenges and barriers of mining machinery enterprises in the context of forming sustainable supply chains in the mining industry are specified. Methodology. The algorithm of forming the industrial relations, which are carried out by the enterprises of mining machinery in order to increase the sustainable development of a mining industry, is offered. Conclusions.. Modern supply chains are confronted with dynamic trends and developments that are hard to predict. In order to respond to these changes and remain competitive advantage, companies should be able to identify and understand new sustainability issues in their branches. It is established that in the conditions of globalization of the market and the general orientation of Ukraine’s economy to the European principles of development, for mining machinery enterprises a proof of the commitment and observance of requirements of energy efficiency, i.e. energy saving, energy safety and social energy responsibility are very important. Supply channels should increase not only energy efficiency, economic and production stability of the company, but also strengthen the stability of all participants in the production chain, as well as other stakeholders (business partners, customers, investors, local communities, etc.. Originality. The interrelation of an indicator of energy efficiency in forming sustainable supply chain in a mining industry is established. Practical value. Using the principles of sustainable development in the forming of value chains will improve energy efficiency of industry in general; provide a competitive advantage to entry into the global production chains in terms of European integration of Ukraine.

  3. Comparative measurement of the efficiency of catalytic after-burning devices on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattas, K.N.; Kyriakis, N.A.; Samaras, Z.C.; Aidarinis, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of three oxidation catalysts (Honeycat DEP 290, Engelhard PTX 623, Herapur 20L) and one catalytic trap oxidizer (Johnson Matthey JM 13/II) on the emissions of a RABA (M.A.N. Licensed) heavy-duty diesel engine has been comparatively studied. Tests were conducted according to EPA 13 mode test to measure CO, total HC, NO/sub x/ and total particulate matter emitted by the engine with and without devices. The test results were also correlated to the total emissions of the Athenian buses through new weighing factors of an ''Athenian 13 mode test''. The engine tests for all four devices resulted in: (1) considerable reduction of the engine's CO and total HC emissions - being already low (2) practically no difference in NO/sub x/ emissions and (3) increase of the total particulate emissions at high load modes.

  4. Carbon nanotube growth from catalytic nano-clusters formed by hot-ion-implantation into the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Yasushi, E-mail: yhoshino@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Arima, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Ai; Saito, Yasunao; Nakata, Jyoji [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have studied growth of chirality-controlled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from hot-implantation-formed catalytic nano-clusters in a thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. This procedure has the advantage of high controllability of the diameter and the number of clusters by optimizing the conditions of the ion implantation. In the present study, Co{sup +} ions with ion dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} are implanted in the vicinity of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface at 300 Degree-Sign C temperature. The implanted Co atoms located in the SiO{sub 2} layer has an amorphous-like structure with a cluster diameter of several nm. In contrast, implanted Co atoms in the Si substrate are found to take a cobalt silicide structure, confirmed by the high-resolution image of transmission electron microscope. CNTs are grown by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We have confirmed a large amount of vertically-aligned multi-walled CNTs from the Co nano-clusters formed by the hot-ion-implantation near the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  5. Computational Efficient Upscaling Methodology for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Nuclear Waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated different upscaling methods to predict thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form, a heterogeneous material system. The efficiency and accuracy of these methods were compared. Thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form is an important property specific to scientific researchers, in waste form Integrated performance and safety code (IPSC). The effective thermal conductivity obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. How the heat generated during storage is directly related to thermal conductivity, which in turn determining the mechanical deformation behavior, corrosion resistance and aging performance. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling models were developed and implemented. Due to the absence of experimental data, prediction results from finite element method (FEM) were used as reference to determine the accuracy of different upscaling models. Micrographs from different loading of nuclear waste were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (Taylor and Sachs model) are better than self consistent model, statistical upscaling method and FEM. Balancing the computation resource and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a computational efficient method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste form.

  6. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    -ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation......Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X...

  7. Foliage efficiency of forest-forming species in the climatic gradients of Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paperis of the scientific area of biogeography and devoted to a new aspect in the study of biological productivity of forest ecosystems on a geographical basis, expressed indirectly by climate parameters, namely, the foliage efficiency that until now is not investigated at the global level. Foliage efficiency is the ratio of net primary production (NPP to foliage biomass and is expressed in relative units. Some features of change of foliage efficiency of vicarious forest-forming species in Eurasian transcontinental gradients are showed for the first time using the voluminous factual material. The set of published biomass and NPP data (t/ha obtained in a number of 2192 plots is compiled. Using multiple regression analysis technique, the statistically significant changes in foliage efficiency values according to two transcontinental gradients, namely by zonal belts and continentality of climate, are stated for each forest-forming species. The species-specificity of age dynamics of stem volume and foliage efficiency is shown. It is monotonically decreased almost for all tree species in the following order: spruce and fir, pine, birch, oak, larch and aspen-poplar. When climate continentality increasing, foliage efficiency values of mature forests is dropping, most intensively in pines, less intensive in deciduous forests and virtually no changes in spruce-fir communities. In zonal gradient from the northern temperate to the subequatorial belt, foliage efficiency of deciduous species decreases, but it of the evergreen spruce and pine increases in the same direction. One of the possible causes of these opposite zonal trends of foliage efficiency in evergreen and deciduous species consists in different conditions of physiological processes in the year cycle, in particular, in year-round assimilates accumulation in the first and seasonal one in the second.

  8. Pulsed laser synthesis in liquid of efficient visible-light-active ZnO/rGO nanocomposites for improved photo-catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqbel, Redhwan A.; Gondal, Mohammed A.; Qahtan, Talal F.; Dastageer, Mohamed A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work the synthesis of visible light active zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO) nanocomposite by laser induced fragmentation of particulates in liquid, its morphological/optical characterizations, and its application in the process of photo-catalytic degradation of toxic Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under visible radiation were studied. It is observed from the optical and morphological characterization that the anchoring of ZnO on the rGO sheets in ZnO/rGO nanocomposite considerably reduced the aggregation of ZnO (increased surface area), reduced the recombination of photo-induced charge carriers, promoted more adsorption of reactants on the catalytic surface and also enhanced and extended the light absorption in the visible spectral region. With all these improved characteristics of ZnO/rGO nanocomposite, it was found that this material as a photo-catalyst yielded an RhB degradation efficiency of 86%, as compared to the 40% degradation with pure ZnO NPs under the same experimental conditions. In the ZnO/rGO nanocomposite, rGO functions as an electron acceptor to promote charge separation, an aggregation inhibitor to enhance the active surface area, a co-catalyst, a good dye adsorber and also as a supporting matrix for ZnO.

  9. Transition state analogue imprinted polymers as artificial amidases for amino acid p-nitroanilides: morphological effects of polymer network on catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Divya; Thomas, Benny; Devaky, K S

    2017-11-13

    The morphology of the polymer network - porous/less porous - plays predominant role in the amidase activities of the polymer catalysts in the hydrolytic reactions of amino acid p-nitroanilides. Polymers with the imprints of stable phosphonate analogue of the intermediate of hydrolytic reactions were synthesized as enzyme mimics. Molecular imprinting was carried out in thermodynamically stable porogen dimethyl sulphoxide and unstable porogen chloroform, to investigate the morphological effects of polymers on catalytic amidolysis. It was found that the medium of polymerization has vital influence in the amidase activities of the enzyme mimics. The morphological studies of the polymer catalysts were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and Bruner-Emmett-Teller analysis. The morphology of the polymer catalysts and their amidase activities are found to be dependent on the composition of reaction medium. The polymer catalyst prepared in dimethyl sulphoxide is observed to be efficient in 1:9 acetonitrile (ACN)-Tris HCl buffer and that prepared in chloroform is noticed to be stereo specifically and shape-selectively effective in 9:1 ACN-Tris HCl buffer. The solvent memory effect in catalytic amidolysis was investigated using the polymer prepared in acetonitrile.

  10. Pyrrolic-N-doped graphene oxide/Fe2O3 mesocrystal nanocomposite: Efficient charge transfer and enhanced photo-Fenton catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Tian, Lihong; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinfeng; Guan, Rong; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-11-01

    Though α-Fe2O3 has attracted much attention in photocatalytic or Fenton-catalytic degradation of organic contaminants, its performance is still unsatisfactory due to fast recombination of electrons and holes in photocatalytic process and the difficult conversion of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Fenton reaction. Herein, a pyrrolic N-doped graphene oxide/Fe2O3 mesocrystal (NG-Fe2O3) nanocomposite with good distribution is synthesized by a simple solvothermal method and adjusting the oxygen-containing groups on graphene oxide. The morphology of NG-Fe2O3 contributes to a relatively large BET surface area and an intimate contact between NG and Fe2O3. These two important factors along with the excellent electro-conductivity of pyrrolic-N doped GO result in the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and fast conversion of Fe(II)and Fe(III) in photo-Fenton synergistic reaction. Thus, a remarkably improved photo-Fenton catalytic activity of NG-Fe2O3 is obtained. The degrading rate on methyl blue increases by 1.5 times and the conversion rate of glyphosate increases by 2.3 times under visible light irradiation, compared to pristine α-Fe2O3 mesocrystals.

  11. Exciplex-Forming Cohost for High Efficiency and High Stability Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Jen; Lee, Chih-Chien; Chen, Ying-Hao; Biring, Sajal; Kumar, Gautham; Yeh, Tzu-Hung; Sen, Somaditya; Liu, Shun-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2018-01-17

    An exciplex forming cohost system is employed to achieve a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with good electroluminescent lifetime. The exciplex is formed at the interfacial contact of a conventional star-shaped carbazole hole-transporting material, 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA), and a triazine electron-transporting material, 2,4,6-tris[3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine (3P-T2T). The excellent combination of TCTA and 3P-T2T is applied as the cohost of a common green phosphorescent emitter with almost zero energy loss. When Ir(ppy) 2 (acac) is dispersed in such exciplex cohost system, OLED device with maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.6%, the ultrahigh power efficiency of 147.3 lm/W, and current efficiency of 107 cd/A were successfully achieved. More importantly, the OLED device showed a low-efficiency roll-off and an operational lifetime (τ 80 ) of ∼1020 min with the initial brightness of 2000 cd/m 2 , which is 56 times longer than the reference device. The significant difference of device stability was attributed to the degradation of exciplex system for energy transfer process, which was investigated by the photoluminescence aging measurement at room temperature and 100 K, respectively.

  12. Novel dextran derivatives with unconventional structure formed in an efficient one-pot reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotzel, Konrad; Heinze, Thomas

    2016-11-03

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of new dextran derivatives is described. The functional groups of β-alanine, i.e., the carboxyl- and amine group, are converted independently in one-step by iminium chloride to form products with a single substituent. The dextran N-[(dimethylamino)methylene]-β-alanine ester is formed selectively. The structure of the resulting polymers is unambiguously determined by means of NMR- and FTIR-spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An efficient closed-form solution for acoustic emission source location in three-dimensional structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient closed-form solution (ECS for acoustic emission(AE source location in three-dimensional structures using time difference of arrival (TDOA measurements from N receivers, N ≥ 6. The nonlinear location equations of TDOA are simplified to linear equations. The unique analytical solution of AE sources for unknown velocity system is obtained by solving the linear equations. The proposed ECS method successfully solved the problems of location errors resulting from measured deviations of velocity as well as the existence and multiplicity of solutions induced by calculations of square roots in existed close-form methods.

  14. Weak Form Efficiency of the Nigerian Stock Market: An Empirical Analysis (1984 – 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyemo Afego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the weak-form of the efficient markets hypothesis for the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE by testing for random walks in the monthly index returns over the period 1984-2009. The results of the non-parametric runs test show that index returns on the NSE display a predictable component, thus suggesting that traders can earn superior returns by employing trading rules. Statistically significant deviations from randomness are also suggestive of sub-optimal allocation of investment capital within the economy. The findings, in general, contradict the weak-form of the efficient markets hypothesis, and a range of policy strategies for improving the allocative capacity and quality of the information environment of the NSE are discussed.

  15. Testing the Week Form Efficiency of Pakistani Stock Market (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Haque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper tests out the weak form efficiency of Pakistani stock market by examining the weekly index over the period . Return series has a leptokurtic and negatively skewed distribution, which is away from normal distribution as reflected by significant Jarque-Bera statistic. Estimated results of ADF (1979, PP (1988 and KPSS (1992 tests, Ljung-Box Q-Statistic of autocorrelations and runs test of randomness reject the Random Walk Hypothesis (RWH for the returns series. Moreover the results of variance ratio test (Lo and MacKinlay (1988 also reject the RWH and prove the robustness of other estimated results. The rejection of RWH reveals that the Pakistani stock prices are not Weak Form Efficient.

  16. The Investigation of Electron Beam Catalytical Oxidation Process Efficiency with Potassium Persulfate in Removal Humic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Ghaneian

    2015-05-01

    Results: Based on the results, changes in pH had little effect on the Humic acid removal efficiency. The average, with increasing of pH from 4 to 10, the removal efficiency of humic acid from 72.59% to 73.36% increased, respectively. The results showed that increasing of the dose from 1 to 15 kGy, humic acid removal efficiency increases. Based on results by increasing of persulfate concentration, the removal efficiency increased so that with increasing of concentration of potassium persulfate from 0.1 to 0.5 mmol/100cc, removal efficiency from 69.43% to 83.82% was increased. Kinetic experiments showed that the decomposition of humic acid by electron beam radiation followed the second-order kinetic. Conclusion: The data from this study showed that the aqueous solution containing acid Humic is decomposed effectively by electron beams irradiation. Addition of potassium persulfate can be have significant improvements in removal efficiency of humic acid in the presence of electron beam.

  17. Testing the weak-form efficiency of the WTI crude oil futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-07-01

    The weak-form efficiency of energy futures markets has long been studied and empirical evidence suggests controversial conclusions. In this work, nonparametric methods are adopted to estimate the Hurst indexes of the WTI crude oil futures prices (1983-2012) and a strict statistical test in the spirit of bootstrapping is put forward to verify the weak-form market efficiency hypothesis. The results show that the crude oil futures market is efficient when the whole period is considered. When the whole series is divided into three sub-series separated by the outbreaks of the Gulf War and the Iraq War, it is found that the Gulf War reduced the efficiency of the market. If the sample is split into two sub-series based on the signing date of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the market is found to be inefficient in the sub-periods during which the Gulf War broke out. The same analysis on short-time series in moving windows shows that the market is inefficient only when some turbulent events occur, such as the oil price crash in 1985, the Gulf war, and the oil price crash in 2008.

  18. Robust Approach to Verifying the Weak Form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střelec, Luboš

    2011-09-01

    The weak form of the efficient markets hypothesis states that prices incorporate only past information about the asset. An implication of this form of the efficient markets hypothesis is that one cannot detect mispriced assets and consistently outperform the market through technical analysis of past prices. One of possible formulations of the efficient market hypothesis used for weak form tests is that share prices follow a random walk. It means that returns are realizations of IID sequence of random variables. Consequently, for verifying the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis, we can use distribution tests, among others, i.e. some tests of normality and/or some graphical methods. Many procedures for testing the normality of univariate samples have been proposed in the literature [7]. Today the most popular omnibus test of normality for a general use is the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Jarque-Bera test is the most widely adopted omnibus test of normality in econometrics and related fields. In particular, the Jarque-Bera test (i.e. test based on the classical measures of skewness and kurtosis) is frequently used when one is more concerned about heavy-tailed alternatives. As these measures are based on moments of the data, this test has a zero breakdown value [2]. In other words, a single outlier can make the test worthless. The reason so many classical procedures are nonrobust to outliers is that the parameters of the model are expressed in terms of moments, and their classical estimators are expressed in terms of sample moments, which are very sensitive to outliers. Another approach to robustness is to concentrate on the parameters of interest suggested by the problem under this study. Consequently, novel robust testing procedures of testing normality are presented in this paper to overcome shortcomings of classical normality tests in the field of financial data, which are typical with occurrence of remote data points and additional types of deviations from

  19. Natural Variants of the KPC-2 Carbapenemase have Evolved Increased Catalytic Efficiency for Ceftazidime Hydrolysis at the Cost of Enzyme Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrenik C Mehta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of β-lactamases that hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems among Gram-negative bacteria has limited options for treating bacterial infections. Initially, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2 emerged as a widespread carbapenem hydrolyzing β-lactamase that also hydrolyzes penicillins and cephalosporins but not cephamycins and ceftazidime. In recent years, single and double amino acid substitution variants of KPC-2 have emerged among clinical isolates that show increased resistance to ceftazidime. Because it confers multi-drug resistance, KPC β-lactamase is a threat to public health. In this study, the evolution of KPC-2 function was determined in nine clinically isolated variants by examining the effects of the substitutions on enzyme kinetic parameters, protein stability and antibiotic resistance profile. The results indicate that the amino acid substitutions associated with KPC-2 natural variants lead to increased catalytic efficiency for ceftazidime hydrolysis and a consequent increase in ceftazidime resistance. Single substitutions lead to modest increases in catalytic activity while the double mutants exhibit significantly increased ceftazidime hydrolysis and resistance levels. The P104R, V240G and H274Y substitutions in single and double mutant combinations lead to the largest increases in ceftazidime hydrolysis and resistance. Molecular modeling suggests that the P104R and H274Y mutations could facilitate ceftazidime hydrolysis through increased hydrogen bonding interactions with the substrate while the V240G substitution may enhance backbone flexibility so that larger substrates might be accommodated in the active site. Additionally, we observed a strong correlation between gain of catalytic function for ceftazidime hydrolysis and loss of enzyme stability, which is in agreement with the 'stability-function tradeoff' phenomenon. The high Tm of KPC-2 (66.5°C provides an evolutionary advantage as

  20. Testing Weak-Form Efficiency of The Chinese Stock Market and Hong Kong Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhuolin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the random walk hypothesis to determine the validity of weak-form efficiency for Shanghai, Shenzhen and Hong Kong Stock Exchanges. Daily returns from 2001-2010 for Shanghai A and B shares, Shenzhen A and B shares and Hong Kong Hang Seng Index are used in this study. The random walk hypothesis is examined by using four statistical methods, namely a serial correlation test, an Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root test, a runs test and a variance ratio test. The empirical re...

  1. Testing Weak Form Market Efficiency for Emerging Economies: A Nonlinear Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Omay, Nazli C.; Karadagli, Ece C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we address weak form stock market efficiency of Emerging Economies, by testing whether the price series of these markets contain unit root. Nonlinear behavior of stock prices is well documented in the literature, and thus linear unit root tests may not be appropriate in this case. For this purpose, we employ the nonlinear unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003) and nonlinear panel unit root test Ucar and Omay (2009) that has a better power than s...

  2. Catalytic properties of lanthanide amide, imide and nitride formed by thermal degradation of liquid ammonia solutions of Eu and Yb metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, H.; Mizuno, K.; Ohishi, K.; Suda, E.; Kanda, K.; Sakata, Y.; Tsuchiya, S.

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic properties of lanthanide amide, imide and nitride prepared by the use of liquid ammonia solutions of lanthanide metals (Ln=Eu and Yb) were studied for catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction of Eu or Yb metal solutions in liquid ammonia with silica yielded SiO 2 -grafted lanthanide amide in the divalent state. The divalent amide showed catalytic activity for the selective hydrogenation of dienes and benzene. It was found that partial hydrogenation of benzene occurred with a very high selectivity for cyclohexene. Amides of calcium, strontium and barium were examined similarly in connection with catalytic studies on divalent amides. Imide and nitride, into which the lanthanide (Ln/AC) deposited by impregnation of active carbon (AC) with liquid ammonia solutions of lanthanide metals were converted thermally, were studied catalytically. It was concluded that imide or imide-like species generated during the thermal degradation of lanthanide amide to nitride were very active in the hydrogenation of ethene. Lanthanide nitride was virtually inactive, but the nitride highly dispersed on active carbon was activated when subjected to evacuation treatment above about 1000 K. (orig.)

  3. Roles of the redox-active disulfide and histidine residues forming a catalytic dyad in reactions catalyzed by 2-ketopropyl coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Melissa A; Wampler, David A; Pandey, Arti S; Peters, John W; Ensign, Scott A

    2011-09-01

    NADPH:2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC), an atypical member of the disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) family of enzymes, catalyzes the reductive cleavage and carboxylation of 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M [2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate; 2-KPC] to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M (CoM) in the bacterial pathway of propylene metabolism. Structural studies of 2-KPCC from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 have revealed a distinctive active-site architecture that includes a putative catalytic triad consisting of two histidine residues that are hydrogen bonded to an ordered water molecule proposed to stabilize enolacetone formed from dithiol-mediated 2-KPC thioether bond cleavage. Site-directed mutants of 2-KPCC were constructed to test the tenets of the mechanism proposed from studies of the native enzyme. Mutagenesis of the interchange thiol of 2-KPCC (C82A) abolished all redox-dependent reactions of 2-KPCC (2-KPC carboxylation or protonation). The air-oxidized C82A mutant, as well as wild-type 2-KPCC, exhibited the characteristic charge transfer absorbance seen in site-directed variants of other DSOR enzymes but with a pK(a) value for C87 (8.8) four units higher (i.e., four orders of magnitude less acidic) than that for the flavin thiol of canonical DSOR enzymes. The same higher pK(a) value was observed in native 2-KPCC when the interchange thiol was alkylated by the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Mutagenesis of the flavin thiol (C87A) also resulted in an inactive enzyme for steady-state redox-dependent reactions, but this variant catalyzed a single-turnover reaction producing a 0.8:1 ratio of product to enzyme. Mutagenesis of the histidine proximal to the ordered water (H137A) led to nearly complete loss of redox-dependent 2-KPCC reactions, while mutagenesis of the distal histidine (H84A) reduced these activities by 58 to 76%. A redox-independent reaction of 2-KPCC (acetoacetate decarboxylation) was not decreased for any of the

  4. Weak Form Efficiency of the Insurance Industry: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike Kalu Onwukwe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the insurance sector of Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE for evidence weak-form efficiency using daily returns from January 2009 to February 2016. The study employs descriptive analysis, non-parametric runs test and autocorrelation function as well as Ljung-Box Q statistics in conducting the evaluation. Descriptive statistics of the insurance sector return series showed negative skewness and leptokurtic distribution. Estimates from the Jarque-Bera normality test showed that the insurance sector returns did not follow normal distribution. Results of the runs test reject null hypothesis of randomness in the return series of the insurance sector in the period studied. Furthermore, the autocorrelation functions and the Ljung-Box Q tests provide evidence of serial correlation in the stock returns of the insurance sector. Overall results from the study suggested that the insurance sector of NSE is not weak-form efficient. Consequently, technical analysis on the insurance sector of the NSE may not be fruitless.

  5. Weak-form Efficiency of the Insurance Industry: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike Kalu Onwukwe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the insurance sector of Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE for evidence weak-form efficiency using daily returns from January 2009 to February 2016. The study employs descriptive analysis, non-parametric runs test and autocorrelation function as well as Ljung-Box Q statistics in conducting the evaluation. Descriptive statistics of the insurance sector return series show negative skewness and leptokurtic distribution. Estimates from the Jarque-Bera normality test show that the insurance sector returns do not follow a normal distribution. Results of the runs test reject the null hypothesis of randomness in the return series of the insurance sector in the period studied. Furthermore, the autocorrelation functions and the Ljung-Box Q tests provide evidence of serial correlation in the stock returns of the insurance sector. Overall results from the study suggest that the insurance sector of NSE is not weak-form efficient. Consequently, technical analysis on the insurance sector of the NSE may not be fruitless.

  6. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  7. Selection of Green Manure Species for Efficient Absorbtion of Poorly-Available Forms of Soil Phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I.; Mendes, F. L. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA, (Brazil); Muraoka, T.; Da Silva, E. C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Green manuring is an agronomic practice in which plants or their residues are added to the soil, improving of the soil physical, chemical and biological attributes, and increasing organic matter and fertility levels through nutrient cycling. It is estimated that green manures can increase P bioavailability. The integration of plant species in crop rotations to immobilize P is one of the most promising agronomic measures to improve the availability of P for the main crop. This study aimed to assess 21 species of green manure and a standard plant species (Lupinus albus) on their ability to absorb the available forms of P by the {sup 32}P isotopic dilution technique. It also aimed to determine if the isotopically exchangeable P, the L-values, differed when calculated with or without taking seed N into account. The results were statistically correlated and analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HCA) in order to group similar plant species. Jack bean was the most efficient species in P utilization while the Stylosanthes spp. were the most efficient in P uptake. The seed-derived P affected the P uptake efficiency evaluated by L-value technique. (author)

  8. Radiolytic Synthesis of Pt-Ru Catalysts Based on Functional Polymer-Grafted MWNT and Their Catalytic Efficiency for CO and MeOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Soo Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pt-Ru catalysts based on functional polymer-grafted MWNT (Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT were prepared by radiolytic deposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles on functional polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (FP-MWNT. Three different types of functional polymers, poly(acrylic acid (PAAc, poly(methacrylic acid (PMAc, and poly(vinylphenyl boronic acid (PVPBAc, were grafted on the MWNT surface by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP. Then, Pt-Ru nanoparticles were deposited onto the FP-MWNT supports by the reduction of metal ions using γ-irradiation to obtain Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalysts. The Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalysts were then characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM ,and elemental analysis. The catalytic efficiency of Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalyst was examined for CO stripping and MeOH oxidation for use in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The Pt-Ru@PVPBAc-MWNT catalyst shows enhanced activity for electro-oxidation of CO and MeOH oxidation over that of the commercial E-TEK catalyst.

  9. Catalytic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindley, W T.R.

    1931-04-18

    An apparatus is described for the catalytic treatment of liquids, semi-liquids, and gases comprising a vessel into which the liquid, semi-liquid, or gas to be treated is introduced through a common inlet to a chamber within the vessel whence it passes to contact with a catalyst through radially arranged channels or passages to a common outlet chamber.

  10. Weak Form Efficiency of the Chittagong Stock Exchange: An Empirical Analysis (2006-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the random walk behavior of Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE by using daily returns of three indices for the period of 2006 to 2016 employing both non-parametric test (run test and parametric tests [autocorrelation coefficient test, Ljung– Box (LB statistics]. The skewness and kurtosis properties of daily return series are non-normal, with a hint of positively skewed and leptokurtic distribution. The results of run test; autocorrelation and Ljung–Box (LB statistics provide evidences against random walk behavior in the Chittagong Stock Exchange. Overall our result suggest that Chittagong Stock Exchange does not exhibit weak form of efficiency. Hence, there is opportunity of generating a superior return by the active investors.

  11. Work efficiency improvement of >90% after implementation of an annual inpatient blood products administration consent form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Holly; Bhar, Saleh; Bonifant, Challice; Sartain, Sarah; Whittle, Sarah B; Lee-Kim, Youngna; Shah, Mona D

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric haematology, oncology and bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients frequently require transfusion of blood products. Our institution required a new transfusion consent be obtained every admission. The objectives of this project were to: revise inpatient blood products consent form to be valid for 1 year, decrease provider time spent consenting from 15 to improve provider frustration with the consent process. Over 6 months, we determined the average number of hospitalisations requiring transfusions in a random sampling of haematology/oncology/BMT inpatients. We surveyed nurses and providers regarding frustration levels and contact required regarding consents. Four and 12 months after implementation of the annual consent, providers and nurses were resurveyed, and new inpatient cohorts were assessed. Comparison of preintervention and postintervention time data allowed calculation of provider time reduction, a surrogate measure of improved work efficiency. Prior to the annual consent, >33 hours were spent over 6 months obtaining consent on 40 patients, with >19 hours spent obtaining consent when no transfusions were administered during admission. Twelve months after annual consent implementation, 97.5% (39/40) of analysed patients had a completed annual blood products transfusion consent and provider work efficiency had improved by 94.6% (>30 hours). Although several surveyed variables improved following annual consent implementation, provider frustration with consent process remained 6 out of a max score of 10, the same level as prior to the intervention. Development of an annual inpatient blood products consent form decreased provider time from 15 to 90%.

  12. Effect of alginate microencapsulation on the catalytic efficiency and in vitro enzyme-prodrug therapeutic efficacy of cytosine deaminase and of recombinant E. coli expressing cytosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Michael G; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Chen, Zhihang; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Griswold, Karl E; Gimi, Barjor

    2016-02-01

    Cytosine deaminase (CD) catalyses the enzymatic conversion of the non-toxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the potent chemotherapeutic form, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Intratumoral delivery of CD localises chemotherapy dose while reducing systemic toxicity. Encapsulation in biocompatible microcapsules immunoisolates CD and protects it from degradation. We report on the effect of alginate encapsulation on the catalytic and functional activity of isolated CD and recombinant E. coli engineered to express CD (E. coli(CD)). Alginate microcapsules containing either CD or Escherichia coli(CD) were prepared using ionotropic gelation. Conversion of 5-FC to 5-FU was quantitated in unencapsulated and encapsulated CD/E. coli(CD) using spectrophotometry, with a slower rate of conversion observed following encapsulation. Both encapsulated CD/5-FC and E. coli(CD)/5-FC resulted in cell kill and reduced proliferation of 9 L rat glioma cells, which was comparable to direct 5-FU treatment. Our results show that encapsulation preserves the therapeutic potential of CD and E. coli(CD) is equally effective for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

  13. Explaining efficient search for conjunctions of motion and form: evidence from negative color effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Dent, Humphreys, and Braithwaite (2011) showed substantial costs to search when a moving target shared its color with a group of ignored static distractors. The present study further explored the conditions under which such costs to performance occur. Experiment 1 tested whether the negative color-sharing effect was specific to cases in which search showed a highly serial pattern. The results showed that the negative color-sharing effect persisted in the case of a target defined as a conjunction of movement and form, even when search was highly efficient. In Experiment 2, the ease with which participants could find an odd-colored target amongst a moving group was examined. Participants searched for a moving target amongst moving and stationary distractors. In Experiment 2A, participants performed a highly serial search through a group of similarly shaped moving letters. Performance was much slower when the target shared its color with a set of ignored static distractors. The exact same displays were used in Experiment 2B; however, participants now responded "present" for targets that shared the color of the static distractors. The same targets that had previously been difficult to find were now found efficiently. The results are interpreted in a flexible framework for attentional control. Targets that are linked with irrelevant distractors by color tend to be ignored. However, this cost can be overridden by top-down control settings.

  14. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutant form C115H of Clostridium sporogenes methionine γ-lyase efficiently cleaves S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to antibacterial thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Vitalia V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Chernov, Alexander S; Telegin, Georgii B; Morozova, Elena A; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2016-10-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to thiosulfinates, which possess antimicrobial activity. Partial inactivation of the enzyme in the course of the reaction occurs due to oxidation of active site cysteine 115 conserved in bacterial MGLs. In this work, the C115H mutant form of Clostridium sporogenes MGL was prepared and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. The substitution results in an increase in the catalytic efficiency of the mutant form towards S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides compared to the wild type enzyme. We used a sulfoxide/enzyme system to generate antibacterial activity in situ. Two-component systems composed of the mutant enzyme and three S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides were demonstrated to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three clinical isolates from mice. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):830-835, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Global financial crisis and weak-form efficiency of Islamic sectoral stock markets: An MF-DFA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Walid; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-04-01

    This paper estimates the weak-form efficiency of Islamic stock markets using 10 sectoral stock indices (basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, energy, financials, health care, industrials, technology, telecommunication, and utilities). The results based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) approach show time-varying efficiency for the sectoral stock markets. Moreover, we find that they tend to show high efficiency in the long term but moderate efficiency in the short term, and that these markets become less efficient after the onset of the global financial crisis. These results have several significant implications in terms of asset allocation for investors dealing with Islamic markets.

  17. Improving the temperature characteristics and catalytic efficiency of a mesophilic xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae, AoXyn11A, by iterative mutagenesis based on in silico design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Qing; Wu, Qin; Hu, Die; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yan; Wu, Min-Chen; Li, Jian-Fang

    2017-12-01

    To improve the temperature characteristics and catalytic efficiency of a glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 11 xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoXyn11A), its variants were predicted based on in silico design. Firstly, Gly 21 with the maximum B-factor value, which was confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on the three-dimensional structure of AoXyn11A, was subjected to site-saturation mutagenesis. Thus, one variant with the highest thermostability, AoXyn11A G21I , was selected from the mutagenesis library, E. coli/Aoxyn11A G21X (X: any one of 20 amino acids). Secondly, based on the primary structure multiple alignment of AoXyn11A with seven thermophilic GHF11 xylanases, AoXyn11A Y13F or AoXyn11A G21I-Y13F , was designed by replacing Tyr 13 in AoXyn11A or AoXyn11A G21I with Phe. Finally, three variant-encoding genes, Aoxyn11A G21I , Aoxyn11A Y13F and Aoxyn11A G21I-Y13F , were constructed by two-stage whole-plasmid PCR method, and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, respectively. The temperature optimum (T opt ) of recombinant (re) AoXyn11A G21I-Y13F was 60 °C, being 5 °C higher than that of reAoXyn11A G21I or reAoXyn11A Y13F , and 10 °C higher than that of reAoXyn11A. The thermal inactivation half-life (t 1/2 ) of reAoXyn11A G21I-Y13F at 50 °C was 240 min, being 40-, 3.4- and 2.5-fold longer than those of reAoXyn11A, reAoXyn11A G21I and reAoXyn11A Y13F . The melting temperature (T m ) values of reAoXyn11A, reAoXyn11A G21I , reAoXyn11A Y13F and reAoXyn11A G21I-Y13F were 52.3, 56.5, 58.6 and 61.3 °C, respectively. These findings indicated that the iterative mutagenesis of both Gly21Ile and Tyr13Phe improved the temperature characteristics of AoXyn11A in a synergistic mode. Besides those, the catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) of reAoXyn11A G21I-Y13F was 473.1 mL mg -1 s -1 , which was 1.65-fold higher than that of reAoXyn11A.

  18. Catalytic process for tritium exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansoo Lee; Kang, H.S.; Paek, S.W.; Hongsuk Chung; Yang Geun Chung; Sook Kyung Lee

    2001-01-01

    The catalytic activities for a hydrogen isotope exchange were measured through the reaction of a vapor and gas mixture. The catalytic activity showed to be comparable with the published data. Since the gas velocity is relatively low, the deactivation was not found clearly during the 5-hour experiment. Hydrogen isotope transfer experiments were also conducted through the liquid phase catalytic exchange reaction column that consisted of a catalytic bed and a hydrophilic bed. The efficiencies of both the catalytic and hydrophilic beds were higher than 0.9, implying that the column performance was excellent. (author)

  19. Application of BiFeO3-based on nickel foam composites with a highly efficient catalytic activity and easily recyclable in Fenton-like process under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Zhang, Guangshan; Zheng, Heshan; Zheng, Yongjie; Wang, Peng

    2018-05-01

    In this study, BiFeO3 (BFO) powders decorated on nickel foam (NF) with a high catalytic activity are prepared via a one-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The factors that influence the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) with BFO/NFs as catalysts are optimized to improve the catalytic activity in a microwave-enhanced Fenton-like process. BFO/NF exhibit a superior catalytic activity with a high BPA removal ratio (98.4%) and TOC removal ratio (69.5%) within 5 min. Results indicate that NF significantly affect the improvement of the catalytic activity of BFO because it served as a source of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) during degradation. The amount of •OH generated by BFO/NF is approximately 1.65-fold higher than that by pure BFO. After six reaction cycles, the stability and reusability of •OH remain high. These findings provide new insights into the synthesis of composites on heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency and easy recyclability for water treatment applications.

  20. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  1. New self-assembled material based on Ru nanoparticles and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for reduction of brilliant yellow azo dye in water: a new model catalytic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu, Darsi; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Dhir, Abhimanew, E-mail: abhimanew@iitmandi.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology (India)

    2016-12-15

    New self-assembled material (Ru@SC) with ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene (SC) is synthesized in water at room temperature. Ru@SC is characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, powder x-ray diffraction, TEM and SEM analysis. The size of Ru nanoparticles in the self-assembly is approximately 5 nm. The self-assembled material Ru@SC shows an efficient catalytic reduction of toxic ‘brilliant yellow’ (BY) azo dye. The reduced amine products were successfully separated and confirmed by single-crystal XRD, NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ru@SC showed a better catalytic activity in comparison with commercial catalysts Ru/C (ruthenium on charcoal 5 %) and Pd/C (palladium on charcoal 5 and 10 %). The catalyst also showed a promising recyclability and heterogeneous nature as a catalyst for reduction of ‘BY’ azo dye.

  2. A non-acid-assisted and non-hydroxyl-radical-related catalytic ozonation with ceria supported copper oxide in efficient oxalate degradation in water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Weiwei; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    with ozone. The optimum CuO loading amount was 12%. The molar ratio of oxalate removed/ozone consumption reached 0.84. The catalytic ozonation was most effective in a neutral pH range (6.7-7.9) and became ineffective when the water solution was acidic

  3. Novel Pt-Ru nanoparticles formed by vapour deposition as efficient electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, Pasupathi; Tricoli, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    The methods developed and described in paper-part I are employed to prepare nanometer size Pt-Ru particles on a Vulcan[reg] XC72R substrate with controlled metal loading. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed uniform particles size (average diameter 2 nm) and homogeneous dispersion of the particles over the substrate. Energy Dispersive X-ray absorption (EDX) analysis confirmed the compositional homogeneity. The catalytic activity of these supported nanoparticles with regard to methanol electrooxidation is investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and CO-stripping voltammetry techniques at temperatures between 25 and 60 deg. C. Such investigation concerns supported catalysts prepared with ca. 10 and 18 wt.% overall metal loading (Pt + Ru) onto the Vulca[reg] XC72R substrate. Comparative testing of our catalysts and a commercial Pt-Ru/Vulcan reveals markedly superior activity for our catalysts. In fact, we observe for the latter a five-fold increase of the oxidation current as compared to a commercial Pt-Ru/Vulcan with equal metal loading. One of the reasons for the greater activity is found to be the very high dispersion of the metals over the substrate, i.e. the large surface area of the active phase. Other reasons are plausibly ascribable to the varied Pt/Ru composition and/or reduced presence of contaminants at the catalyst surface

  4. Efficient linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices stored in packed form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlrichs, Reinhart; Tsereteli, Kakha

    2002-01-30

    Quantum chemistry methods require various linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices, for example, diagonalization or Cholesky decomposition for positive matrices. We present a small set of these basic routines that are efficient and minimize memory requirements.

  5. Catalytic exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H

    1973-09-01

    Recent achievements and problems in the development of exhaust control devices in the USA are reviewed. To meet the 1976 emission standards, catalytic systems for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and for the reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and water are needed. While oxidizing catalysts using platinum, palladium, copper, vanadium, and chromium appplied on alumina or ceramic materials are more or less effective in emission control, there are no catalytic devices for the reduction of nitrogen oxides with the required useful life of 25,000 to 50,000 miles as yet available. In the case of platinum catalysts on monolithic supports, the operating temperature of 650 to 750/sup 0/C as required for the oxidation process may cause inactivation of the catalysts and fusion of the support material. The oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons is inhibited by high concentrations of CO, nitric oxide, and hydrocarbons. The use of catalytic converters requires the use of lead-free or low-lead gasoline. The nitrogen oxides conversion efficiency is considerably influenced by the oxygen-to-CO ratio of the exhaust gas, which makes limitation of this ratio necessary.

  6. Efficient Diethylzinc/Gallic Acid and Diethylzinc/Gallic Acid Ester Catalytic Systems for the Ring-Opening Polymerization of rac-Lactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Żółtowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA represents one of the most promising biomedical polymers due to its biodegradability, bioresorbability and good biocompatibility. This work highlights the synthesis and characterization of PLAs using novel diethylzinc/gallic acid (ZnEt2/GAc and diethylzinc/propyl gallate (ZnEt2/PGAc catalytic systems that are safe for human body. The results of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP of rac-lactide (rac-LA in the presence of zinc-based catalytic systems have shown that, depending on the reaction conditions, “predominantly isotactic”, disyndiotactic or atactic PLA can be obtained. Therefore, the controlled and stereoselective ROP of rac-LA is discussed in detail in this paper.

  7. Hurst exponent and prediction based on weak-form efficient market hypothesis of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Cheoljun; Choi, Sunghoon; Oh, Gabjin; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2008-07-01

    We empirically investigated the relationships between the degree of efficiency and the predictability in financial time-series data. The Hurst exponent was used as the measurement of the degree of efficiency, and the hit rate calculated from the nearest-neighbor prediction method was used for the prediction of the directions of future price changes. We used 60 market indexes of various countries. We empirically discovered that the relationship between the degree of efficiency (the Hurst exponent) and the predictability (the hit rate) is strongly positive. That is, a market index with a higher Hurst exponent tends to have a higher hit rate. These results suggested that the Hurst exponent is useful for predicting future price changes. Furthermore, we also discovered that the Hurst exponent and the hit rate are useful as standards that can distinguish emerging capital markets from mature capital markets.

  8. The Fabrication of Ga2O3/ZSM-5 Hollow Fibers for Efficient Catalytic Conversion of n-Butane into Light Olefins and Aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dehydrogenation component of Ga2O3 was introduced into ZSM-5 nanocrystals to prepare Ga2O3/ZSM-5 hollow fiber-based bifunctional catalysts. The physicochemical features of as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, BET, SEM, STEM, NH3-TPD, etc., and their performances for the catalytic conversion of n-butane to produce light olefins and aromatics were investigated. The results indicated that a very small amount of gallium can cause a marked enhancement in the catalytic activity of ZSM-5 because of the synergistic effect of the dehydrogenation and aromatization properties of Ga2O3 and the cracking function of ZSM-5. Compared with Ga2O3/ZSM-5 nanoparticles, the unique hierarchical macro-meso-microporosity of the as-prepared hollow fibers can effectively enlarge the bifunctionality by enhancing the accessibility of active sites and the diffusion. Consequently, Ga2O3/ZSM-5 hollow fibers show excellent catalytic conversion of n-butane, with the highest yield of light olefins plus aromatics at 600 °C by 87.6%, which is 56.3%, 24.6%, and 13.3% higher than that of ZSM-5, ZSM-5 zeolite fibers, and Ga2O3/ZSM-5, respectively.

  9. An efficient RuCl3·H2O/I2 catalytic system: A facile access to 3-aroylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines from 2-aminopyridines and chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Sri Ramya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient protocol has been demonstrated for the preparation of densely functionalized 3-aroylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines from 2-aminopyridines and chalcones using RuCl3·H2O/I2 catalytic system. The advantages, such as low catalyst loading, broad substrate scope with respect to substitutions on aminopyridines as well as chalcones, stability of heterocycles such as thiophene under the reaction conditions, operationally simple procedure and higher yields makes this approach remarkable for synthetic applications.

  10. Efficient Computation of Transition State Resonances and Reaction Rates from a Quantum Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A quantum version of a recent formulation of transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed provides an algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and the associated Gamov-Siegert resonances with very high accuracy. The algorithm is especially efficient for

  11. Test of Weak Form Efficiency: An Empirical Study of the Malaysian Foreign Exchange Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Pei Mun

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically tests the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) in the weak sense for the Malaysian foreign exchange market. The hypothesis is tested using two ways. First is by testing the random walk hypothesis based on individual unit root test and second is by testing the profitability of simple technical trading rules. The study covers the high frequency daily data from January 1997 to December 2010 and the spot exchange rates are quoted as Malaysian Ringgit per unit of US Dollar. Due...

  12. An efficient genetic algorithm for the design optimization of cold-formed steel portal frame buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Thanh Duoc; Lim, James; Tanyimboh, Tiku T.; Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The design optimization of a cold-formed steel portal frame building is considered in this paper. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA) optimizer considers both topology (i.e., frame spacing and pitch) and cross-sectional sizes of the main structural members as the decision variables. Previous GAs in the literature were characterized by poor convergence, including slow progress, that usually results in excessive computation times and/or frequent failure to achieve an optimal or near-optimal sol...

  13. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, R N; Mohanty, S K; Patnaik, S [Central Rice Research Inst., Cuttack (India)

    1977-12-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using /sup 32/P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil.

  14. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, R.N.; Mohanty, S.K.; Patnaik, S.

    1977-01-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using 32 P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil. (M.G.B.)

  15. Evaluation of sanitizers efficiency over spore forming bacteria isolated from whole UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Andrade Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sporulated bacteria produce proteolytic and lipolytic thermoresistant enzymes associated with technological problems such as off-flavors, age gelation and bitter taste in milk and dairy products. Preventive measures to avoid contamination of milk must be taken in consideration, e.g., the employment of a certain type of sanitizing agent, its conditions of use, concentration, contact time and temperature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sanitation efficiency of workers of the dairy industry in relation to sporulated bacteria isolated from UHT milk. The suspension test was used to evaluate the efficiency of solutions of sodium hypocholite, biguanide, peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide against 18 strains of Bacillus sp. isolated from whole UHT milk. Although the biguanide resulted in significant decimal reduction, none of the sanitizing agents studied was effective under the evaluated conditions. The average decimal reduction values obtained were below 5 log cycles (99.999%. The effectiveness of the sanitizing agent is a primary factor in order to control the contaminations within the dairy industry. Thus, it is essential to define the ideal conditions of use of these agents.

  16. EFFICIENCY OF FORMING NUCLEUS COLONIES IN ORDER TO DECREASE POPULATION OF Varroa destructor (ANDRESON AND TRUEMAN, 2000 IN BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Forming of nucleus colonies is efficient method in growth control of Varroa destructor population. Its goal is to decrease parasite’s pressure on bee colony. The advantage of this bio-technical measurement lays in its implement during vegetation season which delays use of the chemical resources for Varroa destructor control population in beehives for the post major honey harvest period. Nucleus colonies were formed from approx. half of sealed brood (35.5 ± 5.8 dm² and average of 5915 ± 912 bees. Results showed that there were 37.2 ± 5.6% mites removed from parental colonies. Minimum was 30.8%, and maximum was 45.5%. Due to such relatively small efficiency, this method cannot be recommended as unique, but it can be effective if it is applied in the post spring's honey harvest period as a part of growth reduction strategy of Varroa destructor population in beehive.

  17. Unexpected catalytic reactions of silyl-protected enol diazoacetates with nitrile oxides that form 5-arylaminofuran-2(3H)-one-4-carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinfang; Shabashov, Dmitry; Zavalij, Peter Y; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-02-03

    Silyl-protected enol diazoacetates undergo dirhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions with nitrile oxides to form acid-labile ketenimines via dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to a donor/acceptor cyclopropene and Lossen rearrangement of the dipolar adduct; acid catalysis converts the ketenimine to the furan product. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Enhanced planar perovskite solar cell efficiency and stability using a perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formed in one step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Ziye; Sun, Xu; Lin, Zhenhua; Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2018-02-08

    Perovskite/PCBM heterojunctions are efficient for fabricating perovskite solar cells with high performance and long-term stability. In this study, an efficient perovskite/PCBM heterojunction was formed via conventional sequential deposition and one-step formation processes. Compared with conventional deposition, the one-step process was more facile, and produced a perovskite thin film of substantially improved quality due to fullerene passivation. Moreover, the resulting perovskite/PCBM heterojunction exhibited more efficient carrier transfer and extraction, and reduced carrier recombination. The perovskite solar cell device based on one-step perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formation exhibited a higher maximum PCE of 17.8% compared with that from the conventional method (13.7%). The device also showed exceptional stability, retaining 83% of initial PCE after 60 days of storage under ambient conditions.

  19. High-efficiency free-form condenser overcoming rotational symmetry limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C; Benítez, Pablo; Blen, José; Santamaría, Asunción

    2008-12-08

    Conventional condensers using rotational symmetric devices perform far from their theoretical limits when transferring optical power from sources such as arc lamps or halogen bulbs to the rectangular entrance of homogenizing prisms (target). We present a free-form condenser design (calculated with the SMS method) that overcomes the limitations inherent to rotational devices and can send to the target 1.8 times the power sent by an equivalent elliptical condenser for a 4:1 target aspect ratio and 1.5 times for 16:9 target and for practical values of target etendue.

  20. On Efficient Numerical Approximation of the Bilinear Form c* A(-1)b

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strakoš, Z.; Tichý, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2011), s. 565-587 ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/09/0917; GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300901 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : bilinear forms * scattering amplitude * method of moments * Krylov subspace methods * conjugate gradient method * biconjugate gradient method * Lanczos algorithm * Arnoldi algorithm * Gauss-Christoffel quadrature * model reduction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2011

  1. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning

    2016-01-01

    the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited...... a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the r......IgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the Ig...

  2. Brain training for silver gamers: effects of age and game form on effectiveness, efficiency, self-assessment, and gameplay experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Lennart E; Nacke, Anne; Lindley, Craig A

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, an aging demographic majority in the Western world has come to the attention of the game industry. The recently released "brain-training" games target this population, and research investigating gameplay experience of the elderly using this game form is lacking. This study employs a 2 x 2 mixed factorial design (age group: young and old x game form: paper and Nintendo DS) to investigate effects of age and game form on usability, self-assessment, and gameplay experience in a supervised field study. Effectiveness was evaluated in task completion time, efficiency as error rate, together with self-assessment measures (arousal, pleasure, dominance) and game experience (challenge, flow, competence, tension, positive and negative affect). Results indicate players, regardless of age, are more effective and efficient using pen-and-paper than using a Nintendo DS console. However, the game is more arousing and induces a heightened sense of flow in digital form for gamers of all ages. Logic problem-solving challenges within digital games may be associated with positive feelings for the elderly but with negative feelings for the young. Thus, digital logic-training games may provide positive gameplay experience for an aging Western civilization.

  3. Tailored synthesis of CuS nanodisks from a new macrocyclic precursor and their efficient catalytic properties on methylene blue dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, D. A.; Chakraborty, A.; Bhattacharya, B.; Sarkar, U.; Acharya, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, CuS nanodisks have been synthesized from a tetraaza (N_4) macrocyclic complex precursor by a facile wet chemical method. The crystallinity and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, which confirm a phase pure crystalline CuS nanostructures with ~15 to 20 nm in dimension with ~5 nm thickness. A possible formation mechanism and growth process of the CuS nanodisks are discussed using thiourea and tetraaza ligand as the sulfur donor and stabilizing agent, respectively. Cyclic N_4 ligand also acts as a binding agent to template-guide the oriented growth of CuS nanodisks. The optimized geometry of ligands and complexes was calculated using B3YLP functional, which indicates that the HOMO in the complex located on metal center and N atoms are weakly bonded to the metal center. The catalytic activity of CuS nanodisks toward MB degradation with light displays the higher MB degradation rate than under dark in the presence of H_2O_2. The C_t/C_0 plot as a function of time displays the higher MB degradation activity of CuS nanoparticles with H_2O_2. The recycle stability of CuS nanoparticles was even found to be >80 % after five cycles studied by repeating the MB degradation with same CuS nanoparticles sample.Graphical AbstractCuS nanostructures synthesized from a tetraaza macrocyclic complex precursor show the disk-like registry with average lateral dimension between 15 and 20 nm and thickness of 5 nm. The catalytic activity of CuS nanodisks toward MB degradation with light displays the higher MB degradation rate than in dark in the presence of H_2O_2.

  4. Tailored synthesis of CuS nanodisks from a new macrocyclic precursor and their efficient catalytic properties on methylene blue dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, D. A.; Chakraborty, A. [Assam University, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Soft Matters (India); Bhattacharya, B.; Sarkar, U. [Assam University, Department of Physics (India); Acharya, H., E-mail: himadriau@yahoo.co.in [Assam University, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Soft Matters (India)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, CuS nanodisks have been synthesized from a tetraaza (N{sub 4}) macrocyclic complex precursor by a facile wet chemical method. The crystallinity and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, which confirm a phase pure crystalline CuS nanostructures with ~15 to 20 nm in dimension with ~5 nm thickness. A possible formation mechanism and growth process of the CuS nanodisks are discussed using thiourea and tetraaza ligand as the sulfur donor and stabilizing agent, respectively. Cyclic N{sub 4} ligand also acts as a binding agent to template-guide the oriented growth of CuS nanodisks. The optimized geometry of ligands and complexes was calculated using B3YLP functional, which indicates that the HOMO in the complex located on metal center and N atoms are weakly bonded to the metal center. The catalytic activity of CuS nanodisks toward MB degradation with light displays the higher MB degradation rate than under dark in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The C{sub t}/C{sub 0} plot as a function of time displays the higher MB degradation activity of CuS nanoparticles with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The recycle stability of CuS nanoparticles was even found to be >80 % after five cycles studied by repeating the MB degradation with same CuS nanoparticles sample.Graphical AbstractCuS nanostructures synthesized from a tetraaza macrocyclic complex precursor show the disk-like registry with average lateral dimension between 15 and 20 nm and thickness of 5 nm. The catalytic activity of CuS nanodisks toward MB degradation with light displays the higher MB degradation rate than in dark in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  5. High aspect ratio catalytic reactor and catalyst inserts therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Kelly, Sean M.

    2018-04-10

    The present invention relates to high efficient tubular catalytic steam reforming reactor configured from about 0.2 inch to about 2 inch inside diameter high temperature metal alloy tube or pipe and loaded with a plurality of rolled catalyst inserts comprising metallic monoliths. The catalyst insert substrate is formed from a single metal foil without a central supporting structure in the form of a spiral monolith. The single metal foil is treated to have 3-dimensional surface features that provide mechanical support and establish open gas channels between each of the rolled layers. This unique geometry accelerates gas mixing and heat transfer and provides a high catalytic active surface area. The small diameter, high aspect ratio tubular catalytic steam reforming reactors loaded with rolled catalyst inserts can be arranged in a multi-pass non-vertical parallel configuration thermally coupled with a heat source to carry out steam reforming of hydrocarbon-containing feeds. The rolled catalyst inserts are self-supported on the reactor wall and enable efficient heat transfer from the reactor wall to the reactor interior, and lower pressure drop than known particulate catalysts. The heat source can be oxygen transport membrane reactors.

  6. Catalytic modification of cellulose and hemicellulose - Sugarefine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repo, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland),Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry], email: timo.repo@helsinki.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of the project is to develop catalytic methods for the modification of lignocellulose-based saccharides in the biorefineries. The products of these reactions could be used for example as biofuel components, raw materials for the chemical industry, solvents and precursors for biopolymers. The catalyst development aims at creating efficient, selective and green catalytic methods for profitable use in biorefineries. The project is divided in three work packages: In WP1 (Catalytic dehydration of cellulose) the aim is at developing non-toxic, efficient methods for the catalytic dehydration of cellulose the target molecule being here 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). 5-HMF is an interesting platform chemical for the production of fuel additives, solvents and polymers. In WP2 (Catalytic reduction), the objective of the catalytic reduction studies is to produce commercially interesting monofunctional chemicals, such as 1-butanol or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). In WP3 (Catalytic oxidation), the research focuses on developing a green and efficient oxidation method for producing acids. Whereas acetic and formic acids are bulk chemicals, diacids such as glucaric and xylaric acids are valuable specialty chemicals for detergent, polymer and food production.

  7. dUTPase and nucleocapsid polypeptides of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus form a fusion protein in the virion with homotrimeric organization and low catalytic efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barabás, O.; Rumlová, Michaela; Erdei, A.; Pongrácz, V.; Pichová, Iva; Vértessy, B. G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 40 (2003), s. 38803-38812 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055304 Grant - others:HNRF(HU) T034120; HNRF(HU) TS044730; HNRF(HU) M27852; HHMI(US) 55000342 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : dUTPase * M-PMV * pyrophosphatase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  8. An efficient route for catalytic activity promotion via hybrid electro-depositional modification on commercial nickel foam for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Guanshui; He, Yongwei; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Fuchun; Tang, Bin [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yingze West Road 79, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Xiaoguang, E-mail: wangxiaog1982@163.com [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yingze West Road 79, Taiyuan 030024 (China); International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), 4715-330 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Mono-Cu surface modification depress the HER activity of Ni-foam. • Hybrid Ni-foam/Cu0.01/Co0.05 exhibits superior HER performance. • Layer-by-layer structure may contribute to a synergistic promoting effect. - Abstract: In this paper, the single- and hybrid-layered Cu, Ni and Co thin films were electrochemically deposited onto the three-dimensional nickel foam as composite cathode catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline water electrolysis. The morphology, structure and chemical composition of the electrodeposited composite catalysts were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Electrochemical measurement depicted that, for the case of the monometallic layered samples, the general activity for hydrogen evolution reaction followed the sequence: Ni-foam/Ni > Ni-foam/Co > bare Ni-foam > Ni-foam/Cu. It is noteworthy that, the hybrid-layered Ni-foam/Cu0.01/Co0.05 exhibited the highest catalytic activity towards hydrogen evolution reaction with the current density as high as 2.82 times that of the bare Ni-foam. Moreover, both excellent electrochemical and physical stabilities can also be acquired on the Ni-foam/Cu0.01/Co0.05, making this hybrid-layered composite structure as a promising HER electro-catalyst.

  9. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  10. A new approach to inertise the containments during catalytic removal of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, A.K.; Markandeya, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Use of catalytic recombiners for the removal of hydrogen during a severe accident has been recommended by the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) due to numerous successful demonstrations of their performances. At the early stages of the accident, a huge quantity of hydrogen is expected to be released in some compartments requiring supplementary measures to ensure that the excess hydrogen concentration wouldn't pose a threat of deflagration /1/. In this presentation a new idea based on catalytic removal of hydrogen with simultaneous passive inertisation of the atmosphere is proposed for large dry containments particularly for those compartments where high H 2 -concentrations are expected. During the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, the large exothermic heat of reaction causes strong heating of the catalytic plates as well as a continuous energy input in the containment. This can be limited if this large heat energy is efficiently used for heating some chemical compounds to release inert gases such as steam and/or CO 2 by dissociation at moderate temperatures. Such compounds can be arranged in the form of thin slabs in good thermal contact with the catalytic plates. Several such compounds have been identified which are capable of releasing steam and CO 2 equivalent to about 40 - 75% of their mass. Preliminary calculations have been carded out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed concept for the case of two such selected chemicals placed adjacent to the catalytic plate type recombiners. The calculations performed show promising results. (author)

  11. A novel sodium iodide and ammonium molybdate co-catalytic system for the efficient synthesis of 2-benzimidazoles using hydrogen peroxide under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guo-Yi; Lan, Xing-Wang; Chen, Guo-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Li, Tian-Yu; Shi, Ling-Juan

    2014-03-01

    The reaction of aldehydes and o-phenylenediamine for the preparation of 2-benzimidazoles has been studied using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant under ultrasound irradiation at room temperature in this paper. The combination of substoichiometric sodium iodide and ammonium molybdate as co-catalysts, together with using small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, makes this transformation very efficient and attractive under ultrasound. Thus, a mild, green and efficient method is established to carry out this reaction in high yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Update: An efficient synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-supported iron(II) porphyrin using a click reaction and its application for the catalytic olefination of aldehydes

    KAUST Repository

    Chinnusamy, Tamilselvi R.; Rodionov, Valentin; Kü hn, Fritz; Reiser, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The facile synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-immobilized iron(II) porphyrin using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition "click" reaction is reported. The prepared complex 5 (PEG-C 51H 39FeN 7O) was found to be an efficient

  13. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  14. Crystal structures of wild-type Trichoderma reesei Cel7A catalytic domain in open and closed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenheimer, Annette M. [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA; Meilleur, Flora [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA

    2016-11-07

    Trichoderma reesei Cel7A efficiently hydrolyses cellulose. We report here the crystallographic structures of the wild-type TrCel7A catalytic domain (CD) in an open state and, for the first time, in a closed state. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that the loops along the CD tunnel move in concerted motions. Together, the crystallographic and MD data suggest that the CD cycles between the tense and relaxed forms that are characteristic of work producing enzymes. Analysis of the interactions formed by R251 provides a structural rationale for the concurrent decrease in product inhibition and catalytic efficiency measured for product-binding site mutants.

  15. Efficient Estimation of Extreme Non-linear Roll Motions using the First-order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2007-01-01

    In on-board decision support systems efficient procedures are needed for real-time estimation of the maximum ship responses to be expected within the next few hours, given on-line information on the sea state and user defined ranges of possible headings and speeds. For linear responses standard...... frequency domain methods can be applied. To non-linear responses like the roll motion, standard methods like direct time domain simulations are not feasible due to the required computational time. However, the statistical distribution of non-linear ship responses can be estimated very accurately using...... the first-order reliability method (FORM), well-known from structural reliability problems. To illustrate the proposed procedure, the roll motion is modelled by a simplified non-linear procedure taking into account non-linear hydrodynamic damping, time-varying restoring and wave excitation moments...

  16. A new hypercrosslinked supermicroporous polymer, with scope for sulfonation, and its catalytic potential for the efficient synthesis of biodiesel at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Subhajit; Banerjee, Biplab; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-03-25

    We have designed a new hypercrosslinked supermicroporous polymer (HMP-1) with a BET surface area of 913 m(2) g(-1) by FeCl3 via a catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction between carbazole and α,α'-dibromo-p-xylene. Upon sulfonation HMP-1 yielded a very efficient solid acid catalyst for the production of biodiesels via esterification/transesterification of free fatty acids (FFA)/esters at room temperature.

  17. Highly efficient removal of trace thallium from contaminated source waters with ferrate: Role of in situ formed ferric nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Xianshi; Huang, Zhuangsong; Xu, Chengbiao; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xiaodan; Qi, Jingyao; Ma, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Thallium (Tl) is highly toxic to mammals and relevant pollution cases are increasing world-widely. Convenient and efficient method for the removal of trace Tl from contaminated source water is imperative. Here, the removal of trace Tl by K 2 FeO 4 [Fe(VI)] was investigated for the first time, with the exploration of reaction mechanisms. Six different types of water treatment agents (powdered activated carbon, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , FeCl 3 , δ-MnO 2 , MnO 2 nano-particles, and K 2 FeO 4 ) were used for the removal of Tl in spiked river water, and K 2 FeO 4 showed excellent removal performance. Over 92% of Tl (1 μg/L) was removed within 5 min by applying 2.5 mg/L of K 2 FeO 4 (pH 7.0, 20 °C). XPS analysis revealed that in the reaction of Tl(I) with K 2 FeO 4 , Tl(I) was oxidized to Tl(III), and removed by the K 2 FeO 4 reduced ferric particles. The removal of Tl by in situ formed and ex situ formed ferric particle was examined respectively, and the results revealed that the removal of trace Tl could be attributed to the combination of adsorption and coprecipitation processes. The hydrodynamic size of the reduced particle from K 2 FeO 4 ranged from 10 nm to 100 nm, and its surface was negatively charged under neutral pH condition. These factors were conducive for the efficient removal of Tl by K 2 FeO 4 . The effects of solution pH, coexisting ions (Na + , Ca 2+ , and HCO 3 - ), humic acid, solution temperature, and reductive environment on the removal and desorption of Tl were investigated, and the elimination of Tl in polluted river water and reservoir water was performed. These results suggest that K 2 FeO 4 could be an efficient and convenient agent on trace Tl removal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Update: An efficient synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-supported iron(II) porphyrin using a click reaction and its application for the catalytic olefination of aldehydes

    KAUST Repository

    Chinnusamy, Tamilselvi R.

    2012-05-09

    The facile synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-immobilized iron(II) porphyrin using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition "click" reaction is reported. The prepared complex 5 (PEG-C 51H 39FeN 7O) was found to be an efficient catalyst for the selective olefination of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate in the presence of triphenylphosphine, and afforded excellent olefin yields with high (E) selectivities. The PEG-supported catalyst 5 was readily recovered by precipitation and filtration, and was recycled through ten runs without significant activity loss. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Catalytic immunoglobulin gene delivery in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: prophylactic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Jinghong; Yang, Junling; Lim, Jeong-Eun; Pattanayak, Abhinandan; Song, Min; Planque, Stephanie; Paul, Sudhir; Fukuchi, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is hypothesized to be a causal event leading to dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ vaccination removes Aβ deposits from the brain. Aβ immunotherapy, however, may cause T cell- and/or Fc-receptor-mediated brain inflammation and relocate parenchymal Aβ deposits to blood vessels leading to cerebral hemorrhages. Because catalytic antibodies do not form stable immune complexes and Aβ fragments produced by catalytic antibodies are less likely to form aggregates, Aβ-specific catalytic antibodies may have safer therapeutic profiles than reversibly-binding anti-Aβ antibodies. Additionally, catalytic antibodies may remove Aβ more efficiently than binding antibodies because a single catalytic antibody can hydrolyze thousands of Aβ molecules. We previously isolated Aβ-specific catalytic antibody, IgVL5D3, with strong Aβ-hydrolyzing activity. Here, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of brain-targeted IgVL5D3 gene delivery via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) in an AD mouse model. One single injection of rAAV9-IgVL5D3 into the right ventricle of AD model mice yielded widespread, high expression of IgVL5D3 in the unilateral hemisphere. IgVL5D3 expression was readily detectable in the contralateral hemisphere but to a much lesser extent. IgVL5D3 expression was also confirmed in the cerebrospinal fluid. Prophylactic and therapeutic injection of rAAV9-IgVL5D3 reduced Aβ load in the ipsilateral hippocampus of AD model mice. No evidence of hemorrhages, increased vascular amyloid deposits, increased proinflammatory cytokines, or infiltrating T-cells in the brains was found in the experimental animals. AAV9-mediated anti-Aβ catalytic antibody brain delivery can be prophylactic and therapeutic options for AD.

  20. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Assisted Electrodeposition of Silver Dendrite Coating as a Catalytic Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-coated indium tin oxide (ITO slide was used as a platform for the growth of a silver dendrite (Ag-D film using cyclic voltammetry. The particular dendritic nanostructures were formed by the diffusion-limited-aggregation model due to the potential difference between the MWCNTs and the ITO surface. The Ag-D-coated ITO film was then used for the catalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under static aqueous conditions. The network structure of the Ag-D allows the efficient diffusion of MO and MB, and consequently enhances the catalytic performance. Since the thin film is much easier to use for the post-treatment of powder catalysts, the proposed method shows great potential in many catalytic applications.

  1. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  2. Efficient C-O and C-N bond forming cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by core-shell structured Cu/Cu2O nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Elshewy, Ahmed M.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen and Nitrogen containing compounds are of utmost importance due to their interesting and diverse biological activities. The construction of the C-O and C–N bonds is of significance as it opens avenues for the introduction of ether and amine linkages in organic molecules. Despite significant advancements in this field, the construction of C-O and C–N bonds is still a major challenge for organic chemists, due to the involvement of harsh reaction conditions or the use of expensive catalysts or ligands in many cases. Thus, it is a challenge to develop alternative, milder, cheaper and more reproducible methodologies for the construction of these types of bonds. Herein, we introduce a new efficient ligand free catalytic system for C-O and C-N bond formation reactions.

  3. Retrofits for Energy Efficient Office Buildings: Integration of Optimized Photovoltaics in the Form of Responsive Shading Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi K. Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a retrofit strategy: integrating optimized photovoltaics (PV in the form of responsive shading devices using a dual-axis solar tracking system. A prototype-based model was fabricated to compare the efficiency of PV in this implementation with the conventional fixed installation. The office building, T1 Empire World in Erbil, was selected as a retrofit case study and for the application of the proposed integration system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed retrofit method, the energy performance of the base case is simulated to be compared later with the energy performance simulations after the integration technique. The amount of generated electricity from the PV surfaces of the integrated shading elements is calculated. The energy simulations were performed using OpenStudio® (NREL, Washington, DC, USA, EnergyPlusTM (NREL, Washington, DC, USA, and Grasshopper/ Ladybug tools in which the essential results were recorded for the baseline reference, as well as the energy performance of the retrofitted building. The results emphasize that the PV-integrated responsive shading devices can maximize the efficiency of PV cells by 36.8% in comparison to the fixed installation. The integrated system can provide approximately 15.39% of the electricity demand for operating the building. This retrofit method has reduced the total site energy consumption by 33.2% compared to the existing building performance. Total electricity end-use of the various utilities was lowered by 33.5%, and the total natural gas end-use of heating demand was reduced by 30.9%. Therefore, the percentage reduction in electricity cooling demand in July and August is 42.7% due to minimizing the heat gain in summer through blocking the sun’s harsh rays from penetrating into interior spaces of the building. In general, this system has multiple benefits, starting with being extremely efficient and viable in generating sustainable alternative energy

  4. Catalytic Efficiency of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and Zeolite ZSM-5 Catalysts in the in-situ Epoxidation of Palm Olein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M. Z. Mohd; Jamaludin, S. K.; Abd. Karim, S. F.; Gani, A. Abd; Sauki, A.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide and zeolite ZSM-5 are the commonly used heterogeneous catalysts in many chemical reactions. They have several advantages such as low cost and environmental friendly. In this study, titanium dioxide and zeolite ZSM-5 act as catalyst in the in-situ epoxidation of palm olein. Epoxidation of palm olein was carried out by using in-situ generated performic acid to produce epoxidized palm olein in a semi-batch reactor at different temperatures (45°C and 60°C) and agitation speed of 400 rpm. The effects of both catalysts are studied to compare their efficiency in catalyzing the in-situ epoxidation. Epoxidized palm olein was analyzed by using percent of relative conversion to oxirane (RCO%) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface area of the catalysts used were then characterized by using BET. The results indicated that titanium dioxide is a better catalyst in the in-situ epoxidation of palm olein since it provides higher RCO% compared to Zeolite ZSM-5 at 45°C.

  5. An efficient method for the synthesis of photo catalytically active ZnO nanoparticles by a gel-combustion method for the photo-degradation of Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesha Bedre Jagannatha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by gel-combustion method using a novel bio-fuel tapioca starch pearls, derived from the tubers of Mannihot esculenta, to investigate the photocatalytic degradation of ccaffeine. The ZnO photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometry result for the ZnO nanoparticles exhibit normal crystalline phase features. All observed peaks can be indexed to the pure hexagonal wurtzite crystal structures. There are no other impurities in the diffraction peak. In addition, SEM measurement shows that most of the nanoparticles are spongy and spherical in shape and fairly mono dispersed. A significant degradation of the Caffeine was observed when the catalyst was added into the solution even without the UV light exposure. In addition, the photo degradation increaseds with the photocatalyst loading. Besides the photocatalyst loading, the effect of some parameters on the photo degradation efficiency such as initial concentration and pH were also studied.

  6. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina

    2007-01-01

    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three differ...... different approximations are investigated: site, mean-field, and quasichemical approximations. The obtained results are compared to accurate Monte Carlo numbers. In the end, we apply the approximations to a real catalytic reaction, namely, ammonia synthesis....

  7. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  8. Exciplex-Forming Co-Host-Based Red Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Long Operational Stability and High Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hyun; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2017-02-01

    The use of exciplex forming cohosts and phosphors incredibly boosts the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by providing a barrier-free charge injection into an emitting layer and a broad recombination zone. However, most of the efficient OLEDs based on the exciplex forming cohosts has suffered from the short operational lifetime. Here, we demonstrated phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs) having both high efficiency and long lifetime by using a new exciplex forming cohost composed of N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-3,1-diyl))tris(diphenylphosphine oxide) (PO-T2T). The red-emitting PhOLEDs using the exciplex forming cohost achieved a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 34.1% and power efficiency of 62.2 lm W 1- with low operating voltages and low efficiency roll-offs. More importantly, the device demonstrated a long lifetime around 2249 h from 1000 cd m -2 to 900 cd m -2 (LT 90 ) under a continuous flow of constant current. The efficiencies of the devices are the highest for red OLEDs with an LT 90 > 1000 h.

  9. Structured materials for catalytic and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokenek, Selma

    The optical and chemical properties of the materials used in catalytic and sensing applications directly determine the characteristics of the resultant catalyst or sensor. It is well known that a catalyst needs to have high activity, selectivity, and stability to be viable in an industrial setting. The hydrogenation activity of palladium catalysts is known to be excellent, but the industrial applications are limited by the cost of obtaining catalyst in amounts large enough to make their use economical. As a result, alloying palladium with a cheaper, more widely available metal while maintaining the high catalytic activity seen in monometallic catalysts is, therefore, an attractive option. Similarly, the optical properties of nanoscale materials used for sensing must be attuned to their application. By adjusting the shape and composition of nanoparticles used in such applications, very fine changes can be made to the frequency of light that they absorb most efficiently. The design, synthesis, and characterization of (i) size controlled monometallic palladium nanoparticles for catalytic applications, (ii) nickel-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles and (iii) silver-palladium nanoparticles with applications in drug detection and biosensing through surface plasmon resonance, respectively, will be discussed. The composition, size, and shape of the nanoparticles formed were controlled through the use of wet chemistry techniques. After synthesis, the nanoparticles were analyzed using physical and chemical characterization techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy- Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry (STEM-EDX). The Pd and Ni-Pd nanoparticles were then supported on silica for catalytic testing using mass spectrometry. The optical properties of the Ag-Pd nanoparticles in suspension were further investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). Monometallic palladium particles have

  10. A parallel offline CFD and closed-form approximation strategy for computationally efficient analysis of complex fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allphin, Devin

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution approximations for complex fluid flow problems have become a common and powerful engineering analysis technique. These tools, though qualitatively useful, remain limited in practice by their underlying inverse relationship between simulation accuracy and overall computational expense. While a great volume of research has focused on remedying these issues inherent to CFD, one traditionally overlooked area of resource reduction for engineering analysis concerns the basic definition and determination of functional relationships for the studied fluid flow variables. This artificial relationship-building technique, called meta-modeling or surrogate/offline approximation, uses design of experiments (DOE) theory to efficiently approximate non-physical coupling between the variables of interest in a fluid flow analysis problem. By mathematically approximating these variables, DOE methods can effectively reduce the required quantity of CFD simulations, freeing computational resources for other analytical focuses. An idealized interpretation of a fluid flow problem can also be employed to create suitably accurate approximations of fluid flow variables for the purposes of engineering analysis. When used in parallel with a meta-modeling approximation, a closed-form approximation can provide useful feedback concerning proper construction, suitability, or even necessity of an offline approximation tool. It also provides a short-circuit pathway for further reducing the overall computational demands of a fluid flow analysis, again freeing resources for otherwise unsuitable resource expenditures. To validate these inferences, a design optimization problem was presented requiring the inexpensive estimation of aerodynamic forces applied to a valve operating on a simulated piston-cylinder heat engine. The determination of these forces was to be found using parallel surrogate and exact approximation methods, thus evidencing the comparative

  11. Efficiency of boiling and four other methods for genomic DNA extraction of deteriorating spore-forming bacteria from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The spore-forming microbiota is mainly responsible for the deterioration of pasteurized milk with long shelf life in the United States. The identification of these microorganisms, using molecular tools, is of particular importance for the maintenance of the quality of milk. However, these molecular techniques are not only costly but also labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of boiling in conjunction with four other methods for the genomic DNA extraction of sporulated bacteria with proteolytic and lipolytic potential isolated from raw milk in the states of Paraná and Maranhão, Brazil. Protocols based on cellular lysis by enzymatic digestion, phenolic extraction, microwave-heating, as well as the use of guanidine isothiocyanate were used. This study proposes a method involving simple boiling for the extraction of genomic DNA from these microorganisms. Variations in the quality and yield of the extracted DNA among these methods were observed. However, both the cell lysis protocol by enzymatic digestion (commercial kit and the simple boiling method proposed in this study yielded sufficient DNA for successfully carrying out the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR of the rpoB and 16S rRNA genes for all 11 strains of microorganisms tested. Other protocols failed to yield sufficient quantity and quality of DNA from all microorganisms tested, since only a few strains have showed positive results by PCR, thereby hindering the search for new microorganisms. Thus, the simple boiling method for DNA extraction from sporulated bacteria in spoiled milk showed the same efficacy as that of the commercial kit. Moreover, the method is inexpensive, easy to perform, and much less time-consuming.

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION CATALYTIC KINETIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of ...

  13. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  14. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  15. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the alkaloid (+)-myrtine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzuti, Maria Gabriefla; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    A new protocol for the asymmetric synthesis of trans-2,6-disubstituted-4-piperidones has been developed using a catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition reaction in combination with a diastereoselective lithiation-substitution sequence; an efficient synthesis of (+)-myrtine has been achieved

  16. I2-SDS-H2O System: A highly Efficient Dual Catalytic Green System for Deprotection of Imines and in Situ Preparation of Bis(indolyl)alkanes from Indoles in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Parasa; Pahari, Pallab; Borah, Manash Jyoti; Konwar, Dilip

    2012-01-01

    A novel catalytic system consisting of I2-SDS-H2O has been developed which cleaves 2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene, 1-aza-1,3-butadienes, oximes and in presence of indoles in the medium uses the corresponding aldehyde products to produce bis(indolyl)alkanes in situ. This one pot simple and mild dual catalytic system works in water at room temperature under neutral conditions.

  17. Pd-catalytic in situ generation of H2O2 from H2 and O2 produced by water electrolysis for the efficient electro-fenton degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Fan, Ye; Zhang, Yucheng; Tong, Man; Liao, Peng

    2011-10-01

    A novel electro-Fenton process was developed for wastewater treatment using a modified divided electrolytic system in which H2O2 was generated in situ from electro-generated H2 and O2 in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. Appropriate pH conditions were obtained by the excessive H+ produced at the anode. The performance of the novel process was assessed by Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in an aqueous solution. Experimental results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 occurred when the pH decreased and time elapsed. The maximum concentration of H2O2 reached 53.1 mg/L within 120 min at pH 2 and a current of 100 mA. Upon the formation of the Fenton reagent by the addition of Fe2+, RhB degraded completely within 30 min at pH 2 with a pseudo first order rate constant of 0.109 ± 0.009 min(-1). An insignificant decline in H2O2 generation and RhB degradation was found after six repetitions. RhB degradation was achieved by the chemisorption of H2O2 on the Pd/C surface, which subsequently decomposed into •OH upon catalysis by Pd0 and Fe2+. The catalytic decomposition of H2O2 to •OH by Fe2+ was more powerful than that by Pd0, which was responsible for the high efficiency of this novel electro-Fenton process.

  18. Correction: β-Amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli L. functional analyses of the highly conserved aromatic residues Phe413, Tyr259 and Trp257 disclose the importance of the appropriate steric bulk, and cation-π and CH-π interactions for the efficient catalytic action of the polyolefin cyclization cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryousuke; Nakada, Chika; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2017-01-18

    Correction for 'β-Amyrin synthase from Euphorbia tirucalli L. functional analyses of the highly conserved aromatic residues Phe413, Tyr259 and Trp257 disclose the importance of the appropriate steric bulk, and cation-π and CH-π interactions for the efficient catalytic action of the polyolefin cyclization cascade' by Ryousuke Ito et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 177-188.

  19. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Biaryl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoyuan; Sibi, Mukund P

    2015-08-10

    Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The evolution of catalytic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Marie-Christine; Ricard, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    It is very likely that the main driving force of enzyme evolution is the requirement to improve catalytic and regulatory efficiency which results from the intrinsic performance as well as from the spatial and functional organization of enzymes in living cells. Kinetic co-operativity may occur in simple monomeric proteins if they display “slow” conformational transitions, at the cost of catalytic efficiency. Oligomeric enzymes on the other hand can be both efficient and co-operative. We speculate that the main reason for the emergence of co-operative oligomeric enzymes is the need for catalysts that are both cooperative and efficient. As it is not useful for an enzyme to respond to a change of substrate concentration in a complex kinetic way, the emergence of symmetry has its probable origin in a requirement for “functional simplicity”. In a living cell, enzyme are associated with other macromolecules and membranes. The fine tuning of their activity may also be reached through mutations of the microenvironment. Our hypothesis is that these mutations are related to the vectorial transport of molecules, to achieve the hysteresis loops of enzyme reactions generated by the coupling of reaction and diffusion, through the co-operativity brought about by electric interactions between a charged substrate and a membrane, and last but not least, through oscillations. As the physical origins of these effects are very simple and do not require complex molecular devices, it is very likely that the functional advantage generated by the spatial and functional organization of enzyme molecules within the cell have appeared in prebiotic catalysis or very early during the primeval stages of biological evolution. We shall began this paper by presenting the nature of the probable earliest catalysts in the RNA world.

  1. Catalytic aerobic oxidation of bio-renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury

    , EDS, XRF and other methods. Supported gold and ruthenium hydroxide catalyst systems were explored for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDA), a potential polymer building block for the plastic industry, or its dimethyl ester (FDMC). High product......-free conditions. Moreover, a detailed study on the performance and stability of the ruthenium hydroxide catalysts on magnesium-containing supports under reaction conditions was conducted. The aerobic oxidation of HMF to form another value-added chemical, 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), was also investigated......Ox deposited on various metal oxides. Furthermore, this thesis presents the results of the catalytic aerobic oxidative degradation of higher alcohols over supported ruthenium hydroxide catalysts. A very efficient oxidative cleavage of vic-diols to form respective acids was also shown under examined conditions...

  2. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  3. The Star Formation Rate Efficiency of Neutral Atomic-Dominated Hydrogen Gas in the Ooutskirts of Star-Forming Galaxies From z approx. 1 to z approx. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Fumagalli, Michele; Neeleman, Marcel; Teplitz, Harry I.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Scarlata, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Current observational evidence suggests that the star formation rate (SFR)efficiency of neutral atomic hydrogen gas measured in damped Ly(alpha) systems (DLAs) at z approx. 3 is more than 10 times lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS)relation. To understand the origin of this deficit, and to investigate possible evolution with redshift and galaxy properties, we measure the SFR efficiency of atomic gas at z approx. 1, z approx. 2, and z approx. 3 around star-forming galaxies. We use new robust photometric redshifts in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to create galaxy stacks in these three redshift bins, and measure the SFR efficiency by combining DLA absorber statistics with the observed rest-frame UV emission in the galaxies' outskirts. We find that the SFR efficiency of H I gas at z > 1 is approx. 1%-3% of that predicted by the KS relation. Contrary to simulations and models that predict a reduced SFR efficiency with decreasing metallicity and thus with increasing redshift, we find no significant evolution in the SFR efficiency with redshift. Our analysis instead suggests that the reduced SFR efficiency is driven by the low molecular content of this atomic-dominated phase, with metallicity playing a secondary effect in regulating the conversion between atomic and molecular gas. This interpretation is supported by the similarity between the observed SFR efficiency and that observed in local atomic-dominated gas, such as in the outskirts of local spiral galaxies and local dwarf galaxies.

  4. Fluid catalytic cracking : Feedstocks and reaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupain, X.

    2006-01-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in

  5. Complementary structure sensitive and insensitive catalytic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The burgeoning field of nanoscience has stimulated an intense interest in properties that depend on particle size. For transition metal particles, one important property that depends on size is catalytic reactivity, in which bonds are broken or formed on the surface of the particles. Decreased

  6. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...

  7. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  8. Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Generating H2 O2 through a Piezo-Catalytic Process over Bismuth Oxychloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dengkui; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Songmei; Wang, Wenzhong

    2018-02-09

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for generating H 2 O 2 through green pathways have gained much attention in recent years. Herein, we introduce a piezo-catalytic approach to obtain H 2 O 2 over bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) through an ORR pathway. The piezoelectric response of BiOCl was directly characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The BiOCl exhibits efficient catalytic performance for generating H 2 O 2 (28 μmol h -1 ) only from O 2 and H 2 O, which is above the average level of H 2 O 2 produced by solar-to-chemical processes. A piezo-catalytic mechanism was proposed: with ultrasonic waves, an alternating electric field will be generated over BiOCl, which can drive charge carriers (electrons) to interact with O 2 and H 2 O, then to form H 2 O 2 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Rubber pad forming - Efficient approach for the manufacturing of complex structured sheet metal blanks for food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Paul; Djakow, Eugen; Homberg, Werner

    2017-10-01

    The production of complex organic shapes in sheet metals is gaining more importance in the food industry due to increasing functional and hygienic demands. Hence it is necessary to produce parts with complex geometries promoting cleanability and general sanitation leading to improvement of food safety. In this context, and especially when stainless steel has to be formed into highly complex geometries while maintaining desired surface properties, it is inevitable that alternative manufacturing processes will need to be used which meet these requirements. Rubber pad forming offers high potential when it comes to shaping complex parts with excellent surface quality, with virtually no tool marks and scratches. Especially in cases where only small series are to be produced, rubber pad forming processes offers both technological and economic advantages. Due to the flexible punch, variation in metal thickness can be used with the same forming tool. The investments to set-up Rubber pad forming is low in comparison to conventional sheet metal forming processes. The process facilitates production of shallow sheet metal parts with complex contours and bends. Different bending sequences in a multiple tool set-up can also be conducted. The planned contribution thus describes a brief overview of the rubber pad technology. It shows the prototype rubber pad forming machine which can be used to perform complex part geometries made from stainless steel (1.4301). Based on an analysis of the already existing systems and new machines for rubber pad forming processes, together with their process properties, influencing variables and areas of application, some relevant parts for the food industry are presented.

  10. Towards Prebiotic Catalytic Amyloids Using High Throughput Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Friedmann

    Full Text Available Enzymes are capable of directing complex stereospecific transformations and of accelerating reaction rates many orders of magnitude. As even the simplest known enzymes comprise thousands of atoms, the question arises as to how such exquisite catalysts evolved. A logical predecessor would be shorter peptides, but they lack the defined structure and size that are apparently necessary for enzyme functions. However, some very short peptides are able to assemble into amyloids, thereby forming a well-defined tertiary structure called the cross-β-sheet, which bestows unique properties upon the peptides. We have hypothesized that amyloids could have been the catalytically active precursor to modern enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we designed an amyloid peptide library that could be screened for catalytic activity. Our approach, amenable to high-throughput methodologies, allowed us to find several peptides and peptide mixtures that form amyloids with esterase activity. These results indicate that amyloids, with their stability in a wide range of conditions and their potential as catalysts with low sequence specificity, would indeed be fitting precursors to modern enzymes. Furthermore, our approach can be efficiently expanded upon in library size, screening conditions, and target activity to yield novel amyloid catalysts with potential applications in aqueous-organic mixtures, at high temperature and in other extreme conditions that could be advantageous for industrial applications.

  11. Low roll-off and high efficiency orange OLEDs using green and red dopants in an exciplex forming co-host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Park, Young-Seo; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2013-09-01

    We present high efficiency orange emitting OLEDs with low driving voltage and low roll-off of efficiency using an exciplex forming co-host by (1) co-doping of green and red emitting phosphorescence dyes in the host and (2) red and green phosphorescent dyes doped in the host as separate red and green emitting layers. The orange OLEDs achieved a low turn-on voltage of 2.4 V and high external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of 25.0% and 22.8%, respectively. Moreover, the OLEDs showed low roll-off of efficiency with an EQE of over 21% and 19.6% at 10,000 cd/m2, respectively. The devices displayed good orange color with very little color shift with increasing luminance. The transient electroluminescence of the OLEDs indicated that both energy transfer and direct charge trapping took place in the devices.

  12. Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-07-16

    A high-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) approaching theoretical efficiency using an exciplex-forming co-host composed of N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and bis-4,6-(3,5-di-3-pyridylphenyl)- 2-methylpyrimidine (B3PYMPM) is fabricated. Iridium(III)bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)- pyridinato-N,C2']picolinate (FIrpic) is used as the emitter, which turns out to have a preferred horizontal dipole orientation in the emitting layer. The OLED shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.5% (a maximum current efficiency of 62.2 cd A(-1) ), which is in perfect agreement with the theoretical prediction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J; Koljonen, T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  14. Selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In the combustion of fossil fuels, the principal source of nitrogen oxides is nitrogen bound in the fuel structure. In gasification, a large part of fuel nitrogen forms NH{sub 3}, which may form nitrogen oxides during gas combustion. If NH{sub 3} and other nitrogen species could be removed from hot gas, the NO emission could be considerably reduced. However, relatively little attention has been paid to finding new means of removing nitrogen compounds from the hot gasification gas. The possibility of selectively oxidizing NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} in the hot gasification has been studied at VTT Energy. The largest NH{sub 3} reductions have been achieved by catalytic oxidation on aluminium oxides. (author) (4 refs.)

  15. Towards efficient 5-axis flank CNC machining of free-form surfaces via fitting envelopes of surfaces of revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Plakhotnik D.; Pottmann H.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method that approximates free-form surfaces by envelopes of one-parameter motions of surfaces of revolution. In the context of 5-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining, we propose a flank machining methodology which is a preferable scallop-free scenario when the milling tool and the machined free-form surface meet tangentially along a smooth curve. We seek both an optimal shape of the milling tool as well as its optimal path in 3D space and propose an optimiza...

  16. Results of expert response when forming an exhaustive list of potential risks of constructions projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhkova Anastasiya Igorevna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the most widely used methods of risk events identification. The expert response method is most applicable for construction projects using energy efficient technologies. The article presents the results of an opinion poll of the professional expert community using expert response method, which is aimed to identify the most likely potential “pure” risk of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use. 74 experts representing different levels of the construction process were polled: customers and directors of construction companies, project managers, risk managers, advisors. The answers were collected during private talks and also using a special website Survey Monkey. Experts from different countries took part: Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Luxemburg, Switzerland and Norway. Also the article presents the expert evaluation of the “effect” of risk implementation on the cost of a project, implementation time, the product quality, the environment and safety on the construction site.

  17. A functional form-stable phase change composite with high efficiency electro-to-thermal energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenhao; Huang, Xinyu; Li, Kai; Yao, Ruimin; Chen, Renjie; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The thermal conductivity of PU was enhanced to 43 times of the pristine value by encapsulation in a PGF, PU@PGF can be used for highly efficient electro-to-heat energy conversion and storage with the highest energy storage efficiency up to 85%. - Highlights: • The composite exhibits an in-situ solid-solid phase change behavior. • The enthalpy of polyurethane is enhanced within the matrix. • The thermal conductivity of the composite is 43 times as much as that of the polyurethane. • Supercooling of polyurethane is greatly reduced. • The composite is applied to cold protection as a wear layer. - Abstract: A novel solid-to-solid phase change composite brick was prepared by combination of polyurethane (PU) and pitch-based graphite foam (PGF). The carbonaceous support, which can be used for mass production, not only greatly improves the thermal conductivity but promote electro-to-heat conversion efficiency of organic phase change materials (PCMs). Our composite retained the enthalpy of PCM and exhibited a greatly reduced supercooling temperature. The novel composite was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The enthalpy of polyurethane has increased about 8.6% after infiltrating into graphite foam. The composite was very stable during thermal cycle test, and the electro-to-heat conversion efficiency achieves to 85% at lower voltages (1.5–1.8 V), which can vastly reduce energy consumption. The as-prepared composite was used in a wear layer to test its performance comparing with normal fabric.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  19. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  20. Catalytic methanol dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Shindler, Y.; Tatrtakovsky, L.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the methanol dissociation study on copper/potassium catalyst with alumina support at various temperatures are presented. The following gaseous and liquid products at. The catalytic methanol dissociation is obtained: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and dimethyl ether. Formation rates of these products are discussed. Activation energies of corresponding reactions are calculated

  1. Optimal elastic coupling in form of one mechanical spring to improve energy efficiency of walking bipedal robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Fabian; Römer, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.roemer@kit.edu; Fidlin, Alexander; Seemann, Wolfgang [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a method to optimize the energy efficiency of walking bipedal robots by more than 80 % in a speed range from 0.3 to 2.3 m/s using elastic couplings—mechanical springs with movement speed independent parameters. The considered planar robot consists of a trunk, two two-segmented legs, two actuators in the hip joints, two actuators in the knee joints and an elastic coupling between the shanks. It is modeled as underactuated system to make use of its natural dynamics and feedback controlled via input–output linearization. A numerical optimization of the joint angle trajectories as well as the elastic couplings is performed to minimize the average energy expenditure over the whole speed range. The elastic couplings increase the swing leg motion’s natural frequency thus making smaller steps more efficient which reduce the impact loss at the touchdown of the swing leg. The process of energy turnover is investigated in detail for the robot with and without elastic coupling between the shanks. Furthermore, the influences of the elastic couplings’ topology and of joint friction are analyzed. It is shown that the optimization of the robot’s motion and elastic coupling towards energy efficiency leads to a slightly slower convergence rate of the controller, yet no loss of stability, but a lower sensitivity with respect to disturbances. The optimal elastic coupling discovered via numerical optimization is a linear torsion spring with transmissions between the shanks. A design proposal for this elastic coupling—which does not affect the robot’s trunk and parallel shank motion and can be used to enhance an existing robot—is given for planar as well as spatial robots.

  2. Simulation and comparison of the illuminance, uniformity, and efficiency of different forms of lighting used in basketball court illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Pan, Jui-Wen

    2014-10-10

    We simulate and compare the illuminance, uniformity, and efficiency of metal-halide lamps, white LED light sources, and hybrid light box designs combining sunlight and white LED lighting used for indoor basketball court illumination. According to the optical simulation results and our examination of real situations, we find that hybrid light box designs combining sunlight and white LEDs do perform better than either metal-halide lamps or white LED lights. An evaluation of the sunlight concentrator system used in our inverted solar cell shows that the energy consumption of stadium lighting can be reduced significantly.

  3. Methods of forming and using porous structures for energy efficient separation of light gases by capillary condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamur, Narasimhan; Carrera, Martin E.; Devlin, David J.; Archuleta, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for separating one or more condensable compounds from a mixture of two or more gases of differing volatilities by capillary fractionation in a membrane-type apparatus, and a method of forming porous structures therefor. More particularly, the invention includes methods of forming and using an apparatus consisting, at least in part, of a porous structure having capillary-type passages extending between a plurality of small openings on the first side and larger openings on a second side of the structure, the passages being adapted to permit a condensed liquid to flow therethrough substantially by capillary forces, whereby vapors from the mixture are condensed, at least in part, and substantially in and adjacent to the openings on the first side, and are caused to flow in a condensed liquid state, substantially in the absence of vapor, from the openings on the first side to the openings on the second side.

  4. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Junaid

    2012-01-01

    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  5. Hybrid Arrangements as a Form of Ecological Modernization: The Case of the US Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya M. Galli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How are environmental policy goals implemented and sustained in the context of political stagnation surrounding national climate policies in the United States? In this paper, we discuss Ecological Modernization Theory as a tool for understanding the complexity of climate governance at the sub-national level. In particular, we explore the emergence of hybrid governance arrangements during the local implementation of federal energy efficiency programs in US cities. We analyze the formation and advancement of programs associated with one effort to establish a sub-national low carbon energy policy: the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG program administered by the US Department of Energy. Our findings highlight the diverse range of partnerships between state, private, and civil society actors that emerged through this program and point to some of the challenges associated with collaborative climate governance initiatives at the city level. Although some programs reflected ecologically modern outcomes, other cities were constrained in their ability to move beyond the status quo due to the demands of state bureaucracies and the challenges associated with inconsistent funding. We find that these programs cultivated hybrid arrangements in an effort to sustain the projects following the termination of federal grant funding. Overall, hybrid governance plays an important role in the implementation and long-term sustainability of climate-related policies.

  6. A HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONVERTING GAS TO STARS PUSHES GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6 WELL ABOVE THE STAR-FORMING MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Daddi, E.; Liu, D. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Feruglio, C. [IRAM—Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Berta, S.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Béthermin, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  7. Testing the Semi-Strong Form efficiency to differentiate stock returns between Islamic and Non-Islamic firms: Empirical evidence using dividend announcement from Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Saya, Muhammad Mujtuba

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation conducts an event study in the specific area of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH). It concentrates on the semi-strong form and focuses on exploring the impact of dividend announcements on share prices’ of Malaysian stock market (Bursa Malaysia). Further, it commences a comparison of Islamic (Shariah) compliant stocks and non-Islamic compliant stocks. A sample of 60 companies (30 Shariah and 30 Non-Shraiah compliant) were selected from the main board of Bursa Malaysia. An eve...

  8. Experimental determination of the neutron detection efficiency for the testing of the results of a measurement of the magnetic neutron form factor at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, P.

    2001-08-01

    A pion production experiment with almost real photons on 1 H has been carried out at the electron stretcher accelerator ELSA to determine the neutron detection efficiency of the large solid angle acceptance nonmagnetic ELAN Time-of-Flight spectrometer. The source of unknown discrepancy between the neutron magnetic form factor values measured at ELSA and MAMI could no longer be attributed to a wrong detection efficiency of the ELSA data. A GEANT Monte Carlo calculation has been adapted to determine the detection efficiency for the ToF spectrometer. The result of this simulation is η Geant =3.1%±0.2% in very good agreement with the experimental value of η Exp =3.2%±0.2%. (orig.)

  9. Efect of diferent rates of phosphorus and forms of application in the efficiency of triple superphosphate in a soil derived from volcanic ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, I.; Casas, L.

    1988-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments with a soil derived from volcanic ash were carried out in order to determine the efficiency of triple Superphosphate with different rates and forms of application. Oat (Avena Sativa L.) was used as reference crop. The P 32 labeled fertilizer was applied located 2,5 cm underneath the seeds. At the same time 500 mg P were applied located, mixed and in the surface of the soil. The P in the plant coming from the fertilizer was about 65%. This value was independent from the rates. The A value showed some fluctuations with the utmost rates of P. The fertilizer applied located and in the surface of the soil proved to be the most efficient form of application. The A value useful to compare the different treatments. The fertilizer efficiency was very low in both experiments, being the higher efficiency (5,9%) at the lowest rate which is not associated to a higher production. The best treatment was obtained with 500 mg of P located underneath the seed. (author)

  10. Mutant forms of Escherichia coli protein L25 unable to bind to 5S rRNA are incorporated efficiently into the ribosome in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikaev, A Y; Korepanov, A P; Korobeinikova, A V; Kljashtorny, V G; Piendl, W; Nikonov, S V; Garber, M B; Gongadze, G M

    2014-08-01

    5S rRNA-binding ribosomal proteins of the L25 family are an evolutional acquisition of bacteria. Earlier we showed that (i) single replacements in the RNA-binding module of the protein of this family result in destabilization or complete impossibility to form a complex with 5S rRNA in vitro; (ii) ΔL25 ribosomes of Escherichia coli are less efficient in protein synthesis in vivo than the control ribosomes. In the present work, the efficiency of incorporation of the E. coli protein L25 with mutations in the 5S rRNA-binding region into the ribosome in vivo was studied. It was found that the mutations in L25 that abolish its ability to form the complex with free 5S rRNA do not prevent its correct and efficient incorporation into the ribosome. This is supported by the fact that even the presence of a very weakly retained mutant form of the protein in the ribosome has a positive effect on the activity of the translational machinery in vivo. All this suggests the existence of an alternative incorporation pathway for this protein into the ribosome, excluding the preliminary formation of the complex with 5S rRNA. At the same time, the stable L25-5S rRNA contact is important for the retention of the protein within the ribosome, and the conservative amino acid residues of the RNA-binding module play a key role in this.

  11. Efficiency enhancement of CIGS compound solar cell fabricated using homomorphic thin Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier formed on stainless steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Ahn, Haeng-Keun; Lee, Cheul-Ro, E-mail: crlee7@jbnu.ac.kr

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A chromium oxide layer is formed as diffusion barrier by thermal oxidation process on STS substrate. • A Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer effectively reduces impurities diffusion into the CIGS absorber layer. • The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer plays an important role in increasing the efficiency by reduction of impurity diffusion. - Abstract: It is known that the efficiency of flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells fabricated on stainless-steel (STS) substrates deteriorates due to iron (Fe) and Cr impurities diffusing into the CIGS absorber layer. To overcome this problem, a nanoscale homomorphic chromium oxide layer was formed as a diffusion barrier by thermal oxidation on the surface of STS substrates for 1 min at 600 °C in oxygen atmosphere. By TEM and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), it was confirmed that the formed oxide layer on surface of STS substrates was a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. It was found that the formed homomorphic Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin layer of about 15 nm thickness was an effective diffusion barrier to reduce impurity diffusion into the CIGS layer by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In contrast to the efficiency of CIGS solar cell without homomorphic Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion layer is 8.6%, whereas with diffusion barrier it increases to 10.6% because of impurities such as Fe and Cr from the STS substrate into the CIGS layer. It reveals that the layer formed on the surface of STS substrate by thermal oxidation process plays an important role in increasing the performance of CIGS solar cells.

  12. Efficiency of the intermolecular interaction of salicylic acid neutral form and monoanion with Cd2 + ion studied by methods of absorption and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2018-02-01

    The methods of absorption and fluorescence were used to study the efficiency of the interaction between salicylic acid derivatives SAD (neutral SA form and SA monoanion) and Cd2 + ions (in CdBr2 salt) within the range pH = 1.5 ÷ 8. The efficiency was determined from the change in both the absorption band contour and the fluorescence intensity of various SAD forms. It has been established that depending on the SAD form, the addition of CdBr2 to a starting solution leads to the formation of additional absorption for both the shorter wave lengths in the absorption spectrum of the neutral form (at pH 4). In the fluorescence spectra, the intensity was observed to increase for the neutral SAD form (at pH 4) after addition of CdBr2. The spectral changes were interpreted in the framework of common notions about the effect of three physicochemical factors that determine the interaction between the SAD and the Cd2 + ion and affect the parameters of absorption and fluorescence spectra. These factors are: (1) the decrease in pH after addition of CdBr2 to the SAD solution, (2) the decrease in the efficiency of the H-bonding of SAD molecules to the water ones, and (3) the existence of electrostatic ion-ion interaction between the HSal- monoanion and the Cd2 + ion. The bimolecular fluorescence quenching constants Kq of HSal- monoanion fluorescence quenching by the Cd2 + ion appeared to be substantially less than those of the quenching which would follow either the dynamic (diffusion) or the concentration (static) mechanisms.

  13. Platinum Iron Intermetallic Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Formed In Situ by High-Pressure Pyrolysis for Efficient Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-supported PtFe alloy catalysts are synthesized by the one-step, high-temperature pyrolysis of Pt, Fe, and C precursors. As a result of the high temperature, the formed PtFe nanoparticles possess highly ordered, face-centered tetragonal, intermetallic structures with a mean size of ≈11.8 nm....... At 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, the PtFe nanoparticles show a 6.8 times higher specific activity than the reference Pt/C catalyst towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent stability, most likely because of the durable intermetallic structure and the preleaching...... treatment of the catalyst. During these preliminary syntheses, we found that a portion of the PtFe nanoparticles is buried in the in situ formed carbon phase, which limits Pt utilization in the catalyst and results in a mass-specific activity equivalent to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Moreover...

  14. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  15. Concentric catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Gerald J [Oviedo, FL; Laster, Walter R [Oviedo, FL

    2009-03-24

    A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

  16. Multiple functionalities of Ni nanoparticles embedded in carboxymethyl guar gum polymer: catalytic activity and superparamagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, Debasmita; Sengupta, Manideepa; Bordoloi, Ankur; Ahmed, Md. A.; Neogi, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Jain, Ruchi; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S.; Bala, Tanushree

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in polymer to form Ni-Polymer composite. • Ni nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetism in the composite. • Ni-Polymer composites showed catalytic activity. - Abstract: Composites comprising of metallic nanoparticles in polymer matrices have allured significant importance due to multifunctionalities. Here a simple protocol has been described to embed Ni nanoparticles in carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) polymer. The composite formation helps in the stabilization of Ni nanoparticles which are otherwise prone towards aerial oxidation. Further the nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetic nature and catalytic capacity. Ni-Polymer composite catalyses the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol very efficiently in presence of NaBH_4, attaining a complete conversion under some experimental conditions. Ni-Polymer composite is well characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XPS, powder XRD, TGA, SEM and TEM. A detailed magnetic measurement using superconducting quantum interference device-vibrating sample magnetometer (SQUID-VSM) reveals superparamagnetic behaviour of the composite.

  17. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1993-12-01

    Focus of this project is on developing new approaches for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. The strategies to accomplish CO reduction are based on favorable thermodynamics manifested by rhodium macrocycles for producing a series of intermediates implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Metalloformyl complexes from reactions of H 2 and CO, and CO reductive coupling to form metallo α-diketone species provide alternate routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics are promising candidates for future development

  18. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    The overall topic of this thesis is within the field of catalysis, were model systems of different complexity have been studied utilizing a multipurpose Ultra High Vacuum chamber (UHV). The thesis falls in two different parts. First a simple model system in the form of a ruthenium single crystal...... of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles is highly relevant to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boost the catalytic activity. The dynamical behavior of the nanoparticles under reducing and oxidizing environments were studied by means of ex situ X......-ray Photoelectron Electron Spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The surface composition of the nanoparticles changes reversibly as the nanoparticles exposed to cycles of high-pressure oxidation and reduction (200 mbar). Furthermore, the presence of metallic Zn is observed by XPS...

  19. Comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of high-rise construction projects in the form of urban blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Alexandr; Chubarkina, Irina

    2018-03-01

    The paper is dedicated to main modern trends in the area of high-rise construction. The classification of buildings and structures by height is given. Functional distribution by the height of buildings is presented. A review of positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction from the economic point of view is given. On the basis of the data obtained, it is proposed to build up residential microdistricts in the form of urban blocks. A plan of microdistricts development is presented. It takes into account urban blocks and includes their main characteristics. An economic and mathematical model was developed to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of high-rise construction projects.

  20. On the efficiency of various forms of propaganda of radiation-hygienic bnowledge among population and medical personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, G.V.; Lev, M.Ya.; Usl'tsev, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 8 % of the population, reviewed in the regions subjected to the Chernobyl NPP accident named distrust to official information media as one of the radiophobia causes because of their contradictive, non-expeditions and incomplete nature-such is the conclusion made from the public opinion analysis. Near 90 % of those reviewed, including medical personnel, noted the necessity of more complete medical information. Lectures and discussions by physicians are considered among the primary forms of information on radiation effects and behaviour in emergency situations followed by value of mass media reports. Study of physicians and public opinion in the regions suffered from the accident made it possible to develop a project of radiation-hygienic knowledge propaganda for various population groups. 5 refs.; 5 tabs

  1. Efficient frequency-domain numerical analysis of modified surface plasmon waveguides formed by a metallic sleeve and coaxial rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinping; Xue Wenrui

    2012-01-01

    Some types of modified surface plasmonic waveguides formed by nanometric silver rods with triangular and square cross-section and a coaxial silver sleeve are proposed in this paper. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is used to study the propagation properties of the fundamental mode supported by these types of surface plasmonic waveguides. The field distribution of the fundamental mode and the dependences of the propagation properties on the geometrical parameters, working wavelength and gain media are discussed in detail. The results show that the above physical properties can be adjusted by choosing proper structure parameters, working wavelength and gain media. So the advantages of the properties of the modes render these waveguides promising optical components or photonic device integration and sensors that would benefit future plasmonic interconnects and circuits.

  2. Enantioselective catalytic fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov-Michailidis, Fedor; Pupier, Marion; Besnard, Céline; Bürgi, Thomas; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2014-10-03

    An efficient and highly stereoselective fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement is described. The catalytic reaction requires use of Selectfluor in combination with the chiral, enantiopure phosphate anion derived from acid L3. Under optimized conditions, cyclopropylamines A were transformed into β-fluoro cyclobutylimines B in good yields and high levels of diastereo- and enantiocontrol. Furthermore, the optically active cyclobutylimines were reduced diastereoselectively with L-Selectride in the corresponding fluorinated amines C, compounds of significant interest in the pharmacological industry.

  3. High-Efficiency Fullerene Solar Cells Enabled by a Spontaneously Formed Mesostructured CuSCN-Nanowire Heterointerface

    KAUST Repository

    Sit, Wai-Yu

    2018-02-02

    Fullerenes and their derivatives are widely used as electron acceptors in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells as they combine high electron mobility with good solubility and miscibility with relevant semiconducting polymers. However, studies on the use of fullerenes as the sole photogeneration and charge-carrier material are scarce. Here, a new type of solution-processed small-molecule solar cell based on the two most commonly used methanofullerenes, namely [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM), as the light absorbing materials, is reported. First, it is shown that both fullerene derivatives exhibit excellent ambipolar charge transport with balanced hole and electron mobilities. When the two derivatives are spin-coated over the wide bandgap p-type semiconductor copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN), cells with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ≈1%, are obtained. Blending the CuSCN with PC70BM is shown to increase the performance further yielding cells with an open-circuit voltage of ≈0.93 V and a PCE of 5.4%. Microstructural analysis reveals that the key to this success is the spontaneous formation of a unique mesostructured p–n-like heterointerface between CuSCN and PC70BM. The findings pave the way to an exciting new class of single photoactive material based solar cells.

  4. Enhanced propylene production in FCC by novel catalytic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, C.P.; Harris, D.; Xu, M.; Fu, J. [BASF Catalyst LLC, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking is expected to increasingly supply the additional incremental requirements for propylene. The most efficient route to increase propylene yield from an FCC unit is through the use of medium pore zeolites such as ZSM-5. ZSM-5 zeolite cracks near linear olefins in the gasoline range to LPG olefins such as propylene and butylenes. This paper will describe catalytic approaches to increase gasoline range olefins and the chemistry of ZSM-5 to crack those olefins. The paper will also describe novel catalytic materials designed to increase propylene. (orig.)

  5. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  6. Aerobic, catalytic oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Roberto F. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and simple catalytic system based on RuCl3 dissolved in ionic liquids has been developed for the oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones under mild conditions. A new fluorinated ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate, was synthesized and demonstrated better performance that the other ionic liquids employed. Moreover this catalytic system utilizes molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent, producing water as the only by-product.

  7. Catalytic cleavage activities of 10–23 DNAzyme analogs functionalized with an amino group in its catalytic core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalization of the catalytic loop of 10–23 DNAzyme with an amino group was performed by incorporation of 7-(3-aminopropyl-8-aza-7-deaza-2′-deoxyadenosine in different single positions. Among the nine modified positions in the catalytic loop, A9 is the unique position with positive contribution by such modification. These results indicated that more efficient deoxyribozymes remain to be explored by introduction of exogenous functional groups in an appropriate position in the catalytic loop of 10–23 DNAzyme, such as the combination of 7-functional group substituted 8-aza-7-deaza-2′-deoxyadenosine analogs and A9 position.

  8. Efficient removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from aqueous film-forming foam solution by aeration-foam collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pingping; Deng, Shubo; Maimaiti, Ayiguli; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Cousins, Ian T; Yu, Gang

    2018-07-01

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) used in fire-fighting are one of the main contamination sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to the subterranean environment, requiring high costs for remediation. In this study, a method that combined aeration and foam collection was presented to remove PFOS from a commercially available AFFF solution. The method utilized the strong surfactant properties of PFOS that cause it to be highly enriched at air-water interfaces. With an aeration flow rate of 75 mL/min, PFOS removal percent reached 96% after 2 h, and the PFOS concentration in the collected foam was up to 6.5 mmol/L, beneficial for PFOS recovery and reuse. Increasing the aeration flow rate, ionic strength and concentration of co-existing surfactant, as well as decreasing the initial PFOS concentration, increased the removal percents of PFOS by increasing the foam volume, but reduced the enrichment of PFOS in the foams. With the assistance of a co-existing hydrocarbon surfactant, PFOS removal percent was above 99.9% after aeration-foam collection for 2 h and the enrichment factor exceeded 8400. Aeration-foam collection was less effective for short-chain perfluoroalkyl substances due to their relatively lower surface activity. Aeration-foam collection was found to be effective for the removal of high concentrations of PFOS from AFFF-contaminated wastewater, and the concentrated PFOS in the collected foam can be reused. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supercritical CO{sub 2} mediated synthesis and catalytic activity of graphene/Pd nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lulu [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeoungbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Van Hoa [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeoungbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Nha Trang University, 2 Nguyen Dinh Chieu, Nha Trang (Viet Nam); Shim, Jae-Jin, E-mail: jjshim@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeoungbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • RGO/Pd composite was efficiently prepared via a facile method in supercritical CO{sub 2}. • Graphene sheets were coated uniformly with Pd nanoparticles with a size of ∼8 nm. • Composites exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the Suzuki reaction even after 10 cycles. - Abstract: Graphene sheets were decorated with palladium nanoparticles using a facile and efficient method in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The nanoparticles were formed on the graphene sheets by the simple hydrogen reduction of palladium(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate precursor in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly dispersed nanoparticles with various sizes and shapes adhered well to the graphene sheets. The composites showed high catalytic activities for the Suzuki reaction under aqueous and aerobic conditions within 5 min. The effects of the different Pd precursor loadings on the catalytic activities of the composites were also examined.

  10. Both structural and non-structural forms of the readthrough protein of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus are essential for efficient systemic infection of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvaine Boissinot

    Full Text Available Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV is a polerovirus (Luteoviridae family with a capsid composed of the major coat protein and a minor component referred to as the readthrough protein (RT. Two forms of the RT were reported: a full-length protein of 74 kDa detected in infected plants and a truncated form of 55 kDa (RT* incorporated into virions. Both forms were detected in CABYV-infected plants. To clarify the specific roles of each protein in the viral cycle, we generated by deletion a polerovirus mutant able to synthesize only the RT* which is incorporated into the particle. This mutant was unable to move systemically from inoculated leaves inferring that the C-terminal half of the RT is required for efficient long-distance transport of CABYV. Among a collection of CABYV mutants bearing point mutations in the central domain of the RT, we obtained a mutant impaired in the correct processing of the RT which does not produce the RT*. This mutant accumulated very poorly in upper non-inoculated leaves, suggesting that the RT* has a functional role in long-distance movement of CABYV. Taken together, these results infer that both RT proteins are required for an efficient CABYV movement.

  11. Both structural and non-structural forms of the readthrough protein of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus are essential for efficient systemic infection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissinot, Sylvaine; Erdinger, Monique; Monsion, Baptiste; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) is a polerovirus (Luteoviridae family) with a capsid composed of the major coat protein and a minor component referred to as the readthrough protein (RT). Two forms of the RT were reported: a full-length protein of 74 kDa detected in infected plants and a truncated form of 55 kDa (RT*) incorporated into virions. Both forms were detected in CABYV-infected plants. To clarify the specific roles of each protein in the viral cycle, we generated by deletion a polerovirus mutant able to synthesize only the RT* which is incorporated into the particle. This mutant was unable to move systemically from inoculated leaves inferring that the C-terminal half of the RT is required for efficient long-distance transport of CABYV. Among a collection of CABYV mutants bearing point mutations in the central domain of the RT, we obtained a mutant impaired in the correct processing of the RT which does not produce the RT*. This mutant accumulated very poorly in upper non-inoculated leaves, suggesting that the RT* has a functional role in long-distance movement of CABYV. Taken together, these results infer that both RT proteins are required for an efficient CABYV movement.

  12. Characterization of nicotinamidases: steady state kinetic parameters, classwide inhibition by nicotinaldehydes, and catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jarrod B; Cen, Yana; Vrablik, Tracy L; Xu, Ping; Allen, Eleanor; Hanna-Rose, Wendy; Sauve, Anthony A

    2010-12-14

    Nicotinamidases are metabolic enzymes that hydrolyze nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are widely distributed across biology, with examples found encoded in the genomes of Mycobacteria, Archaea, Eubacteria, Protozoa, yeast, and invertebrates, but there are none found in mammals. Although recent structural work has improved our understanding of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism is still not well understood. Recent data show that nicotinamidases are required for the growth and virulence of several pathogenic microbes. The enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans regulate life span in their respective organisms, consistent with proposed roles in the regulation of NAD(+) metabolism and organismal aging. In this work, the steady state kinetic parameters of nicotinamidase enzymes from C. elegans, Sa. cerevisiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (a pathogen responsible for human pneumonia), Borrelia burgdorferi (the pathogen that causes Lyme disease), and Plasmodium falciparum (responsible for most human malaria) are reported. Nicotinamidases are generally efficient catalysts with steady state k(cat) values typically exceeding 1 s(-1). The K(m) values for nicotinamide are low and in the range of 2 -110 μM. Nicotinaldehyde was determined to be a potent competitive inhibitor of these enzymes, binding in the low micromolar to low nanomolar range for all nicotinamidases tested. A variety of nicotinaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors in kinetic assays. Inhibitions are consistent with reaction of the universally conserved catalytic Cys on each enzyme with the aldehyde carbonyl carbon to form a thiohemiacetal complex that is stabilized by a conserved oxyanion hole. The S. pneumoniae nicotinamidase can catalyze exchange of (18)O into the carboxy oxygens of nicotinic acid with H(2)(18)O. The collected data, along with kinetic analysis of several mutants, allowed us to propose a catalytic

  13. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, Karine, E-mail: karine.liger@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Mascarade, Jérémy [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France); Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi [Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, Toulouse F-31030 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Toulouse F-31030 (France); Troulay, Michèle; Perrais, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTA/LIPC Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental results for the conversion of tritiated water (using deuterium as a simulant of tritium) by means of a catalytic membrane reactor in view of tritium recovery. • Phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior including the determination of the compositions of gaseous effluents. • Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on the dedicated facility. • Explanation of the unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor by the modeling results and in particular the gas composition estimation. - Abstract: In the framework of tritium recovery from tritiated water, efficiency of packed bed membrane reactors have been successfully demonstrated. Thanks to protium isotope swamping, tritium bonded water can be recovered under the valuable Q{sub 2} form (Q = H, D or T) by means of isotope exchange reactions occurring on catalyst surface. The use of permselective Pd-based membrane allows withdrawal of reactions products all along the reactor, and thus limits reverse reaction rate to the benefit of the direct one (shift effect). The reactions kinetics, which are still little known or unknown, are generally assumed to be largely greater than the permeation ones so that thermodynamic equilibriums of isotope exchange reactions are generally assumed. This paper proposes a new phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior with the determination of gas effluents compositions. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a dedicated facility. Furthermore, the gas composition estimation permits to interpret unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor. In the next future, further sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the limits of the model and a kinetics study will be conducted to assess the thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions.

  14. On the study of catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation: Modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liger, Karine; Mascarade, Jérémy; Joulia, Xavier; Meyer, Xuan-Mi; Troulay, Michèle; Perrais, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental results for the conversion of tritiated water (using deuterium as a simulant of tritium) by means of a catalytic membrane reactor in view of tritium recovery. • Phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior including the determination of the compositions of gaseous effluents. • Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on the dedicated facility. • Explanation of the unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor by the modeling results and in particular the gas composition estimation. - Abstract: In the framework of tritium recovery from tritiated water, efficiency of packed bed membrane reactors have been successfully demonstrated. Thanks to protium isotope swamping, tritium bonded water can be recovered under the valuable Q_2 form (Q = H, D or T) by means of isotope exchange reactions occurring on catalyst surface. The use of permselective Pd-based membrane allows withdrawal of reactions products all along the reactor, and thus limits reverse reaction rate to the benefit of the direct one (shift effect). The reactions kinetics, which are still little known or unknown, are generally assumed to be largely greater than the permeation ones so that thermodynamic equilibriums of isotope exchange reactions are generally assumed. This paper proposes a new phenomenological 2D model to represent catalytic membrane reactor behavior with the determination of gas effluents compositions. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and experimental measurements performed on a dedicated facility. Furthermore, the gas composition estimation permits to interpret unexpected behavior of the catalytic membrane reactor. In the next future, further sensitivity analysis will be performed to determine the limits of the model and a kinetics study will be conducted to assess the thermodynamic equilibrium of reactions.

  15. Optimized bacterial expression and purification of the c-Src catalytic domain for solution NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piserchio, Andrea; Ghose, Ranajeet; Cowburn, David

    2009-01-01

    Progression of a host of human cancers is associated with elevated levels of expression and catalytic activity of the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs), making them key therapeutic targets. Even with the availability of multiple crystal structures of active and inactive forms of the SFK catalytic domain (CD), a complete understanding of its catalytic regulation is unavailable. Also unavailable are atomic or near-atomic resolution information about their interactions, often weak or transient, with regulating phosphatases and downstream targets. Solution NMR, the biophysical method best suited to tackle this problem, was previously hindered by difficulties in bacterial expression and purification of sufficient quantities of soluble, properly folded protein for economically viable labeling with NMR-active isotopes. Through a choice of optimal constructs, co-expression with chaperones and optimization of the purification protocol, we have achieved the ability to bacterially produce large quantities of the isotopically-labeled CD of c-Src, the prototypical SFK, and of its activating Tyr-phosphorylated form. All constructs produce excellent spectra allowing solution NMR studies of this family in an efficient manner

  16. Process for improving the separation efficiency in the isolation of radioactive isotopes in elementary or chemically bonded form from liquids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidberger, R.; Kirch, R.; Kock, W.

    1986-01-01

    In the process for the improvement of the separation efficiency in the isolation of radioactive isotopes in elementary or chemically bonded form from liquids or gases by ion exchange and adsorption, non-radioactive isotopes of the element to be isolated are added to the fluid before the isolation, whereas at the same time a large surplus of the non-radioactive isotopes to the radioactive isotopes is achieved by addition of only small quantities of compounds of the non-radioactive isotopes. (orig./RB) [de

  17. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  18. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  19. Orion EFT-1 Catalytic Tile Experiment Overview and Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and results of a surface catalysis flight experiment flown on the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). Similar to previous Space Shuttle catalytic tile experiments, the present test consisted of a highly catalytic coating applied to an instrumented TPS tile. However, the present catalytic tile experiment contained significantly more instrumentation in order to better resolve the heating overshoot caused by the change in surface catalytic efficiency at the interface between two distinct materials. In addition to collecting data with unprecedented spatial resolution of the "overshoot" phenomenon, the experiment was also designed to prove if such a catalytic overshoot would be seen in turbulent flow in high enthalpy regimes. A detailed discussion of the results obtained during EFT1 is presented, as well as the challenges associated with data interpretation of this experiment. Results of material testing carried out in support of this flight experiment are also shown. Finally, an inverse heat conduction technique is employed to reconstruct the flight environments at locations upstream and along the catalytic coating. The data and analysis presented in this work will greatly contribute to our understanding of the catalytic "overshoot" phenomenon, and have a significant impact on the design of future spacecraft.

  20. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  1. First-principles investigation on the electronic efficiency and binding energy of the contacts formed by graphene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon anchoring groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang; Tu, Xingchen; Wang, Hao; Hou, Shimin, E-mail: smhou@pku.edu.cn [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics, AMBER and CRANN Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2015-04-28

    The electronic efficiency and binding energy of contacts formed between graphene electrodes and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anchoring groups have been investigated by the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that PAH molecules always bind in the interior and at the edge of graphene in the AB stacking manner, and that the binding energy increases following the increase of the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms constituting the PAH molecule. When we move to analyzing the electronic transport properties of molecular junctions with a six-carbon alkyne chain as the central molecule, the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contacts is found to depend on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the corresponding PAH anchoring group, rather than its size. To be specific, the smaller is the HOMO-LUMO gap of the PAH anchoring group, the higher is the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contact. Although the HOMO-LUMO gap of a PAH molecule depends on its specific configuration, PAH molecules with similar atomic structures show a decreasing trend for their HOMO-LUMO gap as the number of fused benzene rings increases. Therefore, graphene-conjugated molecule-graphene junctions with high-binding and high-conducting graphene-PAH contacts can be realized by choosing appropriate PAH anchor groups with a large area and a small HOMO-LUMO gap.

  2. First-principles investigation on the electronic efficiency and binding energy of the contacts formed by graphene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yang; Tu, Xingchen; Wang, Hao; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. The electronic efficiency and binding energy of contacts formed between graphene electrodes and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anchoring groups have been investigated by the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that PAH molecules always bind in the interior and at the edge of graphene in the AB stacking manner, and that the binding energy increases following the increase of the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms constituting the PAH molecule. When we move to analyzing the electronic transport properties of molecular junctions with a six-carbon alkyne chain as the central molecule, the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contacts is found to depend on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the corresponding PAH anchoring group, rather than its size. To be specific, the smaller is the HOMO-LUMO gap of the PAH anchoring group, the higher is the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contact. Although the HOMO-LUMO gap of a PAH molecule depends on its specific configuration, PAH molecules with similar atomic structures show a decreasing trend for their HOMO-LUMO gap as the number of fused benzene rings increases. Therefore, graphene-conjugated molecule-graphene junctions with high-binding and high-conducting graphene-PAH contacts can be realized by choosing appropriate PAH anchor groups with a large area and a small HOMO-LUMO gap.

  3. The Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M Francesca; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Boot, Claudia M; Denef, Karolien; Paul, Eldor

    2013-04-01

    The decomposition and transformation of above- and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been largely uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. We present the current understanding of the importance of microbial substrate use efficiency and C and N allocation in controlling the proportion of plant-derived C and N that is incorporated into SOM, and of soil matrix interactions in controlling SOM stabilization. We synthesize this understanding into the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework. This framework leads to the hypothesis that labile plant constituents are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates, because they are utilized more efficiently by microbes. These microbial products of decomposition would thus become the main precursors of stable SOM by promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to the mineral soil matrix. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Processing and structural characterization of porous reforming catalytic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xianghui; Williams, Jey; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2006-01-01

    Nickel-based catalysts are often used to reform methanol into hydrogen. The preparation and installation of these catalysts are costly and laborious. As an alternative, directly applying catalytic films onto the separator components can improve the manufacturing efficiency. This paper reports the successful deposition of adherent porous NiO-Al 2 O 3 -based catalytic films with well-controlled stoichiometry, using a single-step Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) method. The microstructure, composition and crystalline phase of the as-deposited catalytic films are characterized using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer. The results have demonstrated the capability of AACVD to produce porous NiO-Al 2 O 3 -based catalytic films

  5. A new optimization tool path planning for 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces based on efficient machining intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Duy-Duc; Monies, Frédéric; Rubio, Walter

    2018-05-01

    A large number of studies, based on 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces, seek to optimize tool path planning. Approaches try to optimize the machining time by reducing the total tool path length while respecting the criterion of the maximum scallop height. Theoretically, the tool path trajectories that remove the most material follow the directions in which the machined width is the largest. The free-form surface is often considered as a single machining area. Therefore, the optimization on the entire surface is limited. Indeed, it is difficult to define tool trajectories with optimal feed directions which generate largest machined widths. Another limiting point of previous approaches for effectively reduce machining time is the inadequate choice of the tool. Researchers use generally a spherical tool on the entire surface. However, the gains proposed by these different methods developed with these tools lead to relatively small time savings. Therefore, this study proposes a new method, using toroidal milling tools, for generating toolpaths in different regions on the machining surface. The surface is divided into several regions based on machining intervals. These intervals ensure that the effective radius of the tool, at each cutter-contact points on the surface, is always greater than the radius of the tool in an optimized feed direction. A parallel plane strategy is then used on the sub-surfaces with an optimal specific feed direction for each sub-surface. This method allows one to mill the entire surface with efficiency greater than with the use of a spherical tool. The proposed method is calculated and modeled using Maple software to find optimal regions and feed directions in each region. This new method is tested on a free-form surface. A comparison is made with a spherical cutter to show the significant gains obtained with a toroidal milling cutter. Comparisons with CAM software and experimental validations are also done. The results show the

  6. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  7. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is ...

  8. Reaction Current Phenomenon in Bifunctional Catalytic Metal-Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Mohammad Amin

    Energy transfer processes accompany every elementary step of catalytic chemical processes on material surface including molecular adsorption and dissociation on atoms, interactions between intermediates, and desorption of reaction products from the catalyst surface. Therefore, detailed understanding of these processes on the molecular level is of great fundamental and practical interest in energy-related applications of nanomaterials. Two main mechanisms of energy transfer from adsorbed particles to a surface are known: (i) adiabatic via excitation of quantized lattice vibrations (phonons) and (ii) non-adiabatic via electronic excitations (electron/hole pairs). Electronic excitations play a key role in nanocatalysis, and it was recently shown that they can be efficiently detected and studied using Schottky-type catalytic nanostructures in the form of measureable electrical currents (chemicurrents) in an external electrical circuit. These nanostructures typically contain an electrically continuous nanocathode layers made of a catalytic metal deposited on a semiconductor substrate. The goal of this research is to study the direct observations of hot electron currents (chemicurrents) in catalytic Schottky structures, using a continuous mesh-like Pt nanofilm grown onto a mesoporous TiO2 substrate. Such devices showed qualitatively different and more diverse signal properties, compared to the earlier devices using smooth substrates, which could only be explained on the basis of bifunctionality. In particular, it was necessary to suggest that different stages of the reaction are occurring on both phases of the catalytic structure. Analysis of the signal behavior also led to discovery of a formerly unknown (very slow) mode of the oxyhydrogen reaction on the Pt/TiO2(por) system occurring at room temperature. This slow mode was producing surprisingly large stationary chemicurrents in the range 10--50 microA/cm2. Results of the chemicurrent measurements for the bifunctional

  9. Catalytic detritiation of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.; Lamberger, P.H.; Ellis, R.E.; Mills, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot-scale system has been used at Mound Laboratory to investigate the catalytic detritiation of water. A hydrophobic, precious metal catalyst is used to promote the exchange of tritium between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen at 60 0 C. Two columns are used, each 7.5 m long by 2.5 cm ID and packed with catalyst. Water flow is 5-10 cm 3 /min and countercurrent hydrogen flow is 9,000-12,000 cm 3 /min. The equipment, except for the columns, is housed in an inert atmosphere glovebox and is computer controlled. The hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of a portion of the water stream. Enriched gaseous tritium is withdrawn for further enrichment. A description of the system is included along with an outline of its operation. Recent experimental data are discussed

  10. Enhancement of catalytic efficiency of enzymes through exposure to anhydrous organic solvent at 70 degrees C. Three-dimensional structure of a treated serine proteinase at 2.2 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M N; Tyagi, R; Sharma, S; Karthikeyan, S; Singh, T P

    2000-05-15

    The enzyme behavior in anhydrous media has important applications in biotechnology. So far chemical modifications and protein engineering have been used to alter the catalytic power of the enzymes. For the first time, it is demonstrated that an exposure of enzyme to anhydrous organic solvents at optimized high temperature enhances its catalytic power through local changes at the binding region. Six enzymes: proteinase K, wheat germ acid phosphatase, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, chymotrypsin and trypsin have been exposed to acetonitrile at 70 degrees C for three hours. The activities of these enzymes were found to be considerably enhanced. In order to understand the basis of this change in the activity of these enzymes, the structure of one of these treated enzymes, proteinase K has been analyzed in detail using X-ray diffraction method. The overall structure of the enzyme is similar to the native structure in aqueous environment. The hydrogen bonding system of the catalytic triad is intact after the treatment. However, the water structure in the substrate binding site undergoes some rearrangement as some of the water molecules are either displaced or completely absent. The most striking observation concerning the water structure pertains to the complete deletion of the water molecule which occupied the position at the so-called oxyanion hole in the active site of the native enzyme. Three acetonitrile molecules were found in the present structure. All the acetonitrile molecules are located in the recognition site. The sites occupied by acetonitrile molecules are independent of water molecules. The acetonitrile molecules are involved in extensive interactions with the protein atoms. All of them are interlinked through water molecules. The methyl group of one of the acetonitrile molecules (CCN1) interacts simultaneously with the hydrophobic side chains of Leu-96, Ile-107, and Leu-133. The development of such a hydrophobic environment at the recognition site

  11. Tunable preparation of ruthenium nanoparticles with superior size-dependent catalytic hydrogenation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuan; Luo, Yaodong; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Yaxin; Song, Qijun, E-mail: qsong@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A facile and efficient strategy is firstly developed for the synthesis of Ru NPs. • Ru NPs are stable and uniform with the controllable sizes from 2.6 to 51.5 nm. • Ru NPs exhibit size-dependent and superior catalytic hydrogenation activity. - Abstract: Ruthenium (Ru) featured with an unusual catalytic behavior is of great significance in several heterogeneous and electro-catalytic reactions. The preparation of tractable Ru nanocatalysts and the building of highly active catalytic system at ambient temperature remains a grand challenge. Herein, a facile strategy is developed for the controllable preparation of Ru nanoparticles (NPs) with the sizes ranging from 2.6 to 51.5 nm. Ru NPs show superior size-dependent catalytic performance with the best kinetic rate constant as high as −1.52 min{sup −1}, which could far surpass the other traditional noble metals. Ru NPs exert exceedingly efficient low-temperature catalytic activity and good recyclability in the catalytic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) and azo dyes. The developed catalytic system provides a distinguishing insight for the artificial preparation of Ru NPs with desired sizes, and allows for the development of rational design rules for exploring catalysts with superior catalytic performances, potentially broadening the applications of metallic NP-enabled catalytic analysis.

  12. The Kemp elimination in membrane mimetic reaction media. Probing catalytic properties of cationic vesicles formed from a double-tailed amphiphile and linear long-tailed alcohols or alkyl pyranosides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, JE; Engberts, JBFN

    2004-01-01

    Vesicles formed from synthetic, double-tailed amphiphiles are often used as mimics for biological membranes. However, biological membranes are a complex mixture of various compounds. In the present paper we describe a first attempt to study the importance of additives on vesicular catalysis. The

  13. Green and facile synthesis of fibrous Ag/cotton composites and their catalytic properties for 4-nitrophenol reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyu; Jia, Zhigang; Ni, Tao; Li, Shengbiao

    2017-12-01

    Natural cotton, featuring abundant oxygen-containing functional groups, has been utilized as a reductant to synthesize Ag nanoparticles on its surface. Through the facile and environment-friendly reduction process, the fibrous Ag/cotton composite (FAC) was conveniently synthesized. Various characterization techniques including XRD, XPS, TEM, SEM, EDS and FT-IR had been utilized to study the material microstructure and surface properties. The resulting FAC exhibited favorable activity on the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol with high reaction rate. Moreover, the fibrous Ag/cotton composites were capable to form a desirable catalytic mat for catalyzing and simultaneous product separation. Reactants passing through the mat could be catalytically transformed to product, which is of great significance for water treatment. Such catalyst (FAC) was thus expected to have the potential as a highly efficient, cost-effective and eco-friendly catalyst for industrial applications. More importantly, this newly developed synthetic methodology could serve as a general tool to design and synthesize other metal/biomass composites catalysts for a wider range of catalytic applications.

  14. Increase in colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of thymus cells from radiation-induced thymomas of NIH Swiss mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Nobuko; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Hori, Yasuharu [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    Colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of radiation-induced thymoma in NIH Swiss mice was determined in the presence of cultured medium of reticulo-epitherial cells from normal thymus of NIH Swiss mouse as conditioned medium. A similar experiment was done with thymomas spontaneously developed in AKR mice. Most of colonies developed in soft agar were not composed of thymic lymphoma cells, but of macrophage-like cells. The ratio of the number of colonies to that of the seeded cells significantly increased in thymomas comparing with that in normal thymus. This result corresponded with the increased number of macrophages in thymoma, as determined by counting phagocytic cells of adherent cells.

  15. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  16. Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

    The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ≥ 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

  17. Vapor-Driven Propulsion of Catalytic Micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renfeng; Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Ezhilan, Barath; Xu, Tailin; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Wei; Saintillan, David; Ren, Biye; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Chemically-powered micromotors offer exciting opportunities in diverse fields, including therapeutic delivery, environmental remediation, and nanoscale manufacturing. However, these nanovehicles require direct addition of high concentration of chemical fuel to the motor solution for their propulsion. We report the efficient vapor-powered propulsion of catalytic micromotors without direct addition of fuel to the micromotor solution. Diffusion of hydrazine vapor from the surrounding atmosphere into the sample solution is instead used to trigger rapid movement of iridium-gold Janus microsphere motors. Such operation creates a new type of remotely-triggered and powered catalytic micro/nanomotors that are responsive to their surrounding environment. This new propulsion mechanism is accompanied by unique phenomena, such as the distinct off-on response to the presence of fuel in the surrounding atmosphere, and spatio-temporal dependence of the motor speed borne out of the concentration gradient evolution within the motor solution. The relationship between the motor speed and the variables affecting the fuel concentration distribution is examined using a theoretical model for hydrazine transport, which is in turn used to explain the observed phenomena. The vapor-powered catalytic micro/nanomotors offer new opportunities in gas sensing, threat detection, and environmental monitoring, and open the door for a new class of environmentally-triggered micromotors.

  18. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  19. Efficient and Air-Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Formed on Graphene-Oxide-Modified PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Lin, Xuanhuai; Hou, Xian; Pan, Likun; Huang, Sumei; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    As a hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS usually limits the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to its hygroscopic nature and inability to block electrons. Here, a graphene-oxide (GO)-modified PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer was fabricated by spin-coating a GO solution onto the PEDOT:PSS surface. PSCs fabricated on a GO-modified PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.34%, which is higher than 11.90% of PSCs with the PEDOT:PSS layer. Furthermore, the stability of the PSCs was significantly improved, with the PCE remaining at 83.5% of the initial PCE values after aging for 39 days in air. The hygroscopic PSS material at the PEDOT:PSS surface was partly removed during spin-coating with the GO solution, which improves the moisture resistance and decreases the contact barrier between the hole transport layer and perovskite layer. The scattered distribution of the GO at the PEDOT:PSS surface exhibits superior wettability, which helps to form a high-quality perovskite layer with better crystallinity and fewer pin holes. Furthermore, the hole extraction selectivity of the GO further inhibits the carrier recombination at the interface between the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers. Therefore, the cooperative interactions of these factors greatly improve the light absorption of the perovskite layer, the carrier transport and collection abilities of the PSCs, and especially the stability of the cells.

  20. First-principles investigation on the electronic efficiency and binding energy of the contacts formed by graphene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yang

    2015-04-28

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. The electronic efficiency and binding energy of contacts formed between graphene electrodes and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anchoring groups have been investigated by the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that PAH molecules always bind in the interior and at the edge of graphene in the AB stacking manner, and that the binding energy increases following the increase of the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms constituting the PAH molecule. When we move to analyzing the electronic transport properties of molecular junctions with a six-carbon alkyne chain as the central molecule, the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contacts is found to depend on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the corresponding PAH anchoring group, rather than its size. To be specific, the smaller is the HOMO-LUMO gap of the PAH anchoring group, the higher is the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contact. Although the HOMO-LUMO gap of a PAH molecule depends on its specific configuration, PAH molecules with similar atomic structures show a decreasing trend for their HOMO-LUMO gap as the number of fused benzene rings increases. Therefore, graphene-conjugated molecule-graphene junctions with high-binding and high-conducting graphene-PAH contacts can be realized by choosing appropriate PAH anchor groups with a large area and a small HOMO-LUMO gap.

  1. The Performance of Chrome-Coated Copper as Metallic Catalytic Converter to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warju; Harto, S. P.; Soenarto

    2018-01-01

    One of the automotive technologies to reduce exhaust gas emissions from the spark-ignition engine (SIE) is by using a catalytic converter. The aims of this research are firstly to conduct a metallic catalytic converter, secondly to find out to what extend chrome-coated copper plate (Cu+Cr) as a catalyst is efficient. To measure the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) on the frame there are two conditions required. First is when the standard condition, and second is when Cu+Cr metallic catalytic converter is applied using exhaust gas analyzer. Exhaust gas emissions from SIE are measured by using SNI 19-7118.1-2005. The testing of CO and HC emissions were conducted with variable speed to find the trend of exhaust gas emissions from idle speed to high speed. This experiment results in the fact that the use of Cu+Cr metallic catalytic converter can reduce the production of CO and HC of a four-stroke gasoline engine. The reduction of CO and HC emission are 95,35% and 79,28%. Using active metal catalyst in form of metallic catalytic converter, it is gained an optimum effective surface of a catalyst which finally is able to decrease the amount of CO and HC emission significantly in every spinning happened in the engine. Finally, this technology can be applied to the spark ignition engine both car and motorcycle to support blue sky program in Indonesia.

  2. Chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hirotaka; Kitaoka, Takuya; Isogai, Akira

    2015-01-15

    We discuss the successful use of chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor for the production of useful chemicals. The chemical modification of cellulose paper was achieved using a silane-coupling technique. Amine-modified paper was directly used as a base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Methacrylate-modified paper was used for the immobilization of lipase and then in nonaqueous transesterification processes. These catalytic paper materials offer high reaction efficiencies and have excellent practical properties. We suggest that the paper-specific interconnected microstructure with pulp fiber networks provides fast mixing of the reactants and efficient transport of the reactants to the catalytically-active sites. This concept is expected to be a promising route to green and sustainable chemistry.

  3. Chemically-Modified Cellulose Paper as a Microstructured Catalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the successful use of chemically-modified cellulose paper as a microstructured catalytic reactor for the production of useful chemicals. The chemical modification of cellulose paper was achieved using a silane-coupling technique. Amine-modified paper was directly used as a base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Methacrylate-modified paper was used for the immobilization of lipase and then in nonaqueous transesterification processes. These catalytic paper materials offer high reaction efficiencies and have excellent practical properties. We suggest that the paper-specific interconnected microstructure with pulp fiber networks provides fast mixing of the reactants and efficient transport of the reactants to the catalytically-active sites. This concept is expected to be a promising route to green and sustainable chemistry.

  4. Catalytic stereoselective synthesis of highly substituted indanones via tandem Nazarov cyclization and electrophilic fluorination trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Cui, Han-Feng; Hua, Ming-Qing; Ma, Jun-An

    2007-08-02

    A new catalytic stereoselective tandem transformation via Nazarov cyclization/electrophilic fluorination has been accomplished. This sequence is efficiently catalyzed by a Cu(II) complex to afford fluorine-containing 1-indanone derivatives with two new stereocenters with high diastereoselectivity (trans/cis up to 49/1). Three examples of catalytic enantioselective tandem transformation are presented.

  5. Fundamental study of manganese dioxide for catalytic recombustion of exhaust gas of motor car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyamada, T

    1974-01-01

    The catalytic activities of five manganese dioxide preparations were tested in a pulse reactor to assess their carbon monoxide-oxidizing capability in relation to the catalytic afterburning of automobile exhaust gases. Catalysts prepared from manganese sulfate showed diminished catalytic activity as a result of sulfate poisoning. Higher oxidation activity was obtained with a catalyst prepared by precipitating the permanganate salt in acidic solution. Two forms of carbon monoxide adsorption were demonstrated, each with a characteristic activation energy and reaction temperature.

  6. Millisecond dynamics in glutaredoxin during catalytic turnover is dependent on substrate binding and absent in the resting states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Steen; Winther, Jakob R; Teilum, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    to the glutathione exchange rate was observed for 23 residues. Binding of reduced glutathione resulted in competitive inhibition of the reduced enzyme having kinetics similar to that of the reaction. This observation couples the motions observed during catalysis directly to substrate binding. Backbone motions......Conformational dynamics is important for enzyme function. Which motions of enzymes determine catalytic efficiency and whether the same motions are important for all enzymes, however, are not well understood. Here we address conformational dynamics in glutaredoxin during catalytic turnover...... with a combination of NMR magnetization transfer, R(2) relaxation dispersion, and ligand titration experiments. Glutaredoxins catalyze a glutathione exchange reaction, forming a stable glutathinoylated enzyme intermediate. The equilibrium between the reduced state and the glutathionylated state was biochemically...

  7. Catalytic decomposition of gaseous 1,2-dichlorobenzene over CuOx/TiO₂ and CuOx/TiO₂-CNTs catalysts: Mechanism and PCDD/Fs formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-lin; Huang, Qun-xing; Wu, Hui-fan; Lu, Sheng-yong; Wu, Hai-long; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2016-02-01

    Gaseous 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCBz) was catalytically decomposed in a fixed-bed catalytic reactor using composite copper-based titanium oxide (CuOx/TiO2) catalysts with different copper ratios. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were introduced to produce novel CuOx/TiO2-CNTs catalysts by the sol-gel method. The catalytic performances of CuOx/TiO2 and CuOx/TiO2-CNTs on 1,2-DCBz oxidative destruction under different temperatures (150-350 °C) were experimentally examined and the correlation between catalyst structure and catalytic activity was characterized and the role of oxygen in catalytic reaction was discussed. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generation during 1,2-DCBz catalytic oxidation by CuOx/TiO2-CNTs composite catalyst was also examined. Results indicate that the 1,2-DCBz destruction/removal efficiencies of CuOx (4 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst at 150 °C and 350 °C with a GHSV of 3400 h(-1) are 59% and 94% respectively and low-temperature (150 °C) catalytic activity of CuOx/TiO2 on 1,2-DCBz oxidation can be improved from 59 to 77% when CNTs are introduced. Furthermore, oxygen either in catalyst or from reaction atmosphere is indispensible in reaction. The former is offered to activate and oxidize the 1,2-DCBz adsorbed on catalyst, thus can be generally consumed during reaction and the oxygen content in catalyst is observed lost from 39.9 to 35.0 wt% after reacting under inert atmosphere; the latter may replenish the vacancy in catalyst created by the consumed oxygen thus extends the catalyst life and raises the destruction/removal efficiency. The introduction of CNTs also increases the Cu(2+)/Cu(+) ratio, chemisorbed oxygen concentration and surface lattice oxygen binding energy which are closely related with catalytic activity. PCDD/Fs is confirmed to be formed when 1,2-DCBz catalytically oxidized by CuOx/TiO2-CNTs composite catalyst with sufficient oxygen (21%), proper temperature (350 °C) and high concentration of 1,2-DCBz feed (120 ppm

  8. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  9. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    126, No. 2, March 2014, pp. 341–351. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and .... Gas–liquid and liquid–solid transport processes in catalytic reactors.5.

  10. Catalytic conversion of ethanol on H-Y zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čegar Nedeljko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of the H-form of synthetic zeolite NaY was examined in this study. The catalytic activity was determined according to the rate of ethanol conversion in a gas phase in the static system. In the conversion of ethanol on synthetic NaY zeolite at 585, 595, and 610 K, on which the reaction develops at an optimal rate, ethene and diethyl ether are evolved in approximately the same quantity. After transforming the NaY zeolite into the H-form, its catalytic activity was extremely increases so, the reaction develops at a significantly lower temperature with a very large increase in the reaction rate. The distribution of the products also changes, so that at lower temperatures diethyl ether is elvolved in most cases, and the development of ethene is favored at higher ones, and after a certain period of time there is almost complete conversion of ethanol into ethene. The increase in catalytic activity, as well as the change of selectivity of conversion of ethanol on the H-form of zeolite, is the result of removing Na+ cations in the NaY zeolite, so that more acidic catalyst is obtained which contains a number of acidic catalytically active centers, as well as a more powerful one compared to the original NaY zeolite.

  11. Selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, F

    1997-12-31

    The removal of nitrogen oxides from the exhaust of lean-burn gasoline fuelled and diesel-fuelled engines, operating under net oxidizing conditions, has recently attracted considerable attention. In this work, three different catalytic systems (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/ZSM-5) are investigated for their suitability as catalysts for the selective reduction of nitrogen oxides by hydrocarbons in excess oxygen. Special emphasis is given to the formation of potentially harmful byproducts such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN), cyanic acid (HNCO), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). The effect of reaction temperature, nitrogen oxide (NO, NO{sub 2}), hydrocarbon (ethene, propene) and water on activity and the formation of byproducts is investigated. In situ FTIR spectroscopy and temperature-programmed surface reactions (TPSR) of absorbed species in different atmospheres were used to investigate the nature and reactivity of adsorbates formed under reaction conditions. The catalytic activity was strongly influenced by the presence of water in the feed. The effects of the other parameters were suppressed and the performance generally decreased, except when propene was used for the reduction of NO{sub x} over Cu/ZSM-5. Over Cu/ZSM-5 clearly higher conversion was obtained, when ethene was used as reducing agent, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. The impregnation of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with copper led to an extensive loss of this performance. For dry feeds and with increasing CuO loading, the catalysts reached maximum activity at lower temperature and the maximum yield of nitrogen slightly decreased. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. Progress in catalytic naphtha reforming process: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Mitra; Iranshahi, Davood

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic naphtha reforming process is a vital process for refineries due to the production of high-octane components, which is intensely demanded in our modern life. The significance of this industrial process induced researchers to investigate different aspects of catalytic naphtha reforming process intensively. Some of the investigators try to improve this process by representing more effective catalysts, while others try to elucidate its kinetic and deactivation mechanisms and design more efficient reactor setups. The amount of these established papers is so much that may confuse some of the researchers who want to find collective information about catalytic naphtha reforming process. In the present paper, the published studies from 1949 until now are categorized into three main groups including finding suitable catalyst, revealing appropriate kinetic and deactivation model, and suggesting efficient reactor configuration and mode of operation. These studies are reviewed separately, and a suitable reference is provided for those who want to have access to generalized information about catalytic naphtha reforming process. Finally, various suggestions for revamping the catalytic naphtha reforming process have been proposed as a guideline for further investigations

  13. A QM/MM study of the catalytic mechanism of nicotinamidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiang; Liu, Yongjun

    2014-02-28

    Nicotinamidase (Pnc1) is a member of Zn-dependent amidohydrolases that hydrolyzes nicotinamide (NAM) to nicotinic acid (NA), which is a key step in the salvage pathway of NAD(+) biosynthesis. In this paper, the catalytic mechanism of Pnc1 has been investigated by using a combined quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) approach based on the recently obtained crystal structure of Pnc1. The reaction pathway, the detail of each elementary step, the energetics of the whole catalytic cycle, and the roles of key residues and Zn-binding site are illuminated. Our calculation results indicate that the catalytic water molecule comes from the bulk solvent, which is then deprotonated by residue D8. D8 functions as a proton transfer station between C167 and NAM, while the activated C167 serves as the nucleophile. The residue K122 only plays a role in stabilizing intermediates and transition states. The oxyanion hole formed by the amide backbone nitrogen atoms of A163 and C167 has the function to stabilize the hydroxyl anion of nicotinamide. The Zn-binding site rather than a single Zn(2+) ion acts as a Lewis acid to influence the reaction. Two elementary steps, the activation of C167 in the deamination process and the decomposition of catalytic water in the hydrolysis process, correspond to the large energy barriers of 25.7 and 28.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively, meaning that both of them contribute a lot to the overall reaction barrier. Our results may provide useful information for the design of novel and efficient Pnc1 inhibitors and related biocatalytic applications.

  14. Simulation on Toxic Gases in Vehicle Exhaust Equipped with Modified Catalytic Converter : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and global warming is a major issue nowadays. One of the main contributors to be the emission of harmful gases produced by vehicle exhausts lines. The harmful gases like NOx, CO, unburned HC and particulate matter increases the global warming, so catalytic converter plays a vital role in reducing harmful gases. Catalytic converters are used on most vehicles on the road today. This research deals with the gas emission flow in the catalytic converter involving the heat transfer, velocity flow, back pressure and others chemical reaction in the modified catalytic converter by using FeCrAl as a substrate that is treated using the ultrasonic bath and electroplating techniques. The objective of this study is to obtain a quantitative description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software. The description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software was simulated in this research in order to provide better efficiency and ease the reusability of the catalytic converter by comparing experimental data with software analysing data. The result will be expected to demonstrate a good approximation of gas emission in the modified catalytic converter simulation data compared to experimental data in order to verify the effectiveness of modified catalytic converter. Therefore studies on simulation of flow through the modified catalytic converter are very important to increase the accuracy of the obtained emission result.

  15. Catalytic Stereoinversion of L-Alanine to Deuterated D-Alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moozeh, Kimia; So, Soon Mog; Chin, Jik

    2015-08-03

    A combination of an achiral pyridoxal analogue and a chiral base has been developed for catalytic deuteration of L-alanine with inversion of stereochemistry to give deuterated D-alanine under mild conditions (neutral pD and 25 °C) without the use of any protecting groups. This system can also be used for catalytic deuteration of D-alanine with retention of stereochemistry to give deuterated D-alanine. Thus a racemic mixture of alanine can be catalytically deuterated to give an enantiomeric excess of deuterated D-alanine. While catalytic deracemization of alanine is forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics, this system can be used for catalytic deracemization of alanine with deuteration. Such green and biomimetic approach to catalytic stereocontrol provides insights into efficient amino acid transformations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Catalytic Ketone Hydrodeoxygenation Mediated by Highly Electrophilic Phosphonium Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Meera; Holthausen, Michael H; Mallov, Ian; Pérez, Manuel; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Grimme, Stefan; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-07-06

    Ketones are efficiently deoxygenated in the presence of silane using highly electrophilic phosphonium cation (EPC) salts as catalysts, thus affording the corresponding alkane and siloxane. The influence of distinct substitution patterns on the catalytic effectiveness of several EPCs was evaluated. The deoxygenation mechanism was probed by DFT methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enhanced catalytic behavior of Ni alloys in steam methane reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeongpil; Kim, Hanmi; Lee, Jaichan

    2017-08-01

    The dissociation process of methane on Ni and Ni alloys are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) in terms of catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition. Examining the dissociation to CH3, CH2, CH, C, and H is not sufficient to properly predict the catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition, and further investigation of the CO gas-evolving reaction is required to completely understand methane dissociation in steam. The location of alloying element in Ni alloy needed be addressed from the results of ab-inito molecular dynamics (MD). The reaction pathway of methane dissociation associated with CO gas evolution is traced by performing first-principles calculations of the adsorption and activation energies of each dissociation step. During the dissociation process, two alternative reaction steps producing adsorbed C and H or adsorbed CO are critically important in determining coking inhibition as well as H2 gas evolution (i.e., the catalytic efficiency). The theoretical calculations presented here suggest that alloying Ni with Ru is an effective way to reduce carbon deposition and enhance the catalytic efficiency of H2 fueling in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

  18. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  19. Biopolymer coated gold nanocrystals prepared using the green chemistry approach and their shape-dependent catalytic and surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Wei; Hsieh, Hui-Hsuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Ko-Shao; Wang, Gou-Jen; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Pan, Yong-Li; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Chang, Ko Hsin; Harn, Yeu-Wei

    2013-07-21

    This study deals with the preparation of multi-shaped nanoscale gold crystals under synthetically simple, green, and efficient conditions using a seed-mediated growth approach in the presence of hyaluronic acid (HA). These highly biocompatible multi-shaped gold nanocrystals were examined to evaluate their catalytic and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties. The results show that the size and shape of the nanocrystals are mainly correlated to the amount of seed, seed size, HA concentration, and reaction temperature. Gold seeds accelerate the reduction of the gold precursor to form gold nanocrystals using HA. The HA serves as a reducing agent and a growth template for the reduction of Au(III) and nanocrystal stabilization. The multi-shaped gold nanocrystals showed superior catalytic properties and higher SERS performance. The simple, green approach efficiently controls the nanocrystals and creates many opportunities for future applications.

  20. Efficient expression of a soluble lipid transfer protein (LTP) of Platanus orientalis using short peptide tags and structural comparison with the natural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Farhad; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Ketabdar, Hanieh; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Successful recombinant allergen-based immunotherapy has drawn a great deal of attention to use recombinant allergens for new therapeutic and/or diagnostic strategies. The Escherichia coli expression system is frequently used to produce recombinant allergens; however, protein expression in E. coli often results in inclusion bodies. Here, we focused on the expression of two recombinant soluble forms of Pla or 3 using solubility-enhancing peptide tags, human immune deficiency virus type 1 transactivator of transcription core domain and poly-arginine-lysine: rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3. Structural characteristics and IgE reactivity of purified recombinant proteins were compared with natural Pla or 3 (nPla or 3) isolated from Platanus orientalis using circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, and immunoblotting. Likewise, intrinsic viscosity and Stokes radius of the natural and recombinant Pla or 3 allergens were determined to analyze structural compactness in aqueous media. The results indicate high-level solubility and efficient expression of the fusion proteins (rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3) compared with the wild-type recombinant. Furthermore, the similar structural characteristics and IgE-binding activities of the fusion proteins to nPla or 3 provide a promising tool for allergy diagnosis and treatment. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Characterization of Nicotinamidases: Steady-State Kinetic Parameters, Class-wide Inhibition by Nicotinaldehydes and Catalytic Mechanism†

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jarrod B.; Cen, Yana; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Xu, Ping; Allen, Eleanor; Hanna-Rose, Wendy; Sauve, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinamidases are metabolic enzymes that hydrolyze nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are widely distributed across biology, with examples found encoded in the genomes of Mycobacteria, Archaea, Eubacteria, Protozoa, yeast and invertebrates but there are none found in mammals. Although recent structural work has improved understanding of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism is still not well understood. Recent data shows that nicotinamidases are required for growth and virulence of several pathogenic microbes. The enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans regulate lifespan in their respective organisms, consistent with proposed roles in the regulation of NAD+ metabolism and organismal aging. In this manuscript, the steady state kinetic parameters of nicotinamidase enzymes from C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (a pathogen responsible for human pneumonia), Borrelia burgdorferi (the pathogen that causes Lyme Disease) and Plasmodium falciparum (responsible for most human malaria) are reported. Nicotinamidases are generally efficient catalysts with steady state kcat values typically exceeding 1 s−1. The Km values for nicotinamide are low and are in the range from 2 – 110 µM. Nicotinaldehyde was determined to be a potent competitive inhibitor of these enzymes, binding in the low µM to low nM range for all nicotinamidases tested. A variety of nicotinaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors in kinetic assays. Inhibitions are consistent with reaction of the universally conserved catalytic Cys on each enzyme with the aldehyde carbonyl carbon to form a thiohemiacetal complex which is stabilized by a conserved oxyanion hole. The S. pneumoniae nicotinamidase can catalyse exchange of 18O into the carboxy oxygens of nicotinic acid with 18O-water. The collected data, along with kinetic analysis of several mutants, allowed us to propose a catalytic mechanism that explains

  2. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  3. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol

  4. Low and medium heating value coal gas catalytic combustor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion with both low and medium heating value coal gases obtained from an operating gasifier was demonstrated. A practical operating range for efficient operation was determined, and also to identify potential problem areas were identified for consideration during stationary gas turbine engine design. The test rig consists of fuel injectors, a fuel-air premixing section, a catalytic reactor with thermocouple instrumentation and a single point, water cooled sample probe. The test rig included inlet and outlet transition pieces and was designed for installation into an existing test loop.

  5. Catalytic Oxidation of Allylic Alcohols to Methyl Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata; Kotni, Rama Krishna; Nielsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of allylic alcohols to methyl esters using gold nanoparticles supported on different metal oxide carriers has been performed successfully under mild conditions (room temperature, 0.1 MPa O2) without significant loss of catalytic activity. The effects of different reaction...... parameters are studied to find the suitable reaction conditions. All catalysts are characterised by XRD, XRF and TEM. Among these catalysts, Au/TiO2 showed the most efficient catalytic activity towards the selective oxidation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding esters. Moreover, the same Au/TiO2...... to synthesize methyl esters from allylic alcohols....

  6. Solvent-free Oxidation of Alcohols and Mild Catalytic Deprotection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tetrabromobenzene- 1,3-disulphonamide (TBBDA) can be used for solvent-free oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds without over-oxidation, and efficient catalytic deprotection of various silyl ...

  7. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  8. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  9. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe

    2017-07-25

    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  10. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  11. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  12. CATALYTIC PROPERTIES AND ACIDITY OF MODIFIED MCM-41 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    obtain H-form catalysts, samples were heated to remove the NH3 gas. Catalytic tests .... Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2006, 20(1). 102. 0. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 350. 400. 450. 0. 0.2 ..... Zhao, X.S.; Lu, G.Q.; Millar, G.J.; Li, X.S. Catal. Lett. 1996, 38 ...

  13. αS1-casein, which is essential for efficient ER-to-Golgi casein transport, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Caseins, the main milk proteins, aggregate in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells into large supramolecular structures, casein micelles. The role of individual caseins in this process and the mesostructure of the casein micelle are poorly known. Results In this study, we investigate primary steps of casein micelle formation in rough endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles prepared from rat or goat mammary tissues. The majority of both αS1- and β-casein which are cysteine-containing casein was dimeric in the endoplasmic reticulum. Saponin permeabilisation of microsomal membranes in physico-chemical conditions believed to conserve casein interactions demonstrated that rat immature β-casein is weakly aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum. In striking contrast, a large proportion of immature αS1-casein was recovered in permeabilised microsomes when incubated in conservative conditions. Furthermore, a substantial amount of αS1-casein remained associated with microsomal or post-ER membranes after saponin permeabilisation in non-conservative conditions or carbonate extraction at pH11, all in the presence of DTT. Finally, we show that protein dimerisation via disulfide bond is involved in the interaction of αS1-casein with membranes. Conclusions These experiments reveal for the first time the existence of a membrane-associated form of αS1-casein in the endoplasmic reticulum and in more distal compartments of the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Our data suggest that αS1-casein, which is required for efficient export of the other caseins from the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a key role in early steps of casein micelle biogenesis and casein transport in the secretory pathway. PMID:20704729

  14. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  15. PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF VOC CONVERSION VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskantzis Neto G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - A pilot-scale catalytic incineration system was used to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a means of reducing volatile organic compound (VOC air pollutants. The objectives of the study were: 1 to investigate the effects of operating and design variables on the reduction efficiency of VOCs; and 2 to evaluate reduction efficiencies for specific compounds in different chemical classes. The study results verified that the following factors affect the catalyst performance: inlet temperature, space velocity, compound type, and compound inlet concentration. Tests showed that reduction efficiencies exceeding 98% were possible, given sufficiently high inlet gas temperatures for the following classes of compounds: alcohols, acetates, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatics

  16. Drastic reduction in the surface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon passivated with catalytic chemical vapor deposited SiNx films by introducing phosphorous catalytic-doped layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    We improve the passivation property of n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivated with a catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) Si nitride (SiN x ) film by inserting a phosphorous (P)-doped layer formed by exposing c-Si surface to P radicals generated by the catalytic cracking of PH 3 molecules (Cat-doping). An extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) of 2 cm/s can be achieved for 2.5 Ω cm n-type (100) floating-zone Si wafers passivated with SiN x /P Cat-doped layers, both prepared in Cat-CVD systems. Compared with the case of only SiN x passivated layers, SRV decreases from 5 cm/s to 2 cm/s. The decrease in SRV is the result of field effect created by activated P atoms (donors) in a shallow P Cat-doped layer. Annealing process plays an important role in improving the passivation quality of SiN x films. The outstanding results obtained imply that SiN x /P Cat-doped layers can be used as promising passivation layers in high-efficiency n-type c-Si solar cells.

  17. A comparative evaluation on the emission characteristics of ceramic and metallic catalytic converter in internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Jajuli, Afiqah; Rahman, Fakhrurrazi; Feriyanto, Dafit; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Enforcement of a stricter regulation on exhaust emission by many countries has led to utilization of catalytic converter to reduce the harmful pollutant emission. Ceramic and metallic catalytic converters are the most common type of catalytic converter used. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the ceramic and metallic catalytic converter on its conversion efficiency using experimental measurement. Both catalysts were placed on a modified exhaust system equipped with a Mitshubishi 4G93 single cylinder petrol engine that was tested on an eddy current dynamometer under steady state conditions for several engine speeds. The experimental results show that the metallic catalytic converter reduced a higher percentage of CO up to 98.6% reduction emissions while ceramic catalytic converter had a better reduction efficiency of HC up to 85.4% and 87.2% reduction of NOx.

  18. Computational and Physical Analysis of Catalytic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Richard; Sohn, Jung Jae; Kyung, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical and chemical properties depending on their geometrical properties. For this reason, synthesis of nanoparticles with controlled shape and size is important to use their unique properties. Catalyst supports are usually made of high-surface-area porous oxides or carbon nanomaterials. These support materials stabilize metal catalysts against sintering at high reaction temperatures. Many studies have demonstrated large enhancements of catalytic behavior due to the role of the oxide-metal interface. In this paper, the catalyzing ability of supported nano metal oxides, such as silicon oxide and titanium oxide compounds as catalysts have been analyzed using computational chemistry method. Computational programs such as Gamess and Chemcraft has been used in an effort to compute the efficiencies of catalytic compounds, and bonding energy changes during the optimization convergence. The result illustrates how the metal oxides stabilize and the steps that it takes. The graph of the energy computation step(N) versus energy(kcal/mol) curve shows that the energy of the titania converges faster at the 7th iteration calculation, whereas the silica converges at the 9th iteration calculation.

  19. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  20. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  1. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  2. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... and quantum state merging, and leads to a resource theory of decoupling....

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    were characterized by infrared, electronic, electron paramagnetic resonance ... The catalytic oxidation property of ruthenium(III) complexes were also ... cies at room temperature. ..... aldehyde part of Schiff base ligands, catalytic activ- ity of new ...

  4. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Vopa, V.; Satterfield, C.N.

    The hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran (DBF) on a sulfided NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst was studied at 350-390 C and 7.0 MPa. The major products isolated were single-ring hydrocarbons, cyclohexane predominating; the remainder were double-ring hydrocarbons, cyclohexylbenzene predominating. No oxygen-containing species other than water were isolated in any significant amount. The initial reactions in the hydrodeoxygenation of DBF are rate-limiting. The non-sulfided (oxide) catalyst is much less active, and double-ring products predominate over single-ring products. From studies of possible intermediates it appears that on a sulfided catalyst two pathways operate in parallel for the hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran: (1) hydrogenation of DBF to hexahydro DBF, which reacts via 2-cyclohexylphenol to form signle-ring hydrocarbons; (2) direct hydrogenolysis via 2-phenylphenol, without prior ring hydrogenation, to form biphenyl and cyclohexylbenzene (a minor route). On this catalyst the overall reaction is first order with respect to hydrogen and to DBF and exhibits an apparent activation energy of 67 kJ/mol. 26 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic centers

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze; Gehring, Christoph A

    2013-01-01

    plants, guanylyl cyclases (GCs), enzymes that generate cGMP from guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) have remained elusive until recently. GC search motifs constructed from the alignment of known GCs catalytic centers form vertebrates and lower eukaryotes

  6. Facile synthesis of polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam with catalytic activity comparable to Pt for the poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tiantian; Li, Kan; Shen, Zhemin; Sun, Tonghua; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam is facilely prepared through the potentiostatic electrodeposition. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam functions as a hydrogen-evolution cathode in a rotating disk photocatalytic fuel cell, in which hydrogen energy and electric power are generated by consuming organic wastes. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam cathode exhibits stable catalytic activities after thirteen continuous runs. Compared with net or plate structure, the Ni foam with a unique three-dimensional reticulate structure is conducive to the electrodeposition of PPy. Compared with Pt-group electrode, PPy-coated Ni foam shows a satisfactory catalytic performance for the H2 evolution. The combination of PPy and Ni forms a synergistic effect for the rapid trapping and removal of proton from solution and the catalytic reduction of proton to hydrogen. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam could be applied in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical generation of H2. In all, we report a low cost, high efficient and earth abundant PPy-functionalized Ni foam with a satisfactory catalytic activities comparable to Pt for the practical application of poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity.

  7. Catalytic combustion in gas stoves - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Several independent studies show that gas stoves to some degree contribute to the indoor emissions of NO{sub x} especially in situations were the ventilation flow is poor. The peak-NO{sub x} concentrations can reach several hundred ppb but the integral concentration seldom exceeds about 20 - 50 ppb, which corresponds to an indoor-outdoor ratio of about 1 - 2.5. Epidemiological studies indicate increasing problems with respiratory symptoms in sensitive people at concentrations as low as 15 ppb of NO{sub 2}. Consequently, the NO{sub x}-concentration in homes where gas stoves are used is high enough to cause health effects. However, in situations where the ventilation flow is high (utilisation of ventilation hoods) the NO{sub x}-emissions are not likely to cause any health problems. This study has been aimed at investigating the possibilities to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from gas stoves by replacing the conventional flame combustion with catalytic combustion. The investigation is requested by Swedish Gas Center, and is a following-up work of an earlier conducted feasibility study presented in April-2002. The present investigation reports on the possibility to use cheap and simple retro-fit catalytic design suggestions for traditional gas stoves. Experiments have been conducted with both natural and town gas, and parameters such as emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned fuel gas and thermal efficiency, etc, have been examined and are discussed. The results show that it is possible to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions up to 80% by a simple retro-fit installation, without decreasing the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate. The measured source strengths correspond to indoor NO{sub x} concentrations that are below or equal to the average outdoor concentration, implying that no additional detrimental health effects are probable. The drawback of the suggested installations is that the concentration of CO and in some cases also CH{sub 4} are increased in the flue gases

  8. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lance; Etemad, Shahrokh; Karim, Hasan; Pfefferle, William C.

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  9. Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol-Tishchenko reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Horiuchi, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Takashi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2004-06-30

    A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of propionate equivalent was achieved via the aldol-Tishchenko reaction. Coupling an irreversible Tishchenko reaction to a reversible aldol reaction overcame the retro-aldol reaction problem and thereby afforded the products in high enantio and diastereoselectivity using 10 mol % of the asymmetric catalyst. A variety of ketones and aldehydes, including propyl and butyl ketones, were coupled efficiently, yielding the corresponding aldol-Tishchenko products in up to 96% yield and 95% ee. Diastereoselectivity was generally below the detection limit of 1H NMR (>98:2). Preliminary studies performed to clarify the mechanism revealed that the aldol products were racemic with no diastereoselectivity. On the other hand, the Tishchenko products were obtained in a highly enantiocontrolled manner.

  10. Smoke emissions from a catalytic wood stove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowburn, D.A.; Stephens, N.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The work reported here was concerned with testing a catalytic wood burning stove (roomheater) following the most applicable UK procedures. The identical stove has also been tested in several other nations to their individual procedures. The results will be submitted to the International Energy Agency (IEA) such that appropriate comparisons can be made. The results comprised: burning rate; an indicative appliance efficiency; heat output; carbon dioxide emissions; carbon monoxide emissions; and smoke emissions. These results were determined with the appliance at three nominal burning rates (high, medium and low). Comparing the results with those obtained in other countries indicates good agreement except when the appliance was operated at low burning rates, under which conditions the UK results indicate significantly worse smoke emissions than those measured by other researchers. (author)

  11. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core-shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the ‘confined effect’ and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties.

  12. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core–shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the 'confined effect' and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties.

  13. Synthesis and structure of trans-bis(1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenepalladium(II dichloride and diacetate. Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of polybromoarenes with high catalytic turnover efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeelani Basha Shaik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available trans-Bis(1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenepalladium(II dichloride has been shown to be an excellent catalyst for the multiple Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reactions of polybromoarenes to the corresponding fully substituted polyarylarenes. The reactions proceeded in excellent yields and with high turnover numbers. With 1,4-dibromobenzene the catalyst was found to be active for up to 13 consecutive cycles with a turnover number of 1260. The polyarylarenes were obtained in pure form after crystallization once without recourse to chromatographic purification. The single-crystal X-ray structures of the chloro (1 as well as the corresponding acetato (2 complexes are also reported and compared with the corresponding complexes of 1,4-diphenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene as the ligand.

  14. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  15. A Temperature Window for the Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition of CH4over Mo2-Fe10/MgO Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A temperature window for the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes by catalytic chemical vapor deposition of CH4over Mo2-Fe10/MgO catalyst has been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that when the temperature is lower than 750 °C, there were few SWCNTs formed, and when the temperature is higher than 950 °C, mass amorphous carbons were formed in the SWCNTs bundles due to the self-decomposition of CH4. The temperature window of SWCNTs efficient growth is between 800 and 950 °C, and the optimum growth temperature is about 900 °C. These results were supported by transmission electron microscope images of samples formed under different temperatures. The temperature window is important for large-scale production of SWCNTs by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method.

  16. Short hydrogen bonds in the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR LESKOVAC

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The survey of crystallographic data from the Protein Data Bank for 37 structures of trypsin and other serine proteases at a resolution of 0.78–1.28 Å revealed the presence of hydrogen bonds in the active site of the enzymes, which are formed between the catalytic histidine and aspartate residues and are on average 2.7 Å long. This is the typical bond length for normal hydrogen bonds. The geometric properties of the hydrogen bonds in the active site indicate that the H atom is not centered between the heteroatoms of the catalytic histidine and aspartate residues in the active site. Taken together, these findings exclude the possibility that short “low-barrier” hydrogen bonds are formed in the ground state structure of the active sites examined in this work. Some time ago, it was suggested by Cleland that the “low-barrier hydrogen bond” hypothesis is operative in the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases, and requires the presence of short hydrogen bonds around 2.4 Å long in the active site, with the H atom centered between the catalytic heteroatoms. The conclusions drawn from this work do not exclude the validity of the “low-barrier hydrogen bond” hypothesis at all, but they merely do not support it in this particular case, with this particular class of enzymes.

  17. Heterogeneous Photo catalytic Degradation of Hazardous Waste in Aqueous Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, S.A.; Ebraheem, S.; Friesen, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    The photo catalytic degradation of hazardous waste like chlorinated paraffin compound (1,12-Dichlorodoecane Ded) was investigated in different aquatic media using GC-MSD. The direct photolysis of Ded in HPLC water was considered to be negligible (k = 0.0020+-0.0007h - 1 ) . An acceleration of the photodegradation rate was occurred in presence of different TiO 2 catalyst systems. Molecular oxygen was found to play a vital role in the degradation process. Anatase TiO 2 was proved to be the most efficient one (k=0.7670+-0.0876h -1 ), while the rate constant of the rutile TiO 2 was calculated to be 0.2780+-0.0342h -1 . Improvement of photo catalytic efficiency of rutile TiO 2 was achieved by addition of Fe +2 giving a rate constant =0.6710+-0.0786h -1

  18. EVALUATION OF THE FLOCCULATION EFFICIENCY OF Chlorella vulgaris MEDIATED BY Moringa oleifera SEED UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS: FLOUR, SEED CAKE AND EXTRACTS OF FLOUR AND CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. L. Lapa Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Flocculation as a pre-separation method can help make production of biodiesel from microalgae economically feasible. In a previous study, Moringa oleifera seed flour (1 g.L-1 was shown to be a very efficient flocculant for Chlorella vulgaris, a microalga with high potential for biodiesel production. In this study, several aspects of C vulgaris flocculation mediated by Moringa were investigated in order to optimize the separation of this biomass. Flocculation efficiency was the same with seeds from different origins and lots. The stationary growth stage was best for harvesting C vulgaris cells to carry out flocculation efficiently (93%. The use of flour extracts and cake extracts generated the best cost-benefit ratio (flocculation efficiency from 78 to 97% with a saving in mass of seed of 75%. The highest efficiency was reached with extracts prepared with seawater and NaCl solutions which have high salt concentration. Reasonable stability of the extract allows its use for up to two weeks, provided it is kept at low temperature (4 ºC.

  19. NOx Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) on Self-Supported V-W-doped TiO2 Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Silva, Rafael Hubert; Dankeaw, Apiwat

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun V–W–TiO2 catalysts, resulting in a solid solution of V and W in the anatase phase, are prepared as nonwoven nanofibers for NOx selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Preliminary catalytic characterization indicates their superior NOx conversion efficiency to the-state-of-the-art materia...

  20. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  1. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  2. Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H + and H - ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H - ions.

  3. Catalytic processes for cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, R.; Marchionna, M.; Rossini, S.

    1999-01-01

    More stringent limitations on vehicle emissions require different measurement: fuel reformulation is one of the most important and is calling for a noticeable impact on refinery assets. Composition rangers of the future fuels have been defined on a time scale. In this scenario the evolution of catalytic technologies becomes a fundamental tool for allowing refinery to reach the fixed-by-law targets. In this paper, the refinery process options to meet each specific requirements of reformulated fuels are surveyed [it

  4. Preparation and photo-catalytic activities of FeOOH/ZnO/MMT composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao, E-mail: zy19830808@163.com [College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu, Fusheng; Yu, Shitao [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The montmorillonite was used as the carrier for the synthesis of FeOOH nano-material and FeOOH/ZnO nano-material. • TEM was used to study the structure of the two nano-materials with the composite structure of goethite and wurtzite. • TEM was used to demonstrate FeOOH/ZnO nano-material can formed with the appropriate interface: wurtzite-(1 0 1)/(1 1 1)-goethite. • There were some coupling effect between FeOOH and ZnO, which can improve the photo-catalytic activities of FeOOH. • According to FTIR and TOC, PCP was degraded to aromatic ketone compounds and then to H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, HCl. - Abstract: Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as the carrier for synthesis of FeOOH and FeOOH/ZnO nano-material. FeOOH and FeOOH/ZnO were synthesized by the aqueous solutions of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}–HNO{sub 3} and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}–NaOH/Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}–HNO{sub 3} with the carrier of montmorillonite respectively. Transmission electron-microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the morphology form and structure of the nano-materials. TEM was also used to demonstrate that FeOOH/ZnO can be formed with the appropriate interface. According to UV–vis absorption spectra, FeOOH/ZnO has a better response to visible light than FeOOH and ZnO, which indicates there is some coupling effect between FeOOH and ZnO. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was used as a representative organic pollutant to evaluate the photo-catalytic efficiency of the FeOOH/ZnO and FeOOH catalysts in visible light (λ > 400 nm). The photo-catalytic efficiency of FeOOH/ZnO/MMT is better than FeOOH/MMT. According to FTIR, changes of pH and TOC, the degradation mechanism was also discussed. PCP was degraded to aromatic ketone and chloro-hydrocarbon compounds and then to H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and HCl.

  5. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  6. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  7. Development of an efficient E. coli expression and purification system for a catalytically active, human Cullin3-RINGBox1 protein complex and elucidation of its quaternary structure with Keap1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Evan; Eggler, Aimee; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A novel expression strategy was used to purify Cul3-Rbx1 from E. coli. → The Cul3-Rbx1 complex is fully active and catalyzes ubiquitination of Nrf2 in vitro. → Cul3, Rbx1, and Keap1 form a complex with unique stoichiometry of 1:1:2. -- Abstract: The Cullin3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex is thought to play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress and xenobiotic assault. While limited biochemical studies of the ligase's role in these complex signaling pathways are beginning to emerge, structural studies are lagging far behind due to the inability to acquire sufficient quantities of full-length, highly pure and active Cullin3. Here we describe the design and construction of an optimized expression and purification system for the full-length, human Cullin3-RINGBox 1 (Rbx1) protein complex from Escherichia coli. The dual-expression system is comprised of codon-optimized Cullin3 and Rbx1 genes co-expressed from a single pET-Duet-1 plasmid. Rapid purification of the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex is achieved in two steps via an affinity column followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Approximately 15 mg of highly pure and active Cullin3-Rbx1 protein from 1 L of E. coli culture can be achieved. Analysis of the quaternary structure of the Cullin3-Rbx1 and Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complexes by size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation indicates a 1:1 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex (MW = 111 kDa), and a 1:1:2 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complex (MW = 280 kDa). This latter complex has a novel quaternary structural organization for cullin E3 ligases, and it is fully active based on an in vitro Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1-Nrf2 ubiquitination activity assay that was developed and optimized in this study.

  8. Development of an efficient E. coli expression and purification system for a catalytically active, human Cullin3-RINGBox1 protein complex and elucidation of its quaternary structure with Keap1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Evan [Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Eggler, Aimee [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 240 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1971 (United States); Mesecar, Andrew D., E-mail: amesecar@purdue.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 240 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1971 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel expression strategy was used to purify Cul3-Rbx1 from E. coli. {yields} The Cul3-Rbx1 complex is fully active and catalyzes ubiquitination of Nrf2 in vitro. {yields} Cul3, Rbx1, and Keap1 form a complex with unique stoichiometry of 1:1:2. -- Abstract: The Cullin3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex is thought to play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress and xenobiotic assault. While limited biochemical studies of the ligase's role in these complex signaling pathways are beginning to emerge, structural studies are lagging far behind due to the inability to acquire sufficient quantities of full-length, highly pure and active Cullin3. Here we describe the design and construction of an optimized expression and purification system for the full-length, human Cullin3-RINGBox 1 (Rbx1) protein complex from Escherichia coli. The dual-expression system is comprised of codon-optimized Cullin3 and Rbx1 genes co-expressed from a single pET-Duet-1 plasmid. Rapid purification of the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex is achieved in two steps via an affinity column followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Approximately 15 mg of highly pure and active Cullin3-Rbx1 protein from 1 L of E. coli culture can be achieved. Analysis of the quaternary structure of the Cullin3-Rbx1 and Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complexes by size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation indicates a 1:1 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex (MW = 111 kDa), and a 1:1:2 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complex (MW = 280 kDa). This latter complex has a novel quaternary structural organization for cullin E3 ligases, and it is fully active based on an in vitro Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1-Nrf2 ubiquitination activity assay that was developed and optimized in this study.

  9. [Studies on photo-electron-chemical catalytic degradation of the malachite green].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-yu; Diao, Zeng-hui; Song, Lin; Wang, Xin-le; Zhang, Yuan-ming

    2010-07-01

    A novel two-compartment photo-electro-chemical catalytic reactor was designed. The TiO2/Ti thin film electrode thermally formed was used as photo-anode, and graphite as cathode and a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode in the reactor. The anode compartment and cathode compartment were connected with the ionic exchange membrane in this reactor. Effects of initial pH, initial concentration of malachite green and connective modes between the anode compartment and cathode compartment on the decolorization efficiency of malachite green were investigated. The degradation dynamics of malachite green was studied. Based on the change of UV-visible light spectrum, the degradation process of malachite green was discussed. The experimental results showed that, during the time of 120 min, the decolouring ratio of the malachite green was 97.7% when initial concentration of malachite green is 30 mg x L(-1) and initial pH is 3.0. The catalytic degradation of malachite green was a pseudo-first order reaction. In the degradation process of malachite green the azo bond cleavage and the conjugated system of malachite green were attacked by hydroxyl radical. Simultaneity, the aromatic ring was oxidized. Finally, malachite green was degraded into other small molecular compounds.

  10. Synthesis of E- and Z-trisubstituted alkenes by catalytic cross-metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thach T.; Koh, Ming Joo; Mann, Tyler J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-12-01

    Catalytic cross-metathesis is a central transformation in chemistry, yet corresponding methods for the stereoselective generation of acyclic trisubstituted alkenes in either the E or the Z isomeric forms are not known. The key problems are a lack of chemoselectivity—namely, the preponderance of side reactions involving only the less hindered starting alkene, resulting in homo-metathesis by-products—and the formation of short-lived methylidene complexes. By contrast, in catalytic cross-coupling, substrates are more distinct and homocoupling is less of a problem. Here we show that through cross-metathesis reactions involving E- or Z-trisubstituted alkenes, which are easily prepared from commercially available starting materials by cross-coupling reactions, many desirable and otherwise difficult-to-access linear E- or Z-trisubstituted alkenes can be synthesized efficiently and in exceptional stereoisomeric purity (up to 98 per cent E or 95 per cent Z). The utility of the strategy is demonstrated by the concise stereoselective syntheses of biologically active compounds, such as the antifungal indiacen B and the anti-inflammatory coibacin D.

  11. Fabrication of Sesame Sticks-like Silver Nanoparticles/Polystyrene Hybridnanotubes and Their Catalytic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Shi, Rongjia; Wang, Zeyi; You, Xin; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Fenghe; Gao, Jay; Mao, Chun

    2016-12-21

    A novel and efficient catalyst is one of the goals in the material field, and the involvement of nanoscience and technology has brought new vigor to the development of catalyst. This research aimed to develop a simple two-step route to fabricate Fe 3 O 4 @PS/PDA-Ag hybridnanotubes with size-controllable and highly dispersed silver nanoparticles (NPs). First, Fe 3 O 4 @PS nanotubes of a sound mechanical property were prepared using polystyrene (PS)/toluene solution containing highly dispersed oleic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 particles in a commercial AAO template. Next, the facile technique was used to form in situ silver NPs on the surface of magnetic PS (Fe 3 O 4 @PS) nanotubes through dopamine coating. The catalytic effects of the prepared Fe 3 O 4 @PS/PDA-Ag hybridnanotubes with highly dispersed AgNPs were characterized using a range of analytical methods, including transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that such prepared Fe 3 O 4 @PS/PDA-Ag hybridnanotubes had a large specific surface area. They possessed excellent activities in catalyzing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by NaBH 4 in the aqueous phase. Furthermore, they were readily separated from fluid and retrieved by an external magnet. Their catalyst activity and recyclability demonstrated that this approach we proposed had the potential to become a new idea and route for catalytic platform.

  12. Combined photolysis and catalytic ozonation of dimethyl phthalate in a high-gravity rotating packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiu, C.-Y. [Department of Cosmetic Science and Application, Lan-Yang Institute of Technology, I-Lan 261, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cychang3@ntu.edu.tw; Chang, C.-F. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-H. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Science, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan (China); Ji, D.-R.; Yu, Y.-H.; Chiang, P.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, a high-gravity rotating packed bed (HGRPB) was used as a catalytic ozonation reactor to decompose dimethyl phthalate (DMP), an endocrine disrupting chemical commonly encountered. The HGRPB is an effective gas-liquid mixing equipment which can enhance the ozone mass transfer coefficient. Platinum-containing catalyst (Pt/-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of Dash 220N and ultra violet (UV) lamp were combined in the high-gravity ozonation (HG-OZ) system to enhance the self-decomposition of molecular ozone in liquid to form highly reactive radical species. Different combinations of HG-OZ with Dash 220N and UV for the degradation of DMP were tested. These include HG-OZ, HG catalytic OZ (HG-Pt-OZ), HG photolysis OZ (HG-UV-OZ) and HG-UV-Pt-OZ. The result indicated that all the above four ozonation processes result in significant decomposition of DMP and mineralization of total organic carbon (TOC) at the applied ozone dosage per volume of liquid sample of 1.2 g L{sup -1}. The UV and Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} combined in HG-OZ can enhance the TOC mineralization efficiency ({eta}{sub TOC}) to 56% (via HG-UV-OZ) and 57% (via HG-Pt-OZ), respectively, while only 45% with ozone only. The process of HG-UV-Pt-OZ offers the highest {eta}{sub TOC} of about 68%.

  13. Multiple functionalities of Ni nanoparticles embedded in carboxymethyl guar gum polymer: catalytic activity and superparamagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardar, Debasmita [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sengupta, Manideepa; Bordoloi, Ankur [Nano Catalysis, Catalytic Conversion and Process Division, CSIR—Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP), Mohkampur, Dehradun 248005 (India); Ahmed, Md. A.; Neogi, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Jain, Ruchi; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S. [Catalysis Division and Center of Excellence on Surface Science, CSIR—National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008 (India); Bala, Tanushree, E-mail: tanushreebala@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in polymer to form Ni-Polymer composite. • Ni nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetism in the composite. • Ni-Polymer composites showed catalytic activity. - Abstract: Composites comprising of metallic nanoparticles in polymer matrices have allured significant importance due to multifunctionalities. Here a simple protocol has been described to embed Ni nanoparticles in carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) polymer. The composite formation helps in the stabilization of Ni nanoparticles which are otherwise prone towards aerial oxidation. Further the nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetic nature and catalytic capacity. Ni-Polymer composite catalyses the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol very efficiently in presence of NaBH{sub 4}, attaining a complete conversion under some experimental conditions. Ni-Polymer composite is well characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XPS, powder XRD, TGA, SEM and TEM. A detailed magnetic measurement using superconducting quantum interference device-vibrating sample magnetometer (SQUID-VSM) reveals superparamagnetic behaviour of the composite.

  14. In situ synthesis and catalytic application of reduced graphene oxide supported cobalt nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Long, Qin; Deng, Yi; Liao, Li

    2018-05-01

    Controlled synthesis of magnetic nanocomposite with outstanding catalytic performances is a promising strategy in catalyst industry. We proposed a novel concept for fabrication of reduced graphene oxide-supported cobalt nanowires (RGO/Co-NWs) nanocomposite as high-efficient magnetic catalyst. Unlike the majority of experiments necessitating harsh synthesis conditions such as high-pressure, high-temperature and expensive template, here the RGO/Co-NWs were successfully prepared in aqueous solution under mild conditions with the assistance of external magnetic field. The synthetic process was facile and external magnetic force was adopted to induce the unidirectional self-assembly of cobalt crystals on graphene oxide to form RGO/Co-NWs. The possible formation mechanism laid on the fact that the dipole magnetic moments of the nanoparticles were aligned along the magnetic induction lines with the external magnetic field direction resulting in the formation of nanowires elongating in the direction of the magnetization axis. Simultaneously, a series of controlled reactions were conducted to illuminate the effect of graphene oxide, external magnetic field and PVP on the morphology and size of RGO/Co-NWs in the present approach. More importantly, the nanocomposite exhibited a high catalytic performance towards ammonia borane. Hence the novel nanocomposite holds a great potential for technological applications such as catalyst industry.

  15. Catalytic applications of immobilized ionic liquids for synthesis of cyclic carbonates from carbon dioxide and epoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Roshan, Roshith; Tharun, Jose; Cherian, Amal; Park, Dae-Won

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic applicability of ionic liquids immobilized on various support materials such as silica, polystyrene and biopolymers in the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide with epoxides is reviewed in this work. Comparisons of the catalytic efficiency of these various catalysts have been done from the aspect of turnover number and reusability. The studies revealed that ionic liquids or support materials possessing hydrogen bonding capable groups exhibited enhanced catalytic activity towards cyclic carbonate synthesis. Moreover, the increased quest towards environmentally benign materials has renewed the search for biocompatible materials as support for ionic liquids

  16. Carbon nanotube aerogel-CoS2 hybrid catalytic counter electrodes for enhanced photovoltaic performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Mai, Xianmin; Chen, Haijun; Ren, Jing; Liu, Zheting; Li, Yingxiang; Gao, Lina; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Jiaoxia; He, Hongcai; Guo, Zhanhu

    2018-03-01

    The carbon nanotube aerogel (CNA) with an ultra-low density, three-dimensional network nanostructure, superior electronic conductivity and large surface area is being widely employed as a catalytic electrode and catalytic support. Impressively, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled with a CNA counter electrode (CE) achieved a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.28%, which exceeded that of the conventional platinum (Pt)-based DSSC (7.20%) under the same conditions. Furthermore, highly dispersed CoS 2 nanoparticles endowed with excellent intrinsic catalytic activity were hydrothermally incorporated to form a CNA-supported CoS 2 (CNA-CoS 2 ) CE, which was due to the large number of catalytically active sites and sufficient connections between CoS 2 and the CNA. The electrocatalytic ability and stability were systematically evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and Tafel polarization, which confirmed that the resultant CNA-CoS 2 hybrid CE exhibited a remarkably higher electrocatalytic activity toward I 3 - reduction, and faster ion diffusion and electron transfer than the pure CNA CE. Such cost-effective DSSCs assembled with an optimized CNA-CoS 2 CE yielded an enhanced PCE of 8.92%, comparable to that of the cell fabricated with the CNA-Pt hybrid CE reported in our published literature (9.04%). These results indicate that the CNA-CoS 2 CE can be considered as a promising candidate for Pt-free CEs used in low-cost and high-performance DSSCs.

  17. Cross-catalytic peptide nucleic acid (PNA) replication based on templated ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, Abhishek; Nielsen, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected...... precursors. Cross-catalytic product formation followed product inhibited kinetics, but approximately two replication rounds were observed. Analogous but less efficient replication was found for a similar tetrameric system. These results demonstrate that simpler nucleobase replication systems than natural...

  18. Study of in vitro toxicity and ex vivo and in vivo efficiency of calixarene galenic forms developed for the treatment of cutaneous contamination due to uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grives, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In case of radiological skin contamination by uranium compounds, the only treatments currently available consist in rinsing the contaminated skin area with water and detergent, or with a calcium salt of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Ca-DTPA) solution. However, these procedures are not specific and no efficient treatment for cutaneous contamination due to uranium exists. In the absence of such treatments, uranium diffusion through the skin is fast, inducing an internal exposure after its distribution inside the body through the bloodstream. One part of the bioavailable uranium is up-taken in target organs which are the kidneys and the skeleton, where its toxic effects occur. Therefore a topical formulation consisting of an oil-in-water nano-emulsion incorporating a tricarboxylic calixarene molecule, as a specific chelating agent for uranium, was previously developed. The work achieved in this thesis aimed at evaluating the ex vivo and in vivo decontamination efficiency of this new emergency treatment on intact and superficially wounded skin. For this purpose, skin excoriation model was used. Reproducible models of superficial wounds consisting of micro-cuts and micro-punctures were also developed in order to evaluate the efficiency of the nano-emulsion on physical wounds such as incisions. These studies showed that the calixarene nano-emulsion could be an efficient decontaminating treatment, less aggressive than using the current treatment: soaped water. Its potential cutaneous toxicity was evaluated on in vitro reconstructed human epidermis using three different toxicity tests (MTT, LDH and IL-1-α). These studies demonstrated that the calixarene nano-emulsion did not induce skin toxicity even after 24 h of exposure time. (author)

  19. Highly Simplified Reddish Orange Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Incorporating a Novel Carrier- and Exciton-Confining Spiro-Exciplex-Forming Host for Reduced Efficiency Roll-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhang, Ye-Xin; Wang, Bo; Huang, Chen-Chao; Murtaza, Imran; Meng, Hong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2017-01-25

    A novel exciplex-forming host is applied so as to design highly simplified reddish orange light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with low driving voltage, high efficiency, and an extraordinarily low efficiency roll-off, by combining N,N-10-triphenyl-10H-spiro [acridine-9,9'-fluoren]-3'-amine (SAFDPA) with 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) doped with trivalent iridium complex bis(2-methyldibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline) (acetylacetonate)iridium(III) (Ir(MDQ) 2 (acac)). The reddish orange OLEDs achieve a strikingly high power efficiency (PE) of 31.80 lm/W with an ultralow threshold voltage of 2.24 V which is almost equal to the triplet energy level of the phosphorescent reddish orange emitting dopant. The power efficiency of the device with the exciplex-forming host is enhanced, achieving 36.2% mainly owing to the lower operating voltage by the novel exciplex forming cohost, compared with the reference device (23.54 lm/W). Moreover, the OLEDs show extraordinarily low current efficiency (CE) roll-off to 1.41% at the brightness from 500 to 5000 cd/m 2 with a maximal CE of 32.87 cd/A (EQE max = 11.01%). The devices display a good reddish orange color (CIE of (0.628, 0.372) at 500 cd/m 2 ) nearly without color shift with increasing brightness. Co-host architecture phosphorescent OLEDs show a simpler device structure, lower working voltage, and a better efficiency and stability than those of the reference devices without the cohost architecture, which helps to simplify the OLED structure, lower the cost, and popularize OLED technology.

  20. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Foran, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150.degree.-260.degree. C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO.sub.4 and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect.

  1. Heterogeneous kinetic modeling of the catalytic conversion of cycloparaffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabawi, Mustafa N.

    The limited availability of high value light hydrocarbon feedstocks along with the rise in crude prices has resulted in the international recognition of the vast potential of Canada's oil sands. With the recent expansion of Canadian bitumen production come, however, many technical challenges, one of which is the significant presence of aromatics and cycloparaffins in bitumen-derived feedstocks. In addition to their negative environmental impact, aromatics limit fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock conversion, decrease the yield and quality of valuable products such as gasoline and middle distillates, increase levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons prone to form coke on the catalyst, and ultimately compromise the FCC unit performance. Although cycloparaffins do not have such negative impacts, they are precursors of aromatics as they frequently undergo hydrogen transfer reactions. However, cycloparaffin cracking chemistry involves other competing reactions that are complex and need much investigation. This dissertation provides insights and understanding of the fundamentals of the catalytic cracking of cycloparaffins using carefully selected model compounds such as methylcyclohexane (MCH) and decalin. Thermal and catalytic cracking of these cycloparaffins on FCC-type catalysts are carried out using the CREC Riser Simulator under operating conditions similar to those of the industrial FCC units in terms of temperature, reaction time, reactant partial pressure and catalyst-to-hydrocarbon ratio. The crystallite size of the supported zeolites is varied between 0.4 and 0.9 microns, with both activity and selectivity being monitored. Catalytic conversions ranged between 4 to 16 wt% for MCH and between 8 to 27 wt% for decalin. Reaction pathways of cycloparaffins are determined, and these include ring-opening, protolytic cracking, isomerization, hydrogen transfer and transalkylation. The yields and selectivities of over 60 and 140 products, formed during MCH and decalin

  2. Oxyfuel combustion using a catalytic ceramic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoyao; Li, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, University of London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thursfield, A.; Metcalfe, I.S. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-29

    Membrane catalytic combustion (MCC) is an environmentally friendly technique for heat and power generation from methane. This work demonstrates the performances of a MCC perovskite hollow fibre membrane reactor for the catalytic combustion of methane. The ionic-electronic La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{alpha}} (LSCF6428) mixed conductor, in the form of an oxygen-permeable hollow fibre membrane, has been prepared successfully by means of a phase-inversion spinning/sintering technique. For this process polyethersulfone (PESf) was used as a binder, N-methyl-2-pyrrollidone (NMP) as solvent and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, K16-18) as an additive. With the prepared LSCF6428 hollow fibre membranes packed with catalyst, hollow fibre membrane reactors (HFMRs) have been assembled to perform the catalytic combustion of methane. A simple mathematical model that combines the local oxygen permeation rate with approximate catalytic reaction kinetics has been developed and can be used to predict the performance of the HFMRs for methane combustion. The effects of operating temperature and methane and air feed flow rates on the performance of the HFMR have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Both the methane conversion and oxygen permeation rate can be improved by means of coating platinum on the air side of the hollow fibre membranes. (author)

  3. Catalytic destruction of tar in biomass derived producer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiqin; Brown, Robert C.; Suby, Andrew; Cummer, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate catalytic destruction of tar formed during gasification of biomass, with the goal of improving the quality of the producer gas. This work focuses on nickel based catalysts treated with alkali in an effort to promote steam gasification of the coke that deposits on catalyst surfaces. A tar conversion system consisting of a guard bed and catalytic reactor was designed to treat the producer gas from an air blown, fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The guard bed used dolomite to crack the heavy tars. The catalytic reactor was used to evaluate three commercial steam reforming catalysts. These were the ICI46-1 catalyst from Imperial Chemical Industry and Z409 and RZ409 catalysts from Qilu Petrochemical Corp. in China. A 0.5-3 l/min slipstream from a 5 tpd biomass gasifier was used to test the tar conversion system. Gas and tar were sampled before and after the tar conversion system to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Changes in gas composition as functions of catalytic bed temperature, space velocity and steam/TOC (total organic carbon) ratio are presented. Structural changes in the catalysts during the tests are also described

  4. Substrate-Directed Catalytic Selective Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2018-05-04

    The development of highly efficient reactions at only the desired position is one of the most important subjects in organic chemistry. Most of the reactions in current organic chemistry are reagent- or catalyst-controlled reactions, and the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reactions are determined by the inherent nature of the reagent or catalyst. In sharp contrast, substrate-directed reaction determines the selectivity of the reactions by the functional group on the substrate and can strictly distinguish sterically and electronically similar multiple reaction sites in the substrate. In this Perspective, three topics of substrate-directed reaction are mainly reviewed: (1) directing group-assisted epoxidation of alkenes, (2) ring-opening reactions of epoxides by various nucleophiles, and (3) catalytic peptide synthesis. Our newly developed synthetic methods with new ligands including hydroxamic acid derived ligands realized not only highly efficient reactions but also pinpointed reactions at the expected position, demonstrating the substrate-directed reaction as a powerful method to achieve the desired regio- and stereoselective functionalization of molecules from different viewpoints of reagent- or catalyst-controlled reactions.

  5. Progress in controlling the size, composition and nanostructure of supported gold-palladium nanoparticles for catalytic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalanen, P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370602013; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Sankar, M.

    2013-01-01

    This review article gives an overview of the recent developments in the synthesis strategies of supported goldbased bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts. The catalytic efficiency of these supported bimetallic nanoparticles, similar to monometallic nanoparticles, depends on their structural

  6. Investigation of combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Juan; Weng Yiwu

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this research were to investigate the combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine. The characteristics of lean burn catalytic combustion were investigated by utilising 1D heterogeneous plug flow model which was validated by experiments. The effects of operating parameters on catalytic combustion were numerically analysed. The system models were built in ASPEN Plus and three independent design variables, i.e. compressor pressure ratio (PR), regenerator effectiveness (RE) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) were selected to analyse the thermodynamic performance of the thermal cycle. The main results show that: simulations from 1D heterogeneous plug flow model can capture the trend of catalytic combustion and describe the behavior of the catalytic monolith in detail. Inlet temperature is the most significant parameter that impacts operation of the catalytic combustor. When TIT and RE are constant, the increase of PR results in lowering the inlet temperature of the catalytic combustor, which results in decreasing methane conversion. The peak thermal efficiency and the optimal PR at a constant TIT increase with the increase of TIT; and at the constant PR, the thermal efficiency increases with the increase of TIT. However, with lower TIT conditions, the optimal PR and the peak efficiency at a constant TIT of the LBCCGT cycle are relative low to that of the conventional cycle. When TIT and PR are constant, the decrease of RE may result in lower methane conversion. The influences of RE on the methane conversion and the thermal efficiency are more significant at higher PRs. The higher thermal efficiency for the lower RE is achieved at lower PR.

  7. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  8. Catalytic Organometallic Reactions of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, ammonia had rarely succumbed to catalytic transformations with homogeneous catalysts, and the development of such reactions that are selective for the formation of single products under mild conditions has encountered numerous challenges. However, recently developed catalysts have allowed several classes of reactions to create products with nitrogen-containing functional groups from ammonia. These reactions include hydroaminomethylation, reductive amination, alkylation, allylic substitution, hydroamination, and cross-coupling. This Minireview describes examples of these processes and the factors that control catalyst activity and selectivity. PMID:20857466

  9. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  11. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheon; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. 75 Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K m than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue

  12. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Jung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheon [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gladyshev, Vadim N. [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  13. Development of a catalytically assisted combustor for a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Yasushi; Fujii, Tomoharu; Sato, Mikio [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-01 (Japan); Kanazawa, Takaaki; Inoue, Hitoshi [Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., 3-11-20 Nakoji, Amagasaki, Hyoho 661 (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    A catalytically assisted low NO{sub x} combustor has been developed which has the advantage of catalyst durability. This combustor is composed of a burner section and a premixed combustion section behind the burner section. The burner system consists of six catalytic combustor segments and six premixing nozzles, which are arranged alternately and in parallel. Fuel flow rate for the catalysts and the premixing nozzles are controlled independently. The catalytic combustion temperature is maintained under 1000C, additional premixed gas is injected from the premixing nozzles into the catalytic combustion gas, and lean premixed combustion at 1300C is carried out in the premixed combustion section. This system was designed to avoid catalytic deactivation at high temperature and thermal or mechanical shock fracture of the honeycomb monolith. In order to maintain the catalyst temperature under 1000C, the combustion characteristics of catalysts at high pressure were investigated using a bench scale reactor and an improved catalyst was selected for the combustor test. A combustor for a 20MW class multi-can type gas turbine was designed and tested under high pressure conditions using LNG fuel. Measurements of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned hydrocarbon were made and other measurements were made to evaluate combustor performance under various combustion temperatures and pressures. As a result of the tests, it was proved that NO{sub x} emission was lower than 10ppm converted at 16% O{sub 2}, combustion efficiency was almost 100% at 1300C of combustor outlet temperature and 13.5ata of combustor inlet pressure

  14. Catalytic enantioselective Reformatsky reaction with ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles; Macia, Beatriz; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral tertiary alcohols were obtained with good yields and enantioselectivities via a catalytic Reformatsky reaction with ketones, including the challenging diaryl ketones, using chiral BINOL derivatives.

  15. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  16. Coupling catalytic hydrolysis and oxidation on Mn/TiO2-Al2O3 for HCN removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langlang; Wang, Xueqian; Cheng, Jinhuan; Ning, Ping; Lin, Yilong

    2018-05-01

    The manganese-modified titania-alumina (Mn/TiO2-Al2O3) catalyst synthesized by sol-gol method was used to remove hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from simulated flue gas. Further, effects of the mass ratios of Ti/Al, Mn loading, calcination temperature, and relative humidity on HCN conversion efficiency and catalytic activity were systematically investigated. The results indicated that the Mn/TiO2-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited significantly enhanced HCN removal efficiency, and the maximum yield of N2 increased to 68.02% without the participation of water vapor. When water vapor was added into the flue gas, the yield of N2 decreased and the formation of NOx was also inhibited. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Mn was mainly present in the form of Mn2+, Mn3+, and Mn4+ on the surface of catalyst and chemisorbed oxygen played a major role in the HCN catalytic oxidation process. The results of DSC-TGA analysis and H2-TPR indicated that the catalyst also exhibited a good thermal and chemical stability. NH3-TPD and CO2-TPD indicated that the surface of the catalyst mainly contained acidic sites. During the reaction, part of NH3 was adsorbed by Brönsted and Lewis acid sites. NH3 adsorbed on Lewis acid sites participated in NH3-SCR, which reduced the amount of NOx produced and resulted in a high N2 yield.

  17. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2010-01-18

    A viewpoint now emerging is that a critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection (lipofection) is the structural evolution of lipoplexes upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. Here we report our finding that lipid mixtures mimicking biomembrane lipid compositions are superior to pure anionic liposomes in their ability to release DNA from lipoplexes (cationic lipid/DNA complexes), even though they have a much lower negative charge density (and thus lower capacity to neutralize the positive charge of the lipoplex lipids). Flow fluorometry revealed that the portion of DNA released after a 30-min incubation of the cationic O-ethylphosphatidylcholine lipoplexes with the anionic phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol was 19% and 37%, respectively, whereas a mixture mimicking biomembranes (MM: phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylserine /cholesterol 45:20:20:15 w/w) and polar lipid extract from bovine liver released 62% and 74%, respectively, of the DNA content. A possible reason for this superior power in releasing DNA by the natural lipid mixtures was suggested by structural experiments: while pure anionic lipids typically form lamellae, the natural lipid mixtures exhibited a surprising predilection to form nonlamellar phases. Thus, the MM mixture arranged into lamellar arrays at physiological temperature, but began to convert to the hexagonal phase at a slightly higher temperature, {approx} 40-45 C. A propensity to form nonlamellar phases (hexagonal, cubic, micellar) at close to physiological temperatures was also found with the lipid extracts from natural tissues (from bovine liver, brain, and heart). This result reveals that electrostatic interactions are only one of the factors involved in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. The tendency of lipid bilayers to form nonlamellar phases has been described in terms of bilayer 'frustration' which imposes a nonzero intrinsic curvature of the two opposing monolayers. Because the stored

  18. Petrochemical promoters in catalytic cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria; Vargas, Clemencia; Lizcano, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on the current scheme followed by a refinery with available Catalytic Cracking capacity to process new feedstocks such as Straight Run Naphtha and Naphthas from FCC. These feedstocks are of petrochemical interest to produce Ethane, Ethylene, Propylene, i-Butane, Toluene and Xylene. To evaluate the potential of these new streams versus the Cracking-charged Residues, it was performed a detailed chemical analysis on the structural groups in carbons [C1-C12] at the reactor product obtained in pilot plant. A catalyst with and without Propylene Promoter Additive was used. This study analyzes the differences in the chemical composition of the feedstocks, relating them to the yield of each petrochemical product. Straight Run Naphthas with a high content of Naphthenes, and Paraffines n[C5-C12] and i[C7-C12] are selective to the production of i-Butane and Propane, while Naphthas from FCC with a high content of n[C5-C12]Olefins, i-Olefins, and Aromatics are more selective to Propylene, Toluene, and Xylene. Concerning Catalytic Cracking of Naphthas, the Additive has similar selectivity for all the petrochemical products, their yields increase by about one point with 4%wt of Additive, while in cracking of Residues, the Additive increases in three points Propylene yield, corresponding to a selectivity of 50% (?C3= / ?LPG).

  19. Catalytic converters in the fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouki, J.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to selecting the appropriate means of heating and using dry fuel, the amount of harmful emissions contained by flue gases produced by fireplaces can be reduced by technical means. One such option is to use an oxidising catalytic converter. Tests at TTS Institute's Heating Studies Experimental Station have focused on two such converters (dense and coarse) mounted in light-weight iron heating stoves. The ability of the dense catalytic converter to oxidise carbon monoxide gases proved to be good. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the flue gases was reduced by as much as 90 %. Measurements conducted by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) showed that the conversion of other gases, e.g. of methane, was good. The exhaust resistance caused by the dense converter was so great as to necessitate the mounting of a fluegas evacuation fan in the chimney for the purpose of creating sufficient draught. When relying on natural draught, the dense converter requires a chimney of at least 7 metres and a by-pass connection while the fire is being lit. In addition, the converter will have to be constructed to be less dense and this will mean that it's capability to oxidise non-combusted gases will be reduced. The coarse converter did not impair the draught but it's oxidising property was insufficient. With the tests over, the converter was not observed to have become blocked up by impurities

  20. Outstanding catalytic activity of ultra-pure platinum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszewska, Aneta; Dercz, Grzegorz; Piwowar, Justyna; Jurczakowski, Rafal; Lewera, Adam

    2013-12-09

    Small (4 nm) nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution, exceptional surface purity, and increased surface order, which exhibits itself as an increased presence of basal crystallographic planes, can be obtained without the use of any surfactant. These nanoparticles can be used in many applications in an as-received state and are threefold more active towards a model catalytic reaction (oxidation of ethylene glycol). Furthermore, the superior properties of this material are interesting not only due to the increase in their intrinsic catalytic activity, but also due to the exceptional surface purity itself. The nanoparticles can be used directly (i.e., as-received, without any cleaning steps) in biomedical applications (i.e., as more efficient drug carriers due to an increased number of adsorption sites) and in energy-harvesting/data-storage devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Solid strong base K-Pt/NaY zeolite nano-catalytic system for completed elimination of formaldehyde at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaoqing; Wu, Xi; Lu, Changhai; Wen, Meicheng; Le, Zhanggao; Jiang, Shujuan

    2018-06-01

    Solid strong base nano-catalytic system of K-modification NaY zeolite supported 0.08% Pt (K-Pt/NaY) were constructed for eliminating HCHO at room temperature. In the catalytic process, activation energy over K-Pt/NaY nano-catalytic system was greatly decreased along with the enhanced reaction rate. Characterization and catalytic tests revealed the surface electron structure of K-Pt/NaY was improved, as reflected by the enhanced HCHO adsorption capability, high sbnd OH concentration, and low-temperature reducibility. Therefore, the optimal K-Pt/NaY showed high catalytic efficiency and strong H2O tolerance for HCHO elimination by directly promoting the reaction between active sbnd OH and formate species. These results may suggest a new way for probing the advanced solid strong base nano-catalytic system for the catalytic elimination of indoor HCHO.

  2. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  3. Catalytic reduction of organic dyes at gold nanoparticles impregnated silica materials: influence of functional groups and surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Pal, Manas

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in three different silica based sol–gel matrixes with and without surfactants are prepared. They are characterized by UV–vis absorbance and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The size and shape of Au NPs varied with the organo-functional group present in the sol–gel matrix. In the presence of mercaptopropyl functionalized organo-silica, large sized (200–280 nm) spherical Au NPs are formed whereas in the presence of aminopropyl functionalized organo-silica small sized (5–15 nm) Au NPs are formed inside the tube like organo-silica. Further, it is found that Au NPs act as efficient catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes. The catalytic rate constant is evaluated from the decrease in absorbance of the dye molecules. Presence of cationic or anionic surfactants greatly influences the catalytic reaction. The other factors like hydrophobicity of the organic dyes, complex formation of the dyes with anionic surfactants, repulsion between dyes and cationic surfactant, adsorption of dyes on the Au NPs also play important role on the reaction rate.

  4. Catalytic reduction of organic dyes at gold nanoparticles impregnated silica materials: influence of functional groups and surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com; Pal, Manas [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (India)

    2011-09-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in three different silica based sol-gel matrixes with and without surfactants are prepared. They are characterized by UV-vis absorbance and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The size and shape of Au NPs varied with the organo-functional group present in the sol-gel matrix. In the presence of mercaptopropyl functionalized organo-silica, large sized (200-280 nm) spherical Au NPs are formed whereas in the presence of aminopropyl functionalized organo-silica small sized (5-15 nm) Au NPs are formed inside the tube like organo-silica. Further, it is found that Au NPs act as efficient catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes. The catalytic rate constant is evaluated from the decrease in absorbance of the dye molecules. Presence of cationic or anionic surfactants greatly influences the catalytic reaction. The other factors like hydrophobicity of the organic dyes, complex formation of the dyes with anionic surfactants, repulsion between dyes and cationic surfactant, adsorption of dyes on the Au NPs also play important role on the reaction rate.

  5. Engineered disulfide bonds increase active-site local stability and reduce catalytic activity of a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Adalbjörnsson, Björn Vidar; Gylfason, Gudjón Andri

    2007-06-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an extracellular enzyme that is membrane-bound in eukaryotes but resides in the periplasmic space of bacteria. It normally carries four cysteine residues that form two disulfide bonds, for instance in the APs of Escherichia coli and vertebrates. An AP variant from a Vibrio sp. has only one cysteine residue. This cysteine is second next to the nucleophilic serine in the active site. We have individually modified seven residues to cysteine that are on two loops predicted to be within a 5 A radius. Four of them formed a disulfide bond to the endogenous cysteine. Thermal stability was monitored by circular dichroism and activity measurements. Global stability was similar to the wild-type enzyme. However, a significant increase in heat-stability was observed for the disulfide-containing variants using activity as a measure, together with a large reduction in catalytic rates (k(cat)) and a general decrease in Km values. The results suggest that a high degree of mobility near the active site and in the helix carrying the endogenous cysteine is essential for full catalytic efficiency in the cold-adapted AP.

  6. Atomistic structure of cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles for catalytic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao Liang; Piccinin, Simone; Laio, Alessandro; Fabris, Stefano

    2012-12-21

    Solar-driven water splitting is a key photochemical reaction that underpins the feasible and sustainable production of solar fuels. An amorphous cobalt-phosphate catalyst (Co-Pi) based on earth-abundant elements has been recently reported to efficiently promote water oxidation to protons and dioxygen, a main bottleneck for the overall process. The structure of this material remains largely unknown. We here exploit ab initio and classical atomistic simulations combined with metadynamics to build a realistic and statistically meaningful model of Co-Pi nanoparticles. We demonstrate the emergence and stability of molecular-size ordered crystallites in nanoparticles initially formed by a disordered Co-O network and phosphate groups. The stable crystallites consist of bis-oxo-bridged Co centers that assemble into layered structures (edge-sharing CoO(6) octahedra) as well as in corner- and face-sharing cubane units. These layered and cubane motifs coexist in the crystallites, which always incorporate disordered phosphate groups at the edges. Our computational nanoparticles, although limited in size to ~1 nm, can contain more than one crystallite and incorporate up to 18 Co centers in the cubane/layered structures. The crystallites are structurally stable up to high temperatures. We simulate the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of our nanoparticles. Those containing several complete and incomplete cubane motifs-which are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity-display a very good agreement with the experimental EXAFS spectra of Co-Pi grains. We propose that the crystallites in our nanoparticles are reliable structural models of the Co-Pi catalyst surface. They will be useful to reveal the origin of the catalytic efficiency of these novel water-oxidation catalysts.

  7. VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: Effect on transition metal catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haibao; Lu, Haoxian; Zhan, Yujie; Liu, Gaoyuan; Feng, Qiuyu; Huang, Huiling; Wu, Muyan; Ye, Xinguo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn nanoparticles are highly dispersed on ZSM-5 and most efficient in benzene degradation in the VUV-OZCO process. - Highlights: • Vacuum UV irradiation is well combined with O_3 catalytic oxidation. • O_3 byproducts was used to enhance catalytic oxidation of VOCs. • Mn/ZSM-5 achieved the best catalytic activity for benzene degradation. - Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause the major air pollution concern. In this study, a series of ZSM-5 supported transition metals were prepared by impregnation method. They were combined with vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor and used for the degradation of benzene, a typical toxic VOCs. Compared with VUV photo-oxidation alone, the introduction of catalysts can greatly enhance benzene oxidation under the help of O_3, the by-products from VUV irradiation, via ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation (OZCO). The catalytic activity of transition metals towards benzene oxidation followed the order: Mn > Co > Cu > Ni > Fe. Mn achieved the best catalytic activity due to the strongest capability for O_3 catalytic decomposition and utilization. Benzene and O_3 removal efficiency reached as high as 97% and 100% after 360 min, respectively. O_3 was catalytically decomposed, generating highly reactive oxidants such as ·OH and ·O for benzene oxidation.

  8. VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: Effect on transition metal catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haibao, E-mail: seabao8@gmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology (Sun Yat-sen University) (China); Lu, Haoxian; Zhan, Yujie; Liu, Gaoyuan; Feng, Qiuyu; Huang, Huiling; Wu, Muyan; Ye, Xinguo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn nanoparticles are highly dispersed on ZSM-5 and most efficient in benzene degradation in the VUV-OZCO process. - Highlights: • Vacuum UV irradiation is well combined with O{sub 3} catalytic oxidation. • O{sub 3} byproducts was used to enhance catalytic oxidation of VOCs. • Mn/ZSM-5 achieved the best catalytic activity for benzene degradation. - Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause the major air pollution concern. In this study, a series of ZSM-5 supported transition metals were prepared by impregnation method. They were combined with vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor and used for the degradation of benzene, a typical toxic VOCs. Compared with VUV photo-oxidation alone, the introduction of catalysts can greatly enhance benzene oxidation under the help of O{sub 3}, the by-products from VUV irradiation, via ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation (OZCO). The catalytic activity of transition metals towards benzene oxidation followed the order: Mn > Co > Cu > Ni > Fe. Mn achieved the best catalytic activity due to the strongest capability for O{sub 3} catalytic decomposition and utilization. Benzene and O{sub 3} removal efficiency reached as high as 97% and 100% after 360 min, respectively. O{sub 3} was catalytically decomposed, generating highly reactive oxidants such as ·OH and ·O for benzene oxidation.

  9. (Gold core) at (ceria shell) nanostructures for plasmon-enhanced catalytic reactions under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianfang; Li, Benxia; Gu, Ting; Ming, Tian; Wang, Junxin; Wang, Peng; Yu, Jimmy C.

    2014-01-01

    Driving catalytic reactions with sunlight is an excellent example of sustainable chemistry. A prerequisite of solar-driven catalytic reactions is the development of photocatalysts with high solar-harvesting efficiencies and catalytic activities. Herein, we describe a general approach for uniformly coating ceria on monometallic and bimetallic nanocrystals through heterogeneous nucleation and growth. The method allows for control of the shape, size, and type of the metal core as well as the thickness of the ceria shell. The plasmon shifts of the Au@CeO2 nanostructures resulting from the switching between Ce(IV) and Ce(III) are observed. The selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, one of the fundamental reactions for organic synthesis, performed under both broad-band and monochromatic light, demonstrates the visible-light-driven catalytic activity and reveals the synergistic effect on the enhanced catalysis of the Au@CeO2 nanostructures. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. (Gold core) at (ceria shell) nanostructures for plasmon-enhanced catalytic reactions under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianfang

    2014-08-26

    Driving catalytic reactions with sunlight is an excellent example of sustainable chemistry. A prerequisite of solar-driven catalytic reactions is the development of photocatalysts with high solar-harvesting efficiencies and catalytic activities. Herein, we describe a general approach for uniformly coating ceria on monometallic and bimetallic nanocrystals through heterogeneous nucleation and growth. The method allows for control of the shape, size, and type of the metal core as well as the thickness of the ceria shell. The plasmon shifts of the Au@CeO2 nanostructures resulting from the switching between Ce(IV) and Ce(III) are observed. The selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, one of the fundamental reactions for organic synthesis, performed under both broad-band and monochromatic light, demonstrates the visible-light-driven catalytic activity and reveals the synergistic effect on the enhanced catalysis of the Au@CeO2 nanostructures. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Formalization of hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking for mathematical model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, G.; Ivashkina, E.; Ivanchina, E.; Kiseleva, S.; Stebeneva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The issue of improving the energy and resource efficiency of advanced petroleum processing can be solved by the development of adequate mathematical model based on physical and chemical regularities of process reactions with a high predictive potential in the advanced petroleum refining. In this work, the development of formalized hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking was performed using thermodynamic parameters of reaction defined by the Density Functional Theory. The list of reaction was compiled according to the results of feedstock structural-group composition definition, which was done by the n-d-m-method, the Hazelvuda method, qualitative composition of feedstock defined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and individual composition of catalytic cracking gasoline fraction. Formalized hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking will become the basis for the development of the catalytic cracking kinetic model.

  12. Treatment of Row Leachate Using Catalytic Wet Oxidation Processes in Combination Hydrogen Peroxide, A Case Study of Isfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Karimi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of toxic organic compounds is one of the major applications of the Wet Air Oxidation (WAO processes. The process can be defined  as the oxidation of substances, either in the form of solutions or suspensions, with the use of an oxidant (oxygen or air at elevated pressure and temperature. The aim of this paper was to study of Catalytic Wet Oxidation (CWAO with hydrogen peroxide to improve removal efficiency of organic matter and ammonia mainly produced in Isfahan composting factory leachate. The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sample to 3 Lit autoclave reactor. Four parameters are considered: pressure (8–12 bar; temperature (100–300 °C; retention time (30–90 min; H2O2 (1–5 mL/L.The highest removal efficiencies of COD and BOD were achieved at 300°C; approximately 44% and 48% were destroyed, respectively. On the other hand, highest ammonium removal efficiency was achieved at 100 °C in which approximately 63.8% was removed. The efficiency of aqueous phase oxidation can be largely improved by the use of H2O2 as catalyst. Therefore, catalytic wet oxidation would provide an environmentally attractive option for control of organic and toxic wastes problems. Temperature was found to be the most important control variable of the wet oxidation process of leachate.

  13. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  14. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  15. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of polyacrylamide solution | Hu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified with trace metal elements, the catalytic activity of Fe2O3/Al2O3 could be changed greatly. Among various trace metal elements, Fe2O3/Al2O3 catalysts modified with Co and Cu showed great increase on catalytic activity. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2010, pp. 110- ...

  16. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  17. Polymer and Membrane Design for Low Temperature Catalytic Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Xie, Yihui; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Catalytically active asymmetric membranes have been developed with high loadings of palladium nanoparticles located solely in the membrane's ultrathin skin layer. The manufacturing of these membranes requires polymers with functional groups, which can form insoluble complexes with palladium ions. Three polymers have been synthesized for this purpose and a complexation/nonsolvent induced phase separation followed by a palladium reduction step is carried out to prepare such membranes. Parameters to optimize the skin layer thickness and porosity, the palladium loading in this layer, and the palladium nanoparticles size are determined. The catalytic activity of the membranes is verified with the reduction of a nitro-compound and with a liquid phase Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Very low reaction times are observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  19. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  20. Polymer and Membrane Design for Low Temperature Catalytic Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2016-02-29

    Catalytically active asymmetric membranes have been developed with high loadings of palladium nanoparticles located solely in the membrane\\'s ultrathin skin layer. The manufacturing of these membranes requires polymers with functional groups, which can form insoluble complexes with palladium ions. Three polymers have been synthesized for this purpose and a complexation/nonsolvent induced phase separation followed by a palladium reduction step is carried out to prepare such membranes. Parameters to optimize the skin layer thickness and porosity, the palladium loading in this layer, and the palladium nanoparticles size are determined. The catalytic activity of the membranes is verified with the reduction of a nitro-compound and with a liquid phase Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Very low reaction times are observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Catalytically Active Living Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Johnston, Trevor G; Shafranek, Ryan T; Goodman, Cassandra J; Zalatan, Jesse G; Storti, Duane W; Ganter, Mark A; Nelson, Alshakim

    2018-04-25

    Living materials, which are composites of living cells residing in a polymeric matrix, are designed to utilize the innate functionalities of the cells to address a broad range of applications such as fermentation and biosensing. Herein, we demonstrate the additive manufacturing of catalytically active living materials (AMCALM) for continuous fermentation. A multi-stimuli-responsive yeast-laden hydrogel ink, based on F127-dimethacrylate, was developed and printed using a direct-write 3D printer. The reversible stimuli-responsive behaviors of the polymer hydrogel inks to temperature and pressure are critical, as they enabled the facile incorporation of yeast cells and subsequent fabrication of 3D lattice constructs. Subsequent photo-cross-linking of the printed polymer hydrogel afforded a robust elastic material. These yeast-laden living materials were metabolically active in the fermentation of glucose into ethanol for 2 weeks in a continuous batch process without significant reduction in efficiency (∼90% yield of ethanol). This cell immobilization platform may potentially be applicable toward other genetically modified yeast strains to produce other high-value chemicals in a continuous biofermentation process.

  2. Plasma-catalytic decomposition of TCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, A.; Morent, R.; De Geyter, N.; Leys, C. [Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium). Dept. of Applied Physics; Tuan, N.D.M.; Giraudon, J.M.; Lamonier, J.F. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve (France). Dept. de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are gaseous pollutants that pose an environmental hazard due to their high volatility and their possible toxicity. Conventional technologies to reduce the emission of VOCs have their advantages, but they become cost-inefficient when low concentrations have to be treated. In the past 2 decades, non-thermal plasma technology has received growing attention as an alternative and promising remediation method. Non-thermal plasmas are effective because they produce a series of strong oxidizers such as ozone, oxygen radicals and hydroxyl radicals that provide a reactive chemical environment in which VOCs are completely oxidized. This study investigated whether the combination of NTP and catalysis could improve the energy efficiency and the selectivity towards carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Trichloroethylene (TCE) was decomposed by non-thermal plasma generated in a DC-excited atmospheric pressure glow discharge. The production of by-products was qualitatively investigated through FT-IR spectrometry. The results were compared with those from a catalytic reactor. The removal rate of TCE reached a maximum of 78 percent at the highest input energy. The by-products of TCE decomposition were CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO) hydrochloric acid (HCl) and dichloroacetylchloride. Combining the plasma system with a catalyst located in an oven downstream resulted in a maximum removal of 80 percent, at an energy density of 300 J/L, a catalyst temperature of 373 K and a total air flow rate of 2 slm. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  4. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  5. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Monica, E-mail: monica.dan@itim-cj.ro; Mihet, Maria, E-mail: maria.mihet@itim-cj.ro; Lazar, Mihaela D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  6. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41 Ar, 79 Kr or 85 Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products, 140 La and 24 Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  7. Plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol: influence of air activation rate and reforming temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Fedirchuk, I.I.; Demchina, V.P.; Bortyshevsky, V.A.; Korzh, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence that air activation rate and reforming temperature have on the gaseous products composition and conversion efficiency during the plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol. The analysis of product composition showed that the conversion efficiency of ethanol has a maximum in the studied range of reforming temperatures. Researched system provided high reforming efficiency and high hydrogen energy yield at the lower temperatures than traditional conversion technologies

  8. Selective Catalytic Synthesis Using the Combination of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen: Catalytic Chess at the Interface of Energy and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klankermayer, Jürgen; Wesselbaum, Sebastian; Beydoun, Kassem; Leitner, Walter

    2016-06-20

    The present Review highlights the challenges and opportunities when using the combination CO2 /H2 as a C1 synthon in catalytic reactions and processes. The transformations are classified according to the reduction level and the bond-forming processes, covering the value chain from high volume basic chemicals to complex molecules, including biologically active substances. Whereas some of these concepts can facilitate the transition of the energy system by harvesting renewable energy into chemical products, others provide options to reduce the environmental impact of chemical production already in today's petrochemical-based industry. Interdisciplinary fundamental research from chemists and chemical engineers can make important contributions to sustainable development at the interface of the energetic and chemical value chain. The present Review invites the reader to enjoy this exciting area of "catalytic chess" and maybe even to start playing some games in her or his laboratory. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Microwave catalytic NOx and SO{sub 2} removal using FeCu/zeolite as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z.S. Wei; G.H. Zeng; Z.R. Xie; C.Y. Ma; X.H. Liu; J.L. Sun; L.H. Liu [Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma technology is a promising process for flue gas treatment. Microwave catalytic NOx and SO{sub 2} removal simultaneously has been investigated using FeCu/zeolite as catalyst. The experimental results showed that a microwave reactor with FeCu/zeolite only could be used to microwave catalytic oxidative 91.7% NOx to nitrates and 79.6% SO{sub 2} to sulfate; the reaction efficiencies of microwave catalytic reduction of NOx and SO{sub 2} in a microwave reactor with FeCu/zeolite and ammonium bicarbonate (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) as a reducing agent could be up to 95.8% and 93.4% respectively. Microwave irradiation accentuates catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} and NOx treatment, and microwave addition can increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency from 14.5% to 18.7%, and NOx removal efficiency from 13.4% to 18.7%, separately. FeCu/zeolite catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum analysis (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) method. Microwave catalytic NOx and SO{sub 2} removal follows Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetics. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: Effect on transition metal catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibao; Lu, Haoxian; Zhan, Yujie; Liu, Gaoyuan; Feng, Qiuyu; Huang, Huiling; Wu, Muyan; Ye, Xinguo

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause the major air pollution concern. In this study, a series of ZSM-5 supported transition metals were prepared by impregnation method. They were combined with vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor and used for the degradation of benzene, a typical toxic VOCs. Compared with VUV photo-oxidation alone, the introduction of catalysts can greatly enhance benzene oxidation under the help of O3, the by-products from VUV irradiation, via ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation (OZCO). The catalytic activity of transition metals towards benzene oxidation followed the order: Mn > Co > Cu > Ni > Fe. Mn achieved the best catalytic activity due to the strongest capability for O3 catalytic decomposition and utilization. Benzene and O3 removal efficiency reached as high as 97% and 100% after 360 min, respectively. O3 was catalytically decomposed, generating highly reactive oxidants such as rad OH and rad O for benzene oxidation.

  11. Catalytic briquettes from low-rank coal for NO reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Boyano; M.E. Galvez; R. Moliner; M.J. Lazaro [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The briquetting is one of the most ancient and widespread techniques of coal agglomeration which is nowadays becoming useless for combustion home applications. However, the social increasing interest in environmental protection opens new applications to this technique, especially in developed countries. In this work, a series of catalytic briquettes were prepared from low-rank Spanish coal and commercial pitch by means of a pressure agglomeration method. After that, they were cured in air and doped by equilibrium impregnation with vanadium compounds. Preparation conditions (especially those of activation and oxidizing process) were changed to study their effects on catalytic behaviour. Catalytic briquettes showed a relative high NO conversion at low temperatures in all cases, however, a strong relation between the preparation process and the reached NO conversion was observed. Preparation procedure has an effect not only on the NO reduction efficiency but also on the mechanical strength of the briquettes as a consequence of the structural and chemical changes carried out during the activation and oxidation procedures. Generally speaking mechanical resistance is enhanced by an optimal porous volume and the creation of new carboxyl groups on surface. Just on the contrary, NO reduction is promoted by high microporous structures and higher amounts of surface oxygen groups. Both facts force to find an optimum point in the preparation produce which will depend on the application. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M. [Molten Metal Technology, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  13. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT's proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE's inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE's inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of DOE sites

  14. Catalytic strategy used by the myosin motor to hydrolyze ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-07-22

    Myosin is a molecular motor responsible for biological motions such as muscle contraction and intracellular cargo transport, for which it hydrolyzes adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Early steps of the mechanism by which myosin catalyzes ATP hydrolysis have been investigated, but still missing are the structure of the final ADP·inorganic phosphate (Pi) product and the complete pathway leading to it. Here, a comprehensive description of the catalytic strategy of myosin is formulated, based on combined quantum-classical molecular mechanics calculations. A full exploration of catalytic pathways was performed and a final product structure was found that is consistent with all experiments. Molecular movies of the relevant pathways show the different reorganizations of the H-bond network that lead to the final product, whose γ-phosphate is not in the previously reported HPγO4(2-) state, but in the H2PγO4(-) state. The simulations reveal that the catalytic strategy of myosin employs a three-pronged tactic: (i) Stabilization of the γ-phosphate of ATP in a dissociated metaphosphate (PγO3(-)) state. (ii) Polarization of the attacking water molecule, to abstract a proton from that water. (iii) Formation of multiple proton wires in the active site, for efficient transfer of the abstracted proton to various product precursors. The specific role played in this strategy by each of the three loops enclosing ATP is identified unambiguously. It explains how the precise timing of the ATPase activation during the force generating cycle is achieved in myosin. The catalytic strategy described here for myosin is likely to be very similar in most nucleotide hydrolyzing enzymes.

  15. X-ray structures of the Pseudomonas cichorii D-tagatose 3-epimerase mutant form C66S recognizing deoxy sugars as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Yoshihara, Akihide; Ishii, Tomohiko; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii D-tagatose 3-epimerase (PcDTE), which has a broad substrate specificity, efficiently catalyzes the epimerization of not only D-tagatose to D-sorbose but also D-fructose to D-psicose (D-allulose) and also recognizes the deoxy sugars as substrates. In an attempt to elucidate the substrate recognition and catalytic reaction mechanisms of PcDTE for deoxy sugars, the X-ray structures of the PcDTE mutant form with the replacement of Cys66 by Ser (PcDTE_C66S) in complexes with deoxy sugars were determined. These X-ray structures showed that substrate recognition by the enzyme at the 1-, 2-, and 3-positions is responsible for enzymatic activity and that substrate-enzyme interactions at the 4-, 5-, and 6-positions are not essential for the catalytic reaction of the enzyme leading to the broad substrate specificity of PcDTE. They also showed that the epimerization site of 1-deoxy 3-keto D-galactitol is shifted from C3 to C4 and that 1-deoxy sugars may bind to the catalytic site in the inhibitor-binding mode. The hydrophobic groove that acts as an accessible surface for substrate binding is formed through the dimerization of PcDTE. In PcDTE_C66S/deoxy sugar complex structures, bound ligand molecules in both the linear and ring forms were detected in the hydrophobic groove, while bound ligand molecules in the catalytic site were in the linear form. This result suggests that the sugar-ring opening of a substrate may occur in the hydrophobic groove and also that the narrow channel of the passageway to the catalytic site allows a substrate in the linear form to pass through.

  16. Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - Experimental part. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2003-08-01

    This final report covers the work that has been performed within the project P 10547-2, 'Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - system analysis ORWARE'. This project is part of the research programme 'Energy from Waste' financed by the Swedish National Energy Administration. The project has been carried out at the division of Industrial Ecology and at the division of Chemical Technology at Royal Inst. of Technology. The aim of the project has been to study the potentials for catalytic combustion of gasified waste. The supposed end user of the technique is a smaller community in Sweden with 15,000-20,000 inhabitants. The project contains of two sub projects: an experimental part carried out at Chemical Technology and a system analysis carried out at Industrial Ecology. This report covers the experimental part of the project carried out at Chemical Technology. The aim for the experimental part has been to develop and test catalysts with long life-time and a high performance, to reduce the thermal-NO{sub x} below 5 ppm and to significantly reduce NO{sub x} formed from fuel-bound nitrogen. Different experimental studies have been carried out within the project: a set-up of catalytic materials have been tested over a synthetic mixture of the gasified waste, the influence of sulfur present in the gas stream, NO{sub x} formation from fuel bound nitrogen, kinetic studies of CO and H{sub 2} with and without the presence of water and the effects of adding a co-metal to palladium catalysts Furthermore a novel annular reactor design has been used to carry out experiments for kinetic measurements. Real gasification tests of waste pellets directly coupled to catalytic combustion have successfully been performed. The results obtained from the experiments, both the catalytic combustion and from the gasification, have been possible to use in the system analysis. The aim of the system analysis of catalytic combustion of gasified waste takes into consideration

  17. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  18. Research progress on catalytic denitrification technology in chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yezhi

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, due to the rising emission of NOx annually, attention has been aroused widely by people on more and more severe environmental problems. This paper first discusses applying NOx removal and control technologies and relating chemical principles. Of many technologies, selective reduction reaction (SCR) is the most widely used. Catalysts, the concentration of NOx at the entrance of SCR catalytic reactor, reaction temperature, NH3/NOx mole ratio and NH3 slip rate analyzed later contributes to the removal efficiency of NOx. Finally, the processing and configuration of SCR de-NOx system are briefly introduced.

  19. Low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - hydrogen - air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E; Roth, F von; Hottinger, P; Truong, T B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - air mixtures would allow the development of no-NO{sub x} burners for heating and power applications. Using commercially available catalysts, the room temperature ignition of methane-propane-air mixtures has been shown in laboratory reactors with combustion efficiencies over 95% and maximum temperatures less than 700{sup o}C. After a 500 hour stability test, severe deactivation of both methane and propane oxidation functions was observed. In cooperation with industrial partners, scaleup to 3 kW is being investigated together with startup dynamics and catalyst stability. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  20. Catalytic Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Lao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys the literature regarding the development of catalytic versions of the Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions. The first section summarizes how arsenic and tellurium-based catalytic Wittig-type reaction systems were developed first due to the relatively easy reduction of the oxides involved. This is followed by a presentation of the current state of the art regarding phosphine-catalyzed Wittig reactions. The second section covers the field of related catalytic aza-Wittig reactions that are catalyzed by both phosphine oxides and phosphines.

  1. Catalytic models developed through social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social......The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...

  2. Optimization of the catalytic converter internal flow by using 3D-CFD; Sanjigen nagare kaiseki ni yoru shokubai converter nai nagare no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toi, M; Sugiura, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    By using computational fluid dynamics and statistical quality control method, we investigated the contribution of front and rear catalytic converter cone shape for the pressure loss and the partial flow, also led the optimal terms and the predictional formulations efficiently. According to this, we can investigate the optimal position of the catalytic converter from the planning. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  4. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  5. Catalytic hydrotreatment of refinery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The object of the project is to produce liquid hydrocarbons by the catalytic hydroprocessing of solid refinery wastes (hard pitches) in order to improve the profitability of deep conversion processes and reduce the excess production of heavy fuels. The project was mostly carried out on the ASVAHL demonstration platform site, at Solaize, and hard pitches were produced primarily by deasphalting of atmospheric or vacuum distillation residues. The project includes two experimental phases and an economic evaluation study phase. In phase 1, two granular catalysts were used to transform pitch into standard low sulphur fuel oil: a continuously moving bed, with demetallation and conversion catalyst; a fixed bed, with hydrorefining catalyst. In phase 2 of the project, it was proven that a hydrotreatment process using a finely dispersed catalyst in the feedstock, can, under realistic operating conditions, transform with goods yields hard pitch into distillates that can be refined through standard methods. In phase 3 of the project, it was shown that the economics of such processes are tightly linked to the price differential between white and black oil products, which is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the evolution of environmental constraints will impel the use of such methods, thus avoiding the coproduction of polluting solid residues.

  6. Processing of mixed waste via quantum-catalytic extraction processing (Q-CEP trademark), a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.; Richards, T.; McGowan, B.

    1996-01-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) as developed by Molten Metal Technology (MMT), Inc. employs the use of a refractory-lined, steel-shell reactor vessel and an inductively-heated metal bath. When molten, the metal bath can process gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes and recycle their constituents into commercially valuable products. Quantum-Catalytic Extraction Processing, or Q-CEP, is the application of CEP technology to radioactive and mixed wastes. The Q-CEP technology can take wastes in various physical forms (gas, liquid, slurry, sludge, or grindable solid) and inject them into the molten metal bath of iron, nickel, or copper. The bath acts as both a catalyst and solvent and breaks the compounds of the waste feed into their original constituent elements. The flexibility and robustness of the Q-CEP process are attributed to the open-quote singular close-quote dissolved elemental intermediate through which reactions proceed. open-quotes Singular close-quote refers to the fact that the catalytic and salvation effects of the liquid metal ensure that the constituents of the feed are only found in the liquid metal as dissolved elements (e.g. dissolved carbon). As a result, Q-CEP feed conversion is independent of the complexity of the molecular structure of the feed molecule. Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs) exceeding 99.9999% (six nines) are typical in CEP regardless of the complexity of feed materials. Q-CEP is not a combustion technology. Unlike incineration where wastes are volume reduced and residuals buried, Q-CEP allows for the formation of commercially valuable products. Chemical reactions are performed in a highly reducing environment which results in extremely low concentrations of free oxygen, preventing the formation of furans, dioxins, or other products of incomplete combustion

  7. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using gold nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenli; Qu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: qyy@dlut.edu.cn; Pei, Xiaofang; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • A green process for AuNPs synthesis was achieved by fungus Aspergillus. • Uniform spherical AuNPs with well dispersity and stability were biosynthesized. • The biogenic AuNPs possessed remarkable catalytic activities for 4-NP reduction. - Abstract: A facile one-pot eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high catalytic activity was achieved using cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. The surface plasmon resonance band of UV–vis spectrum at 532 nm confirmed the presence of AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that quite uniform spherical AuNPs were synthesized and the average size of nanoparticles increased from 4 nm to 29 nm with reaction time. X-ray diffraction analysis verified the formation of nano-crystalline gold particles. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of functional groups on the surface of biosynthesized AuNPs, such as O−H, N−H, C=O, C−H, C−OH and C−O−C groups, which increased the stability of AuNPs. The biogenic AuNPs could serve as a highly efficient catalyst for 4-nitrophenol reduction. The reaction rate constant was linearly correlated with the concentration of AuNPs, which increased from 0.59 min{sup −1} to 1.51 min{sup −1} with the amount of AuNPs increasing form 1.46 × 10{sup −6} to 17.47 × 10{sup −6} mmol. Moreover, the as-synthesized AuNPs exhibited a remarkable normalized catalytic activity (4.04 × 10{sup 5} min{sup −1} mol{sup −1}), which was much higher than that observed for AuNPs synthesized by other biological and conventional chemical methods.

  8. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using gold nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenli; Qu, Yuanyuan; Pei, Xiaofang; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A green process for AuNPs synthesis was achieved by fungus Aspergillus. • Uniform spherical AuNPs with well dispersity and stability were biosynthesized. • The biogenic AuNPs possessed remarkable catalytic activities for 4-NP reduction. - Abstract: A facile one-pot eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high catalytic activity was achieved using cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. The surface plasmon resonance band of UV–vis spectrum at 532 nm confirmed the presence of AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that quite uniform spherical AuNPs were synthesized and the average size of nanoparticles increased from 4 nm to 29 nm with reaction time. X-ray diffraction analysis verified the formation of nano-crystalline gold particles. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of functional groups on the surface of biosynthesized AuNPs, such as O−H, N−H, C=O, C−H, C−OH and C−O−C groups, which increased the stability of AuNPs. The biogenic AuNPs could serve as a highly efficient catalyst for 4-nitrophenol reduction. The reaction rate constant was linearly correlated with the concentration of AuNPs, which increased from 0.59 min −1 to 1.51 min −1 with the amount of AuNPs increasing form 1.46 × 10 −6 to 17.47 × 10 −6 mmol. Moreover, the as-synthesized AuNPs exhibited a remarkable normalized catalytic activity (4.04 × 10 5 min −1 mol −1 ), which was much higher than that observed for AuNPs synthesized by other biological and conventional chemical methods.

  9. Synthesis of New Chiral Ligands Based on Thiophene Derivatives for Use in Catalytic Asymmetric Oxidation of Sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Chul; Ahn, Dae Jun; Lee, Woo Sun; Lee, Seung Han; Ahn, Kwang Hyun

    2011-01-01

    We discovered that the vanadium complexes of new Schiff base ligands and prepared from thiophene derivatives efficiently catalyze the asymmetric oxidation of sulfides by hydrogen peroxide to provide sulfoxides with enantioselectivities up to 79% ee and in yields up to 89%. Notably, Schiff base showed better or similar enantioselectivity than the well-studied Schiff base. These results suggest possible applications of Schiff bases derived from and in other catalytic asymmetric reactions. Chiral sulfoxides are important functional groups for various applications. For example, the biological activities of sulfoxide containing drugs such as omeprazole are strongly related to the chirality of the sulfoxide group; for this reason, esomeprazole, the enantiomerically pure form of omeprazole, was later developed. There are several chiral sulfoxide based drugs that have been introduced by the pharmaceutical industry including armodafinil, aprikalim, oxisurane, and ustiloxin. Chiral sulfoxides have also been utilized as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric syntheses of chiral intermediates

  10. Free-standing hierarchical α-MnO2@CuO membrane for catalytic filtration degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinsheng; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Tang, Chuyang Y; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-01

    Catalytic membrane, due to its compact reactor assembling, high catalytic performance as well as low energy consumption, has proved to be more attractive for wastewater treatment. In this work, a free-standing α-MnO 2 @CuO membrane with hierarchical nanostructures was prepared and evaluated as the catalytic membrane to generate radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidative degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the high mass transport efficiency and the hierarchical nanostructures, a superior catalytic activity of the membrane was observed for organic dyes degradation. As a typical organic dye, more than 99% of methylene blue (MB) was degraded within 0.23 s using dead-end filtration cell. The effects of flow rate, PMS concentration and buffer solution on MB degradation were further investigated. Besides MB, the catalytic membrane also showed excellent performance for the removal of other dyes, such as congo red, methyl orange, rhodamine B, acid chrome blue K and malachite green. Moreover, the mechanism study indicated that OH and SO 4 - generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn/Cu species with different oxidation states mainly accounted for the dyes degradation. The catalytic filtration process using α-MnO 2 @CuO catalytic membrane could provide a novel method for wastewater purification with high efficiency and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lamellar zirconium phosphates to host metals for catalytic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Plata, Daniel; Infantes-Molina, Antonia; Rodríguez-Aguado, Elena; Braos-García, Pilar; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2018-02-27

    In the present study a porous lamellar zirconium phosphate heterostructure (PPH) formed from zirconium(iv) phosphate expanded with silica galleries (P/Zr molar ratio equal to 2 and (Si + Zr)/P equal to 3) was prepared to host noble metals. Textural and structural characterization of PPH-noble metal materials was carried out in order to elucidate the location and dispersion of the metallic particles and the properties of the resulting material to be used in catalytic processes. In the present paper, their activity in the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction of dibenzofuran (DBF) was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evidenced that the structure of the pillared zirconium phosphate material was not modified by the incorporation of Pt and Pd. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a different dispersion of the noble metal. The acidity of the resulting PPH-noble metal materials also changed, although in all cases the acidity was of weak nature, and the incorporation of noble metals affected Brønsted acid sites as observed from 31 P NMR spectra. In general, the textural, structural and acidic properties of the resulting materials suggest that PPH can be considered a good candidate to be used as a catalytic support. Thus, the catalytic results of the PPH-noble metal samples indicated that the Pd sample showed a stable behavior probably ascribed to a high dispersion of the active phase. However, the Pt sample suffered from fast deactivation. The selectivity to the reaction products was strongly dependent on the noble metal employed.

  12. Fuel cell research: Towards efficient energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available fuel cells by optimising the loading of catalyst (being expensive noble metals) and ionomer; 2) Improving conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells by developing more efficient catalysts and by investigating other fuels than methanol; 3... these components add significantly to the overall cost of a PEMFC. 1 We focused our research activities on: 1) The effect of the loading of catalytic ink on cell performance; 2) The effect of the ionomer content in the catalytic ink; 3) Testing...

  13. Effect of the efficiency of N by use of different forms of fertilizer application in ground, evaluated by means of the isotopic technique and the N absorbed by the cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Rodolfo; Ramirez, Ricardo; Urquiaga, Segundo

    1997-01-01

    The determination of the efficiency in the use of nitrogen fertilizers, constitutes one of the important aspects that should be considered in the process of the appropriated element doses recommendation. The form of fertilizer placement is a very important aspect that affects the efficiency, and its evaluation is the main objective of the present work, by means of the Direct Method with the use of N 1 5, and the Indirect Method by means of the N-absorbed by fertilized plants and no fertilized ones. The study was carried out in a Fluventic Haplustoll soil, located in San Carlos, Cojedes State, where three forms of fertilizer placement were evaluated : 1) broadcasting application and incorporation with harrows pass (V/R); 2) broadcasting application and incorporation with disc harrows pass (V/B); 3) application band fertilizer (B); 4) without fertilization; parcels of 200 m2 were sown with corn (Zea mayz), and received an application equivalent to 120 Kg N/ha, in the form of urea. In each of the fertilized parcels, three microparcels of 2,56 m2 were settled down where the normal urea was substituted by enriched urea with N 1 5 to 3% exc. During the crop cycle, the contents N-mineral extracted with KCl(2M) were evaluated and finally the production of dry matter, grain, and the contents of N-total and N 1 5. It was found that the efficiency in the N-fertilizer recovery, by means of the Direct Method, fluctuated between 18.8 and 23,7%, although the grain production was high, fluctuating between 6541 and 6007 kg/ha, suggesting little use of N-fertilizer although a significant use or the soil N. On the other hand, one observes that the processes of mineralization/inmobilization are affected by the application of N, highlighting the importance of their knowledge to improve the efficiency of the use of N-fertilizer and the N coming from soils [es

  14. Chemistry and engineering of catalytic hydrodesulfurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, G.C.A.; Gates, B.C.

    1973-01-01

    A review with 74 refs. on catalytic hydrodesulfurization of pure compds. and petroleum feedstocks, with emphasis on reaction intermediates and structures of Al2O3-supported Ni-W and Co-Mo catalysts. [on SciFinder (R)

  15. Selenoglutathione Diselenide: Unique Redox Reactions in the GPx-Like Catalytic Cycle and Repairing of Disulfide Bonds in Scrambled Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodaira, Shingo; Asano, Yuki; Arai, Kenta; Iwaoka, Michio

    2017-10-24

    Selenoglutathione (GSeH) is a selenium analogue of naturally abundant glutathione (GSH). In this study, this water-soluble small tripeptide was synthesized in a high yield (up to 98%) as an oxidized diselenide form, i.e., GSeSeG (1), by liquid-phase peptide synthesis (LPPS). Obtained 1 was applied to the investigation of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like catalytic cycle. The important intermediates, i.e., GSe - and GSeSG, besides GSeO 2 H were characterized by 77 Se NMR spectroscopy. Thiol exchange of GSeSG with various thiols, such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, was found to promote the conversion to GSe - significantly. In addition, disproportionation of GSeSR to 1 and RSSR, which would be initiated by heterolytic cleavage of the Se-S bond and catalyzed by the generated selenolate, was observed. On the basis of these redox behaviors, it was proposed that the heterolytic cleavage of the Se-S bond can be facilitated by the interaction between the Se atom and an amino or aromatic group, which is present at the GPx active site. On the other hand, when a catalytic amount of 1 was reacted with scrambled 4S species of RNase A in the presence of NADPH and glutathione reductase, native protein was efficiently regenerated, suggesting a potential use of 1 to repair misfolded proteins through reduction of the non-native SS bonds.

  16. A PEG/copper(i) halide cluster as an eco-friendly catalytic system for C-N bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-An; Ji, Wei; Qu, Jian; Jing, Su; Gao, Fei; Zhu, Dun-Ru

    2018-05-22

    The catalytic activities of eight copper(i) halide clusters assembled from copper(i) halide and ferrocenyltelluroethers, 1-8, were investigated in C-N formation under various conditions. A catalytic procedure using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-400) as a greener alternative organic solvent has been developed. The PEG-400/5 system can achieve 99% targeted yield with a mild reaction temperature and short reaction time. After the isolation of the products by extraction with diethyl ether, this PEG-400/cluster system could be easily recycled. Spectroscopic studies elucidate a stepwise mechanism: firstly, proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involving the transfer of an electron from Cu+ and a proton from imidazole results in the formation of a labile penta-coordinated Cu2+ and aryl radical; the following effective electron transfer from the ferrocene unit reduces Cu2+ and forms the target product; finally, the ferrocenium unit is reduced by the I- anion. The merits of this eco-friendly synthesis are the efficient utilization of reagents and easy recyclability.

  17. The catalytic function of cytochrome P450 is entwined with its membrane-bound nature [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Barnaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450, a family of monooxygenase enzymes, is organized as a catalytic metabolon, which requires enzymatic partners as well as environmental factors that tune its complex dynamic. P450 and its reducing counterparts—cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome b5—are membrane-bound proteins located in the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to dynamically associate to form functional complexes. Increasing experimental evidence signifies the role(s played by both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in P450 catalytic function and efficiency. However, the biophysical challenges posed by their membrane-bound nature have severely limited high-resolution understanding of the molecular interfaces of these interactions. In this article, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on cytochrome P450, highlighting the environmental factors that are entwined with its metabolic function. Recent advances in structural biophysics are also discussed, setting up the bases for a new paradigm in the study of this important class of membrane-bound enzymes.

  18. Catalytic Aminohalogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemler, Sherry R; Bovino, Michael T

    2013-06-07

    Catalytic aminohalogenation methods enable the regio- and stereoselective vicinal difunctionalization of alkynes, allenes and alkenes with amine and halogen moieties. A range of protocols and reaction mechanisms including organometallic, Lewis base, Lewis acid and Brønsted acid catalysis have been disclosed, enabling the regio- and stereoselective synthesis of halogen-functionalized acyclic amines and nitrogen heterocycles. Recent advances including aminofluorination and catalytic enantioselective aminohalogenation reactions are summarized in this review.

  19. Kinetic catalytic studies of scorpion's hemocyanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queinnec, E.; Vuillaume, M.; Gardes-Albert, M.; Ferradini, C.; Ducancel, F.

    1991-01-01

    Hemocyanins are copper proteins which function as oxygen carriers in the haemolymph of Molluscs and Arthropods. They possess enzymatic properties: peroxidatic and catalatic activities, although they have neither iron nor porphyrin ring at the active site. The kinetics of the catalytic reaction is described. The reaction of superoxide anion with hemocyanin has been studied using pulse radiolysis at pH 9. The catalytic rate constant is 3.5 X 10 7 mol -1 .l.s -1 [fr

  20. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35 is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  1. Biodiesel production through non-catalytic supercritical transesterification: current state and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. da; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The inconveniences of the conventional method for biodiesel production by alkaline catalysis suggests research towards alternative methods, with the non-catalytic transesterification using an alcohol at supercritical conditions proposed as a promising technique for biodiesel production. The so-called supercritical method (SCM) has powerful advantages over conventional techniques, such as fast reaction rates, feedstock flexibility, production efficiency and environmentally friendly benefits. H...

  2. SNCR technology for NO sub x reduction in the cement industry. [Selective non-catalytic reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupper, D; Brentrup, L [Krupp Polysius AG, Beckum (Germany)

    1992-03-01

    This article discusses the selective non-catalytic (SNCR) process for reducing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases from cement plants. Topics covered include operating experience, injection of additives, selection of the additive, operating costs, reduction efficiency of SNCR, capital expenditure, secondary emissions and cycles of ammonium. (UK).

  3. Nano-Fe 3 O 4 /O 2 : Green, Magnetic and Reusable Catalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , efficient, heterogeneous and reusable catalytic system for the synthesis of benzimidazoles via the reactions of o-phenylenediamine (1 eq) with aryl aldehydes (1 eq) in excellentyields (85–97 %) and short reaction times (30–100 min) with a ...

  4. Oxidative cracking of n-hexane: a catalytic pathway to olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyadjian, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Steam cracking, the major, current existing route for light olefin production, is the most energy consuming process in the chemical industry. The need for an energy efficient processes, urged substantial research work for the development of new catalytic technologies for light olefin production.

  5. Development of advanced mesostructured catalytic coatings on different substrates for fine chemical synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Protasova, L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic microstructured reactors are becoming widely recognized for their unique properties, such as high surface–to–volume ratios, isothermal conditions due to high heat transfer rates, enhanced safety, and potential applications in chemistry and in chemical industry. The efficient use of

  6. Development of catalytic microreactors by plasma processes: application to wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect in overcoming the energy and environmental challenges is to improve the efficiency of existing and new processes. Nowadays, almost all major chemicals are produced by catalytic processes. However, a better understanding of the reaction pathways and kinetics is needed. In the field of

  7. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Butenolides via Hetero-Allylic Alkylation and Ring Closing Metathesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Bin; Geurts, Koen; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Zijl, Anthoni W. van; Fletcher, Stephen P.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral γ-butenolides was developed based on the hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) in combination with ring closing metathesis (RCM). The synthetic potential of the h-AAA-RCM protocol was illustrated with the facile synthesis of (-)-whiskey

  8. Solar photo catalytic treatment of simulated dyestuff effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Antoniadis, A.; Poulios, I.; Kiridies, I.; Malato, S.

    2003-07-01

    The photo catalytic organic content reduction of two selected synthetic wastewater from the textile dyeing industry, by the use heterogeneous and homogeneous photo catalytic methods under solar irradiation, has been studied at a pilot plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. the effect of two different TiO{sub 2} modifications with oxidants such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}, on the decolorisation and the organic content reduction (DOC) of the wastewater was examined. the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system seems to be more efficient in comparison to the synergetic action which appears when using persulfate and TiO{sub 2} in these specific wastewaters. By an accumulation energy of 50 KJ L''-1 the synergetic effect of TiO{sub 2} P-25 with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 70% and 57% DOC reduction, respectively, in the case of cotton synthetic wastewater, while the decolorisation was almost complete. The photo catalytic decolorisation, as well as the DOC reduction in the case of naylon simulated wastewater is a slower process and by an accumulation energy of 50 KJ L''-1 leads to 54% mineralization in both cases. The Photo-Fenton process in both cases was more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation of energy of 50 KJ L''-1 leads to 90% reduction of the organic content. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Investigating the Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Properties of Versatile Gold-Based Nanocatalvsts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzer, Lori A.

    Transition metal nanomaterials are used to catalyze many chemical reactions, including those key to environmental, medicinal, and petrochemical fields. Improving their catalytic properties and lifetime would have significant economic and environmental rewards. Potentially expedient options to make such advancements are to alter the shape, size, or composition of transition metal nanocatalysts. This work investigates the relationships between structure and catalytic properties of synthesized Au, Pd-on-Au, and Au-enzyme model transition metal nanocatalysts. Au and Pd-on-Au nanomaterials were studied due to their wide-spread application and structure-dependent electronic and geometric properties. The goal of this thesis is to contribute design procedures and synthesis methods that enable the preparation of more efficient transition metal nanocatalysts. The influence of the size and composition of Pd-on-Au nanoparticles (NPs) was systematically investigated and each was found to affect the catalyst's surface structure and catalytic properties. The catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethene and reduction of 4-nitrophenol by Pd-on-Au nanoparticles were investigated as these reactions are useful for environmental and pharmaceutical synthesis applications, respectively. Structural characterization revealed that the dispersion and oxidation state of surface Pd atoms are controlled by the Au particle size and concentration of Pd. These structural changes are correlated with observed Pd-on-Au NP activities for both probe reactions, providing new insight into the structure-activity relationships of bimetallic nanocatalysts. Using the structure-dependent electronic properties of Au NPs, a new type of light-triggered biocatalyst was prepared and used to remotely control a model biochemical reaction. This biocatalyst consists of a model thermophilic glucokinase enzyme covalently attached to the surface of Au nanorods. The rod-like shape of the Au nanoparticles made the

  10. Catalytic activity of zeolite-containing catalysts in cumene cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' chuk, L V; Takhtarova, G N; Topchieva, K V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1977-01-01

    The catalytic properties are studied of decationized forms (Ca and La) of zeolite-containing catalysts in relation to the nature of the cation and the degree of exchange in the cumene cracking reaction. It has been established that the increase in the activity of Ca-decationized catalysts occurs at a degree of exchange from 22 to 40% and at a ratio of the cation and decationized areas from 0.4 to 1. For La-decationized catalysts the activity increases at a degree of exchange up to 60% and at a ratio between the cation and decationized areas exceeding 1.

  11. Growth of catalytically active nanostructures in the nonequilibrium epitaxy regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, V.M.; Kuzmenko, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of metal atom deposition on a flat metal substrate in the diffusion mode has been studied. Conditions for growing up the periodic structures with a developed surface morphology are found. The applicability of the results obtained to the manufacture of catalysts is analyzed. In particular, when platinum atoms are deposited on a gold substrate, which is expedient by cost reasons, a system of nanopyramids confined by (111) facets can be formed under special conditions. This structure possesses an ultrahigh catalytic activity and is promising for applications in chemical industry

  12. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    details the catalytic partial oxidation of glycerol without preheat: droplets of glycerol are sprayed directly onto the top of the catalyst bed, where they react autothermally with contact times on the order of tau ≈ 30 ms. The reactive flash volatilization of glycerol results in equilibrium syngas production over Rh-Ce catalysts. In addition, water can be added to the liquid glycerol, resulting in true autothermal reforming. This highly efficient process can increase H2 yields and alter the H2 to CO ratio, allowing for flexibility in syngas quality depending on the purpose. Chapter 5 details the results of a time on stream experiment, in which optimal syngas conditions are chosen. Although conversion is 100% for 450 hours, these experiments demonstrate the deactivation of the catalyst over time. Deactivation is exhibited by decreases in H2 and CO 2 production accompanied by a steady increase in CO and temperature. These results are explained as a loss of water-gas shift equilibration. SEM images suggest catalyst sintering may play a role; EDS indicates the presence of impurities on the catalyst. In addition, the instability of quartz in the reactor is demonstrated by etching, resulting in a hole in the reactor tube at the end of the experiment. These results suggest prevaporization may be desirable in this application, and that quartz is not a suitable material for the reactive flash volatilization of oxygenated fuels. In Chapter 6, pyrolysis oil samples from three sources - poplar, pine, and hardwoods - are explored in the context of catalytic partial oxidation. Lessons derived from the tests with model compounds are applied to reactor design, resulting in the reactive flash vaporization of bio oils. Syngas is successfully produced, though deactivation due to coke and ash deposition keeps H2 below equlibrium. Coke formation is observed on the reactor walls, but is avoided between the fuel injection site and catalyst by increasing the proximity of these in the reactor

  13. Adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil

    2017-01-31

    The present invention provides an adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle having at least one adsorbent functional group bound thereto. The adsorbent catalytic nanoparticle also includes at least one catalytic material. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles. In some examples, the adsorbent catalytic nanoparticles can be used to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks for biodiesel, and to hydrotreat the separated fatty acids.

  14. Functional tuning of the catalytic residue pKa in a de novo designed esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebler, Katharina; Lengyel, Zsófia; Castañeda, Carlos A; Makhlynets, Olga V

    2017-09-01

    AlleyCatE is a de novo designed esterase that can be allosterically regulated by calcium ions. This artificial enzyme has been shown to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) and 4-nitrophenyl-(2-phenyl)-propanoate (pNPP) with high catalytic efficiency. AlleyCatE was created by introducing a single-histidine residue (His 144 ) into a hydrophobic pocket of calmodulin. In this work, we explore the determinants of catalytic properties of AlleyCatE. We obtained the pK a value of the catalytic histidine using experimental measurements by NMR and pH rate profile and compared these values to those predicted from electrostatics pK a calculations (from both empirical and continuum electrostatics calculations). Surprisingly, the pK a value of the catalytic histidine inside the hydrophobic pocket of calmodulin is elevated as compared to the model compound pK a value of this residue in water. We determined that a short-range favorable interaction with Glu 127 contributes to the elevated pK a of His 144 . We have rationally modulated local electrostatic potential in AlleyCatE to decrease the pK a of its active nucleophile, His 144 , by 0.7 units. As a direct result of the decrease in the His 144 pK a value, catalytic efficiency of the enzyme increased by 45% at pH 6. This work shows that a series of simple NMR experiments that can be performed using low field spectrometers, combined with straightforward computational analysis, provide rapid and accurate guidance to rationally improve catalytic efficiency of histidine-promoted catalysis. Proteins 2017; 85:1656-1665. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption - Catalytic wet air oxidation on activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada-Penate, I. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France); Julcour-Lebigue, C., E-mail: carine.julcour@ensiacet.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France); Jauregui-Haza, U. J. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Habana (Cuba); Wilhelm, A. M.; Delmas, H. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three activated carbons (AC) compared as adsorbents and oxidation catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar evolution for catalytic and adsorptive properties of AC over reuses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidic and mesoporous AC to be preferred, despite lower initial efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative degradation of paracetamol improves biodegradability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convenient hybrid adsorption-regenerative oxidation process for continuous treatment. - Abstract: The concern about the fate of pharmaceutical products has raised owing to the increasing contamination of rivers, lakes and groundwater. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon was investigated both as a water treatment technique using an autoclave reactor and as a regenerative treatment of the carbon after adsorption in a sequential fixed bed process. Three activated carbons (ACs) from different source materials were used as catalysts: two microporous basic ACs (S23 and C1) and a meso- and micro-porous acidic one (L27). During the first CWAO experiment the adsorption capacity and catalytic performance of fresh S23 and C1 were higher than those of fresh L27 despite its higher surface area. This situation changed after AC reuse, as finally L27 gave the best results after five CWAO cycles. Respirometry tests with activated sludge revealed that in the studied conditions the use of CWAO enhanced the aerobic biodegradability of the effluent. In the ADOX process L27 also showed better oxidation performances and regeneration efficiency. This different ageing was examined through AC physico-chemical properties.

  16. Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption – Catalytic wet air oxidation on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada-Peñate, I.; Julcour-Lebigue, C.; Jáuregui-Haza, U.J.; Wilhelm, A.M.; Delmas, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three activated carbons (AC) compared as adsorbents and oxidation catalysts. ► Similar evolution for catalytic and adsorptive properties of AC over reuses. ► Acidic and mesoporous AC to be preferred, despite lower initial efficiency. ► Oxidative degradation of paracetamol improves biodegradability. ► Convenient hybrid adsorption–regenerative oxidation process for continuous treatment. - Abstract: The concern about the fate of pharmaceutical products has raised owing to the increasing contamination of rivers, lakes and groundwater. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon was investigated both as a water treatment technique using an autoclave reactor and as a regenerative treatment of the carbon after adsorption in a sequential fixed bed process. Three activated carbons (ACs) from different source materials were used as catalysts: two microporous basic ACs (S23 and C1) and a meso- and micro-porous acidic one (L27). During the first CWAO experiment the adsorption capacity and catalytic performance of fresh S23 and C1 were higher than those of fresh L27 despite its higher surface area. This situation changed after AC reuse, as finally L27 gave the best results after five CWAO cycles. Respirometry tests with activated sludge revealed that in the studied conditions the use of CWAO enhanced the aerobic biodegradability of the effluent. In the ADOX process L27 also showed better oxidation performances and regeneration efficiency. This different ageing was examined through AC physico-chemical properties.

  17. Contributions to the theory of catalytic titrations-III Neutralization catalytic titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, F F; Abramović, B F

    1985-07-01

    Neutralization catalytic titrations of weak monoprotic adds and bases with both volumetric and coulometric addition of the titrant (strong base/acid) have been simulated by taking into account the equilibrium concentration of the catalyst during the titration. The influence of several factors on the shape of the simulated catalytic titration curve has been investigated and is discussed.

  18. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  19. Catalytic Conversion of Renewable Resources into Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Johannes G

    2016-12-01

    Several strategies can be chosen to convert renewable resources into chemicals. In this account, I exemplify the route that starts with so-called platform chemicals; these are relatively simple chemicals that can be produced in high yield, directly from renewable resources, either via fermentation or via chemical routes. They can be converted into the existing bulk chemicals in a very efficient manner using multistep catalytic conversions. Two examples are given of the conversion of sugars into nylon intermediates. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be prepared in good yield from fructose. Two hydrogenation steps convert HMF into 1,6-hexanediol. Oppenauer oxidation converts this product into caprolactone, which in the past, has been converted into caprolactam in a large-scale industrial process by reaction with ammonia. An even more interesting platform chemical is levulinic acid (LA), which can be obtained directly from lignocellulose in good yield by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 200°C. Hydrogenation converts LA into gamma-valerolactone, which is ring-opened and esterified in a gas-phase process to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenoates in excellent selectivity. In a remarkable selective palladium-catalysed isomerising methoxycarbonylation, this mixture is converted in to dimethyl adipate, which is finally hydrolysed to adipic acid. Overall selectivities of both processes are extremely high. The conversion of lignin into chemicals is a much more complicated task in view of the complex nature of lignin. It was discovered that breakage of the most prevalent β-O-4 bond in lignin occurs not only via the well-documented C3 pathway, but also via a C2 pathway, leading to the formation of highly reactive phenylacetaldehydes. These compounds went largely unnoticed as they immediately recondense on lignin. We have now found that it is possible to prevent this by converting these aldehydes in a tandem reaction, as they are formed. For this purpose, we have used

  20. IN SITU DESTRUCTION OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN GROUNDWATER USING CATALYTIC REDUCTIVE REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION IN A REACTIVE WELL: TESTING AND OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCES. (R825421)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A groundwater treatment technology based on catalytic reductive dehalogenation has been developed to efficiently destroy chlorinated hydrocarbons in situ using a reactive well approach. The treatment process utilizes dissolved H2 as an electron donor, in...

  1. Site-specific growth of Au-Pd alloy horns on Au nanorods: A platform for highly sensitive monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhancement raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yihan; Lin, Ming; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhao, Lan; Yang, Yang; Yao, Kexin; Han, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a highly sensitive probe for molecular detection. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient platform for investigating the kinetics of catalytic reactions with SERS. To achieve this, we synthesized

  2. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  3. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  4. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  5. Atomically Precise Metal Nanoclusters for Catalytic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Rongchao [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The central goal of this project is to explore the catalytic application of atomically precise gold nanoclusters. By solving the total structures of ligand-protected nanoclusters, we aim to correlate the catalytic properties of metal nanoclusters with their atomic/electronic structures. Such correlation unravel some fundamental aspects of nanocatalysis, such as the nature of particle size effect, origin of catalytic selectivity, particle-support interactions, the identification of catalytically active centers, etc. The well-defined nanocluster catalysts mediate the knowledge gap between single crystal model catalysts and real-world conventional nanocatalysts. These nanoclusters also hold great promise in catalyzing certain types of reactions with extraordinarily high selectivity. These aims are in line with the overall goals of the catalytic science and technology of DOE and advance the BES mission “to support fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the level of electrons, atoms, and molecules”. Our group has successfully prepared different sized, robust gold nanoclusters protected by thiolates, such as Au25(SR)18, Au28(SR)20, Au38(SR)24, Au99(SR)42, Au144(SR)60, etc. Some of these nanoclusters have been crystallographically characterized through X-ray crystallography. These ultrasmall nanoclusters (< 2 nm diameter) exhibit discrete electronic structures due to quantum size effect, as opposed to quasicontinuous band structure of conventional metal nanoparticles or bulk metals. The available atomic structures (metal core plus surface ligands) of nanoclusters serve as the basis for structure-property correlations. We have investigated the unique catalytic properties of nanoclusters (i.e. not observed in conventional nanogold catalysts) and revealed the structure-selectivity relationships. Highlights of our

  6. Kinking and Torsion Can Significantly Improve the Efficiency of Valveless Pumping in Periodically Compressed Tubular Conduits. Implications for Understanding of the Form-Function Relationship of Embryonic Heart Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hiermeier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Valveless pumping phenomena (peristalsis, Liebau-effect can generate unidirectional fluid flow in periodically compressed tubular conduits. Early embryonic hearts are tubular conduits acting as valveless pumps. It is unclear whether such hearts work as peristaltic or Liebau-effect pumps. During the initial phase of its pumping activity, the originally straight embryonic heart is subjected to deforming forces that produce bending, twisting, kinking, and coiling. This deformation process is called cardiac looping. Its function is traditionally seen as generating a configuration needed for establishment of correct alignments of pulmonary and systemic flow pathways in the mature heart of lung-breathing vertebrates. This idea conflicts with the fact that cardiac looping occurs in all vertebrates, including gill-breathing fishes. We speculate that looping morphogenesis may improve the efficiency of valveless pumping. To test the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, we analyzed the pumping performance of a Liebau-effect pump in straight and looped (kinked configurations. Compared to the straight configuration, the looped configuration significantly improved the pumping performance of our pump. This shows that looping can improve the efficiency of valveless pumping driven by the Liebau-effect. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this finding may have implications for understanding of the form-function relationship of embryonic hearts.

  7. Preparation of Pd-Diimine@SBA-15 and Its Catalytic Performance for the Suzuki Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahuan Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient and stable Pd-diimine@SBA-15 catalyst was successfully prepared by immobilizing Pd onto diimine-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15. With the help of diimine functional groups grafted onto the SBA-15, Pd could be anchored on a support with high dispersion. Pd-diimine@SBA-15 catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic performance for the Suzuki coupling reaction of electronically diverse aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under mild conditions with an ultralow amount of Pd (0.05 mol % Pd. When the catalyst amount was increased, it could catalyze the coupling reaction of chlorinated aromatics with phenylboronic acid. Compared with the catalytic performances of Pd/SBA-15 and Pd-diimine@SiO2 catalysts, the Pd-diimine@SBA-15 catalyst exhibited higher hydrothermal stability and could be repeatedly used four times without a significant decrease of its catalytic activity.

  8. Effect of High-Pressure Treatment on Catalytic and Physicochemical Properties of Pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianan; Bai, Tenghui; Ma, Yaping; Ma, Hanjun

    2017-10-11

    For a long time, high-pressure treatment has been used to destroy the compact structures of natural proteins in order to promote subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. However, there are few reports evaluating the feasibility of directly improving the catalytic capability of proteases by using high-pressure treatments. In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on the catalytic capacity and structure of pepsin were investigated, and the relationship between its catalytic properties and changes in its physicochemical properties was explored. It was found that high-pressure treatment could lead to changes of the sulfhydryl group/disulfide bond content, hydrophobicity, hydrodynamic radius, intrinsic viscosity, and subunit composition of pepsin, and the conformational change of pepsin resulted in improvement to its enzymatic activity and hydrolysis efficiency, which had an obvious relationship with the high-pressure treatment conditions.

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of recalcitrant, insoluble humin byproducts from C6 sugar biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Shilpa; van Es, Daan; Heeres, Hero Jan

    Humins are solid by-products formed during the acid-catalysed conversions of C-6 sugars to platform chemicals like hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. We here report an experimental study on the liquefaction/depolymerisation of humins using catalytic pyrolysis. Synthetic humins (SH) and crude

  10. Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao

    2010-06-15

    In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactivity of organic compounds in catalytic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minachev, Kh M; Bragin, O V

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive review of 1976 Soviet research on catalysis delivered to the 1977 annual session of the USSR Academy of Science Council on Catalysis (Baku 6/16-20/77) covers hydrocarbon reactions, including hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis, dehydrogenation, olefin dimerization and disproportionation, and cyclization and dehydrocyclization (e.g., piperylene cyclization and ethylene cyclotrimerization); catalytic and physicochemical properties of zeolites, including cracking, dehydrogenation, and hydroisomerization catalytic syntheses and conversion of heterocyclic and functional hydrocarbon derivatives, including partial and total oxidation (e.g., of o-xylene to phthalic anhydride); syntheses of thiophenes from alkanes and hydrogen sulfide over certain dehydrogenation catalysts; catalytic syntheses involving carbon oxides ( e.g., the development of a new heterogeneous catalyst for hydroformylation of olefins), and of Co-MgO zeolitic catalysts for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and fabrication of high-viscosity lubricating oils over bifunctional aluminosilicate catalysts.

  12. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  13. Modeling and simulation of heterogeneous catalytic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis and mathematical modeling are essential components of the continuing search for better utilization of raw materials and energy, with reduced impact on the environment. Numerical modeling of chemical systems has progressed rapidly due to increases in computer power, and is used extensively for analysis, design and development of catalytic reactors and processes. This book presents reviews of the state-of-the-art in modeling of heterogeneous catalytic reactors and processes. Reviews by leading authorities in the respective areas Up-to-date reviews of latest techniques in modeling of catalytic processes Mix of US and European authors, as well as academic/industrial/research institute perspectives Connections between computation and experimental methods in some of the chapters.

  14. Reactivity and Catalytic Activity of Hydrogen Atom Chemisorbed Silver Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Dar; Pal, Sourav

    2015-06-18

    Metal clusters of silver have attracted recent interest of researchers as a result of their potential in different catalytic applications and low cost. However, due to the completely filled d orbital and very high first ionization potential of the silver atom, the silver-based catalysts interact very weakly with the reacting molecules. In the current work, density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the effect of hydrogen atom chemisorption on the reactivity and catalytic properties of inert silver clusters. Our results affirm that the hydrogen atom chemisorption leads to enhancement in the binding energy of the adsorbed O2 molecule on the inert silver clusters. The increase in the binding energy is also characterized by the decrease in the Ag-O and increase in the O-O bond lengths in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Pertinent to the increase in the O-O bond length, a significant red shift in the O-O stretching frequency is also noted in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Moreover, the hydrogen atom chemisorbed silver clusters show low reaction barriers and high heat of formation of the final products for the environmentally important CO oxidation reaction as compared to the parent catalytically inactive clusters. The obtained results were compared with those of the corresponding gold and hydrogen atom chemisorbed gold clusters obtained at the same level of theory. It is expected the current computational study will provide key insights for future advances in the design of efficient nanosilver-based catalysts through the adsorption of a small atom or a ligand.

  15. Uniformity index measurement technology using thermocouples to improve performance in urea-selective catalytic reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Oh, Jungmo

    2018-05-01

    The current commonly used nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction techniques employ hydrocarbons (HCs), urea solutions, and exhaust gas emissions as the reductants. Two of the primary denitrification NOx (DeNOx) catalyst systems are the HC-lean NOx trap (HC-LNT) catalyst and urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) catalyst. The secondary injection method depends on the type of injector, injection pressure, atomization, and spraying technique. In addition, the catalyst reaction efficiency is directly affected by the distribution of injectors; hence, the uniformity index (UI) of the reductant is very important and is the basis for system optimization. The UI of the reductant is an indicator of the NOx conversion efficiency (NCE), and good UI values can reduce the need for a catalyst. Therefore, improving the UI can reduce the cost of producing a catalytic converter, which are expensive due to the high prices of the precious metals contained therein. Accordingly, measurement of the UI is an important process in the development of catalytic systems. Two of the commonly used methods for measuring the reductant UI are (i) measuring the exhaust emissions at many points located upstream/downstream of the catalytic converter and (ii) acquisition of a reductant distribution image on a section of the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalytic converter. The purpose of this study is to develop a system and measurement algorithms to measure the exothermic response distribution in the exhaust gas as the reductant passes through the catalytic converter of the SCR catalyst system using a set of thermocouples downstream of the SCR catalyst. The system is used to measure the reductant UI, which is applied in real-time to the actual SCR system, and the results are compared for various types of mixtures for various engine operating conditions and mixer types in terms of NCE.

  16. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D [Madison, WI; Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  17. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  18. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  19. Janus droplet as a catalytic micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    Self-propulsion of a Janus droplet in a solution of surfactant, which reacts on a half of a drop surface, is studied theoretically. The droplet acts as a catalytic motor creating a concentration gradient, which generates its surface-tension-driven motion; the self-propulsion speed is rather high, 60 μ \\text{m/s} and more. This catalytic motor has several advantages over other micromotors: simple manufacturing, easily attained neutral buoyancy. In contrast to a single-fluid droplet, which demonstrates a self-propulsion as a result of symmetry breaking instability, for the Janus one no stability threshold exists; hence, the droplet radius can be scaled down to micrometers.

  20. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  1. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  2. Using electron beams to investigate catalytic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bingsen; Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) enables us, not only to reveal the morphology, but also to provide structural, chemical and electronic information about solid catalysts at the atomic level, providing a dramatic driving force for the development of heterogeneous catalysis. Almost all catalytic materials have been studied with TEM in order to obtain information about their structures, which can help us to establish the synthesis-structure-property relationships and to design catalysts with new structures and desired properties. Herein, several examples will be reviewed to illustrate the investigation of catalytic materials by using electron beams. (authors)

  3. Internal Dynamics and Ionization States of the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Comparison Between Wild-Type and Mutant Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, T A.; Lins, R D.; Straatsma, TP; Briggs, J M.

    2002-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine which shares a common structural architecture and catalytic strategy with three isomerases: 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, 5-carboxymethyl-2-hydroxymuconate isomerase and D-dopachrome tautomerase. A highly conserved N-terminal proline acts as a base/acid during the proton transfer reaction catalyzed by these enzymes. Such unusual catalytic strategy appears to be possible only due to the N-terminal proline pKa be shifted to 5.0-6.0 units. Mutations of this residue result in a significant decrease of the catalytic activity of MIF. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the catalytic inefficiency of MIF: the lower basicity of primary amines with regard to secondary ones and the increased flexibility resulting from the replacement of a proline by residues like glycine. To investigate that, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of MIF-wt and its mutant P1G as well as calculated the protonation properties of sever al mutant forms. It has been found that the N-terminal glycine does not show larger fluctuations compared to proline, but the former residue is more exposed to the solvent throughout the simulations. The apparent pKa of these residues displays very little change (as expected from the structural rigidity of MIF) and is not significantly affected by the surrounding ionizable residues. Instead, the hydrophobic character of the active site seems to be the main factor in determining the pKa of the N-terminal residue and the catalytic efficiency of MIF

  4. Investigations for the implementation of catalytic recombiners in large dry containments in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, J.; Tiltmann, M.; Froehmel, T.

    1997-01-01

    During the past few years, several concepts of mitigation have been developed and tested to limit the hydrogen concentrations in the containment atmosphere during the course of a severe accident. Extensive efforts have been given, especially in Germany and Canada, to investigate the use of catalytic recombiners. Based on the outcome of these research efforts in Germany it was recommended by the Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) in June 1994 to implement a hydrogen mitigation system, based on catalytic recombiners in large dry containments of PWR plants. Investigations are carried out at GRS, sponsored by the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), to develop basic requirements for the implementation of a catalytic recombiner system in large dry containments. Severe accidents scenarios were calculated with the system code MELCOR to determine the mass- and energy release rates from the primary system into the containment, necessary to prepare the input data for the containment code calculations. A detailed nodalisation of the containment system of a German PWR plant (Konvoi-type) was developed for the code RA-LOC MOD4 to investigate the effectiveness of a catalytic recombiner system which consists of 53 of such devices, being distributed in the complex room arrangement. The effectiveness of such a system is demonstrated by comparing a representative severe accident sequence without and with the catalytic recombination of hydrogen. The results showed, that only in some limited areas in the containment combustible gas mixtures were formed for a limited time span and that at the end of the first day after the onset of the accident the catalytic reaction is limited due to oxygen depletion. The work is still in progress while additional severe accident sequences have to be analyzed to develop some generic guidelines for the implementation of a catalytic recombiner system in large dry containments. (author)

  5. Performance simulations of catalytic converters during the Federal Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.; Shamim, T.; Sengupta, S.; Son, S.; Adamczyk, A.A.

    1999-07-01

    A numerical study is carried out to predict the tailpipe emissions and emission conversion efficiencies of unburned hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide flowing through a catalytic converter during the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The model considers the effect of heat transfer in the catalytic converter, coupled with catalyst chemical kinetics, including an oxygen storage mechanism. The resulting governing equations based on the conservation of mass and energy are solved by a tridiagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) with a successive line under relaxation method. The numerical scheme for this non-linear problem is found to have good convergence efficiency. The simulation for the complete FTP cycle is accomplished in less than fifteen minutes on a desktop personal computer. A 13-step reaction mechanism plus a nine-step O{sub 2} storage mechanism is used to simulate the chemical kinetics. The energy equations include the heat loss due to conduction and convection plus the energy liberated by chemical reactions. The effect of radiation is assumed to be negligible and is not considered. The results of the numerical model for both the instantaneous and accumulated emissions are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. The conversion efficiencies of HC, CO and NO as predicted by the model are found to be within 5% of those dynamic measurements, and calculated results of accumulated HC, CO and NO{sub x} are in fair agreement with experimental measurements. The transient measurements are also used to check the robustness of the numerical model. The model is found to be robust and hence can simulate various operating conditions of engine output to the converter.

  6. Catalytic silica particles via template-directed molecular imprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, M.A.; Kust, P.R.; Deng, G.; Schoen, P.E.; Dordick, J.S.; Clark, D.S.; Gaber, B.P.

    2000-02-22

    The surfaces of silica particle were molecularly imprinted with an {alpha}-chymotrypsin transition-state analogue (TSA) by utilizing the technique of template-directed synthesis of mineralized materials. The resulting catalytic particles hydrolyzed amides in an enantioselective manner. A mixture of a nonionic surfactant and the acylated chymotrysin TSA, with the TSA acting as the headgroup at the surfactant-water interface, was used to form a microemulsion for silica particle formation. Incorporation of amine-, dihydroimidazole-, and carboxylate-terminated trialkoxysilanes into the particles during imprinting resulted in enhancement of the rates of amide hydrolysis. Acylated imprint molecules formed more effective imprints in the presence of the functionalized silanes than nonacylated imprint molecules. Particles surface-imprinted with the chymotrypsin TSA were selective for the trypsin substrate, and particles surface-imprinted with the L-isomer of the enzyme TSA were enantioselective for the D-isomer of the substrate.

  7. Studies Relevent to Catalytic Activation Co & other small Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Peter C

    2005-02-22

    Detailed annual and triannual reports describing the progress accomplished during the tenure of this grant were filed with the Program Manager for Catalysis at the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. To avoid unnecessary duplication, the present report will provide a brief overview of the research areas that were sponsored by this grant and list the resulting publications and theses based on this DOE supported research. The scientific personnel participating in (and trained by) this grant's research are also listed. Research carried out under this DOE grant was largely concerned with the mechanisms of the homogeneous catalytic and photocatalytic activation of small molecules such as carbon monoxide, dihydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Much of the more recent effort has focused on the dynamics and mechanisms of reactions relevant to substrate carbonylations by homogeneous organometallic catalysts. A wide range of modern investigative techniques were employed, including quantitative fast reaction methodologies such as time-resolved optical (TRO) and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy and stopped flow kinetics. Although somewhat diverse, this research falls within the scope of the long-term objective of applying quantitative techniques to elucidate the dynamics and understand the principles of mechanisms relevant to the selective and efficient catalytic conversions of fundamental feedstocks to higher value materials.

  8. Catalytical degradation of relevant pollutants from waters using magnetic nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadejde, C.; Neamtu, M.; Schneider, R. J.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Ababei, G.; Panne, U.

    2015-10-01

    The catalytic efficiency of two magnetically responsive nanocatalysts was evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84) azo dyes using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant under very mild conditions (atmospheric pressure, room temperature). In order to obtain the nanocatalysts, the surface of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, prepared by a co-precipitation method, was further modified with ferrous oxalate, a highly sensitive non-hazardous reducing agent. The sensitized nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, and used in the catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation (CWHPO) of RB5 and RY84, in laboratory-scale experiments. The effect of important variables such as catalyst dosage, H2O2 concentration, and contact time was studied in the dye degradation kinetics. The results showed that it was possible to remove up to 99.7% dye in the presence of 20 mM H2O2 after 240 min of oxidation for a catalyst concentration of 10 g L-1 at 25 °C and initial pH value of 9.0. CWHPO of reactive dyes using sensitized magnetic nanocatalysts can be a suitable pre-treatment method for complete decolorization of effluents from textile dyeing and finishing processes, once the optimum operating conditions are established.

  9. Hydrothermal processing of fermentation residues in a continuous multistage rig – Operational challenges for liquefaction, salt separation, and catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zöhrer, H.; De Boni, E.; Vogel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation residues are a waste stream of biomethane production containing substantial amounts of organic matter, and thus representing a primary energy source which is mostly unused. For the first time this feedstock was tested for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production. The processing steps include hydrothermal liquefaction, salt separation, as well as catalytic gasification over a ruthenium catalyst in supercritical water. In continuous experiments at a feed rate of 1 kg h −1 a partial liquefaction and carbonization of some of the solids was observed. Significant amounts of heavy tars were formed. Around 50% of the feed carbon remained in the rig. Furthermore, a homogeneous coke was formed, presumably originating from condensed tars. The mineralization of sulfur and its separation in the salt separator was insufficient, because most of the sulfur was still organically bound after liquefaction. Desalination was observed at a salt separator set point temperature of 450 °C and 28 MPa; however, some of the salts could not be withdrawn as a concentrated brine. At 430 °C no salt separation took place. Higher temperatures in the salt separator were found to promote tar and coke formation, resulting in conflicting process requirements for efficient biomass liquefaction and desalination. In the salt separator effluent, solid crystals identified as struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were found. This is the first report of struvite formation from a supercritical water biomass conversion process and represents an important finding for producing a fertilizer from the separated salt brine. - Highlights: • Continuous processing of fermentation residues in sub- and supercritical water. • Continuous separation of salt brines at supercritical water conditions. • Struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were recovered from the effluent. • Separation of sulfur from the biomass could

  10. Elaboration by tape-casting and co-sintering of multilayer catalytic membrane reactor- performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian, A.

    2008-12-01

    This research deals with the increasing interest of the conversion of natural gas into liquid fuels (diesel, kerosene) using the Gas To Liquid (GTL) process. Within this context, Catalytic Membrane-based Reactors (CMR) would allow an improvement of the process efficiency and a reduction of investment and production costs with respect to the present technologies. They allow performing the separation of oxygen from air, and the conversion of natural gas into synthesis gas within a single step. After having highlighted the economical and technological advantages of using a ceramic membrane for the production of syngas (H 2 + CO 2 ), the author describes the protocols of synthesis of powders selected for the dense membrane and the porous support, and their physical characteristics. The obtained powders are then adapted to the tape-casting forming process. Graded-composition multilayer structures and microstructure are then elaborated by co-sintering. Performances in terms of membrane oxygen flows are presented. Mechanisms limiting the oxygen flow are discussed in order to propose ways of improving membrane performances. The limits of the studied system are defined in terms of elastic properties, and optimization ways are proposed for the dense membrane material composition in terms of mechanical properties and performance in oxygen semi-permeation

  11. In situ catalytic growth of large-area multilayered graphene/MoS2 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Du, Fei-Hu; Su, Juan; Li, Xin-Hao; Wei, Xiao; Ye, Tian-Nan; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Stacking various two-dimensional atomic crystals on top of each other is a feasible approach to create unique multilayered heterostructures with desired properties. Herein for the first time, we present a controlled preparation of large-area graphene/MoS2 heterostructures via a simple heating procedure on Mo-oleate complex coated sodium sulfate under N2 atmosphere. Through a direct in situ catalytic reaction, graphene layer has been uniformly grown on the MoS2 film formed by the reaction of Mo species with S pecies, which is from the carbothermal reduction of sodium sulfate. Due to the excellent graphene ``painting'' on MoS2 atomic layers, the significantly shortened lithium ion diffusion distance and the markedly enhanced electronic conductivity, these multilayered graphene/MoS2 heterostructures exhibit high specific capacity, unprecedented rate performance and outstanding cycling stability, especially at a high current density, when used as an anode material for lithium batteries. This work provides a simple but efficient route for the controlled fabrication of large-area multilayered graphene/metal sulfide heterostructures with promising applications in battery manufacture, electronics or catalysis.

  12. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...... cooperating with the plurality of user equipment to decode the received data....

  13. Kinetic equation of heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trokhimets, A I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii

    1979-12-01

    A kinetic equation is derived for the bimolecular isotope exchange reaction between AXsub(n)sup(*) and BXsub(m)sup(o), all atoms of element X in each molecule being equivalent. The equation can be generalized for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange.

  14. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  15. Electrochemical Promotion of Catalytic Reactions Using

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on electrochemical promotion (EP) of catalytic reactions using Pt/C/polybenzimidazole(H3PO4)/Pt/C fuel cell performed by the Energy and Materials Science Group (Technical University of Denmark) during the last 6 years[1-4]. The development of our...... understanding of the nature of the electrochemical promotion is also presented....

  16. Novel Metal Nanomaterials and Their Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the rapidly developing areas of nanotechnology, nano-scale materials as heterogeneous catalysts in the synthesis of organic molecules have gotten more and more attention. In this review, we will summarize the synthesis of several new types of noble metal nanostructures (FePt@Cu nanowires, Pt@Fe2O3 nanowires and bimetallic Pt@Ir nanocomplexes; Pt-Au heterostructures, Au-Pt bimetallic nanocomplexes and Pt/Pd bimetallic nanodendrites; Au nanowires, CuO@Ag nanowires and a series of Pd nanocatalysts and their new catalytic applications in our group, to establish heterogeneous catalytic system in “green” environments. Further study shows that these materials have a higher catalytic activity and selectivity than previously reported nanocrystal catalysts in organic reactions, or show a superior electro-catalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol. The whole process might have a great impact to resolve the energy crisis and the environmental crisis that were caused by traditional chemical engineering. Furthermore, we hope that this article will provide a reference point for the noble metal nanomaterials’ development that leads to new opportunities in nanocatalysis.

  17. Toward a catalytic site in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Rohr, Katja; Vogel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A number of functionalized polyaza crown ether building blocks have been incorporated into DNA-conjugates as catalytic Cu(2+) binding sites. The effect of the DNA-conjugate catalyst on the stereochemical outcome of a Cu(2+)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction will be presented....

  18. CATALYTIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Mn(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    method is based on the catalytic effect of Mn(II) with the oxidation of Celestine blue .... water samples were filtered through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter to remove suspended .... slope of the calibration graph as the optimization criterion. ..... In presence of Phen as stability enhancement agent in indicator system. ( ) +.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a precursor and characterized by chemical analysis using the ICP–AES method, XRD, TEM, FTIR and BET surface area determination. The oxidation reaction was carried out at 70°C under atmospheric pressure. The results showed the catalytic performance of Pt/Al2O3 as being very high in terms of turnover frequency.

  20. Catalytic site interactions in yeast OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Barr, Eric W.; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2014-01-01

    45 (2006) 5330-5342]. This behavior was investigated in the yeast enzyme by mutations in the conserved catalytic loop and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-diphosphate (PRPP) binding motif. Although the reaction is mechanistically sequential, the wild-type (WT) enzyme shows parallel lines in double reciprocal...