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Sample records for catagenetic coalification levels

  1. Maturation-related changes in the distribution of ester-bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2009-01-01

    A rank series of lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels (vitrinite reflectance (R0): 0.27–0.8%) from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components (fatty acids and alcohols) during...... increasing maturation. Ester bound alcohols are found to be present in highest amounts in the very immature lignite samples (R0: 0.27–0.29%), but show a rapid decrease during early diagenesis. Ester bound fatty acids also show an initial exponential decrease during diagenesis, but reveal an intermittent...... containing C16 and C18 fatty acids as main cell membrane components. Deep microbial life might be stimulated at this interval by the increasing release of thermally generated potential substrates from the organic matrix during early catagenesis. In contrast to the fatty acids, the high amounts of alcohols...

  2. Maturation related changes in the distribution of ester bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, C.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Horsfield, B. [German Research Cemter of Geoscience GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Several lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components during increasing maturation. Ester bound alcohols are found to be present in highest amounts in the very immature lignite samples but show a rapid decrease during early diagenesis. Ester bound fatty acids also show an initial exponential decrease during diagenesis but reveal an intermittent increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference index of fatty acids (CPIFA) parameter is introduced. For the long chain fatty acids the CPIFA decreases with increasing maturity. During diagenesis, the same trend can be observed for the short chain fatty acids but the intermittent increase in the amounts of short chain fatty acids is also accompanied by high CPIFA values. This indicates less altered organic biomass at this maturation level and is in contrast to the mature CPIFA signal of the long chain fatty acids of the same samples. Thus could be due to extremely different amounts of short and long chain fatty acids in the original source organic matter or it could due to the incorporation of immature bacterial biomass from deep microbial communities containing C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acids as main cell membrane components. Deep microbial life might be stimulated at this interval by the increasing release of thermally generated potential substrates from the organic matrix during early catagenesis. The high amounts of alcohols in the immature lignite samples are also visible in the alkene distribution from the open system pyrolysis experiments of the organic matrix before and after saponification.

  3. Presence of catagenetically screened oil formations in the Pripyatskiy trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, L.A.; Masyukov, V.V.; Nazarova, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Based on comprehensive study of geological-geophysical and petrographic data, an examination is made of the effect of secondary formations and carbonate collectors in the zone of water-oil contact on the formation of catagenetically screened hydrocarbon formations.

  4. Stage-wise analysis of coalification from cellulose to anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunavala, P.D.

    1991-09-01

    All plausible theories put forward for the mechanism of coalification are permutations and combinations of dehydration, decarboxylation and demethanation reactions. Accepting Horton's hypothesis of coalification by decarboxylation and demethanation, the author deduces the coalification Index, I{sub c} which expresses the rank of coal. All components of the primordial soup e.g. CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} have I{sub c} 0, as does carbohydrate. Wood, peat, lignite, bituminous coal and anthracite show increasing orders of I{sub c}. The metamorphosis of cellulose to coal can be represented by an equation. The author postulates that carbohydrate metamorphized to cellulose by dehydration, followed by metamorphosis of the cellulose to coal. Equations for these processes and a general equation for the stagewise metamorphosis of coal are presented. The yield of coal during any stage-wise metamorphosis can be calculated from the coalification Index of the starting material and product. The stage-wise analysis of coalification indicates that the evolution of gases by decarboxylation and demethanation is maximum during the early biochemical stage of formation from cellulose to lignite (I{sub c} .0741 - .4731) and minimum during the final geochemical stage of formation (I{sub c} .5620 - .8562). 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Diagenetic and catagenetic products of isorenieratene: Molecular indicators for photic zone anoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Koster, J.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van; Kenig, F.; Schouten, S.; Hartgers, W.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1996-01-01

    A wide range of novel diagenetic and catagenetic products of the diaromatic carotenoid isorenieratene, a pigment of the photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria Chlorobiaceae, has been identified in a number of sedimentary rocks ranging from Ordovician to Miocene. Compound identification is based on NM

  6. Diagenetic and catagenetic products of isorenieratene: Molecular indicators for photic zone anoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M. P.; Koster, J; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van; F. Kenig; S. Schouten; Hartgers, W.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1996-01-01

    A wide range of novel diagenetic and catagenetic products of the diaromatic carotenoid isorenieratene, a pigment of the photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria Chlorobiaceae, has been identified in a number of sedimentary rocks ranging from Ordovician to Miocene. Compound identification is based on NMR, mass spectrometry, the presence of atropisomers, and stable carbon isotopes. Atropisomers contain an axially chiral centre which, in combination with other chiral centres, results in two or more...

  7. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia). Coalification and thermal history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk State Technical University, Artem str., UA-84000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Zhykalyak, M.V. [Donetsk State Regional Geological Survey, Sybirtseva str. 17, UA-84500 Artemovsk (Ukraine); Bueker, C. [Institute of Geology, and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen (Germany); Panova, E.A. [UkrNIMI, Tchelyuskintsev str. 291, UA-83121 Donetsk (Ukraine); Stephenson, R. [Research School of Sedimentary Geology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-02-01

    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and meta-anthracite. Low-rank coals are restricted to the western and northern basin margins. Vitrinite reflectance patterns along the Gorlovka Anticline indicate syn-deformational coalification. Vitrinite reflectance isolines are displaced along thrusts, clear evidence that main coalification predates late faulting. 1-D and 2-D numerical models were applied to elucidate the factors that control coalification in the western Donets Basin (Krasnoarmeisk Monocline, Kalmius-Torets Depression, South Syncline). The models indicate that the depth of the seams and the heat flow during maximum (Permian) burial are the most important parameters. The thickness of late Carboniferous and Permian rocks increased from the southwestern basin margin towards the basin center. Permian erosion along the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and in the Kalmius-Torets Depression was on the order of 2-3 km. More rocks were eroded southeast of the Donetsk-Kadievka Fault Zone (4-5 km). Heat flow during maximum burial was in the range of 40-75 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow in the Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the Kalmius-Torets Depression increased in a northeastward direction from 40 to 55 mW/m{sup 2}. Heat flow at the eastern edge of the Kalmius-Torets Depression and in the South Syncline was in the range of 60-75 mW/m{sup 2} and increased towards the southeast. The resulting coalification pattern in this area was overprinted by thermal events in the northern Krasnoarmeisk Monocline and the South Syncline. These are probably related to (Permian?) magmatic intrusions. Coked coal occurs at the contact to presumed Permian sills and dikes southwest of Donetsk.

  8. Diagenetic and catagenetic products of isorenieratene: Molecular indicators for photic zone anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Martin P.; Köster, Jürgen; Van Kaam-Peters, Heidy M. E.; Kenig, Fabien; Schouten, Stefan; Hartgers, Walter A.; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1996-11-01

    A wide range of novel diagenetic and catagenetic products of the diaromatic carotenoid isorenieratene, a pigment of the photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria Chlorobiaceae, has been identified in a number of sedimentary rocks ranging from Ordovician to Miocene. Compound identification is based on NMR, mass spectrometry, the presence of atropisomers, and stable carbon isotopes. Atropisomers contain an axially chiral centre which, in combination with other chiral centres, results in two or more diastereomers that can be separated on a normal GC column. Chlorobiaceae use the reverse TCA cycle to fix carbon, so that their biomass is enriched in 13C. High 13C contents of isorenieratene derivatives therefore support their inferred origins. Isorenieratene derivatives include C 40, C 33, and C 32, diaryl isoprenoids and short-chain aryl isoprenoids with additional aromatic and/or S-containing rings. C 33 and C 32 compounds are diagenetic products of C 33 and C 32 “carotenoids” formed from isorenieratene during early diagenesis through expulsion of toluene and m-xylene, respectively. Cyclisation of the polyene acyclic isoprenoid chain can proceed via an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, followed by aromatisation of the newly formed ring. Sulphurisation is also an important process during early diagenesis, competing with expulsion and cyclisation. Sulphur-bound isorenieratane is released during progressive diagenesis, due to cleavage of relatively weak Ssbnd S and Csbnd S bonds. Cleavage of C-C bonds during aromatisation of newly formed rings and during catagenesis yields short-chain compounds. The inherent presence of a conjugated double bond system in carotenoids implies that similar diagenetic and catagenetic reactions can occur with all carotenoids. Chlorobiaceae live at or below the oxic/anoxic boundary layer and require both light and H 2S. The presence of isorenieratene or its diagenetic and catagenetic products in ancient sedimentary rocks and crude oils is

  9. Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Neuzil, S.G.; Lerch, H.E.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

  10. Diagenetic and catagenetic products of isorenieratene: Molecular indicators for photic zone anoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Koester, J.; Hartgers, W.A. [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    A wide range of novel diagenetic and catagenetic products of the diaromatic carotenoid isorenieratene, a pigment of the photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria Chlorobiaceae, has been identified in a number of sedimentary rocks ranging from Ordovician to Miocene. Compound identification is based on NMR, mass spectrometry, the presence of atropisomers, and stable carbon isotopes. Atropisomers contain an axially chiral centre which, in combination with other chiral centres, results in two or more diastereomers that can be separated on a normal GC column. Chlorobiaceae use the reverse TCA cycle to fix carbon, so that their biomass is enriched in {sup 13}C. High {sup 13}C contents of isorenieratene derivatives therefore support their inferred origins. Isorenieratene derivatives include C{sub 40}, C{sub 33}, and C{sub 32}, diaryl isoprenoids and short-chain aryl isoprenoids with additional aromatic and/or S-containing rings. C{sub 33} and C{sub 32} compounds are diagenetic products of C{sub 33} and C{sub 32} {open_quotes}carotenoids{close_quotes} formed from isorenieratene during early diagenesis through expulsion of toluene and m-xylene, respectively. Cyclisation of the polyene acyclic isoprenoid chain can proceed via an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, followed by aromatisation of the newly formed ring. Sulphurisation is also an important process during early diagenesis, competing with expulsion and cyclisation. Sulphur-bound isorenieratane is released during progressive diagenesis, due to cleavage of relatively weak S-S and C-S bonds. Diagenetic and catagenetic products of isorenieratene are expected to find applications in reconstruction of palaoenvironments and in oil-oil and oil-source rock correlation studies. Their presence in several petroleum source rocks suggests that anoxia is an important environmental parameter for the preservation of organic matter. 118 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Influence of tectonic stress on coalification:Stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The function of pressure for coalification is a long-term controversial issue, and the main cause is that the strata pressure and the tectonic stress were confused, which are two different actions of "pres-sure" . The former benefits the physical coalification but retards the chemical coalification, whereas the latter may not only affect the physical structure of coal but also promote its chemical composition changes. In accordance with the organic molecule evolution of coal, there are two kinds of basic mechanisms of the influence of the tectonic stress on the chemical coalification: the tectonic stress degradation and the tectonic stress polycondensation. The stress degradation mechanism is a process of that, when the tectonic stress acted on the large molecule of coal in the form of mechanical force or kinetic energy, some chemical bonds of low decomposed energy, such as aliphatic side-chain and oxygenic functional groups, were broken up and then were degraded into free radicals of less mo-lecular weight, and finally escaped from coal in the form of liquid organic matter (hydrocarbon). The stress polycondensation is considered that, under the control of the anisotropic tectonic stress, the condensed aromatic nucleus trend to be parallel arranged and to be enhanced through rotating or displacing of aromatic rings, the basic structural unit of coal (BSU) increases by directional develop-ment and preferential stack. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR), and rock pyrolysis analysis (Rock-eval) were employed to study the deformed coal series and the non-deformed coal series. The results showed that, compared with the non-deformed coal, the de-formed coal exhibits particular characteristics: weaker aliphatic absorbance peak and stronger aro-matic absorbance peak, lower pyrolysed hydrocarbon yield, and more increscent BSU. The concepts of stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism presented here would

  12. Influence of tectonic stress on coalification: Stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO DaiYong; LI XiaoMing; ZHANG ShouRen

    2007-01-01

    The function of pressure for coalification is a long-term controversial issue, and the main cause is that the strata pressure and the tectonic stress were confused, which are two different actions of "pressure". The former benefits the physical coalification but retards the chemical coalification, whereas the latter may not only affect the physical structure of coal but also promote its chemical composition changes. In accordance with the organic molecule evolution of coal, there are two kinds of basic mechanisms of the influence of the tectonic stress on the chemical coalification: the tectonic stress degradation and the tectonic stress polycondensation. The stress degradation mechanism is a process of that, when the tectonic stress acted on the large molecule of coal in the form of mechanical force or kinetic energy, some chemical bonds of low decomposed energy, such as aliphatic side-chain and oxygenic functional groups, were broken up and then were degraded into free radicals of less molecular weight, and finally escaped from coal in the form of liquid organic matter (hydrocarbon). The stress polycondensation is considered that, under the control of the anisotropic tectonic stress, the condensed aromatic nucleus trend to be parallel arranged and to be enhanced through rotating or displacing of aromatic rings, the basic structural unit of coal (BSU) increases by directional development and preferential stack. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR), and rock pyrolysis analysis (Rock-eval) were employed to study the deformed coal series and the non-deformed coal series. The results showed that, compared with the non-deformed coal, the deformed coal exhibits particular characteristics: weaker aliphatic absorbance peak and stronger aromatic absorbance peak, lower pyrolysed hydrocarbon yield, and more increscent BSU. The concepts of stress degradation mechanism and stress polycondensation mechanism presented here would not

  13. Neo-mineral formation during artificial coalification of low-ash - mineral free-peat material from tropical Malaysia-potential explanation for low ash coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Raphael [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, QLD (Australia); Bustin, R. Marc; Ross, John [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

    2008-04-03

    Abundant coal deposits have very low inorganic contents (ash yield; < 2%) and hence are almost ash-free. Inexplicable to date is that the precursor of coal, modern peat deposits, almost nowhere have such low ash yields as a result of both the inorganic mineral and biogenic phytolith contents. However, despite the common occurrence of phytoliths in modern peats, they are invariably absent in coals. It has thus been hypothesized by some investigators that modern environments are not ideal analogues for the formation of low ash coal deposits. Here we present new evidence to suggest that mineral diagenesis during coalification can transform biogenic inorganics to new minerals and that a substantial component of these new minerals could be removed in solution during expulsion of moisture with coalification resulting in low ash precursors of coal. This study presents results from artificial coalification experiments of modern tropical forest peat material with ash yields between 2-4.3 wt.%. The inorganic material of the peat consists almost exclusively of Al-Si-and Si-rich phytoliths and other bioliths; no other inorganic mineral matter is present. Compressed pellets of dried peat were deformed in a Griggs constant strain rate apparatus at a constant confining pressure of 5 kb and constant strain rate of 10{sup -} {sup 5} s {sup -} {sup 1} at variable temperatures from 350 C to 550 C. The samples, exposed to artificial coalification processes, were then analysed by SEM, EDS, and XRD for semi-quantitative chemical analyses. The deformed material showed a lack of any biogenic silica and Al-Si-phytoliths, but contained neoformed idiomorphic quartz crystals and clays. We conclude that modern peat forming environments that have low-ash peats containing biogenic silica and other biogenic Al-Si-material can represent precursors of very low-ash coal deposits. Our experiments illustrate that during coalification, it is likely all or almost all biogenic material is transformed

  14. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Corrosion processes and coalification of ferrtic-martensitic steels in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} atmospheres; Korrosionsprozesse und Aufkohlung von ferritisch-martensitischen Staehlen in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} Atmosphaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenert, Daniela

    2010-09-20

    The dissertation desribes the corrosion of steels with chromium concentrations of 1-12 percent in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} atmospheres at variable pressure in the temperature range of 500-650 C and shows the corresponding degree of coalification. The investigations were carried out in a specially constructed corrosion unit which enables simulations of the power plant conditions temperature, pressure, gas composition, and gas flow rate. Above 575 C, the experimentally measured corrosion rates decrease, similar to those in hydrogen. Below 575 C, higher corrosion rates are observed in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} atmospheres than in hydrogen, which is assumed to be the result of chromium fixation by the carbon formed in the corrosion process and of the existence of wuestite below this temperature. Below 600 C, temperature and pressure act independently of each other. Investigations between 600 and 625 C showed that pressure and temperature are not independent parameters with regard to oxide layer growth. The combined effect of these parameters results in higher corrosion rates and coalification depths. The dissertation describes this higher corrosion rate and coalification depth by an enhanced transport model. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Korrosionsverhalten an Stahlqualitaeten mit Chromgehalten zwischen 1 und 12 % in H{sub 2}O-CO-2-Atmosphaeren bei unterschiedlichem Druck im Temperaturbereich von 500 bis 650 C dargestellt und die parallel erfolgende Aufkohlung gezeigt. Fuer die Untersuchungen wurde eine Korrosionsanlage aufgebaut, welche die Simulation der Kraftwerksbedingungen Temperatur, Druck und Gaszusammensetzung und -geschwindigkeit erlaubt. Die experimentell bestimmten Korrosionsraten sind oberhalb von 575 C vergleichbar mit denen in Wasserdampf. Unterhalb von 575 C werden hoehere Korrosionsraten in H2O-CO2- Atmosphaeren beobachtet als in Wasserdampf, was als Folge der Fixierung des Chroms durch den waehrend des Korrosionsprozesses gebildeten

  16. New Zealand Coals - A Potential Feedstock for Deep Microbial Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    a broad and almost continuous maturity range representing diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels were investigated to estimate their feedstock potential for deep microbial life using a novel developed analytical procedure to analyse kerogen-bound LMWOAs liberated by selective chemical degradation...... maturation leading to more sterically protected kerogen-bound LMWOAs and, therefore, to a slower substrate release with ongoing maturation. Additional information about the structure of the macromolecular network were obtained by selective ether-cleavage procedure revealing that aliphatic alcohols with more...... than one hydroxy groups represent important cross-linkage structures. In contrast to the terminal ether-bound monoalcohols which show a rapid decrease during diagenetic alteration, these compounds show relatively high concentrations even in the more mature coals suggesting that these cross-link bridges...

  17. Diagenetic and Catagenetic Transference of Noble Metal Elements in Lower Cambrian Black Rock Series, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shengrong; Gao Zhenmin; Shen Junfeng

    2004-01-01

    Some extraditional types-black rock series types of platinum group element (PGE), gold and silver mineralization occurrences were found in the Lower Cambrian in Guizhou and Hunan provinces of southwest China where PGE concentration reaches more than 800×10-6. Sea floor hydrothermal fluid eruption was suggested to have been the main origin of the ore-forming materials. The whole process from the sedimentation to the redistribution of the ore-forming elements occurred on the conditions of intermediate to weak alkaline, weak reduction to weak oxidation. The temperature for the sedimentation and redistribution of the ore-forming elements was lower than 210 ℃. At such a low temperature, inert elements such as PGE, Au and Ag could quite easily be remobilized.

  18. Base-Level Cycles and Episodic Coal Accumulation——Case Study of Dongsheng Coalfield in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ren-chao; HAN Zuo-zhen; LI Zeng-xue; FAN Ai-ping

    2006-01-01

    The advantage of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, which takes base-levels as reference, is that it can be applied to continental depositional basins controlled by multiple factors and can effectively improve the accuracy and resolution of sequential stratigraphic analysis. Moreover, the principles of base-level cycles are also suitable for analyzing sequential stratigraphy in continental coal-bearing basins because of their accuracy in forecasting distribution of coal measures. By taking the Dongsheng coalfield in the Ordos basin as an example, the extensive application of base-level cycles in exploration and exploitation of coal is analyzed. The result shows that the Yan'an formation in the Dongsheng area is a long-term base-level cycle which is bordered by nonconformities and made up of five mid-term cycles and 13 short-term cycles. The long-term cycle and the mid-term cycles are obvious in comparison with a transverse profile. The episodic coal accumulation in the Mesozoic Ordos basin means that the deposition of primary matter (peat bogs) of coalification is discontinuous, periodical and cyclical in the evolution of the basin. The episodic accumulation of coal measures in the Yan'an stage is controlled by ascending-descending changes of a long-term cycle and middle-term cycles. Coal measures formed during the early and late periods of the long-term cycle are characterized by multiple layers, big cumulative thickness and poor continuity. Coal measures formed in the mid-term of the long cycle are dominated by good continuity, fewer layers and a small additive thickness, which is favorable for the accumulation of thick and continuous coal measures in the transition stage of mid term base-level cycles.

  19. Determination of optimum particle size in black coal flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øepka Vlastimil

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the preparation of bituminous coal with focus on fine grains. An increasing share of fine grains arises during mechanized mining which needs to be processed. The most widespread separation technology for processing of fine grains around the world is foam floatation. This physicochemical method of separation is used in the Czech Republic for processing coking coal with a high coalification level. Based on the coalification level, it is possible to determine the floatability of coal grains. Generally it can be said that floatability improves with increasing coalification. In this work we have tested two samples of coking coal with various coalification levels. Two mixtures of floatation agents were also used: commercial Flotakol NX and the second floatation agent - a mixture of dodecane as a collector and cyclohexanol as a frother. Both samples were classified into eight grain size groups and they were floated under the equal conditions

  20. Tectonostratigraphic relationships and coalification trends in the Narragansett and Norfolk basins, New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.P.; Skehan, J.W.; Raben, J. [University Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Geoscience

    2004-07-01

    Carboniferous basins in southeastern New England provide insight into, and constraints on, models for Alleghanian orogenesis. In particular, the Narragansett and Norfolk basins represent Devonian- to Pennsylvanian-aged, non-marine basins in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island that were variably deformed and metamorphosed during the Alleghanian orogeny, and intruded by Permian granites generated by crustal thickening. As such these basins provide an unusually complete documentation of the Alleghanian orogeny. We summarize their sedimentologic, structural and metamorphic features, with emphasis placed on the Narragansett basin, and provide a comprehensive bibliography of recent work. The Narragansett basin also contains complexly deformed and variably metamorphosed coals that are unlike coal described from other orogenic terrains. Thus we describe these unusual, high rank coal deposits and their response to orogenesis.

  1. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the ...

  2. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  3. Leveling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  4. Conditions of preservation of collectors of pore-type at great depths in Paleozoic deposits of northeast Antipovsko-Shcherbakovskiy zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsygankova, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Reasons are explained for preservation of the collectors of pore type in the sandy bed of the Pashiyskiy level stripped by well No. 4-Nikolayevskiy (depth interval 5136-5144 m) in limits of the Antipovsko-Shcherbakovskiy elevated zone of the Volgograd Volga region. A necessary condition for preservation of the collectors is: absence in the bed of considerable catagenetic transformations, presence of clay cement preventing quartz formation, as well as the occurrence of processes of chloritization creating additional secondary porosity.

  5. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  6. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  7. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  8. Multi-Level Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always be enough data to apply credibility theory to a real insurance portfolio.

  9. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  10. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  11. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kunstman, P; Zakrzewski, J A; Kunstman, Pawe{\\l}; Zyczkowski, Karol \\.; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    1997-01-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general non-universal and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced.

  12. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstman, P.; Zyczkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J. [Instytut Fizyki Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    1997-03-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general {ital nonuniversal} and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  14. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  15. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  16. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  17. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  18. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  19. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  20. Three Levels of Semiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a second-order semiotic framework for ontological levels, which is based on the structure of semiosis in a more fundamental way than other existing approaches to semiotic levels. Building on the key semiotic concept of representation, three levels are posited: (1) non- or proto-semiotic...... processes, without representation, such as physical or causal processes, (2) semiotic processes, with representation, such as the processes of life and cognition, and (3) second-order semiotic processes, with representation of representation, such as self-conscious and self-reflexive communicative processes....... This semiotic framework for ontological levels is compared with recent discussions of different ontological kinds of kinds such as indifferent and interactive kinds. This leads to the distinction between not two, but three kinds of kinds: indifferent, adaptive and reflexive kinds, of which the last two hitherto...

  1. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  2. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  3. Low magnesium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating the condition that is causing low magnesium can help. If you play sports or do other vigorous activity, drink fluids such as sports drinks that contain electrolytes to keep your magnesium level in a healthy range.

  4. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  5. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  6. Level Eulerian Posets

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenborg, Richard; Readdy, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The notion of level posets is introduced. This class of infinite posets has the property that between every two adjacent ranks the same bipartite graph occurs. When the adjacency matrix is indecomposable, we determine the length of the longest interval one needs to check to verify Eulerianness. Furthermore, we show that every level Eulerian poset associated to an indecomposable matrix has even order. A condition for verifying shellability is introduced and is automated using the algebra of walks. Applying the Skolem--Mahler--Lech theorem, the ${\\bf ab}$-series of a level poset is shown to be a rational generating function in the non-commutative variables ${\\bf a}$ and ${\\bf b}$. In the case the poset is also Eulerian, the analogous result holds for the ${\\bf cd}$-series. Using coalgebraic techniques a method is developed to recognize the ${\\bf cd}$-series matrix of a level Eulerian poset.

  7. PANJABI READER, LEVEL 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    THIS SECOND-LEVEL READER IN THE PANJABI LANGUAGE CAN BE USED IN A SECOND- OR THIRD-YEAR COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. THE GRAMMAR APPENDIX INCLUDED IS IDENTICAL TO THAT FOUND IN THE FIRST-LEVEL PANJABI READER (ED 010 485). THE MAIN PORTION OF THE BOOK CONSISTS OF 23 UNITS,…

  8. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  9. ANDROGEN LEVELS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valadan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Several independent investigators have demonstrated the association of androgens with hypertension. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal levels of sex hormones, especially testosterone, are higher in patients with preeclampsia than in matched normotensive control subjects. Serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S and estradiol were measured in 60 subjects in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with documented preeclampsia (including 30 cases of mild and 30 cases of severe preeclampsia and 60 healthy normotensive women with similar maternal and gestational ages and body mass index (BMI and neonatal sex. All subjects were primigravid with singleton pregnancies. Cases of polycystic ovary (PCO, diabetes, chronic hypertension and chronic systemic diseases such as lupus and patients using steroid hormones and anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Levels of testosterone, DHEA-S and estradiol were not higher in primigravid women with preeclampsia than in normotensive women with similar gestational and maternal ages, BMI and neonatal sex. There were no significant differences in sex hormones measured between groups of mild and severe preeclampsia and normotensive women. There were also no significant differences in sex hormone levels according to neonatal sex. These findings are against the hypothesis of mediating or amplifying role of high androgen levels in pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  10. Service level agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, A

    1998-02-01

    Service level agreements provide clearer descriptions of the services to be provided and the objectives to be met. In many instances it is the first time that services have been defined allowing their performance to be suitably measured. They should be output based and not too prescriptive on how the services are to be delivered. The emphasis should be on establishing outputs and the arrangements for monitoring achievement. Customer expectations can exceed available resources and arbitration may become necessary if agreement cannot be reached on internal service level agreements. The main requirements of customers for change through service level agreements is usually improved communications on job status that includes notification of any delays and that agreed response times will be met.

  11. Nuclear level density predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucurescu Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple formulas depending only on nuclear masses were previously proposed for the parameters of the Back-Shifted Fermi Gas (BSFG model and of the Constant Temperature (CT model of the nuclear level density, respectively. They are now applied for the prediction of the level density parameters of all nuclei with available masses. Both masses from the new 2012 mass table and from different models are considered and the predictions are discussed in connection with nuclear regions most affected by shell corrections and nuclear structure effects and relevant for the nucleosynthesis.

  12. Resistance/reactance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E; Harwood, T Mark; Michelson, Aaron; Song, Xiaoxia; Holman, John

    2011-02-01

    Psychotherapists from all professions and perspectives periodically struggle to effectively manage a patient's resistance to change. This article provides definitions and examples of patient-treatment matching applied to patient resistance or reactance. We report the results from an original meta-analysis of 12 select studies (N = 1,102) on matching therapist directiveness to patient reactance. Our findings support the hypothesis that patients exhibiting low levels of trait-like resistance respond better to directive types of treatment, while patients with high levels of resistance respond best to nondirective treatments (d = .82). Limitations of the research reviewed are noted, and practice recommendations are advanced. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  14. PANJABI READER. LEVEL 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    A FIRST-LEVEL READER IS PRESENTED, PRIMARILY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO HAVE A SPEAKING KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI AND SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI GRAMMAR. THIS VOLUME CAN BE USED IN A GENERAL PANJABI LANGUAGE COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. A GLOSSARY AND A BRIEF GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX HAVE…

  15. Happiness levels stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl

  16. Knowledge-Level Reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Bredeweg, Bert; Schreiber, G.; Karbach, Werner; Reinders, Martin; Voss, A.; Akkermans, H.; Bartsch-Spoerl, Brigitte; Vinkhuyzen, Erik

    This paper presents an overview of the REFLECT project. It defines the notion of knowledge level reflection that has been central to the project, it compares this notion with existing approaches to reflection in related fields, and investigates some of the consequences of the concept of knowledge le

  17. Leveraging Stress Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  18. Happiness levels stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl

  19. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy;

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  20. Levels of Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  1. Multi-Level Semiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Giorgi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    is assumed to be a scalar property that endows living systems at different levels and domains with the capacity to ponder selectively the overall structural coherence and functional compatibility of their heterarchical processing, which is increasingly less conditioned by the underlying molecular determinism....

  2. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...... - sites of alternate ordering - where issues of drug use and other social problems can be dealt with and objectified in more flexible ways and handled as part of ongoing social practices of everyday life....

  3. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias......This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue...

  4. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    report summarising the results of the research, together with a set of recommendations arising from the research. This report describes progress to...Southampton University at HR Wallingford and subsequent teleconference with Heidi Moritz and Kate White. The notes summarising the findings of the...suggestion was made that we may want to begin talking about extreme water levels separate from storms. Ivan mentioned an analysis of storminess which

  5. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  6. Level up Book Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  7. Tissue-level cytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Hightower, L E; Brown, M A; Renfro, J.L.; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprote...

  8. Subquantum level of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S S

    2002-01-01

    Not long ago spinors were considered as the simplest and most fundamental objects of particle physics. However it turns out that there exist more fundamental objects, from which spinors may be built (and, in this sense, they play the role of Kummer ideal numbers). We call they fundors. They are used in the description of a new more deep level of physical reality - pre-matter, from which usual elementary particles arise. Here, a mathematical carcass of the theory is built.

  9. Zinc level and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa S.E Zaky; Eman A Sultan; Mahmoud F Salim; Rana S Dawod

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic condition that is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of zinc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum zinc level and different clinical and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Patients and methods Twenty-four individuals with BMI more than 30 kg/m 2 and 14 healthy controls (BMI < 24 kg/m 2 ) were assessed for BMI and waist circumference using anthropometric measurements. Colorimetric tes...

  10. The Knowledge Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    precisely to realizing mental functions in physical systems. In the hands of Daniel Dennett (1978), a philosopher who has concerned himself rather...illustrated repeatedly by Dennett with the gross flow diagrams of AI programs. The intentional stance corresponds to the knowledge level. In...particular, Dennett takes the important step of jettisoning the major result-cum- assumption of the original doctrine, to wit, that the intentional is

  11. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  12. Level Width Broaden Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2004-01-01

    In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.

  13. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  14. Network security risk level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the existence of a computers network within any company with pretensions are obvious. But the construction and the existence of a network without meeting some minimum security requirements, although it would be preferable to be optimal, can lead to bad functioning in the performance of the company’s business. The vulnerability of a grouping, such as a network, is given by the weakest point in its competence. The establishing of the risk level of each component of the network, and implicitly of the grouping, is highly necessary

  15. Black hole's quantum levels

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a black hole's effective temperature, which takes into account both of the non-strictly thermal and non-strictly continuous characters of Hawking radiation, we recently re-analyzed black hole's quasi-normal modes and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels for emissions of particles. After a careful review of previous results, in this work we improve such an analysis by removing an approximation that we implicitly used in our previous work and by obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its sub-leading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize unitary quantum gravity theory, like functions of the quantum overtone number e (emission) and, in turn,of the black hole's quantum excited level. Another approximation concerning the maximum value of e is also corrected. We also consider quasi-normal modes in terms ...

  16. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    reduction, ability to launch a wider product portfolio without increasing resources and reduction of complexity within the whole company. To support the multiple product development process, platform based product development has in many companies such as Philips, VW, Ford etc. proven to be a very effective...... because the nature of developing platforms and applications are very different. In single product development reuse is often determined by individual designers, in multiple product development reuse is to a large degree a management issue. It is difficult for a company to switch from single to multiple...... development will be examined. Based on the identification of the above characteristics five platform levels are described. The research presented in this paper is a result of MSc, Ph.D projects at the Technical University of Denmark and consultancy projects within the organisation of Institute of Product...

  17. Switch wear leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  18. Tissue-level cytoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Brown; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T; House, S D

    2000-11-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation.

  19. LHC Report: Level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is special: there is a limit to the number of the events the detector can handle per bunch crossing. Consequently the maximum luminosity provided in 2012 has been around 4 x1032 cm-2s-1 (compared to the maximum of 7.7 x1033 cm-2s-1 seen by ATLAS and CMS). Nonetheless LHCb still wants to integrate as much luminosity as possible.    To meet LHCb's requirements a luminosity leveling technique is used. A machine setup is chosen that would give a peak luminosity well above the required maximum if the beams are collided head-on at LHCb's interaction point. This peak luminosity is then reduced to the required maximum by moving the two beams transversely apart at the interaction point. As the beam current goes down during a fill, the beams can be moved together in small increments to keep the collision rate constant throughout the fill. In practice, when the LHC goes into collisions in LHCb, the initial luminosity is safely below LHCb's demanded le...

  20. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  1. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  2. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  3. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P. [and others

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  4. Levels in Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Moderator Tom; Belchior, Participants Patricia; Chamberlin, Barbara; Mellecker, Robin

    2014-04-01

    There is a time-honored procedure in games for pure entertainment wherein games challenge their players by offering successfully higher levels of difficulty. An eminent researcher proposed that player engagement and enjoyment require the player being constantly challenged, but at a level she or he can handle. A game's difficulty levels enable the player to face more difficult challenges as she or he builds gameplaying skills. Although levels work in games for entertainment, it is not clear how effective or important levels are in games for health, or how they are designed. We invited several accomplished games for health designers and researchers to discuss levels.

  5. The space of Whitney levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Illanes, Alejandro

    1991-01-01

    ...) is always homeomorphic to 12 (this answers a question by Nadler). Keywords: Whitney maps, Whitney levels, Whitney decompositions, space of Whitney levels, space of Whitney maps. AMS (MOS) Subj....

  6. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  7. Missing levels in correlated spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bohigas, O

    2004-01-01

    Complete spectroscopy (measurements of a complete sequence of consecutive levels) is often considered as a prerequisite to extract fluctuation properties of spectra. It is shown how this goal can be achieved even if only a fraction of levels are observed. The case of levels behaving as eigenvalues of random matrices, of current interest in nuclear physics, is worked out in detail.

  8. Helium II level measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  9. OCR A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, George; O'Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Develop confident students with our expert authors: their insight and guidance will ensure a thorough understanding of OCR A Level computer science, with challenging tasks and activities to test essential analytical and problem-solving skills. - Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Builds stu

  10. Digital Levelling in Subterranean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jiřikovský

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For precision levelling works are now more often used digital levels and code-scale staffs. Advantages in (and problems with their application to the regular line-levelling are well known and described. However, when using the digital levelling for measurements in specific local geodetic networks, monitoring networks and inside of buildings and underground spaces, new problems appear with the signalisation of the observed points, readability of the code (non-uniform illumination, temperature changes etc. The article informs about the application of two types of digital levels (Sokkia SDL-2, Trimble Zeiss DiNi 12T in the experimental subterranean levelling network for the basement settlement monitoring of a ten-floor building; the solution of marking of the points, field calibration and the system calibration of digital levels.

  11. Pellissier H5 hydrostatic level

    CERN Document Server

    Imfeld, H L

    2003-01-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of +- 100 (micro)m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 mu m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accu...

  12. Developing new levels of edit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  13. Developing new levels of edit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, J.; DeLanoy, M.; Deupree, R.; Skiby, J.; Thompson, B.

    1998-07-01

    In 1985, the writing and editing group at Los Alamos National Laboratory established four levels of edit for technical reports. When a survey in 1994 showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, the authors set about revising them. Their goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure that value was added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product -- three author-based levels of edit.

  14. Low Light Level TV Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, J

    1970-10-01

    As the science of low light level sensing becomes better understood, the demand for systems with this capability has increased considerably in recent years. Low light level television systems are part of these low light sensing devices in which interest has grown. Development of low light level TV systems has, in turn, stimulated technical advances in new tube types with improved performance, development of electronic techniques which enhance the over-all performance, and design techniques which make the system more versatile and adaptable. A general look at some of these developments and techniques gives insight into the versatility and adaptability of low light level TV.

  15. AQA A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Bob

    2015-01-01

    AQA A-level Computer Science gives students the chance to think creatively and progress through the AQA AS and A-level Computer Science specifications. Detailed coverage of the specifications will enrich understanding of the fundamental principles of computing, whilst a range of activities help to develop the programming skills and computational thinking skills at A-level and beyond. - Enables students to build a thorough understanding of the fundamental principles in the AQA AS and A-Level Computer Science specifications, with detailed coverage of programming, algorithms, data structures a

  16. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  17. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  18. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  19. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  20. Landau levels for electromagnetic wave

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that the frequencies of propagating electromagnetic wave (photon) in rotating dielectric media obey Landau quantization. We show that the degeneracy of right and left helicities of photons is broken on the lowest Landau level. In spatially homogeneous system this level is shown to be helical, i.e. left and right helical photons counter-propagate.

  1. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  2. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  3. Conceptual framework for biosecurity levels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-10-01

    Biosecurity must be implemented without impeding biomedical and bioscience research. Existing security literature and regulatory requirements do not present a comprehensive approach or clear model for biosecurity, nor do they wholly recognize the operational issues within laboratory environments. To help address these issues, the concept of Biosecurity Levels should be developed. Biosecurity Levels would have increasing levels of security protections depending on the attractiveness of the pathogens to adversaries. Pathogens and toxins would be placed in a Biosecurity Level based on their security risk. Specifically, the security risk would be a function of an agent's weaponization potential and consequences of use. To demonstrate the concept, examples of security risk assessments for several human, animal, and plant pathogens will be presented. Higher security than that currently mandated by federal regulations would be applied for those very few agents that represent true weapons threats and lower levels for the remainder.

  4. Are There Levels of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Hohwy, Jakob; Owen, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    The notion of a level of consciousness is a key construct in the science of consciousness. Not only is the term employed to describe the global states of consciousness that are associated with post-comatose disorders, epileptic absence seizures, anaesthesia, and sleep, it plays an increasingly influential role in theoretical and methodological contexts. However, it is far from clear what precisely a level of consciousness is supposed to be. This paper argues that the levels-based framework for conceptualizing global states of consciousness is untenable and develops in its place a multidimensional account of global states. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  6. Affine morphisms at zero level

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Given a finite index subfactor, we show that the {\\em affine morphisms at zero level} in the affine category over the planar algebra associated to the subfactor is isomorphic to the fusion algebra of the subfactor as a *-algebra.

  7. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  8. Methane Liquid Level Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Methane Liquid-Level Sensor, (MLS) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring of...

  9. Time orientation and construal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Jannette; Handgraaf, Michel J.J.; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Eating and exercising behaviour are both characterized by immediate and future consequences. Consequently, consideration of these consequences (i.e. time orientation) predicts eating and exercising behaviour. We investigate whether construal level acts as an underlying mechanism of these relations.

  10. Website-Level Data Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yu

    This paper proposes a website-level data extraction approach to identify the object relevant information distributed across multiple web pages. Page-level data extraction is widely studied with assumption that each input web page contains multiple data records of interested objects. However, in many cases for web mining, the multiple pages describing an object are sparsely distributed in a website. It makes page-level solutions no longer applicable. We exploit the hierarchy model of websites for web page organization to solve the problem of website-level data extraction. A new resource, the Hierarchical Navigation Path (HNP), which can be discovered from the website structure, is introduced for object relevant web page filtering. The found web pages are clustered using the URL and semantic hyperlink analysis, and then the entry page and the detailed profile pages of each object are identified. The empirical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Antioxidant enzyme levels in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L W

    1997-01-01

    Normal cells are protected by antioxidant enzymes from the toxic effects of high concentrations of reactive oxygen species generated during cellular metabolism. Even though cancer cells generate reactive oxygen species, it has been demonstrated biochemically that antioxidant enzyme levels are low in most animal and human cancers. However, a few cancer types have been found to have elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes, particularly manganese superoxide dismuta...

  12. Cambridge technicals level 3 IT

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Victoria; Middleton, Saundra

    2016-01-01

    Support your teaching of the new Cambridge Technicals 2016 suite with Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT, developed in partnership between OCR and Hodder Education; this textbook covers each specialist pathway and ensures your ability to deliver a flexible course that is both vocationally focused and academically thorough. Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT is matched exactly to the new specification and follows specialist pathways in IT Infrastructure Technician, Emerging Digital Technology Practitioner, Application Developer, and Data Analyst. - Ensures effective teaching of each specialis

  13. Landau level quantization and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akera, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; MacDonald, A.H. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Norman, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A microscopic calculation of vortex-lattice states in two-dimensional electron systems at strong magnetic fields is made taking fully the Landau level quantization into account within the mean field scheme. Results of the order parameter and the local density of states are presented both in the limit of pairing in a single Landau level and in the semiclassical regime of weaker fields and differences from the Abrikosov vortex state are discussed.

  14. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  15. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: amosdejong@gmail.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: piety.runhaar@wur.nl [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@geo.uu.nl [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better

  16. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  17. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  18. Landau Levels in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Giordano, Matteo; Katz, Sandor D; Kovacs, Tamas G; Pittler, Ferenc; Wellnhofer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of the two-dimensional continuum Dirac operator in the presence of a uniform background magnetic field consists of Landau levels, which are degenerate and separated by gaps. On the lattice the Landau levels are spread out by discretization artefacts, but a remnant of their structure is clearly visible (Hofstadter butterfly). If one switches on a non-Abelian interaction, the butterfly structure will be smeared out, but the lowest Landau level (LLL) will still be separated by a gap from the rest of the spectrum. In this talk we discuss how one can define the LLL in QCD and check how well certain physical quantities are approximated by taking into account only the LLL.

  19. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  20. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  1. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  2. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported.

  3. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  4. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  5. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  6. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  7. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  8. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  9. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave stati...

  10. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  11. GOCE level 2 gravity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Two of the GOCE Level 2 products are the gravity gradients (GGs) in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and the GGs in the Local North-Oriented Frame (LNOF). The GRF is an instrument frame and the GGs are derived from the L1b GGs. The L1b to L2 GG processing involves corrections for temporal gravi

  12. Biopower at the molar level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Martin; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade or so much social science research on the developments in the life sciences and biomedicine seems to be focusing too narrowly on individualization or, more recently, on geneticization, that is, the ‘molecular’ level. This article argues that current public health policies in ...

  13. Reduction of parathyoid hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method of acutely reducing the plasma level of PTH of a patient having an elevated PTH comprising the administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a GLP-2, or a variant, an analogue, or derivative of GLP-2 having the ability to bind and activate a GLP-2 receptor such as GLP-2 1-34...

  14. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A; Shastry, B Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N×N matrices linear in a real parameter x. The matrix H(x) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n>1 of linearly independent commuting partners H^{i}(x) (integrals of motion) [H(x),H^{i}(x)]=0, [H^{i}(x),H^{j}(x)]=0, for all x. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H(x) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N→∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x=x_{0} or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O(N^{-0.5}) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  15. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  16. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  17. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N ×N matrices linear in a real parameter x . The matrix H (x ) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n >1 of linearly independent commuting partners Hi(x ) (integrals of motion) "]Hi(x ) ,Hj(x ) ]">H (x ) ,Hi(x ) =0 , for all x . In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H (x ) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N →∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN ; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x =x0 or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O (N-0.5) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  18. An optoelectronic fuel level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashkina, T. I.; Badeeva, E. A.; Badeev, A. V.; Savochkina, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The block and schematic construction diagrams of a new optoelectronic fuel level sensor are considered. The operating principle of the sensor is based on registering the intensity value of the optical path reflected from the mirror, located on the reservoir bottom.

  19. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  20. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  1. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL; ENEA CONSTANTA

    2014-01-01

    The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a...

  2. Developing first-level leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestland, Andreas; Hanig, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Oil and energy corporation BP was well aware of the importance of its work group managers on the front lines. Their decisions, in aggregate, make an enormous difference in BP's turnover, costs, quality control, safety, innovation, and environmental performance. There were about 10,000 such supervisors, working in every part of the company-from solar plants in Spain, to drilling platforms in the North Sea, to marketing teams in Chicago. Some 70% to 80% of BP employees reported directly to these lower-level managers. Yet, until recently, the corporation didn't have a comprehensive training program--let alone an official name--for them. For their part, the frontline managers felt disconnected; it was often hard for them to understand how their individual decisions contributed to the growth and reputation of BP as a whole. In this article, BP executive Andreas Priestland and Dialogos VP Robert Hanig describe how BP in the past five years has learned to connect with this population of managers. After one and a half years of design and development, there is now a companywide name--"first-level leaders"--and a comprehensive training program for this cohort. The authors describe the collaborative effort they led to create the program's four components: Supervisory Essentials, Context and Connections, the Leadership Event, and Peer Partnerships. The design team surveyed those it had deemed first-level leaders and others throughout BP; extensively benchmarked other companies' training efforts for lower-level managers; and conducted a series of pilot programs that involved dozens of advisers. The training sessions were first offered early in 2002, and since then, more than 8000 of BP's first-level leaders have attended. The managers who've been through training are consistently ranked higher in performance than those who haven't, both by their bosses and by the employees who report to them, the authors say.

  3. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  4. Landau levels and Riemann zeros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Germán; Townsend, Paul K

    2008-09-12

    The number N(E) of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than E is the sum of a "smooth" function N[over ](E) and a "fluctuation." Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of N[over ](E) counts states of positive energy less than E in a "regularized" semiclassical model with classical Hamiltonian H=xp. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states "missing" from a continuum. Here we show how the "absorption spectrum" model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum-mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of N(E).

  5. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  6. Landau levels and Riemann zeros

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, German

    2008-01-01

    The number $N(E)$ of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than $E$ is the sum of a `smooth' function $\\bar N(E)$ and a `fluctuation'. Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of $\\bar N(E)$ counts states of positive energy less than $E$ in a `regularized' semi-classical model with classical Hamiltonian $H=xp$. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states `missing' from a continuum. Here we show how the `absorption spectrum' model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of $N(E)$.

  7. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  8. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  9. Metallochaperones regulate intracellular copper levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lee Pang

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an important enzyme co-factor that is also extremely toxic at high intracellular concentrations, making active efflux mechanisms essential for preventing Cu accumulation. Here, we have investigated the mechanistic role of metallochaperones in regulating Cu efflux. We have constructed a computational model of Cu trafficking and efflux based on systems analysis of the Cu stress response of Halobacterium salinarum. We have validated several model predictions via assays of transcriptional dynamics and intracellular Cu levels, discovering a completely novel function for metallochaperones. We demonstrate that in addition to trafficking Cu ions, metallochaperones also function as buffers to modulate the transcriptional responsiveness and efficacy of Cu efflux. This buffering function of metallochaperones ultimately sets the upper limit for intracellular Cu levels and provides a mechanistic explanation for previously observed Cu metallochaperone mutation phenotypes.

  10. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  11. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  12. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  13. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  14. Level structure of 159Lu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Hai-Qing; ZHAI Jian; LI Xian-Feng; MA Ying-Jun; ZHAO Yan-Xin; WANG Ya-Kun; ZHAO Lei; ZHU Li-Hua; WU Xiao-Guang; HE Chuang-Ye; LIU Yin; HAO Xin; LI Xue-Qin

    2009-01-01

    The high-spin states of 159Lu were populated by fusion-evaporation reaction 144Sm (19F, 4n) with beam energy 106 MeV. A new level scheme was established, which consists of the yrast band with negative parity, the octupole vibration band based on the states and quasipartical band with positive parity. The high spin states of 159Lu were discussed by systemic characteristics.

  15. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  16. Biosafety Level 3 Recon Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, Brian Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chavez, Melanie Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heimer, Donovan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knudsen, Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Velasquez, Celina Carmelita [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-12

    The Biosafety Level 3 Recon training is a 3D virtual tool developed for the Counter WMD Analysis Cell (CWAC) and the Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) by the Application Modeling and Development Team within the NEN-3 International Threat Reduction Group. The training simulates a situation where friendly forces have secured from hostile forces a suspected bioweapons development laboratory. The trainee is a squad member tasked to investigate the facility, locate laboratories within the facility, and identify hazards to entrants and the surrounding area. Before beginning the 3D simulation, the trainee must select the appropriate MOPP level for entering the facility. The items in the simulation, including inside and outside the bioweapon facility, are items that are commonly used by scientists in Biosafety Level (BSL) laboratories. Each item has clickable red tags that, when activated, give the trainee a brief description of the item and a controllable turn-around view. The descriptions also contain information about potential hazards the item can present. Trainees must find all tagged items in order to complete the simulation, but can also reference descriptions and turn-around view of the items in a glossary menu. Training is intended to familiarize individuals whom have little or no biology or chemistry background with technical equipment used in BSL laboratories. The revised edition of this simulation (Biosafety Level 3 Virtual Lab) changes the trainee into a investigator instead of a military combatant. Many doors now require a virtual badge swipe to open. Airlock doors may come in sets such that the open door must be closed before the next door in the set can be opened. A user interface was added so that the instructor can edit the information about the items (the brief descriptions mentioned above) using the simulation software instead of the previous method of manually entering the material in xml settings files. Facility labels, such as "No Parking" and "Men

  17. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  18. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pself-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Reading comprehension levels in scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2009-01-01

    important reading performance measurements are related to how and to what extent a child understands a written text. to study the performance of primary school (Ensino Fundamental) students in reading comprehension tasks according to the variables grade and type of school. 160 students from the 3rd to the 6th grades were screened and later evaluated based on the retelling and question answering about a given text. students of the 5th and 6th grades of private schools presented a better performance on issues related to implicit information when compared to students of public schools. The overall analysis of the educational level revealed, through the retelling task, a better performance of the 6th grade students in terms of the number of present macro propositions and a low performance of the 5th grade students in terms of the achieved comprehension level, in both types of school. When answering text-derived questions, the 4th, 5th and 6th grade students performed better than the 3rd grade students regarding explicit questions. When considering implicit questions, the 4th grade students performed better than all the other grades, in both types of school. These results gave evidence to the influence of the different texts used in each grade. the 5th and 6th grades from private schools were the only grades that performed better when compared to public schools in general, regarding answering implicit knowledge questions. All students achieved some level of reading comprehension.

  1. On the formation of deposits of natural gas in the Rotliegendes (New Red) of the Middle European depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzer, H.; Katzung, G.

    1985-01-01

    With hitherto proved gas reserves of more than 4 billions m/sup 3/, the sediments of the Rotliegendes are representing the most important gas bearing complex in Middle and North-Western Europe. The generation, migration and accumulation of the natural gas is caused by complicated, interlocking processes of the coalification of the organic matter of the Silesian, of the and development of the reservoir rocks, of the thermal influence and the tectonic development. On the base of the reached level of knowledge, the premises for the detection of further deposits are outlined. (orig.).

  2. Level of Sexual Myths Level in Premature Ejaculation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine level of belief in sexual myths in the cases of premature ejacula­tion (PE which is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Methods: This study included 100 cases who applied Di­cle University Faculty of Medicine hospitals meet prema­ture ejaculation criteria of DSM-5 and 70 healthy controls. Sociodemographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rat­ing Scale (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAS, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASES-Men form and Sexual Myths Evaluation Form were applied to partici­pants. Results: In the study, rate of belief in sexual myths in PE cases was found significantly higher than healthy controls. In the PE cases, education time less than 10 years, the presence of comorbid sexual dysfunction were found to be statistically significant factors that increase the level of belief in sexual myths in the PE cases, HDS (p=0.0002, HAS (p=0.0001, ASES (p=0.0004 scores were statisti­cally significantly higher than the control group. In the loss of sexual desire in men with comorbid ASES (p=0.0001, with ED, ASES (p=0.001 and HDS (p=0.040 scores were found statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Sexual information should be given in the appropriate age by educated person in educational insti­tutions.

  3. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  4. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  5. Glutathione Levels in Human Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamcsik, Michael P.; Kasibhatla, Mohit S.; Teeter, Stephanie D.; Colvin, O. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes clinical studies in which glutathione was measured in tumor tissue from patients with brain, breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, head and neck and lung cancer. Glutathione tends to be elevated in breast, ovarian, head and neck and lung cancer and lower in brain and liver tumors compared to disease-free tissue. Cervical, colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers show both higher and lower levels of tumor glutathione. Some studies show an inverse relationship between patient survival and tumor glutathione. Based on this survey, we recommend approaches that may improve the clinical value of glutathione as a biomarker. PMID:22900535

  6. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable $N\\times N$ matrices linear in a real parameter $x$. The matrix $H(x)$ is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number $n>1$ of linearly independent commuting partners $H^i(x)$ (integrals of motion) $\\left[H(x),H^i(x)\\right] = 0$, $\\left[H^i(x), H^j(x)\\right]$ = 0, for all $x$. In a recent work, we developed a basis-independent construction of $H(x)$ for any $n$ from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determin...

  7. Level Structure in 190Tl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XieChengying; ZhouXiaohong; ZhangYuhu; GuoYingxiang; LeiXiangguo; SongLitao; WangHualei; LiuMinliang; ZhengYong; GuoWentao; YuHaiping; LuoPeng; WenShuxian; ZhuLihua; WuXiaoguang

    2003-01-01

    The high-spin states of very neutron-deficient doubly odd nucleus 190T1 have been investigated via the 160Gd(35C1, 5n)190T1 reaction by using techniques of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of X-γ and γ-γ-t coincidences were performed with 12BGO(AC)HPGe detectors. Based on the gated spectra, γ-γ coinci-dence relationships, γ ray energy sums, γ ray relative intensities and the previous work, the level scheme

  8. Level structure of 89Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Ribas, R. V.; Filevich, A.; Achterberg, E.; Szybisz, L.

    1993-10-01

    The level structure of 89Mo has been studied with the 60Ni(32S,2pn) reaction at 110 MeV beam energy. Mainly two bands of γ rays depopulating states of probable spin-parity values ranging up to (27/2)+ were determined from the excitation function, neutron and γ-γ coincidences, and γ-ray angular distributions. The high-spin states of 89Mo show a scheme very similar to that of the 87Zr isotone. The interpretation of these states in terms of the three neutron-hole configuration (νg9/2)-3 and core-excited states is discussed.

  9. Radiation Levels around the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mala, P; Calviani, M; Nordt, A

    2013-01-01

    This work discuss on the radiation levels measured around the LHC machine during the 2012 operational year. The doses and particle fluences are measured primarily by RadMon detectors – about 300 RadMons are installed around the accelerator – and by thermoluminescent detectors. In addition, BLMs, IG5/PMI ionisation chambers as well as FGCs can be used for corresponding cumulated dose evaluations. The probability of SEE depends directly on the high-energy hadron (HEH) fluence, so this is the main parameter that is calculated based on RadMons counts.

  10. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  11. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  12. Linking Diverse Levels of Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Organisations start strategic renewal initiatives more often than ever before. Many initiatives, however, have little practical effect on the practices they are meant to change. They do not seem to submerge to the level where they become part of the actionable knowledge of the organisation....../or knowledge intensive companies (Starbuck 1992), which, due to their unsettled form and process, rely on the sense their members make of the change inputs and their creative enactment of these inputs. In such companies, change is a part of everyday practice that (re)produces organisational configurations...

  13. Levels 3-4 English

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together the essential close reading skills needed by students taking part in the Broad General Education, Levels 3-4 (in S1 to S3).Split into two parts, the first section uses examples, models and active-learning tasks to teach key concepts of reading for understanding, analysis and evaluation. The second section provides 15 practice assessments, based on a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts, which become progressively more challenging. As well as allowing learners to demonstrate BGE reading skills, this section serves as a useful precursor to the

  14. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  15. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  16. About disposition of energy levels

    CERN Document Server

    Liverts, Evgeny Z

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of central potential of the form $-\\beta e^{-r}r^{\\gamma}$ were studied using the recently developed critical parameter technique. The particular cases of $\\gamma=0$ and $\\gamma=-1$ yield, respectively, the exponential and Yukawa potentials widely used in the atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. We found different behavior of the energy levels of this potential for three different ranges of the value of $\\gamma$. For $\\gamma\\geq0$ it was found that the energy of bound states with the same principal quantum number $N$ decreases with increasing angular momentum $\\ell$. The Gaussian and Woods-Saxon potentials also show this behavior. On the contrary, for $-2\\leq\\gamma\\leq-1$ increasing $\\ell$ gives a higher energy, resembling the Hulthen potential. However, a potential with $-1<\\gamma<0$ possesses mixed properties, which give rise to several interesting results. For one, the order of energy levels with different quantum numbers is not preserved when varying the parameter $\\beta$. Th...

  17. Making predictions skill level analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš

    2017-01-01

    The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.

  18. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  19. CO2 and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  20. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  1. Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.

  2. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  3. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  4. Arctic research at three levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a posthumous publication of a Steven McNabb's presentation to the 1993 annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. In it he described how the Social Transitions in the North research project involved explicit cross-cultural contact or participation at three levels: between scientists and public agencies; between scientists and study populations; and between research teams themselves. He explored a few of the entanglements and opportunities that arise in those interactions. Dr. McNabb urged northern researchers to avoid embracing rigid standards, for they will result in more entanglements and fewer opportunities. On the otherhand, if researchers are open-minded, they will be able to treat each dilemma as an opportunity that will make for better science.

  5. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh;

    2015-01-01

    in biocards. This was done in two workshops conducted with design students in Denmark and India. Students were given a design assignment and instructions for how to perform the BID ideation work. Half of the students were given biocards with abstract descriptions while the other half got biocards...... with concrete descriptions. The novelty of found solutions was evaluated by the students by rating novelty of each solution on a scale from 1 to 5. Mean values for abstract descriptions were 0,3 higher than for concrete descriptions indicating that more innovative solutions were found when students used...... biocards with abstract descriptions compared to concrete descriptions. The difference in mean value is significant with a confidence level better than 1%. It seems likely that more abstract descriptions in biocards helps avoiding design fixation in biomimetic design work....

  6. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a country or several countries simultaneously. We believe that it is difficult to appreciate that a traditional model might explain a financial crisis, given that every context of occurrence, conditions of development and crisis settlement programs are unique and unrepeatable. Every crisis has in its structure certain issues that may be capitalized and can lead to success. Perhaps more obvious are the ways that can lead to total failure of the organization. Finding and capitalizing the potential success is the essence of the crisis management. The essence of the mismanagement of the crisis is to worse situation. The successful management of a crisis involves admitting that you are facing a crisis, taking reasonable measures to remedy the situation, to be seen taking them and heard saying the right words. The issue at this stage of crisis management is that perception becomes true reality. Crisis management is a set of factors designed to combat the crisis and reduce the damage caused by the crisis. In other words, crisis management attempts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of the crisis and protect the organization, the public involved and the specific field by the possible damages. The effective management of the crisis includes crisis communication. This is an essential component through which the organization faced with the difficult situation can rehabilitate it’s publicly image or even to improve it. The crisis communication occurs between the organization and

  7. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  8. The LHC at level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 10 March, a team of CERN surveyors descended into the LHC tunnel. Their aim: to take measurements of the height of the LHC magnets to see how geological shifts might be affecting the machine and to take reference positions of the machine before the interconnects are opened.    CERN surveyors take levelling measurements of the LHC magnets during LS1. The LHC tunnel is renowned for its geological stability: set between layers of sandstone and molasse, it has allowed the alignment of the world’s largest accelerators to be within sub-millimetre precision. But even the most stable of tunnels can be affected by geological events. To ensure the precise alignment of the LHC, the CERN survey team performs regular measurements of the vertical position of the magnets (a process known as “levelling”). Over the past month, the team has been taking measurements of the LHC before the temperature of the magnets reaches 100 K, beyond which there may be some mechanic...

  9. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen-Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  10. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  11. Optical clearing at cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuorila, Juho; Haapalainen, Tomi; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-07-01

    Strong light scattering in tissues and blood reduces the usability of many optical techniques. By reducing scattering, optical clearing enables deeper light penetration and improves resolution in several optical imaging applications. We demonstrate the usage of optical tweezers and elastic light scattering to study optical clearing [one of the major mechanisms-matching of refractive indices (RIs)] at the single particle and cell level. We used polystyrene spheres and human red blood cells (RBCs) as samples and glycerol or glucose water solutions as clearing agents. Optical tweezers kept single microspheres and RBCs in place during the measurement of light scattering patterns. The results show that optical clearing reduces the scattering cross section and increases g. Glucose also decreased light scattering from a RBC. Optical clearing affected the anisotropy factor g of 23.25-μm polystyrene spheres, increasing it by 0.5% for an RI change of 2.2% (20% glycerol) and 0.3% for an RI change of 1.1% (13% glucose).

  12. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  13. On reinitializing level set functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chohong

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider reinitializing level functions through equation ϕt+sgn(ϕ0)(‖∇ϕ‖-1)=0[16]. The method of Russo and Smereka [11] is taken in the spatial discretization of the equation. The spatial discretization is, simply speaking, the second order ENO finite difference with subcell resolution near the interface. Our main interest is on the temporal discretization of the equation. We compare the three temporal discretizations: the second order Runge-Kutta method, the forward Euler method, and a Gauss-Seidel iteration of the forward Euler method. The fact that the time in the equation is fictitious makes a hypothesis that all the temporal discretizations result in the same result in their stationary states. The fact that the absolute stability region of the forward Euler method is not wide enough to include all the eigenvalues of the linearized semi-discrete system of the second order ENO spatial discretization makes another hypothesis that the forward Euler temporal discretization should invoke numerical instability. Our results in this paper contradict both the hypotheses. The Runge-Kutta and Gauss-Seidel methods obtain the second order accuracy, and the forward Euler method converges with order between one and two. Examining all their properties, we conclude that the Gauss-Seidel method is the best among the three. Compared to the Runge-Kutta, it is twice faster and requires memory two times less with the same accuracy.

  14. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  15. Opinions on College Students' Improving English level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis includes three aspects: discuss the necessity of improving English level, analyze the present situation of students' level, propose some methods to improve English level. Its aim is to encourage college students to improve their English level as possible as they can for the purpose of social development.

  16. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.86 Performance levels. (a) General. (1) Paragraph (b) of this..., new performance levels. (b) Performance levels for each performance indicator. (1)(i) The performance levels for Performance Indicators 1.1 through 1.6 are— Performance indicator Performance......

  17. Guide for intervention levels in radiological accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tai; Khang, Byung Oui; Lee, Goan Yup; Han, Gee Yang [Korea Atomic Energy Resesrch Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Based on IAEA SS109 and ICRP63, intervention levels and action levels are derived using cost-benefit approach method. Intervention levels are optimized so that the net benefit from protective measures will be maximized. Evacuation, sheltering, relocation, permanent resettlement, administration of stable iodine and food restriction are included in protective measures. Intervention levels are calculated using site specific parameters in Korea. As a results of calculation, general intervention levels are similar to IAEA recommendation and action levels for food restriction are a little higher than IAEA recommendation and Japan guide. Guide on intervention levels in Korea is also suggested based on the calculated results.

  18. Placental lactogen levels in diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursell, W; Brudenell, M; Chard, T

    1973-04-14

    A prospective study has been carried out of placental lactogen levels in pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. The levels were higher than those in normal pregnant subjects; the higher levels were related to increased placental and fetal weight but more closely to the former; and lower levels were found when there was clinical evidence of placental dysfunction. Those patients requiring the largest insulin increment for the control of their diabetes in the pregnancy have placental lactogen levels in the higher range.

  19. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  20. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  1. EMI-EDGI Operational Level Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This document is the Operational Level Agreement signed by EMI and EDGI for the contribution of middleware from EDGI into the EMI distribution and the definition of service levels compatible with the existing EMI SLAs

  2. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  3. BACKGROUND NOISE LEVELS IN STUDIOS AND AUDITORIA

    OpenAIRE

    James, A.

    1990-01-01

    The specification of background noise levels for auditoria must strike a balance between the lowest possible noise level from services and the need for some "masking" of extraneous sources. Studios are often designed to provide a suitable level of masking, using either aerodynamic or electronically-generated white noise. Data on noise levels in a large number of auditoria have been examined to determine whether a similar process is applicable to these. A wide range of seemingly arbitrary desi...

  4. Level of evidence gap in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Bernstein, Joseph; Ahn, Jaimo; McKay, Scott D; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2012-09-01

    Level of evidence is the most widely used metric for the quality of a publication, but instances exist in which a Level I study is neither feasible nor desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence gap in current orthopedic research, which the authors defined as the disparity between the level of evidence that would be required to optimally answer the primary research question and the level of evidence that was actually used. Five orthopedic surgeons (K.D.B., J.B., J.A., S.D.M., W.N.S.) evaluated blinded articles from the first 6 months of 2010 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) (JBJS-Am), classifying the study type and design and extracting a primary research question from each article. Each evaluator then defined the study type and method, along with the level of evidence that would ideally be used to address the primary research question. The level of evidence gap was then calculated by subtracting the actual level of evidence of the manuscript from the level of evidence of the idealized study. Of the 64 JBJS-Am manuscripts eligible for analysis, the average level of evidence was between Level II and III (mean, 2.73). The average level of evidence gap was 1.06 compared with the JBJS-Am-designated level of evidence and 1.28 compared with the evaluators' assessment. Because not all questions require Level I studies, level of evidence alone may not be the best metric for the quality of orthopedic surgery literature. Instead, the authors' concept of a level of evidence gap may be a better tool for assessing the state of orthopedic research publications.

  5. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  6. Introducing GIS across Levels: Designing for Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Joana

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a strategy for designing introductory GIS modules at Birkbeck, University of London. Seven design aspects or elements (content, practical exercises, assessment, pace, mode, level of support, and level of difficulty) for tailoring modules at appropriate levels and for diversity are introduced and their application in Birkbeck's…

  7. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  8. Rapid neural adaptation to sound level statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabel; Robinson, Ben L; Harper, Nicol S; McAlpine, David

    2008-06-18

    Auditory neurons must represent accurately a wide range of sound levels using firing rates that vary over a far narrower range of levels. Recently, we demonstrated that this "dynamic range problem" is lessened by neural adaptation, whereby neurons adjust their input-output functions for sound level according to the prevailing distribution of levels. These adjustments in input-output functions increase the accuracy with which levels around those occurring most commonly are coded by the neural population. Here, we examine how quickly this adaptation occurs. We recorded from single neurons in the auditory midbrain during a stimulus that switched repeatedly between two distributions of sound levels differing in mean level. The high-resolution analysis afforded by this stimulus showed that a prominent component of the adaptation occurs rapidly, with an average time constant across neurons of 160 ms after an increase in mean level, much faster than our previous experiments were able to assess. This time course appears to be independent of both the timescale over which sound levels varied and that over which sound level distributions varied, but is related to neural characteristic frequency. We find that adaptation to an increase in mean level occurs more rapidly than to a decrease. Finally, we observe an additional, slow adaptation in some neurons, which occurs over a timescale of tens of seconds. Our findings provide constraints in the search for mechanisms underlying adaptation to sound level. They also have functional implications for the role of adaptation in the representation of natural sounds.

  9. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc; Kirthi Machireddy; Michelle Petri MD, MPH

    2017-01-01

    Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  10. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  11. Levels of Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of the second level (intermediate acoustical processing of rhyming words) and the third level (deep-semantic processing of words in sentences) of the "levels of processing" framework on memory performance of four types of intermediate-grade students (52 "normal" students, 50 students with…

  12. Characteristics of serum endocan levels in infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Seo

    Full Text Available Endocan is a newly recognized biomarker of sepsis. However, there have been no studies of the trends in endocan levels during infection and their associations with other clinical factors. The aim of this study was to assess the time course of endocan levels and the associations of endocan with clinical factors during infection by comparison with other biomarkers.Serum samples and blood cultures were obtained from patients who were diagnosed with infection from June 2013 to March 2014. Serum endocan, C-reactive protein (CRP, and procalcitonin (PCT levels during four periods during infection were measured (day 0, day 1-2, day 3-5, and day 6-10.A total of 78 patients were enrolled in this study. The median endocan level decreased by only 23% during infection, whereas both serum CRP and PCT levels decreased by more than 80%. Endocan levels were correlated to neither CRP levels nor PCT levels in each period. Endocan levels at day 0 in patients with bacteremia were higher than those without bacteremia (1.09 ng/mL vs 0.82 ng/mL, P=0.002, but neither CRP levels nor PCT levels at day 0 were different between the two groups. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves of endocan, CRP, and PCT at day 0 were 0.662, 0.343, and 0.563, respectively. Positive blood cultures tended to be related to high endocan levels, but not significantly (odds ratio: 4.24, 95% CI: 0.99-10.34, P=0.05.In bacteremic cases, serum endocan levels in bacteremia tended to be higher than in non-bacteremic cases. Although endocan level was not identified as a prognostic factor of bacteremia, further prospective study concerning the relationship between serum endocan level and bacteremia would be needed.

  13. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  14. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F.L.; Eriksen, T.K.; Giacoppo, F.; Goergen, A.; Hagen, T.W.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Nyhus, H.T.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S.J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T.G.; Tveten, G.M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Aiche, M.; Ducasse, Q.; Jurado, B. [University of Bordeaux, CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 120, Gradignan (France); Bernstein, L.A.; Bleuel, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Byun, Y.; Voinov, A. [Ohio University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, Ohio (United States); Gunsing, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SPhN, Cedex (France); Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Wilson, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay Cedex (France); Wiedeking, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa)

    2015-12-15

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. From the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold. (orig.)

  15. An architectural approach to level design

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Explore Level Design through the Lens of Architectural and Spatial Experience TheoryWritten by a game developer and professor trained in architecture, An Architectural Approach to Level Design is one of the first books to integrate architectural and spatial design theory with the field of level design. It explores the principles of level design through the context and history of architecture, providing information useful to both academics and game development professionals.Understand Spatial Design Principles for Game Levels in 2D, 3D, and Multiplayer ApplicationsThe book presents architectura

  16. Service level agreements for cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, Philipp; Theilmann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing provides a unique combination of business-driven application scenarios and advanced research in the area of service-level agreements for Clouds and service-oriented infrastructures. Current state-of-the-art research findings are presented in this book, as well as business-ready solutions applicable to Cloud infrastructures or ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) environments. Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing contributes to the various levels of service-level management from the infrastructure over the software to the business layer, includ

  17. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Guttormsen, M; Garrote, F L Bello; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Byun, Y; Ducasse, Q; Eriksen, T K; Giacoppo, F; Görgen, A; Gunsing, F; Hagen, T W; Jurado, B; Klintefjord, M; Larsen, A C; Lebois, L; Leniau, B; Nyhus, H T; Renstrøm, T; Rose, S J; Sahin, E; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G; Tveten, G M; Voinov, A; Wiedeking, M; Wilson, J

    2015-01-01

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. From the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold.

  18. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  19. Laws, Causation and Dynamics at Different Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (Section 2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (Sections 3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different 'levels'. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that 'ride free' of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasising how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed 'micro' and 'macro' which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation.

  20. Study of the interrelationships among chemical and petrographic variables of United States coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, C.; Davis, A.; Spackman, W.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1978-03-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques are used in a study of the interrelationships among various coal properties. The properties chosen for study are the components of the ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, organic sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen); moisture; volatile matter; calorific value; maximum reflectance of the vitrinite-group macerals; and the relative proportions of the vitrinite-, liptinite-, and inertinite-group macerals. The coals included in the study are from four coal provinces (Eastern, Interior, Rocky Mountain, and Northern Great Plains) and range in rank from lignite to anthracite. A coal's characteristics, properties, and utilization behavior are determined by the maceral and mineral materials composing the coal. The level of coalification achieved by the maceral materials is of critical importance in fixing the properties. A factor analysis performed on all data together indicates that most variation in the data set is correlated with changes in rank (variables which vary with rank include carbon, oxygen, calorific value, moisture, volatile matter, and reflectance). The maceral groups account for the next greatest amount of variation. Nitrogen and sulfur are each independent of all other variables. A cluster analysis indicates that the data set represents a continuum with no distinct groups; however, the data set may be dissected into four groups distinguished from each other on the basis of rank, on the relative proportions of the maceral groups, and on the organic sulfur content. Factor analyses of the individual groups provide insights into coalification at various stages of rank.

  1. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  2. Saliency Detection via Combining Region-Level and Pixel-Level Predictions with CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Youbao; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel saliency detection method by combining region-level saliency estimation and pixel-level saliency prediction with CNNs (denoted as CRPSD). For pixel-level saliency prediction, a fully convolutional neural network (called pixel-level CNN) is constructed by modifying the VGGNet architecture to perform multi-scale feature learning, based on which an image-to-image prediction is conducted to accomplish the pixel-level saliency detection. For region-level saliency estima...

  3. Level of evidence in hand surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Roberto S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few investigations have been done to analyze the level of evidence in journals related to hand surgery, compared to other related research fields. The objective of this study was to assess the level of evidence of the clinical research papers published in the Ibero-american (RICMA, the European (JHSE and American (JHSA Journals of Hand Surgery. Methods A total of 932 clinical research papers published between 2005 and 2009 (RICMA 60, JHSE 461, and JHSA 411 were reviewed. Two independent observers classified the level of evidence based on the Oxford International Classification, 5 being the lowest level and 1 the highest level. The observed frequencies of the level of evidence for each journal were compared with the expected frequencies by a chi-square (χ 2 test for categorical variables with a significance level of 0.05. Results Inter-observer agreement analysis showed a Kappa of 0.617. Intra-observer agreement analysis presented a Kappa of 0.66 for the observer 1, and a Kappa of 0.751 for the observer 2. More than 80% of the papers in RICMA and JHSE and a 67.6% in the JHSA presented a level of 4. No level 1 or 2 studies were published in RICMA, compared to JHSE (0.9% level 1 and 5.0% level 2 and JHSA (8.3% level 1 and 10% level 2. The percentage of papers with level 3 published in RICMA (16.7% was higher compared to the JHSE (11.1% and the JHSA (14.1%. All the results were statistically significant (χ2=63.945; p Conclusions The level of evidence in hand surgery is dependent on the type of journal; being the highest level evidence papers those published in the JHSA, followed by the JHSE and finally the RICMA. Knowing the status of the level of evidence published in hand surgery is the starting point to face the challenges of improving the quality of our clinical research

  4. Russian State Leveling Network (present and future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurova, Elena; Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    In August 2016 the sixth session of the United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) endorsed the roadmap for the development of a Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF) and urged countries to join efforts for its creation. In response to the UN appeal in this article describes the current state of the high-precision Leveling Network in Russia and prospects of its development. In this paper, we consider projects related to the construction of new high-precision leveling lines by the classical methods, as well as issues of creating high-precision leveling network, associated with the development and implementation of a fundamentally new method of determining heights in geodesy - chronometric leveling based on the application of quantum metrology of time and the fundamental laws of general relativity. Keywords: leveling network, chronometric leveling, quantum metrology of time, the general theory of relativity.

  5. Circulating levels of homocysteine in preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that maternal hyperhomocysteinemia to be associated with preeclampsia. The aims of the present study were to examine maternal serum levels of total homocysteine in preeclamptic women and its association with the severity of the disease. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 matched healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total homocysteine were assessed using enzyme immunoassay method. Maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were significantly higher in preeclamptic group than in normal pregnant women. Women with severe preeclampsia had higher serum levels of total homocysteine than mild preeclamptic patients. Levels of total homocysteine correlated positively with systolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic women. In summary, maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were increased in preeclamptic women and hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with severity of preeclampsia.

  6. Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K; Zeris, S; Kothari, M J

    2008-01-01

    Polyneuropathy related to decreased levels of Vitamin B6 are well known. In contrast, the association between elevated levels of pyridoxine and neuropathy is not well described. This study is a retrospective review of patients in our neuromuscular clinic that were found to have elevated B6 levels. Twenty-six patients were found to have elevated serum B6 levels. The mean B6 level was 68.8 ng/ml. Twenty patients (76.9%) reported daily vitamin use. Twenty-one patients (80.8%) reported only sensory complaints. The most common symptoms reported were numbness (96%), burning pain (49.9%), tingling (57.7%), balance difficulties (30.7%), and weakness (7.8%). Nine (out of 26) had an abnormal EMG/NCS. Eight patients had an abnormal quantitative sensory study. We conclude that elevated pyridoxine levels should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  7. Handbook on multi-level governance

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship of multi-level governance has developed into one of the most innovative themes of research in political science and public policy. This accessible Handbook presents a thorough review of the wide-ranging literature, encompassing various theoretical and conceptual approaches to multi-level governance and their application to policy-making in domestic, regional and global contexts. The importance of multi-level governance in specific policy areas is highlighted, and the contribut...

  8. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  9. Placental lactogen levels in rhesus isoimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R H; Letchworth, A T; Niven, P A; Chard, T

    1974-03-02

    A prospective study of the plasma levels of human placental lactogen (HPL) in pregnancies complicated by rhesus isoimmunization showed that in mild and moderately affected cases the levels were normal, while in severely affected cases they were raised. Serial levels of HPL before the 26th week provide a valuable indication of fetal outcome, and we suggest that this estimation should be used routinely as an adjunct to other tests in the management of rhesus isoimmunization.

  10. Level statistics for nearly integrable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-Magd, A Y

    2009-07-01

    We assume that the level spectra of quantum systems in the initial phase of transition from integrability to chaos are approximated by superpositions of independent sequences. Each individual sequence is modeled by a random matrix ensemble. We obtain analytical expressions for the level spacing distribution and level number variance for such a system. These expressions are successfully applied to the analysis of the resonance spectrum in a nearly integrable microwave billiard.

  11. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule; Chinedu Cletus Obinwa; Christian Ebele Okekeze; Eyo Ifreke

    2012-01-01

    The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower) and maximum (upper) level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, ...

  12. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田, 芳弘; 平木, 祥夫; 森本,節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石,則之; 木本, 真; 上者,郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野, 要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  13. Core-level spectra from graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Sernelius, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We calculate core-level spectra for pristine and doped free-standing graphene sheets. Instructions for how to perform the calculations are given in detail. Although pristine graphene is not metallic the core-level spectrum presents low-energy tailing which is characteristic of metallic systems. The peak shapes vary with doping level in a characteristic way. The spectra are compared to experiments and show good agreement. We compare to two different pristine samples and to one doped sample. Th...

  14. Modelling Inteligent Systems with Level Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina BOCĂNEALĂ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Level Petri Nets are formalism for modeling hierarchical multi-agent system. They are a Petri nets extension, allowing tokens to be nets themselves. This paper is inspired by two classes of level Petri nets: object Petri nets and nested Petri nets. We present some concepts from the artificial intelligence field and we use them to illustrate the modeling power of Petri nets with multi levels.

  15. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田,芳弘; 平木,祥夫; 森本, 節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石, 則之; 木本, 真; 上者, 郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野,要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL OF PRODUCTION OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Sagieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the technological level of production of Russian organizations. Areas of study cover the characteristics of the use of technology in manufacturing (the extent of use and level of technology, the problems solved by using specific types of technologies and the use in the production process of intellectual property; factors driving growth of technological level of the surveyed medium and large organizations and provides them with a competitive advantage

  17. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  18. Mortality level, trends and differentials in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuleni, M E

    1994-01-01

    "This article examines the levels, and trends and differentials in mortality in Malawi.... The study has shown that (i) the level of mortality is very high in Malawi; (ii) mortality has declined during the period under review; (iii) there was reduction in the rate of mortality decline in the seventies; and (iv) [there are] interesting differences in mortality in terms of rural-urban localities, regions and age-sex differentials. The observed levels, trends and differentials in mortality are however consistent with the level of social and economic development in the country."

  19. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  20. Systematics of nuclear level density parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, Dorel [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Egidy, Till von [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The level density parameters for the back-shifted Fermi gas (both without and with energy-dependent level density parameter) and the constant temperature models have been determined for 310 nuclei between {sup 18}F and {sup 251}Cf by fitting the complete level schemes at low excitation energies and the s-wave neutron resonance spacings at the neutron binding energies. Simple formulae are proposed for the description of the two parameters of each of these models, which involve only quantities available from the mass tables. These formulae may constitute a reliable tool for extrapolating to nuclei far from stability, where nuclear level densities cannot be measured.

  1. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  2. Renin and angiotensin levels in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton Pipkin, F; Smales, O R; O'Callaghan, M.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma renin activity, plasma renin concentration, and angiotensin II levels were measured in 63 normal children aged between 2 months and 12 years. The results showed that the high levels of renin and angiotensin II present in infancy remained above adult levels throughout the first decade of life but that there was a decline with age. Boys less than 8 years old had lower plasma renin activity and angiotensin II levels than girls of a similar age; this may be due to a relative substrate defi...

  3. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  4. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  5. MISR Level 2 Surface parameters V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 Land Surface product contains information on land directional reflectance properties,albedos(spectral & PAR integrated),FPAR,asssociated radiation...

  6. Combinatorial nuclear level-density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aberg, Sven [LUND SWEDEN; Uhrenhoit, Henrik [LUND SWEDEN; Ickhikawa, Takatoshi [RIKEN

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic nuclear level-density model is presented. The model is a completely combinatorial (micro-canonical) model based on the folded-Yukawa single-particle potential and includes explicit treatment of pairing, rotational and vibrational states. The microscopic character of all states enables extraction of level distribution functions with respect to pairing gaps, parity and angular momentum. The results of the model are compared to available experimental data: neutron separation energy level spacings, data on total level-density functions from the Oslo method and data on parity ratios.

  7. Levels of Security Issues in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Charanya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Cloud computing is booming in most of the IT industry. Most of the organizations are moving to cloud computing due to various reasons. It provide elastic architecture accessible through internet and also it eliminate the setting up of high cost computing infrastructure for the IT based solutions and services. Cloud computing is pay-per-use model, on-demand network access to a sharedpool of configurable computing resources like Application-as a service, Platform as a services and infrastructure as a services. In this paper, survey of security issues at different levels such as application level, host level and network level is presented.

  8. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  9. Modeling category-level purchase timing with brand-level marketing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurchase timing of households is usually modeled at the category level. Marketing efforts are however only available at the brand level. Hence, to describe category-level interpurchase times using marketing efforts one has to construct a category-level measure of marketing efforts from

  10. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  11. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  12. Modeling category-level purchase timing with brand-level marketing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurchase timing of households is usually modeled at the category level. Marketing efforts are however only available at the brand level. Hence, to describe category-level interpurchase times using marketing efforts one has to construct a category-level measure of marketing efforts from t

  13. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  14. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  15. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted...

  16. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information...

  17. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  18. Problems of Level in Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna T. Balmagambetova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . The article is focused on the problems of level approach to communicative competence formation in the course of the second language learning. The change of educational paradigm demands turn of linguists to differentiated learner-centered education – level system of language learning

  19. Four Levels of Cross-cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    In order to attain intercultural awareness, we have to know Robert Hanvey's statement of four levels of inter-cultural awareness described in his book An Attainable Global Perspective (1976). This passage anazlyes the four levels of cross-cultural awareness.

  20. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen;

    the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  1. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  2. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  3. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  4. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  5. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  6. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  7. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  8. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  9. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...

  10. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  11. Multi level configuration of ETO products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces and defines central concepts related to multi level configuration and analyzes which challenges an engineer to order company must deal with to be able to realize a multi level configuration system. It is argued that high flexibility can be achieved and focus can be directed i...

  12. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  13. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  14. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each nurs

  15. Carnitine Level Changes with the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD on carnitine levels were determined in 38 consecutive patients with epilepsy treated at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Medical Center, Chicago, IL Carnitine levels were determined at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 months of diet treatment.

  16. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  17. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  18. Deep levels of copper in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, S. D.; Ayres, J. R.; Gill, A.; van Kesteren, H. W.; Greidanus, F. J. A. M.

    1987-09-01

    Defect impurity levels have been examined in copper-diffused p-and n-type silicon using deep level transient spectroscopy. Levels at Ev+0.09, Ev+0.23, and Ev+0.42 eV have been observed in both types of material, although the deeper levels were only oberved in n-type material after post-diffusion annealing at 200 °C. Associated with the appearance of these levels in n-type material was another level at Ec-0.16 eV. This may be a further charge state of the center responsible for the Ev+0.23 eV and Ev+0.42 eV levels or the two centers may be decomposition products of a thermally unstable complex. Luminescence measurements have revealed the previously reported Cu-Cu spectrum in all the copper-diffused samples. The occurrence of this signal could not be correlated with the presence of the levels at Ev+0.23, Ev+0.42, or Ec-0.16 eV; this leaves the center at Ev+0.09 eV as the likely origin of the signal.

  19. Sea level rise: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes du

  20. Gain leveling using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, Z.C. [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Opto-Electronics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Su, X.M. [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light and Atom and Molecule Spectroscopy of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)]. E-mail: euxmsu@public.cc.jl.cn; Zhang, Y.S. [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Opto-Electronics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2005-02-28

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme of gain leveling for erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) by applying a strong coherent field to a three level amplified system using electromagnetically induced transparency. Due to the effect of this coupling field on the Stark-splitting sublevels, this scheme can be realized a flat gain operating around 1.53 {mu}m.

  1. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Laan, Wladimir J. van der; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive sim

  2. Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils;

    In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain ...

  3. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  4. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  5. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  6. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  7. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  8. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further inc

  9. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important factors in

  10. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  11. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the first in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the kindergarten level: arithmetic concepts, number concepts, reading readiness, vocabulary, language, listening, social behavior,…

  12. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the second in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subjects areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior, art, music, and…

  13. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the third in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior,…

  14. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the last in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning and problem solving, social behavior,…

  15. Interpersonal leveling, independence, and self-enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim; Fiske, Alan Page

    2007-01-01

    in self-enhancement. However, Danes practiced interpersonal leveling, preferring equality of outcome more than did Americans. This leveling strongly and inversely predicted self-enhancement within both cultures and mediated Danish-American differences in self-enhancement. In contrast, no independence...

  16. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Kodex, M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. Agents that have this capacity are the lipid lowering fibric acid derivatives (e.g. ciprofibrate) and the plate

  17. Valuing Initial Teacher Education at Master's Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare; Brant, Jacek; Abrahams, Ian; Yandell, John

    2012-01-01

    The future of Master's-level work in initial teacher education (ITE) in England seems uncertain. Whilst the coalition government has expressed support for Master's-level work, its recent White Paper focuses on teaching skills as the dominant form of professional development. This training discourse is in tension with the view of professional…

  18. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  19. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  20. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from never thought about starting a business to thinking ab

  1. Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from “never thought about starting a business” to “thinking ab

  2. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  3. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii) abil...

  4. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  5. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  6. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  7. On Abstraction Levels For Software Architecture Viewpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2005-01-01

    abstraction levels defined in this paper, viewpoints can be described more accurately and applied more consistently. This can help developers easier gain proficiency in the use of viewpoints to describe software architectures of systems. In this paper concepts which clarify the relation between the defined......In the field of software architecture the abstraction level of a viewpoint has often been defined on a scale from low to high. However, the definition of abstraction levels on a scale from low to high makes it very subjective what is at each level. This makes it difficult to apply the different...... existing viewpoints in practice, because each viewpoint can be applied at many different levels of abstraction which the architect has to consider. This also makes it hard for people to enter the field of software architecture and become proficient in using its techniques and methods. By using the three...

  8. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  9. [Cybernetic conceptualization of the levels of hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollina Mangiameli, G

    1980-04-28

    The synaptic function of the different associational levels of cortex and cortico-subcortical depending on inputs memorised in synchronism at each level, is probably responsible, on a broad scale of values, for auto- or heteroinducible levels of hypnosis due to inputs solicited by extraneuronal values determining feed-back with inputs recorded in neuronal DNA. This hypothesis is outlined here with reference to the same Author's "Metodica psicoterapica su elementi di cultura cibernetica" (Minerva Medica, 63, 968, 1972). Sophronic levels, and levels of hypnosis and hypnotism are, in the light of elements of cybernetic culture, neurophysiologically referrable not only to qualitatively different causes, and more specifically to the final cause triggering electrobiochemical reactions. They are, in other words, referrable to the electron and its dynamics, increasingly well known today to students of cybernetics.

  10. LEVEL SET METHODS BASED ON DISTANCE FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军; 唐云; 于洪川; 唐泽圣

    2003-01-01

    Some basic problems on the level set methods were discussed, such as the method used to preserve the distance function, the existence and uniqueness of solution for the level set equations. The main contribution is to prove that in a neighborhood of the initial zero level set, the level set equations with the restriction of the distance function have a unique solution, which must be the signed distance function with respect to the evolving surface. Some skillful approaches were used: Noticing that any solution for the original equation was a distance function, the original level set equations were transformed into a simpler alternative form. Moreover, since the new system was not a classical one, the system was transforned into an ordinary one, for which the implicit function method was adopted.

  11. The architecture and fiction in level design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2006-01-01

     The architect's professional field has expanded with the new virtual medias There is a new set of rules different from the scenography of the film and different from the architecture of amusement parks. The new rules are fiction, interaction, complexity, and artificial intelligence...... the architect and designer approach the world of level design? What tools are necessary for creating a game flow in first-person shooter's level design? Is it possible to look at experienced architecture for the origin of Level design? And is it possible to establish a number of rules for creating a good or bad...... architecture in level design? We will look at two different games FarCry and Half-Life 2.   Keywords: World design, experience architecture, level design, game flow and gameplay....

  12. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte......, and saliva samples were collected at days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 24. Salivary cytokines were detected with Luminex®-xMAP™. Salivary IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and VEGF levels decreased after 10 days' development of experimental gingivitis and reached baseline levels at the end of the 2-week resolution period. Salivary IL-8...

  13. Procalcitonin serum levels in tertian malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwakata Collins B

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Procalcitonin (PCT is closely correlated with parasite burden and clinical outcome in falciparum malaria. The role of PCT in tertian malaria has not previously been investigated. Patients and methods PCT serum levels in 37 patients with tertian malaria were analysed. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed and statistically correlated both to the initial PCT levels and during the course of the disease. Results PCT levels rose for one day after commencing treatment and declined thereafter. However, there was no significant correlation with parasite burden, clinical parameters, laboratory values, or the presence of semi-immunity. Before treatment, the majority of patients showed normal or slightly elevated PCT levels ( Conclusions There is a fundamental difference in the relationship of PCT with tertian malaria not seen in other infectious diseases in which elevated PCT levels have been observed. This suggests distinct pathophysiological pathways in malaria.

  14. Spiking models for level-invariant encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eBrette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of ecological sounds vary over several orders of magnitude,but the firing rate and membrane potential of a neuron are much more limited in range.In binaural neurons of the barn owl, tuning to interaural delays is independent oflevel differences. Yet a monaural neuron with a fixed threshold should fire earlier in responseto louder sounds, which would disrupt the tuning of these neurons. %, resulting in shifts in delay tuning for interaural level differences.How could spike timing be independent of input level?Here I derive theoretical conditions for a spiking model tobe insensitive to input level.The key property is a dynamic change in spike threshold.I then show how level invariance can be physiologically implemented,with specific ionic channel properties.It appears that these ingredients are indeed present inmonaural neurons of the sound localization pathway of birds and mammals.

  15. Vitamin D level in patients with pterygium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Necip; Ceri, Seda

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate blood vitamin D level in patients with pterygium. This prospective study, compared 58 eyes of 58 healthy individuals (control group) with 63 eyes of 63 patients with pterygium (study group). Subjects were stratified by time spent indoors or outdoors. Participants were given comprehensive ophthalmic examinations; blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (nmol/L) was assayed. Vitamin D level was significantly higher in men with pterygium than without it (p=0.020), but the difference was not significant in women (p=0.86). In the pterygium group, vitamin D level was significantly increased in participants with outdoor activity (p=0.010). In the control group, vitamin D levels did not differ significantly with indoor and outdoor activity (p=0.126). Vitamin D level in participants with pterygium was significantly increased only in men and in those with more outdoor activity.

  16. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  17. Global Sea Level Change and Thermal Contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    The global long-term sea level trend is obtained from the analysis of tide gauge data and TOPEX/Poseidon data. The linear trend of global mean sea level is highly non-umiform spatially, with an average rate of 2.2 mm year-1 in T/P sea-level rise from October 1992 to September 2002. Sea level change duc to temperature vanation (the thermosteric sea level) is discussed. The results are compared with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data in the same temporal span at different spatial scales. It is indicated that the ther-mal effect accounts for 86% and 73% of the observed seasonal variability in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The TOPEX/Poseidon observed sea level lags behind the TSI, by 2 months in the zonal band of 40°-60° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Systematic differences of about 1-2cm between TOPEX/Poseidon observations and thermosteric sea level data are obtained. The potential causes for these differences include water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and oceans, and some pos-sible deviations in thermosteric contribution estimates and geophysical corrections to the TOPEX/Poseidon data.

  18. Groundwater Level Predictions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓敏; 尚松浩; 刘翔

    2002-01-01

    The prediction of groundwater level is important for the use and management of groundwater resources. In this paper, the artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict groundwater level in the Dawu Aquifer of Zibo in Eastern China. The first step was an auto-correlation analysis of the groundwater level which showed that the monthly groundwater level was time dependent. An auto-regression type ANN (ARANN) model and a regression-auto-regression type ANN (RARANN) model using back-propagation algorithm were then used to predict the groundwater level. Monthly data from June 1988 to May 1998 was used for the network training and testing. The results show that the RARANN model is more reliable than the ARANN model, especially in the testing period, which indicates that the RARANN model can describe the relationship between the groundwater fluctuation and main factors that currently influence the groundwater level. The results suggest that the model is suitable for predicting groundwater level fluctuations in this area for similar conditions in the future.

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN FIBRINOGEN LEVEL AND CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-cheng Zhu; Li-ying Cui; Bao-lai Hua; Jia-qi Pan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between plasma fibrinogen level and cerebral infarction (CI) as well as the difference of fibrinogen among subtypes of CI.Methods A case-controlled study was conducted with 131 cases of CI and 148 controls. Plasma fibrinogen levels were detected by the Clauss method.Results High fibrinogen level (3.09±0.94 g/L) was correlated with CI (OR=2.47, 95% CI:1.51-4.04,P<0.005) at the onset stage of the disease. Persistent high fibrinogen level (3.14±0.81 g/L) at 6-month after stroke onset was detected and correlated with CI (OR=4.34, 95% CI: 1.80-10. 51,P=0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with total anterior circulation infarction (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarction (PACI), and posterior circulation infarction (POCI) (OR = 4.008, P<0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with extracranial atherosclerosis (OR=3.220, P<0.05), but not with intracranial atherosclerosis.Conclusion Fibrinogen level may be a risk factor of CI and probably correlates with subtypes of CI and distributions of atherosclerosis.

  20. Level of service at airport passenger terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Tamara D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.

  1. Clinical problems and levels of psychosomatic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Martins

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction, some doctrinary and technical problems dealing with the complexity of the human mind and the possible approaches to investigate and treat the personality are discussed and, among them, the "medical model" is emphasized. A brief description of some cases in the author's experience are presented; they, at first, had been very difficult to diagnose. However, after some time, they were found to be of indisputable neuro-psychogenetic pathogenesis. The psychosomatic aspects of each case are analyzed, with emphasis on the different levels of pathogenic action and the means of elaboration to defend and readapt the affected personality, resulting in its final clinical expression. There are four possible levels where the primary dysfunction may act; (a physiopathologic neuronal level; (b cerebral subsystemic level; (c psychodynamic level; (d psychosocial level. The primary dysfunction, acting as a new stimulus on each of these levels, may determine in the personality pathologic responses that may assume very complex clinical situations. Many of these responses are quite different from the precipitating primary dysfunction, although there are still many evident links among them.

  2. Core level shifts of intercalated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Ulrike A.; Petrović, Marin; Gerber, Timm; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Grånäs, Elin; Arman, Mohammad A.; Herbig, Charlotte; Schnadt, Joachim; Kralj, Marko; Knudsen, Jan; Michely, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Through intercalation of metals and gases the Dirac cone of graphene on Ir(111) can be shifted with respect to the Fermi level without becoming destroyed by strong hybridization. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the C 1s core level shift (CLS) of graphene in contact with a number of structurally well-defined intercalation layers (O, H, Eu, and Cs). By analysis of our own and additional literature data for decoupled graphene, the C 1s CLS is found to be a non-monotonic function of the doping level. For small doping levels the shifts are well described by a rigid band model. However, at larger doping levels, a second effect comes into play which is proportional to the transferred charge and counteracts the rigid band shift. Moreover, not only the position, but also the C 1s peak shape displays a unique evolution as a function of doping level. Our conclusions are supported by intercalation experiments with Li, with which, due to the absence of phase separation, the doping level of graphene can be continuously tuned.

  3. Hölder Scales of Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of sea level is essential in the field of geosciences, ranging from ocean dynamics to climates. The fractal properties of sea level, such as long-range dependence (LRD or long memory, 1/f noise behavior, and self-similarity (SS, are known. However, the description of its multiscale behavior as well as local roughness with the Hölder exponent h(t from a view of multifractional Brownian motion (mBm is rarely reported, to the best of our knowledge. In this research, we will exhibit that there is the multiscale property of sea level based on h(ts of sea level data recorded by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC at six stations in the Florida and Eastern Gulf of Mexico. The contributions of this paper are twofold as follows. (i Hölder exponent of sea level may not change with time considerably at small time scale, for example, daily time scale, but it varies significantly at large time scale, such as at monthly time scale. (ii The dispersion of the Hölder exponents of sea level may be different at different stations. This implies that the Hölder roughness of sea level may be spatial dependent.

  4. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Noise levels of amusement ride operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Thies, Liza E; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2017-04-01

    One of the leading causes of noise-induced hearing loss is occupational noise exposure; however, little attention has been given to the exposure among amusement ride operators. According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, 600,000 ride operators are employed in the U.S. The first objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate if ride operators were exposed to noise levels over 85 dB. The second objective was to classify the ride features that led to the highest noise levels. 136 rides were measured at 17 total amusement parks, county fairs, and festivals in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois during summer 2015. A sound level meter recorded noise measurements as close in proximity to the ride operator as possible. Each ride was measured for two or three complete ride cycles, which included loading and operating the ride. The sound level meter was programmed to measure noise as recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and with no threshold. 18% of rides measured had projected noise levels greater than American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendation of 85 dB. A repeated measures model was used to analyze the complete ride cycle decibel levels. The model found that traveling carnival rides had significantly higher levels compared to the stationary amusement park rides (p levels than those without midway music (p amusement ride operators would be at risk for noise induced hearing loss and would require a hearing conservation program if the 8-hr time weighted averages were to follow the same trends as the complete ride cycle levels.

  6. Blood creatinine level in postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Funaki, Hironao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Akasaka, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Blood chemical analysis for the diagnosis of diseases in forensic cases should be conducted in the same way as for clinical cases. However, it is sometimes difficult to obtain serum samples in forensic cases because of postmortem changes such as hemolysis and putrefaction. This study aimed to evaluate renal function in postmortem cases by blood creatinine analysis. The blood creatinine level was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using whole blood samples taken from 77 postmortem cases, and the relationships between blood creatinine level, postmortem interval, and cause of death were examined. The median blood creatinine level was found to be 1.15 mg/dL, with no significant differences between blood samples taken from different parts of the body. The blood creatinine level was stable for 3 days after death and gradually increased after that period, in line with a previous study using enzymatic analysis that found the serum creatinine level was stable in the early postmortem period. The blood creatinine level was high in the cases of blunt injury, intoxication, and in deaths caused by fire. This was considered to reflect acute renal dysfunction. However, the postmortem blood creatinine level remained higher than the clinical normal value despite omitting cases with renal dysfunction from the analysis. Therefore, we next investigated the change in postmortem creatinine levels in mice and found that the blood creatinine level increased with the emergence of rigor mortis. Our findings indicate that HPLC is useful in the postmortem evaluation of renal function even in the cases where serum cannot be obtained. However, the presence of rigor mortis should be considered in the evaluation of blood creatinine values.

  7. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  8. Lamb shift of Unruh detector levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-06-07

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  9. Klinefelter syndrome with low gonadotropin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Kripa Elizabeth; Jebasingh, Felix K; Kapoor, Nitin; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2015-12-29

    Klinefelter syndrome is usually characterised by the presence of a eunuchoid body habitus and testes that are usually small and firm, with low testosterone, and elevated luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, consistent with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Low levels of gonadotropins in karyotypically proven cases are not expected, they are extremely rare occurrences. We report a case of a patient who was diagnosed to have Klinefelter syndrome (47 XXY) with low gonadotropin levels. The rest of his anterior pituitary hormonal profile was normal with no lesions in the pituitary gland on imaging. He was continued on androgen replacement therapy.

  10. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  11. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  12. Application of Adaptive Fuzzy PID Leveling Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the levelling precision, speed and stability of suspended access platform, this paper put forward a new adaptive fuzzy PID control levelling algorithm by fuzzy theory. The method is aided design by using the SIMULINK toolbox of MATLAB, and setting the membership function and the fuzzy-PID control rule. The levelling algorithm can real-time adjust the three parameters of PID according to the fuzzy rules due to the current state. It is experimented, which is verified the algorithm have better stability and dynamic performance.

  13. Lamb Shift of Unruh Detector Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, B; Garbrecht, Bjorn; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2006-01-01

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in Quantum Electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding Universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  14. Pituitary and placental hormone levels in pseudocyesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osotimehin, B O; Ladipo, O A; Adejuwon, C A; Otolorin, E O

    1981-10-01

    Twelve patients with clinical features of pseudocyesis were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of galactorrhea. The mean serum prolactin level of patients with galactorrhea was significantly higher than the normal values of the patients without galactorrhea. The mean serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were markedly elevated in patients without galactorrhea. This was especially true of luteinizing hormone. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin were undetectable in all patients. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  15. Performance evaluation of laser guided leveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hoque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI farm on clay loam soil during Rabi season of 2010-2011. The treatments consisted of laser land leveling (T1 and control (non-leveled (T2. A preliminary field survey was done using staff gage. Initially a base station was established to dispense laser ray uniformly. The laser ray erected from base station guided the sensor of the stuff gage and the leveler. Elevation data was collected from the different points of the field and made an average. The maximum gage reading were 247.0 cm and the minimum gage reading was 219.2 cm. Average gage readings of the laser leveled plot was 235.66 cm that was settled for auto adjustment. Therefore, huge amount of soils (16.46 cm high was cut from the highest point and subsequently had to fill to the low points. Finally, an equal gage reading of 235.66 cm was observed after leveling the plot. The laser leveler (Leica MLS700 was used hitching with a TAFE tractor. The field was leveled with manual control initially and finally it was operated with auto adjustment. Two operators, 25 litter diesels and total 6 hours time were required during this leveling. Wheat was cultivated in leveled land (T1 and non-leveled land (T2. Laser leveling was insured for improvement in nutrient use efficiencies, option for precision farming, reduces weed problems, and improves uniformity of crop maturity. There was better distribution of water in leveled plot, which helped to reduce irrigation application time 1 hour. Due to uniformity of moisture content improved germination and crop establishment was found which reflected in higher plant population (239 m-2. Maximum yield (3.41 t ha-1 was obtained in T1 due to longer panicle (10.89 cm, more grain per plant (27.47 and 1000 grain weight (47.38 g compared to yield of T2 (2.62 t ha-1.

  16. Stochasticity in cell biology: Modeling across levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Juan Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Effective modeling of biological processes requires focusing on a particular level of description, and this requires summarizing de details of lower levels into effective variables and properly accounting for the constrains that other levels impose. In the context of stochasticity in gene expression, I will show how the details of the stochastic process can be characterized by a few effective parameters, which facilitates modeling but complicates interpretation of current experiments. I will show how the resulting noise can provide advantageous or deleterious phenotypic fluctuation and how noise control in the copy number control system of plasmids can change the selective pressures. This system illustrates the direct connection between molecular dynamics and evolutionary dynamics.

  17. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  18. Neutrino masses beyond the tree level

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2011-01-01

    Models for Majorana neutrino masses can be classified according to the level in perturbation theory at which the effective dimension five operator $LLHH$ is realized. The possibilities range from the tree-level up to the three-loop level realizations. We discuss some general aspects of this approach and speculate about a model independent classification of the possible cases. Among all the realizations, those in which the effective operator is induced by radiative corrections open the possibility for lepton number violation near -or at- the electroweak scale. We discuss some phenomenological aspects of two generic radiative realizations: the Babu-Zee model and supersymmetric models with bilinear R-parity violation.

  19. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  20. Accounting Conservatism:A Study of Market-Level and Firm-Level Explanatory Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Xu; Changjiang Lu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors affecting the conservatism of accounting reports at the market-level and firm-level. At the market-level, law and institutional factors explain conservatism, while at the firm-level contracting is the driver. We predict and observe that while both levels jointly affect conservatism, it is firm-level factors that play a dominant role. The conclusion suggests that it is more effective to improve the quality of accounting reports by motivating the firm’s own demand rather than through listing in a developed capital market.

  1. Legacy HMSRP NWHI Sea Level Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Island elevation data use in publication by Baker JD, Littnan CL, Johnston DW. "2006. Potential effects of sea level rise on the terrestrial habitats of endangered...

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  3. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6,6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of h sub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  4. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  5. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  6. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    in empirical industrial organization often rely on the availability of very detailed market-level data with information on prices, quantities sold, characteristics of products and more recently supplemented with consumer-level attributes. Often, both researchers and government agencies cannot rely...... on such detailed data, but still need an assessment of whether changes in the operating environment of firms had an impact on markups and therefore on consumer surplus. In this paper, we derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using standard production plant-level data based on the insight of Hall (1986...... and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...

  7. Level sets of multiple ergodic averages

    CERN Document Server

    Ai-Hua, Fan; Ma, Ji-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We propose to study multiple ergodic averages from multifractal analysis point of view. In some special cases in the symbolic dynamics, Hausdorff dimensions of the level sets of multiple ergodic average limit are determined by using Riesz products.

  8. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  9. Diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) for ... and dose length product (DLP) data from uncontrasted paediatric head CT scans ... LDRL values were compared with several national DRLs from Europe and Australia.

  10. Reproductive impacts of elevated selenium levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1. Evaluate selenium levels in Neotropical migrants and riparian obligate birds on Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. 2....

  11. Middle Level Science in a Multicultural Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Sommerville, Lenola

    1994-01-01

    Describes the multifaceted challenge of future and present teachers in a multicultural classroom. Equipped with specific strategies and activities, the author suggests that teachers can become more effective science educators. Provides numerous tips for the middle level science teacher. (ZWH)

  12. A Lagrangian particle level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2005-11-01

    We present a novel particle level set method for capturing interfaces. The level set equation is solved in a Lagrangian frame using particles that carry the level set information. A key aspect of the method involves a consistent remeshing procedure for the regularization of the particle locations when the particle map gets distorted by the advection field. The Lagrangian description of the level set method is inherently adaptive and exact in the case of solid body motions. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in several benchmark problems in two and three dimensions involving pure advection and curvature induced motion of the interface. The simplicity of the particle description is shown to be well suited for real time simulations of surfaces involving cutting and reconnection as in virtual surgery environments.

  13. Reporting low-level analytical data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer

    negative, or zero, as the best estimate of the measured characteristic, usually concentration. ... This manner of reporting data near the limits of measurement can be independent ... Some common practices for reporting low-level results include:.

  14. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, ... the influence of dehydration on the blood glucose level of anurans. .... J. Cell. Compo Physiol. 44: 233 - 246. VAWDA, A. 1978. The loss of sodium across the skin of the.

  15. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  16. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  17. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower and maximum (upper level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, fabrication and mounting at a lower cost. Its testing had shown and proved that it works efficiently with Archimedes’ principle of floatation. This eliminates the frequent human intervention/monitoring of the water level in the overhead tank to control overflow manually, thereby eliminating water and energy wastages.

  18. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used ...

  19. Climate Prediction Center Darwin Sea Level Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Darwin sea level pressures and anomalies during 1951-present. The anomalies are departures...

  20. Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellse, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

  1. Trends in adsorbate induced core level shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Viktor; Van den Bossche, Maxime; Hellman, Anders; Grönbeck, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Photoelectron core level spectroscopy is commonly used to monitor atomic and molecular adsorption on metal surfaces. As changes in the electron binding energies are convoluted measures with different origins, calculations are often used to facilitate the decoding of experimental signatures. The interpretation could in this sense benefit from knowledge on trends in surface core level shifts for different metals and adsorbates. Here, density functional theory calculations have been used to systematically evaluate core level shifts for (111) and (100) surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals upon CO, H, O and S adsorption. The results reveal trends and several non-intuitive cases. Moreover, the difficulties correlating core level shifts with charging and d-band shifts are underlined.

  2. Getting started with LevelDB

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The book is a concise guide for using LevelDB. It explains database concepts and the use of C++, ranging from the basics all the way to high level topics in an easy to follow, step-by-step format.The book is meant for developers who want an embedded database for their applications. Experienced programmers can pick up on the sophisticated data mapping patterns and tuning tips.Getting Started with LevelDB requires a minimal background in programming in C++ or Objective-C for OS/X or iOS and familiarity with XCode. Therefore it teaches enough C++ to use LevelDB without presuming any C++ knowledge

  3. Nuclear level density: Shell-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen'kov, Roman; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions, including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of a Fermi gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally used parameters are also compared with standard phenomenological approaches.

  4. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  5. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  6. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-09-01

    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately.

  7. Hyperestrogenemia and increased blood mercury level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2012-01-01

    Hyperestrogenemia is an important reproductive hormone abnormality. This condition is not common in male patients. In this report, the author presents a case study on hyperestrogenemia with increased blood mercury level. The metalloestrogen phenomenon is discussed.

  8. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  9. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve drinking water samples from boreholes were collected from various sampling sites around the vicinity of Kura irrigated farmlands ... all the sampling sites had phosphate level above the World Health Organization maximum contaminant ...

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections.

  12. Auxin level and regeneration of Begonia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, O M

    1968-06-01

    As previously found, both the level of ether-extractable auxin (presumably indole-3-acetic acid) and the root-forming ability of B.xcheimantha leaves are increased under long-day conditions by high temperature, whereas the capacity for adventitious bud formation is reduced. However, this relation is present under relatively high light intensity only. Under the low light intensities in late fall neither auxin level nor regeneration ability were significantly affected by temperature.Dark treatment of detached leaves for 2 to 16 days greatly counteracted the inhibitory effect of high temperature on bud formation and reduced both the auxin level and the root-forming ability of the leaves.The great seasonal changes in the regeneration ability of Begonia leaves seem to be the result of a complex interaction of temperature, day-length, and daily light energy on the level of endogenous auxin and other growth regulators.

  13. On Optimum Safety Levels of Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    to resist geotechnical slip failures. Optimum safety levels formulated for use both in deterministic and probabilistic design procedures are given. Results obtained so far indicate that the optimum safety levels for caisson breakwaters are much higher than for rubble mound breakwaters.......The paper presents results from numerical simulations performed with the objective of identifying optimum design safety levels of conventional rubble mound and caisson breakwaters, corresponding to the lowest costs over the service life of the structures. The work is related to the PIANC Working...... Group 47 on "Selection of type of breakwater structures". The paper summaries results given in Burcharth and Sorensen (2005) related to outer rubble mound breakwaters but focus on optimum safety levels for outer caisson breakwaters on low and high rubble foundations placed on sea beds strong enough...

  14. Calcium levels during the initiation of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Lampros; Chasiotis, Georgios; Seferiadis, Konstantinos; Thanasoulias, Nikos C; Dousias, Vasilis; Tsanadis, Georgios; Stefos, Theodor

    2004-07-15

    To investigate the physiological role of calcium in the labor process. Eighty-eight term healthy pregnant women who gave birth to normal healthy neonates participated in our study. We compared calcium levels between pregnant women who had normal delivery and those who underwent scheduled cesarean section. The control group consisted of pregnant women with gestation > or =37 weeks without contractions. The groups were compared with respect to calcium levels: (a) in maternal blood serum; (b) in blood serum of the neonates and mothers; and (c) in blood serum between neonates. Significantly higher calcium levels were found in the group of pregnant women who delivered vaginally compared to those who delivered by scheduled cesarean section and those of the control group. We assume that the increased calcium levels during the first stage of labor are involved with a possible role of calcium in the mechanism of initiation of labor.

  15. Radiation levels in ancient Egyptian mummies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, M.I.; Hussein, A.Z.; Barakat, M.F. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control; Nakhla, S.; Iskander, N. [Egyptian Antiquities Organization (Egypt)

    1994-07-01

    Radiation levels were studied in the mummies room and some galleries in the Egyptian museum as well as in the medical museum of the Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. ``gamma`` and {beta} radiation levels show almost background values in direct contrast to some mummies in the closed mummies room and inside the glass cases used for protection. Radon decay products in the room atmosphere and inside the glass cases enclosing some mummies show slightly higher levels than the background which were attributed to inefficient ventilation. After reasonable ventilation during the work these levels approached the normal values. High resolution {gamma}-ray spectroscopy measurements for the aerosol samples on the filters have shown background values. The results indicated that the mummies do not contain any radioactivity content or any radioactive sources as was previously suggested. (Author).

  16. Three-level cervical disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Iencean Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease is well known in the cervical spine pathology, with radicular syndromes or cervical myelopathy. One or two level cervical herniated disc is common in adult and multilevel cervical degenerative disc herniation is common in the elderly, with spinal stenosis, and have the same cause: the gradual degeneration of the disc. We report the case of a patient with two level cervical disc herniation (C4 – C5 and C5 – C6 treated by anterior cervical microdiscectomy both levels and fusion at C5 – C6; after five years the patient returned with left C7 radiculopathy and MRI provided the image of a left C6 – C7 disc herniation, he underwent an anterior microsurgical discectomy with rapid relief of symptoms. Three-level cervical herniated disc are rare in adults, and the anterior microdiscectomy with or without fusion solve this pathology.

  17. Conceptual and logical level of database modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.

  18. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Ragnvi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12% and one control dog (11% had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The

  19. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Fransson, Boel A; Bergström, Annika; Häggström, Jens

    2007-02-28

    Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-alpha) parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Seven dogs with pyometra (12%) and one control dog (11%) had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3-0.9 microg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 microg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection) the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 microg l-1 preoperatively to 180 microg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 microg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The proportions of dogs with cTnI increase did

  20. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Fransson, Boel A; Bergström, Annika; Häggström, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α) parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12%) and one control dog (11%) had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection) the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The proportions of dogs

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency with degenerate atomic levels

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetov, V A

    2013-01-01

    For the coherently driven \\Lambda-type three-level systems the general ready-to-calculate expression for the susceptibility tensor at the frequency of the weak probe field is obtained for the arbitrary polarization of the strong coupling laser field and arbitrary values of the angular momenta of resonant atomic levels. The dependence of the relative difference in the group velocities of the two polarization components of the probe field on the polarization of the coupling field is studied.

  2. SUPERSATURATED DESIGN WITH MORE THAN TWO LEVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supersaturated designs are useful in screening experiments. This paper discusses the topic of multi-level supersaturated design. Two quantities, E(d2) and Df, are proposed to evaluate the optimality of supersaturated designs. A lower bound of E(d2) is obtained with a necessary condition for achieving it. Some E(d2)-optimal supersaturated designs of 3, 4, and 5 levels are given.

  3. Metaheuristics for bi-level optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a complete background on metaheuristics to solve complex bi-level optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale bi-level optimization problems by efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics and mathematical programming approaches. Numerous real-world examples of problems demonstrate how metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, engineering design, finance and security.

  4. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  5. Design of Controllers for Liquid Level Control

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin Simon,; Elizabeth Varghese

    2015-01-01

    The liquid level control system is commonly used in many process control applications. The aim of the process is to keep the liquid level in the tank at the desired value. The conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is simple, reliable and eliminates the error rate but it cannot handle complex problems. Fuzzy logic controllers are rule based systems which simulates human behavior of the process. The fuzzy controller is combined with the PID controller and th...

  6. Sea level rise and its coastal impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Cazenave, Anny; Le Cozannet, Gonéri

    2014-01-01

    Link to the paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013EF000188/abstract; International audience; Global warming in response to accumulation of human-induced greenhouse gases inside the atmosphere has already caused several visible consequences, among them increase of the Earth's mean temperature and ocean heat content, melting of glaciers, and loss of ice from the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Ocean warming and land ice melt in turn are causing sea level to rise. Sea level ...

  7. Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bindoff, N.L.; Willebrand, J.; Artale, V.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.; Gulev, S.; Hanawa, K.; LeQuere, C.; Levitus, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Shum, C.K.; Talley, L.D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    Rising? ............................................ 409 References ........................................................................ 422 Appendix 5.A: Techniques, Error Estimation and Measurement Systems ................. 429 387... driven by reduced rates of water renewal, in the thermocline (~100–1,000 m) in most ocean basins from the early 1970s to the late 1990s. • Global mean sea level has been rising. From 1961 to 2003, the average rate of sea level rise was 1.8 ± 0.5 mm...

  8. Serum ferritin levels in hemoglobin H disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Paglietti, E; Cornacchia, G; de Virgiliis, S; Cao, A

    1983-01-01

    This study shows that hemoglobin H disease patients aged between 0.5 and 44 years, usually (27 out of 30) have normal serum ferritin levels according to age. This reconfirms that in this disease there are usually normal iron stores. However, in a few patients (3 out of 30) increased levels were found. This may be due to inappropriate iron medication, transfusions or associated idiopathic hereditary hemocromatosis gene.

  9. Analog of landau Levels to Electric Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, L R; Nascimento, J R; Furtado, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss the analogy between the dynamics of a neutral particle with an electric dipole, in the presence of configuration of magnetic field, with Landau level quantization for charged particle. We analyze this quantization based on the He-Mckelar-Wilkens interaction developed of similar way that Ericsson and Sj\\"oqvist[Phys Rev. A {\\bf 65} 013607 (2001)] was analyzed the Landau-Aharonov-Casher effect. The energy level and eingenfuctions and eigenvalues are obtained.

  10. Realistic level density calculation for heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerf, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Pichon, B. [Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France); Rayet, M.; Arnould, M. [Institut d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    A microscopic calculation of the level density is performed, based on a combinatorial evaluation using a realistic single-particle level scheme. This calculation relies on a fast Monte Carlo algorithm, allowing to consider heavy nuclei (i.e., large shell model spaces) which could not be treated previously in combinatorial approaches. An exhaustive comparison of the predicted neutron s-wave resonance spacings with experimental data for a wide range of nuclei is presented.

  11. A Primer on Architectural Level Fault Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental concepts of fault tolerant computing. Key topics covered are voting, fault detection, clock synchronization, Byzantine Agreement, diagnosis, and reliability analysis. Low level mechanisms such as Hamming codes or low level communications protocols are not covered. The paper is tutorial in nature and does not cover any topic in detail. The focus is on rationale and approach rather than detailed exposition.

  12. Levelized Product Cost: Concept and Decision Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Rohlfing-Bastian, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a life-cycle cost concept that applies to both manufacturing and service industries in which upfront capacity investments are essential. Borrowing from the energy literature, we refer to this cost measure as the levelized product cost (LC). Per unit of output, the levelized cost aggregates a share of the initial capacity expenditure with periodic fixed and variable operating costs. The resulting cost figure exceeds the full cost of a product, as commonly calculated in mana...

  13. Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon E; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32 μg/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32 μg/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding variables, smoking was associated with 21% (95% CI: 15-28%) increased risk for an elevated blood Cd level. High Cd levels were also observed in non-smokers and motivated smoking status-stratified models. Race, age, education, relationship status, insurance status and cotinine level were not associated with risk of elevated Cd levels among smokers; however, older age and higher cotinine levels were associated with elevated Cd levels among non-smokers. Taken together, more than half of pregnant women in this cohort had elevated blood Cd levels. Additionally, among non-smokers, 53% of the women had elevated levels of Cd, highlighting other potential sources of exposure. This study expands on the limited data describing Cd levels in pregnant populations and highlights the importance of understanding Cd exposures among non-smokers. Given the latent health risks of both smoking and Cd exposure, this study further highlights the need to biomonitor for exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy among all women of child-bearing age.

  14. The ATLAS Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project

    CERN Document Server

    Wickens, F J

    2000-01-01

    The Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project of ATLAS, one of the two general purpose LHC experiments, is part of the on-going programme to develop the ATLAS High Level Triggers (HLT). The Level-2 Trigger will receive events at up to 100 kHz, which has to be reduced to a rate suitable for full event-building of the order of 1 kHz. To reduce the data collection bandwidth and processing power required for the challenging Level-2 task it is planned to use Region of Interest guidance (from Level-1) and sequential processing. The Pilot Project included the construction and use of testbeds of up to 48 processing nodes, development of optimised components and computer simulations of a full system. It has shown how the required performance can be achieved, using largely commodity components and operating systems, and validated an architecture for the Level-2 system. This paper describes the principal achievements and conclusions of this project. (28 refs).

  15. Melatonin level and sleep disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Inigo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available and time of sleep. Decreased melatonin levels have been noted in people with sleep disorders. Melatonin is a neurohormone, produced mainly by the pineal gland, as well as a small part of the retina. Its function is to maintain normal circadian rhythms and it is related to sleep regulation in humans.Objective To assess for a relationship between melatonin levels and sleep disorders in adolescents.Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on students of two secondary schools in Tuminting, Manado, North Sulawesi, from May to June 2013. Subjects were obtained by consecutive sampling for a total of 44 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Subjects filled questionnaires, underwent wrist actigraphy, and provided blood specimens for examination of melatonin levels. We used descriptive and logistic regression analyses to assess for relationships between variables.Results Thirty (68.2% subjects experienced sleep disorders. There was a significant association between decreased melatonin levels and the higher incidence of sleep disturbances (P = 0.02.Conclusion There is a correlation between melatonin levels in adolescents with sleep disorders. Decreased melatonin levels are associated with sleep disorders.

  16. New trends in Brunner's relation: dielectric levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouiller, Yorick; Didiergeorges, Anne; Fanget, Gilles L.; Laviron, Cyrille; Comboure, Corinne; Quere, Yves

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand the optical phenomena at dielectric levels. The purpose is also to quantify the impact of dielectric and resist thickness variations on the CD range with and without Bottom Anti Reflective COating (BARC). First we will show how all dielectric levels can be reduced to the stack metal/oxide/BARC/resist, and what are the contributions to resists and dielectric thickness range for each levels. Then a simple model will be developed to understand CD variation in this tack: by extending the Perot/Fabry model to the dielectric levels, developed by Brunner for the gate level, we can obtain a simple relation between the CD variation and all parameters. Experimentally CD variation for Damascene line level on 0.18micrometers technology has been measured depending on oxide thickness and resist thickness and can confirm this model. UV5 resist, AR2 BARC from Shipley and Top ARC from JSR have been used for these experiments. The main conclusions are: (1) Depending on your dielectric deposition and CMP processes, if resist thickness is controlled, a standard BARC process used for the gate is adapted to remove oxide thickness variation influence providing the optimized resist thickness is used. (2) If both resist thickness and dielectric thickness are uncontrolled, a more absorbent BARC is required.

  17. A Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a recently developed wireless measurement acquisition system to fluid-level measurement. This type of fluid-level measurement system alleviates many shortcomings of fluid-level measurement methods currently being used, including limited applicability of any one fluid-level sensor design. Measurement acquisition shortcomings include the necessity for power to be supplied to each sensor and for the measurement to be extracted from each sensor via a physical connection to the sensor. Another shortcoming is existing measurement systems require that a data channel and signal conditioning electronics be dedicated to each sensor. Use of wires results in other shortcomings such as logistics needed to add or replace sensors, weight, potential for electrical arcing and wire degradations. The fluid level sensor design is a simple passive inductor-capacitor circuit that is not subject to mechanical failure that is possible when float and lever-arm systems are used. Methods are presented for using the sensor in caustic, acidic or cryogenic fluids. Oscillating magnetic fields are used to power the sensor. Once electrically excited, the sensor produces a magnetic field response. The response frequency corresponds to the amount to fluid within the capacitor s electric field. The sensor design can be modified for measuring the level of any fluid or fluent substance that can be stored in a non-conductive reservoir. The interrogation method for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency is also presented.

  18. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  19. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  20. Marr's levels and the minimalist program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2017-02-01

    A simple change to a cognitive system at Marr's computational level may entail complex changes at the other levels of description of the system. The implementational level complexity of a change, rather than its computational level complexity, may be more closely related to the plausibility of a discrete evolutionary event causing that change. Thus the formal complexity of a change at the computational level may not be a good guide to the plausibility of an evolutionary event introducing that change. For example, while the Minimalist Program's Merge is a simple formal operation (Berwick & Chomsky, 2016), the computational mechanisms required to implement the language it generates (e.g., to parse the language) may be considerably more complex. This has implications for the theory of grammar: theories of grammar which involve several kinds of syntactic operations may be no less evolutionarily plausible than a theory of grammar that involves only one. A deeper understanding of human language at the algorithmic and implementational levels could strengthen Minimalist Program's account of the evolution of language.

  1. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  2. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  3. Speech level shift in Japanese and Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina BAJRAMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, we always aim to establish and maintain harmonious relations with others. Proper use of expressions and the choice of the way we speak are closely connected with politeness. In Japanese speech level is a level of formality or politeness in conversation, which is expressed by the use of linguistic forms (formal vs. informal within and at the end of an utterance and the use of honorific expressions. In Slovene the level of formality or politeness in conversation is mainly expressed by the use of formal language and general colloquial language. Speech level shift is a shift from one speech level to another – e.g. from a formal style to an informal, etc. According to previous research, these shifts express speaker's psychological distance and a change of attitude towards a hearer. In this paper I will first briefly present the theoretical framework of politeness and an outline of speech levels in Japanese and Slovene. I will then present the data and the method used in this study. Finally, I will present and discuss the results of the analysis of both Japanese and Slovene conversation.

  4. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  5. Development of the Bulgarian Sea Level Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas

    2013-04-01

    Systematic sea level measurements have been started in Bulgaria in the beginning of 20th century and nowadays there are 16 coastal sea level stations in operation. Operators of sea level stations are: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH) - 6 stations, Cadastre Agency, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works (CA) - 4 stations, Port Infrastructure (PI) - 5 stations and Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS) - 1 station. Six of them are able to provide real time data. The sea level observations in the network of NIMH, performed at six main Bulgarian ports using standard poles, started in 1910. The program, implemented on the NIMH stations, includes daily measurements of the sea level with water gauges (poles). The position of a zero mark of the water gauge is checked once per year. The sea level network of the CA consists of 4 stations: Varna and Burgas (operational since 1928), Irakly and Ahtopol (since 1971). These stations are equipped with stilling-well tide gauges and with mechanical writing devices which draws sea level changes on paper. A mechanical paper writing instruments were installed in Varna and Burgas during 1928 and in 1971, a new paper writing instruments of type SUM (Russian) were installed in the stations of Irakly and Ahtopol. A set of five sea level stations in the ports of Balchik, Varna west, Pomorie, Burgas and Oil port Burgas was build during 2009 in the frame of Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS), equipped with high accuracy microwave instruments and operated by PI. In 2010 a new sea level station was set up in the IO-BAS coastal research base Shkorpolovtci. The station is equipped with high accuracy microwave instrument. These six stations are providing real time data. According to the decision of the Council of Ministers in 2012 sea level stations in Varna, Irakly, Burgas and Ahtopol will be operated jointly by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and

  6. Patient Outcomes at Urban and Suburban Level I Versus Level II Trauma Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Amy H; Bosson, Nichole; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Dawes, Aaron J; Putnam, Brant; Shepherd, Tchaka; Lewis, Roger J

    2017-08-01

    Regionalized systems of trauma care and level verification are promulgated by the American College of Surgeons. Whether patient outcomes differ between the 2 highest verifications, Levels I and II, is unknown. In contrast to Level II centers, Level I centers are required to care for a minimum number of severely injured patients, have immediate availability of subspecialty services and equipment, and demonstrate research, substance abuse screening, and injury prevention. We compare risk-adjusted mortality outcomes at Levels I and II centers. This was an analysis of data from the 2012 to 2014 Los Angeles County Trauma and Emergency Medical Information System. The system includes 14 trauma centers: 5 Level I and 9 Level II centers. Patients meeting criteria for transport to a trauma center are routed to the closest center, regardless of verification level. All adult patients (≥15 years) treated at any of the trauma centers were included. Outcomes of patients treated at Level I versus Level II centers were compared with 2 validated risk-adjusted models: Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and the Haider model. Adult subjects (33,890) were treated at a Level I center; 29,724, at a Level II center. We found lower overall mortality at Level II centers compared with Level I, using TRISS (odds ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.78) and Haider (odds ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.97). In this cohort of patients treated at urban and suburban trauma centers, treatment at a Level II trauma center was associated with overall risk-adjusted reduced mortality relative to that at a Level I center. In the subset of penetrating trauma, no differences in mortality were found. Further study is warranted to determine optimal trauma system configuration and allocation of resources. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. GGDC Productivity Level Database: International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    OpenAIRE

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and follows it in terms of country and industry coverage, variable definition and basic data (O?Mahony and Timmer, 2008). As such, the level and growth accounts can be used together in comparative analyse...

  8. Comparison between 9-level hybrid asymmetric and conventional multi-level inverters for medium voltage application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid asymmetric 2-cell 9-level inverter is analysed and compared with two conventional multilevel inverters: the 9-level cascaded H-bridge and the 3-level diode clamped inverter, when used to drive an induction motor of 4.16kV/500kVA. In this analysis, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), First...

  9. GGDC Productivity Level Database : International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and fol

  10. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  11. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  12. Levels of Involvement: The Power of Choice in a Middle School Level System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Laura K.

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a level system for a self-contained middle school program serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This level system is a real alternative to traditional control and coercion models. The Turning Point Middle School's level system incorporates aspects of the Circle of Courage, Choice Theory,…

  13. The Association between County-Level IQ and County-Level Crime Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    An impressive body of research has revealed that individual-level IQ scores are negatively associated with criminal and delinquent involvement. Recently, this line of research has been extended to show that state-level IQ scores are associated with state-level crime rates. The current study uses this literature as a springboard to examine the…

  14. Propagation & Level: Factors Influencing in the ICT Composite Index at the School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroyuki; Kim, JaMee; Lee, WonGyu

    2013-01-01

    Many nations are greatly affected by their education policies, and the educational level of different schools is relevant to a nation's ICT policy. In the area of ICT, Korea has achieved quite high levels of competency. This study analyzed the level of ICT competency of 4490 elementary and 2419 middle schools in Korea within the context of the…

  15. An Investigation of Relationships Among Question Level, Response Level and Lapse Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Studied relationships among questioning lapse time'' and the cognitive levels of teachers' questions and youngsters' responses, using Bloom's taxonomy and tape recordings in student teaching. Concluded that teachers' questions above the memory level could serve as a mechanism for promoting youngsters' learning at higher cognitive levels. (CC)

  16. Effect of Latitude on Vitamin D Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Patrick F; Zamfirova, Ina; Au, Johnathan; McCracken, Ward H

    2017-07-01

    Vitamin D levels have been linked to bone health and to numerous diseases; however, an element that lacks substantial direct data and limits the evidence basis regarding whom to screen for vitamin D deficiency is the effect of latitude on vitamin D levels. To determine whether latitude influences vitamin D levels and to investigate the influence of other factors that may affect vitamin D levels, including sex, race, skin type, and body mass index. Osteopathic medical students were recruited from campuses in Bradenton, Florida, and Erie, Pennsylvania. Surveys were administered to obtain demographic information, and blood samples were drawn to measure total vitamin D levels. Two-sample t tests, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression was used to assess differences in total vitamin D levels between the 2 locations. A total of 359 medical students (aged 22-57 years) were included in the study, 194 at the Bradenton campus and 214 at the Erie campus. The mean (SD) vitamin D level was 34.5 (11.8) ng/mL among participants in Bradenton and 28.1 (12.4) ng/mL among participants in Erie. Logistic regression models revealed an adjusted OR of 3.3 (95% CI, 1.73-6.4) for deficient total vitamin D among Erie students. Non-white race, male sex, and high body mass index were also statistically significant risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in regression models (P<.05). Latitude was found to be a statistically significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. Additionally, the findings suggest that persons with darker skin tone and, to a lesser degree, men and persons who are overweight or obese are also at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Physicians should be cognizant of these risk factors when deciding whom to screen.

  17. Fetuin-A levels in hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariş Onder Pamuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fetuin-A is a protein secreted from the liver that inhibits arterial calcification deposition and can contribute to insulin resistance. Hyperthyroidism is also associated with insulin resistance. It is not known whether hyperthyroidism has an effect on fetuin-A levels. METHODS: We measured fetuin-A levels and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance before hyperthyroidism treatment was initiated and after euthyroidism was achieved. A total of 42 patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were enrolled in this study. Fetuin-A, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, free T3 (fT3, free T4 (fT4, and thyrotropin were measured before and after euthyroidism was established. RESULTS: Basal fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin, c-peptide, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, fT3, fT4 and fetuin-A levels were significantly decreased after euthyroidism was achieved (Table 1. Basal fasting blood glucose (r:0.407, p:0.008, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r:0.523, p<0.0001, insulin (r:0.479, p:0.001, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r:0.541, p<0.0001, fT3 (r:0.492, p:0.001 and fT4 (r:0.473, p:0.002 were positively correlated with basal fetuin-A levels. Basal thyrotropin levels were significantly negatively correlated (r:-0.553, p<0.0001 with basal fetuin-A levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that hyperthyroidism influences fetuin-A levels.

  18. Umbilical cord blood mercury levels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqin Wu,; Chonghuai Yan; Jian Xu; Wei Wu; Hui Li; Xin Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant.Hg exposure at high levels can harm individuals of all ages.Even low level exposure to Hg can damage the brain of fetuses and young children,and affect their central nervous system and cognitive development.The aims of our study were to measure total Hg levels in infant umbilical cord blood and to investigate the risk factors associated with total Hg cord blood levels in various cities in China.Our goal was to provide clues for the prevention of Hg exposure in utero.The results indicated that the average cord blood mercury levels (CBMLs) were (1.81 ± 1.93) μg/L,which were lower than those found in most previous studies.The concentrations also differed according to geographic region.The CBMLs were not only associated with family economic and living conditions,but also with diet in pregnant women,especially the intake of marine fish,shellfish,poultry,formula milk and fruits.

  19. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  20. Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Soeken, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner.  The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...

  1. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  2. Robust level set method for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jia-rui; Li, Xiao-pei; Zhang, Hong-wei

    2005-12-01

    Level set method provides powerful numerical techniques for analyzing and solving interface evolution problems based on partial differential equations. It is particularly appropriate for image segmentation and other computer vision tasks. However, there exists noise in every image and the noise is the main obstacle to image segmentation. In level set method, the propagation fronts are apt to leak through the gaps at locations of missing or fuzzy boundaries that are caused by noise. The robust level set method proposed in this paper is based on the adaptive Gaussian filter. The fast marching method provides a fast implementation for level set method and the adaptive Gaussian filter can adapt itself to the local characteristics of an image by adjusting its variance. Thus, the different parts of an image can be smoothed in different way according to the degree of noisiness and the type of edges. Experiments results demonstrate that the adaptive Gaussian filter can greatly reduce the noise without distorting the image and made the level set methods more robust and accurate.

  3. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  4. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  5. Recent Arctic Sea Level Variations from Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Piccioni, Gaia

    2016-01-01

    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish...... Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher accuracy in sea level trend determination. The record shows a sea level trend of 2.2 ± 1.1 mm....../y for the region between 66°N and 82°N. In particular, a local increase of 15 mm/y is found in correspondence to the Beaufort Gyre. An early estimate of the mean sea level trend budget closure in the Arctic for the period 2005–2015 was derived by using the Equivalent Water Heights obtained from GRACE Tellus...

  6. Chaos and structure of level densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aberg, Sven [LUND SWEDEN; Uhrenholt, Henrik [LUND SWEDEN; Ickhikawa, Takatoshi [RIKEN

    2008-01-01

    The energy region of the first few MeV above the ground state shows interesting features of the nucleus. Beyond an ordered energy region just above the ground-state the dynamics changes, and chaotic features are observed in the neutron resonance region. The statistical properties of energies and wave-functions are common to all chaotic nuclei. However, if instead a global property, like the local level-density function is studied, strong structure effects emerge. In this contribution we discuss these two different facets of warm nuclei. In section 2 the onset of chaos with increasing excitation energy is discussed, with both experimental observations and proposed theoretical mechanisms as starting points. The structure of level densities in the same excitation energy region based on the two different starting points, is treated in section 3, where we give a short presentation of a newly developed combinatorial level-density modell. Some results from the model are presented and discussed. Two coexisting facets of warm nuclei, quantum chaos and structure of the level density, are considered. A newly developed combinatorial level-density model is presented, and the role of collective enhancements discussed. An example of extreme parity enhancement is shown.

  7. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  8. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  9. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  10. Ghrelin levels in chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Gülin; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Koçak, Havva; Orhan, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has modulatory effects on the immune system. This study was designed to evaluate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and to investigate if a relationship exists between ghrelin and periodontal parameters, serum cytokines, and bone turnover markers. Thirty-five chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and periodontal healthy individuals (C) were included in this study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to determine the levels of total and acylated ghrelin, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the soluble receptor activator nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OSC). Plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin were significantly elevated in the CP group compared with the C group (p periodontal parameters. Our results indicate an increase of total and acylated ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, studies in larger populations (which could include ghrelin levels in gingival tissue, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva) are needed in order to confirm the role of ghrelin in periodontal disease.

  11. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...

  12. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  13. Types of Multi-Level Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Marks

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The reallocation of authority upwards, downwards, and sideways from central states has drawn attention from a growing number of scholars in the social sciences. Yet beyond the bedrock agreement that governance has become (and should be multi-level, there is no convergence about how it should be organized. This paper draws on various literatures in distinguishing two types of multi-level governance. One type conceives of dispersion of authority to multi-task, territorially mutually exclusive jurisdictions in a relatively stable system with limited jurisdictional levels and a limited number of units. A second type of governance pictures specialized, territorially overlapping jurisdictions in a relatively flexible, non-tiered system with a large number of jurisdictions. We find that both types co-exist in different locations, and we explain some facets of this co-existence.

  14. Community-level consequences of cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Oystein; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2012-12-01

    Ecological interactions determine the structure and dynamics of communities and their responses to the environment. Understanding the community-level effects of ecological interactions, such as intra- and interspecifc competition, predation, and cannibalism, is therefore central to ecological theory and ecosystem management. Here, we investigate the community-level consequences of cannibalism in populations with density-dependent maturation and reproduction. We model a stage-structured consumer population with an ontogenetic diet shift to analyze how cannibalism alters the conditions for the invasion and persistence of stage-specific predators and competitors. Our results demonstrate that cannibalistic interactions can facilitate coexistence with other species at both trophic levels. This effect of cannibalism critically depends on the food dependence of the demographic processes. The underlying mechanism is a cannibalism-induced shift in the biomass distribution between the consumer life stages. These findings suggest that cannibalism may alter the structure of ecological communities through its effects on species coexistence.

  15. Perspectives on Multi-Level Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Atay, Fatihcan M; Blanchard, Philippe; Cessac, Bruno; Olbrich, Eckehard; Volchenkov, Dima

    2016-01-01

    As Physics did in previous centuries, there is currently a common dream of extracting generic laws of nature in economics, sociology, neuroscience, by focalising the description of phenomena to a minimal set of variables and parameters, linked together by causal equations of evolution whose structure may reveal hidden principles. This requires a huge reduction of dimensionality (number of degrees of freedom) and a change in the level of description. Beyond the mere necessity of developing accurate techniques affording this reduction, there is the question of the correspondence between the initial system and the reduced one. In this paper, we offer a perspective towards a common framework for discussing and understanding multi-level systems exhibiting structures at various spatial and temporal levels. We propose a common foundation and illustrate it with examples from different fields. We also point out the difficulties in constructing such a general setting and its limitations.

  16. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  17. How does whisky lower serum urate level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukazawa, Miki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown that moderate whisky consumption increased renal excretion of urate into urine and decreased serum urate level, but the mechanism involved has not been established. Because renal reabsorption influences serum urate level, the effects of the whisky congeners on urate transporters, urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and voltage-driven urate transporter (URATv1) involved in reabsorptive transport of urate were examined. In transporter-expressing Xenopus oocytes, 12-year-old and 18-year-old whisky congeners inhibited urate uptake by URAT1 with IC50 values of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while urate uptake by URATv1 was inhibited only at 1 mg/mL. Decreased serum urate level after whisky consumption may be mainly due to inhibition of URAT1 by the congeners.

  18. Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

    This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

  19. Higher level string resonances in four dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wanzhe, E-mail: VicFengHunt@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-03-11

    We study higher level Regge resonances of open superstrings, focusing on the universal part of the Neveu-Schwarz sector common to all D-brane realizations of the standard model. For Regge states with masses far above the fundamental string scale, we discuss the spin-dependence of their decay rates into massless gauge bosons. Extending our previous work on lowest level string excitations, we study the second mass level at which spins range from 0 to 3. We construct the respective vertex operators and compute the amplitudes involving one massive particle and two or three gauge bosons. To illustrate the use of Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in superstring theory, we build the four-gluon amplitude from on-shell amplitudes involving string resonances and gauge bosons.

  20. Higher level string resonances in four dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wan-Zhe; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2012-03-01

    We study higher level Regge resonances of open superstrings, focusing on the universal part of the Neveu-Schwarz sector common to all D-brane realizations of the standard model. For Regge states with masses far above the fundamental string scale, we discuss the spin-dependence of their decay rates into massless gauge bosons. Extending our previous work on lowest level string excitations, we study the second mass level at which spins range from 0 to 3. We construct the respective vertex operators and compute the amplitudes involving one massive particle and two or three gauge bosons. To illustrate the use of Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in superstring theory, we build the four-gluon amplitude from on-shell amplitudes involving string resonances and gauge bosons.

  1. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  2. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kisner, Roger A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  3. What energy levels can the Earth sustain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Patrick [Department of Industrial Design, Monash University, P.O. Box 197, Caulfield East 3145, Vic. (Australia); Honnery, Damon [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, P.O. Box 31, 3800 Vic. (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Several official reports on future global primary energy production and use develop scenarios which suggest that the high energy growth rates of the 20th century will continue unabated until 2050 and even beyond. In this paper we examine whether any combination of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy sources can deliver such levels of primary energy - around 1000 EJ in 2050. We find that too much emphasis has been placed on whether or not reserves in the case of fossil and nuclear energy, or technical potential in the case of renewable energy, can support the levels of energy use forecast. In contrast, our analysis stresses the crucial importance of the interaction of technical potentials for annual production with environmental factors, social, political, and economic concerns and limited time frames for implementation, in heavily constraining the real energy options for the future. Together, these constraints suggest that future energy consumption will be significantly lower than the present level. (author)

  4. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify...... levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of these traits remains unexplained. Evidence of unexplained genetic variance can be detected by combining multiple independent markers into additive genetic risk scores. Such polygenic scores, constructed using results from...... suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture...

  5. Hepatitis viral load correlates to glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Several recent scientific articles have found a direct correlation between Glutathione levels and viral activity for hepatitis B and C. When viral load increases, Glutathione decreases. Researchers from Germany report that adding NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) to HBV producing cells lines can reduce hepatitis viral load 50 fold. Glutathione is used by the liver to help break down toxins. Patients who have chronic infection for more than 90 days should ask their physicians to check their Glutathione levels. A test kit is available from ImmunoSciences Labs; contact information is included. An amino acid, L-Glutamine, can be used with Alpha Lipoic Acid and NAC to increase Glutathione levels. Chlorophyll also offers benefits to people with hepatitis and other infections. Instructions on how to use a special retention enema containing chlorophyll, water, and apple cider vinegar are provided.

  6. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details. © 2013 SPIE....

  7. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinet, Frédéric; Casetti, Luana; François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude; Pillet, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Interest in prolactin levels in galactorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessioud, Moncef; Mamlouk, Lilia; Djait, Riadh; Ben Aïssa, Rim; Gueddana, Nésiha

    2004-02-01

    The action of prolactin (PRL) in supra-physiological levels on the ovaries or on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis for the release of gonadotropins leads to a reversible inhibition of the cyclic functioning of the pituitary gland and of the ovaries. The consequences are either the production of immature follicles marked by anovulatory or dysovulatory cycles, or the absence of follicle production marked by amenorrhea. Thus, prolactin plays a major role in the productive system by its lactotropic and antigonadotropic effects. Through this study we intend to try to determine the diagnostic value of the association of the cyclic dysfunctions with galactorrhea by measuring the prolactin levels in 2236 patients complaining of galactorrhea. Measurements of FSH and LH levels were also performed in 236 women among those consulting for infertility associated with galactorrhea. The results obtained showed that galactorrhea was associated with prolactenemia in only 17% of cases and of the ovaries was proportional to the prolactin in blood.

  9. MELEC: Meta-Level Evolutionary Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Calvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA’s are global search mechanisms that have been applied to many disciplines including music composition. Computer system MELEC composes music using evolutionary computation on two levels: the object and the meta. At the object-level, MELEC employs GAs to compose melodic motifs and iteratively refine them through evolving generations. At the meta-level, MELEC forms the overall musical structure by concatenating the generated motifs in an order that depends on the evolutionary process. In other words, the structure of the music is determined by a geneological traversal of the algorithm’s execution sequence. In this implementation, we introduce a new data structure that tracks the execution of the GA, the Genetic Algorithm Traversal Tree, and uses its traversal to define the musical structure. Moreover, we employ a Fibonacci-based fitness function to shape the melodic evolution.

  10. Interconnected Levels of Multi-Stage Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other......Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes...... different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...

  11. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  12. System level ESD co-design

    CERN Document Server

    Gossner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    An effective and cost efficient protection of electronic system against ESD stress pulses specified by IEC 61000-4-2 is paramount for any system design. This pioneering book presents the collective knowledge of system designers and system testing experts and state-of-the-art techniques for achieving efficient system-level ESD protection, with minimum impact on the system performance. All categories of system failures ranging from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ types are considered to review simulation and tool applications that can be used. The principal focus of System Level ESD Co-Design is defining and establishing the importance of co-design efforts from both IC supplier and system builder perspectives. ESD designers often face challenges in meeting customers' system-level ESD requirements and, therefore, a clear understanding of the techniques presented here will facilitate effective simulation approaches leading to better solutions without compromising system performance. With contributions from Robert Asht...

  13. PUBLIC EXPENDITURES POLITICS ON A NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA PĂUN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development level of a society is closely related to the development state of its individuals. Ensuring a high level of welfare for individuals is done through public politics. In this work, the definition of public politics is presented through the synthesis of several authors` points of view. Starting from these visions, we have presented at a national level the public politics of public expenditures and those of public debt respectively. In regard to public debt politics, we have presented the „Public debt management (Management of government public debt and the authorisation and supervision of local public debt” politic along with its aim and objectives. Towards the final part of the document we have emphasised the objectives of the strategy regarding government public debt management on medium term for 2012-2014 (Strategy.

  14. The Sea Level Fingerprints of Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Hay, C.; Kopp, R. E., III; Morrow, E.

    2014-12-01

    It may be difficult to persuade those living in northern Europe that the sea level changes that their coastal communities face depends less on the total melting of polar ice sheets and glaciers than on the individual contributions to this total. In particular, melting of a specific ice sheet or mountain glacier drives deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations to the Earth system that are manifest in a unique geometry, or fingerprint, of global sea level change. For example, melting from the Greenland Ice Sheet equivalent to 1 mm/yr of global mean sea level (GMSL) rise will lead to sea level rise of ~0 mm/yr in Dublin, ~0.2 mm/yr in Amsterdam, ~0.4 mm/yr in Boston and ~1.2 mm/yr in Cape Town. In contrast, if the same volume of ice melted from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, all of the above sites would experience a sea level rise in the range 1.1-1.2 mm/yr. These fingerprints of modern ice melting, together with ocean thermal expansion and dynamic effects, and the ongoing signal from glacial isostatic adjustment in response to the last ice age, combine to produce a sea level field with significant geographic variability. In this talk I will highlight an analysis of global tide gauge records that takes full advantage of this variability to estimate both GMSL and the sources of meltwater over the last century, and to project GMSL to the end of the current century.

  15. Vitamin D Level in Alopecia Areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Latif, Insha; Malik, Rauf; Hassan, Iffat; Sheikh, Gousia; Lone, Kouser Sideeq; Majeed, Sabiya; Sajad, Peerzada

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which 50 patients with clinically and trichoscopically diagnosed AA cases, and 35 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied in summer months. Blood samples were taken from both cases as well as controls and samples were immediately processed by centrifugation (4000 rpm) at room temperature. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed by chemiluminescence method. A deficiency in Vitamin D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations D levels of AA patients was 16.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml, whereas in control group, the mean level was 40.5 ± 5.7, the difference being statistically significant (P D level (P D level (P D were low in AA patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum Vitamin D and severity of AA. Thus, the study suggests the role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis of AA and hence a possible role of Vitamin D supplementation in treatment of same. Our study was limited by the lesser number of patients and lack of therapeutic trial of Vitamin D for these patients.

  16. Adropin Levels in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most commonly observed endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS are said to have increased classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity, in addition to non-classic risk factors such as an increase in C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine, and tumor necrosis factor-%u03B1. Adropin is a protein thought to play a role in maintaining energy homeostasis and insulin response. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between levels of adropin and insulin resistance in PCOS patients with insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes.Material and Method: Fifty-seven female patients (30 patients with PCOS and 27 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. All patient%u2019s body mass index and insulin resistance were calculated. The adropin levels were measured using commercial kits based on a competitive plasma EIA (enzyme immunoassay method. Results: The adropin levels in the patient group were 10.79 ng/L, while the value was 13.02 ng/L in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.04. There was a significant negative correlation between the adropin levels and the insulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, triglyseride (TG, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR levels (p=0.03, p=0.03, p=0.04, and p=0.02, respectively. Discussion: In our study, the adropin level which is associated with insulin resistance, was found to be decreased in patients with PCOS. We think that it would be valuable to conduct new studies for the evaluation of adropin related clinical conditions leading to insulin resistance in patients with PCOS.

  17. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  18. Homocysteine levels in vegetarians versus omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Kopcová, J; Béderová, A; Babinská, K

    2000-01-01

    Vitamin B(12), folate, and vitamin B(6) are the main determinants of homocysteinemia. The vegan diet provides no vitamin B(12), but also less strict forms of alternative nutrition may suffer from a deficit of this vitamin. The plasma homocysteine level was measured in alternative nutrition groups of adults (lacto- and lactoovovegetarians, n = 62; vegans, n = 32) and compared with the levels in a group consuming traditional diet (n = 59), omnivores). In the group of vegetarians the average homocysteine level is 13.18 vs. 10.19 micromol/l in omnivores; the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is 29 vs. 5% in omnivores. In the group of vegans the average homocysteine value is 15.79 micromol/l (53% of the individual values exceeded 15 micromol/l). Omnivores consume the recommended amount of methionine; however, in individuals consuming an alternative diet, the intake of methionine is deficient (assessed by food frequency questionnaire; lower content of methionine in plant proteins). Under conditions of lower methionine availability the remethylation pathway prevails; therefore, vitamin B(12) and folate were evaluated in relation to the homocysteine level. The serum vitamin B(12) levels are significantly lower in the alternative nutrition groups (214.8 pmol/l in vegetarians, 140.1 pmol/l in vegans vs. 344.7 pmol/l in omnivores); a deficit (vegetarians and in 78% of the vegans vs. 0% in omnivores. The serum folate levels were within the range of reference values in all groups; however, they were significantly lower in omnivores. The results show that the mild hyperhomocysteinemia in alternative nutrition is a consequence of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Ll. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: lluis.font@uab.cat; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bach, J. [Unitat de Geodinamica externa, Departament de Geologia, Edifici Cs, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active.

  20. Critical level statistics for weakly disordered graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidis, E; Kleftogiannis, I; Katsanos, D E; Evangelou, S N

    2014-04-16

    In two dimensions chaotic level statistics with the Wigner spacing distribution P(S) is expected for massless fermions in the Dirac region. The obtained P(S) for weakly disordered finite graphene samples with zigzag edges turns out, however, to be neither chaotic (Wigner) nor localized (Poisson). It is similar to the intermediate statistics at the critical point of the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The quantum transport of finite graphene for weak disorder, with critical level statistics can occur via edge states as in topological insulators, and for strong disorder, graphene behaves as an ordinary Anderson insulator with Poisson statistics.

  1. Level spacing distribution of pseudointegrable billiard

    CERN Document Server

    Shigehara, T; Cheon, T; Mizusaki, T; Cheon, Taksu

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the level spacing distribution P(S) of the rectangular billiard with a single point-like scatterer, which is known as pseudointegrable. It is shown that the observed P(S) is a new type, which is quite different from the previous conclusion. Even in the strong coupling limit, the Poisson-like behavior rather than Wigner-like is seen for S>1, although the level repulsion still remains in the small S region. The difference from the previous works is analyzed in detail.

  2. Tree Level Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardecchia, Marco, E-mail: marco.nardecchia@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    We propose a new scheme in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the MSSM sfermions by GUT gauge interactions at the tree level. The (positive) contribution of MSSM fields to Str(M{sup 2}) is automatically compensated by a (negative) contribution from heavy fields. Sfermion masses are flavour universal, thus solving the supersymmetric flavour problem. In the simplest SO(10) embedding, the ratio of different sfermion masses is predicted and differs from mSugra and other schemes, thus making this framework testable at the LHC. Gaugino masses are generated at the loop level but enhanced by model dependent factors.

  3. Extended tree-level gauge mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, M.; Nardecchia, M.; Romanino, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Tree-level gauge mediation (TGM) is a scenario of SUSY breaking in which the tree-level exchange of heavy (possibly GUT) vector fields generates flavor-universal sfermion masses. In this work we extend this framework to the case of E(6) that is the natural extension of the minimal case studied so...... if the gauge group does not contain SU(5). If SUSY breaking is mediated purely by the U(1) generator that commutes with SO(10) we obtain universal sfermion masses and thus can derive the CMSSM boundary conditions in a novel scenario....

  4. Technical safety requirements control level verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEWART, J.L.

    1999-05-21

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  5. Malondialdehyde Levels In Wilson′s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Sanjib

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper ion is a pro-oxidant metal and may be responsible for free radical mediated damage in Wilson′s disease (WD. Estimation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA, a standard test to detect oxidative damage, may support this pathogenesis. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the serum levels of MDA and correlate with clinical status in patients of WD. Patients and Methods: Forty five patients, from a large cohort of proven WD at various stages of treatment were evaluated. Their clinical parameters were noted and assessment of disability and handicap were done. The laboratory tests were carried out using standard methods. Results: The mean age of patients was 21.1+9.1 years (range: 6-50 years with M: F ratio of 1.6:1. The mean age at presentation was 14.4+6.9 years (range: 6-42 years and the mean duration of treatment was 14.4+6.9 years (range: 0-24 years. Their mean serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were 41.4+22.9 g/d1 (range: 4 -103 g/dl and 5.8+3.4 mg/dl (range: 2-18 mg/dl respectively. Thirty eight of them had neurological involvement, four had hepatic form, two had both hepatic and neurological involvement while one was presymptomatic sibling. Patients were assessed using CHU staging (mean: 1.5+0.6, modified schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (MSEADL scale (mean: 94.44+19.55 and Neurologic symptom Score (NSS (mean: 3.96+5.2. The mean serum MDA level was 0.65 + 0.34 moles/1 and only four (9.4% patients had increased levels of MDA (mean: 1.32 + 0.05 moles/1, compared to control (mean: 0.56 + 0.36 moles/1 but it was not statistically significant. No significant correlation was noted between MDA levels and NSS, CHU score, MSEADL score and serum copper level. Conclusion: Increased levels of MDA were detected in only 4 out of 45 patients but those with or without increased MDA levels were not different in their clinical status. These patients were on long term treatment, which might alter the oxidative state. Mechanisms

  6. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Isabel; Thurik, Roy

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from “never thought about starting a business” to “thinking about it”, “taking steps for starting up”, “having a young business”, “having an older business” and “no longer being an entrepreneur”. Data of the 2004 Entrepreneurship Flash Eurobarometer survey co...

  7. Solution notches, earthquakes, and sea level, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Mildor, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Shortly after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, we installed an array of five tide gauges to determine sea level and its variability in the region of uplifted corals on the coast SW of Leogane, Haiti, that had been uplift ≤30 cm during the earthquake. Each gauge consists of a pressure transducer bolted 50-80 cm below mean sea level, which samples the difference between atmospheric pressure and sea pressure every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted via the Iridium satellite and are publically available with a latency of 10 minutes to 2 hours. The measurements reveal a maximum tidal range of ≈50 cm with 2-4 week oscillations in mean sea level of several cm. Sea slope, revealed by differences between adjacent gauges, varies 2-5 cm per 10 km at periods of 2-5 weeks, which imposes a disappointing limit to the utility of the gauges in estimating post seismic vertical motions. A parallel study of the form and elevation of coastal notches and mushroom rocks (rocks notched on all sides, hence forming a mushroom shape), along the coast west of Petit Goave suggests that these notches may provide an uplift history of the region over the past several hundreds of years. Notch sections in two areas were contoured, digitized, and compared to mean sea level. The notches mimic the histogram of sea level, suggesting that they are formed by dissolution by acidic surface waters. Notches formed two distinct levels, one approximately 58 cm above mean sea level, and the other approximately 157 cm above mean sea level. Several landslide blocks fell into the sea during the 2010 earthquake, and we anticipate these are destined for conversion to future mushroom rocks. Surfaces have been prepared on these blocks to study the rate of notch formation in situ, and samples are being subjected to acid corrosion in laboratory conditions, with the hope that the depth of notches may provide an estimate of the time of fall of previous rocks to help constrain the earthquake history of this area

  8. Ultraviolet radiation levels during the Antarctic spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John E.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1988-01-01

    The decrease in atmospheric ozone over Antarctica during spring implies enhanced levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth's surface. Model calculations show that UV irradiances encountered during the occurrence of an Antarctic 'ozone hole' remain less than those typical of a summer solstice at low to middle latitudes. However, the low ozone amounts observed in October 1987 imply biologically effective irradiances for McMurdo Station, Antarctica, that are comparable to or greater than those for the same location at December solstice. Life indigenous to Antarctica thereby experiences a greatly extended period of summerlike UV radiation levels.

  9. Level Crossing Methods in Stochastic Models

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, Percy H

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the level crossing approach for analyzing a large class of stochastic models has become increasingly popular among researchers. This volume traces the evolution of level crossing theory for obtaining probability distributions of state variables and demonstrates solution methods in a variety of stochastic models including: queues, inventories, dams, renewal models, counter models, pharmacokinetics, and the natural sciences. Results for both steady-state and transient distributions are given, and numerous examples help the reader apply the method to solve problems fa

  10. Tt eSPORTS Level IOM Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧华

    2014-01-01

    曾屡获殊荣的Level 10M鼠标是Tt eSPORTS最为成功的作品之一,模块化设计吸引了众多外设发烧友。在这基础上,Level 10M Hybrid在诸多方面进行升级,并采用了有线/无线双模连接方式。跻身旗舰游戏鼠标之列。

  11. MALONDIALDEHYDE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is a chronic condition leading to the destruction of the periodontium. A case control study was carried out in 30 subjects with chronic periodontitis aged 30 - 65 ye ars (group II and age matched with 30 control subjects (group I. Salivary and serum malondialdehyde, which is a marker of lipid peroxidation, was estimated in the cases and controls. Salivary MDA was elevated (p<0.001 in patients with chronic periodonti tis there was no change in serum MDA levels when compared with normal controls. Increased levels in MDA may be closely associated with periodontal disease and salivary estimation may provide advantage in pathogenesis of the periodontal disease. .

  12. Two-Level Semantics and Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    Two-level semantics is a variant of Scott/Strachey denotational semantics in which the concept of binding time is treated explicitly. This is done by formally distinguishing between those computations that take place at run-time and those that take place at compile-time. Abstract interpretation...... unique flavour is the insistence on formal proofs of correctness and the methods used to establish these. This paper develops a theory of abstract interpretation for two-level denotational definitions. There are three ingredients in this. First a framework for proving the correctness of analyses...

  13. Levels of Social Capital in Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...... be attributed to individuals, affecting their relationship with the external environment. Secondly, social capital is an inherent property of networks, into which smaller firms and entrepreneurs are embedded. Thirdly, social capital exists at the macro level, where its characteristics and availability varies...... between environments and nations. This contribution attemps to fascilitate the operationalization of social capital for an improved understanding of processes of internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs....

  14. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...... and local political inefficacy, and their conceptual modification of job contents are all related to their use of coping....

  15. Combinatorial level densities for practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We review our calculated energy-, spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level densities based on the microscopic combinatorial model described in ref. [1]. We show that this model predicts the experimental sand p-wave neutron resonance spacings with a degree of accuracy comparable to that of the best global models available and also provides reasonable description of low energies cumulative number of levels as well as of the experimental data obtained by the Oslo group [2]. We also provide a renormalization recipe which enables to play with the tabulated results for practical applications. Finally, we study the impact of temperature dependent calculation on s-wave neutron resonance spacings.

  16. The lowest Landau level in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Endrőodi, Gergely; Giordano, Matteo; Katz, Sándor D.; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc; Wellnhofer, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in external (electro-)magnetic fields shows some unexpected features like inverse magnetic catalysis, which have been revealed mainly through lattice studies. Many effective descriptions, on the other hand, use Landau levels or approximate the system by just the lowest Landau level (LLL). Analyzing lattice configurations we ask whether such a picture is justified. We find the LLL to be separated from the rest by a spectral gap in the two-dimensional Dirac operator and analyze the corresponding LLL signature in four dimensions. We determine to what extent the quark condensate is LLL dominated at strong magnetic fields.

  17. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  18. Ideal functional outcomes for amputation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robert H; Melton, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    This article provides a generalized overview of amputation classifications and the idealized outcomes for upper and lower amputations at their respective levels. The following levels are discussed: above knee/transfemoral, below knee/transtibial, above elbow/transhumeral, below elbow/transradial, and bilateral for upper and lower extremities. This classification defines a framework for clinicians to share with patients so that they understand the potential for their expected functional outcomes regarding mobility and activities of daily living, both with and without a prosthesis. Moreover, it addresses some of the vocational and avocational needs of the individual regarding amputation.

  19. Single-Source Oriented Application Level Multicast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PI Ren-jie; SONG Jun-de

    2004-01-01

    Using application level multicast can partly pad the lack of IP multicast deployment. To perform single-source applications in hierarchical topology, we propose an application level multicast approach, Hierarchical Topology Aware Grouping (HTAG), which exploits information about path overlap among members and topological hierarchy to construct overlay tree at different network layers. We present simulations of both our protocol and the TAG over generated hierarchical topologies. The results indicate the effectiveness of our approach in reducing duplicate packets and preserving available bandwidth, with reasonable delays increase.

  20. A NOAA/NOS Sea Level Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, W.

    2011-12-01

    In order for coastal communities to realize current impacts and become resilient to future changes, sea level advisories/bulletins are necessary that systematically monitor and document non-tidal anomalies (residuals) and flood-watch (elevation) conditions. The need became apparent after an exceptional sea level anomaly along the U.S. East Coast in June - July of 2009 when higher than normal sea levels coincided with a perigean-spring tide and flooded many coastal regions. The event spurred numerous public inquiries to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) from coastal communities concerned because of the lack of any coastal storm signatures normally associated with such an anomaly. A subsequent NOAA report provided insight into some of the mechanisms involved in the event and methods for tracking their reoccurrences. NOAA/CO-OPS is the U.S. authority responsible for defining sea level datums and tracking their relative changes in support of marine navigation and national and state land-use boundaries. These efforts are supported by the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON), whose long-term and widespread observations largely define a total water level measurement impacting a coastal community. NWLON time series provide estimates of local relative sea level trends, a product increasingly utilized by various stakeholders planning for the future. NWLON data also capture significant short-term changes and conveyance of high-water variations (from surge to seasonal scale) provides invaluable insight into inundation patterns ultimately needed for a more comprehensive planning guide. A NOAA/CO-OPS Sea Level Advisory Project will enhance high-water monitoring capabilities by: - Automatically detecting sea level anomalies and flood-watch occurrences - Seasonally calibrating the anomaly thresholds to a locality in terms of flood potential - Alerting for near

  1. Sea level ~400 000 years ago (MIS 11: analogue for present and future sea-level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Bowen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the sea-level today with that of 400 000 years ago (MIS 11, when the Earth's orbital characteristics were similar may provide, under conditions of natural variability, indications of future sea-level during the present interglacial. Then, as now, orbital eccentricity was low and precession dampened. Evidence for MIS 11 sea-level occurs on uplifting coastlines where shorelines with geochronological ages have been preserved. The sea-level term and the uplift term may be separated with an "uplift correction" formula. This discovers the original sea-level at which the now uplifted shoreline was fashioned. Estimates are based on average uplift rates of the "last interglacial" sea-level (MIS 5.5 using a range of estimates for sea-level and age at that time at different locations. These, with varying secular tectonic regimes in different ocean basins, provide a band of estimates for the MIS 11 sea-level. They do not support the hypothesis of an MIS 11 sea-level at ~20 m, and instead show that it was closer to its present level.

  2. The Power of Cross-Level Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngerman, Stephanie

    1998-01-01

    Much credit for the tangible feeling of caring at an Idaho elementary school is due to partnerships that faculty, families, and students have forged across grade levels. These cross-grade buddy systems have put the brakes on bullies, fostered student friendships, and resolved personality conflicts among staff members. (MLH)

  3. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  4. Leveled Reading and Engagement with Complex Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of engaging with age-appropriate reading materials in classroom settings are numerous. For example, students' comprehension is developed as they acquire new vocabulary and concepts. The Common Core requires all students have daily opportunities to engage with "complex text" regardless of students' decoding levels. However,…

  5. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  6. Levels of Phonological Awareness in Three Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Bialystok, Ellen; Chong, Karen K. Y.; Li, Yanping

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on syllable phoneme onset levels of phonological awareness in relation to reading of Chinese and English in kindergarten and first-grade children from Xian (China), Hong Kong, and Toronto, cultures that differ substantially in approaches to reading instruction. English syllable awareness among native Chinese speakers was as good…

  7. Implementation Regimes and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; T. Dinesen, Peter; J. May, Peter

    -government regimes foster greater policy commitment, attention to rules, and adherence among frontline workers than is the case for a local-government implementation regime. These lead to actions of street-level bureaucrats in central-government regimes that are more in line with national policies than those...

  8. The first-level trigger of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haller, J; Aielli, G; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Aprodu, V; Ask, S; Barnett, B M; Bartos, D; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Benhammou, Ya; Bocci, V; Booth, J R A; Brambilla, Elena; Brawn, I P; Bressler, S; Buda, S; Bohm, C; Canale, V; Caracinha, D; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Charlton, D G; Chiodi, G; Ciapetti, G; Constantin, S; Conventi, F; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Seixas, J M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Simone, A; Distante, L; Dogaru, M; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Etzion, E; Farthouat, P; Fukunaga, C; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gennari, E; Geweniger, C; Gillman, A R; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Hanke, P; Harel, A; Hasegawa, Y; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Ichimiya, R; Iengo, P; Ikeno, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Kagawa, S; Kanaya, N; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kiyamura, H; Kluge, E -E; Kobayashi, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Kurashige, H; Kuwabara, T; Landon, M; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Lifshitz, R; Luci, C; Lupu, N; Magureanu, C; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Migliaccio, A; Mikenberg, G; Mirea, A; Moye, T H; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Nomachi, M; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Ochi, A; Ogata, T; Omachi, C; Oshita, H; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pectu, M; Perantoni, M; Perera, V J O; Perrino, R; Pessoa-Lima, H; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Prodan, L; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rusu, A; Rühr, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamon, A; Sankey, D P C; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Schmitt, K; Schuler, G; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schäfer, U; Sekhniaidze, G; Silverstein, S; Spagnolo, S; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, J P; Trefzger, T; Typaldos, D; Uroseviteanu, C; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, G A; Weber, P; Wengler, T; Woerling, E E; Yamaguchi, Y; Yasu, Y; Zanello, L

    2006-01-01

    Due to the huge interaction rates and the tough experimental environment of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s)=14 TeV and luminosities of up to 10^34cm^-2s^-1, one of the experimental challenges at the LHC is the triggering of interesting events. In the ATLAS experiment a three-level trigger system is foreseen for this purpose. The first-level trigger is implemented in custom hardware and has been designed to reduce the data rate from the initial bunch-crossing rate of 40MHz to around 75 kHz. Its event selection is based on information from the calorimeters and dedicated muon detectors. This article gives an overview over the full first-level trigger system including the Calorimeter Trigger, the Muon Trigger and the Central Trigger Processor. In addition, recent results are reported that have been obtained from test-beam studies performed at CERN where the full first-level trigger chain was established successfully for the first time and used to trigger the read-out of up to nine ATLAS sub-detec...

  9. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  10. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. ... diabetics could be predisposed to microvascular complications, while a ... measurements of HbA1c of randomly selected patients with long-standing diabetes.

  11. Unity of forces at the preon level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Pati, Jogesh C.

    1993-09-01

    In the context of a viable preon model which serves to provide a unified origin of the diverse scales and an explanation for family replication, it is shown that the unity of forces may well occur at the level of preons near the Planck scale in a manner that is novel compared to the conventional approach of elementary quarks and leptons.

  12. PLANCK LFI Level 1 Processing During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.; Galeotta, S.

    2008-08-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is foreseen to be launched in August 2008 with Ariane 5. The Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy for LFI is responsible for processing the PLANCK LFI data. The ISDC data centre in Switzerland is responsible for developing/installing and maintaining the software for the LFI Level 1 data processing presented here. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available consolidated scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument from the Mission Operation Centre in Darmstadt (MOC); to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI). The TOI data generated by the level 1 pipeline are the input for the more scientific LFI level 2 processing. The TOI are first stored in FITS format and then ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) system, which is the interface to the LFI DPC database. In addition, the ISDC also developed software tools to display and perform a quick look analysis of the data.

  13. Level Shifter Design for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With scaling of Vt sub-threshold leakage power is increasing and expected to become significant part oftotal power consumption.In present work three new configurations of level shifters for low powerapplication in 0.35μm technology have been presented. The proposed circuits utilize the merits ofstacking technique with smaller leakage current and reduction in leakage power. Conventional levelshifter has been improved by addition of three NMOS transistors, which shows total power consumptionof 402.2264pW as compared to 0.49833nW with existing circuit. Single supply level shifter has beenmodified with addition of two NMOS transistors that gives total power consumption of 108.641pW ascompared to 31.06nW. Another circuit, contention mitigated level shifter (CMLS with three additionaltransistors shows total power consumption of 396.75pW as compared to 0.4937354nW. Three proposedcircuit’s shows better performance in terms of power consumption with a little conciliation in delay.Output level of 3.3V has been obtained with input pulse of 1.6V for all proposed circuits.

  14. Mobbing in Company: Levels and Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnejčič Beno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The individual is exposed to ever more covert psychological violence or mobbing in workplace within companies. The aim of this study is to analyse the level and the types of psychological violence within a company in which the individual works in their daily lives.

  15. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  16. Interview at the level of the signifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2012-01-01

    The research strategy interview at the level of the signifier was developed in relation to a qualitative interview project into cross-cultural encounters temporarily and spatially framed by academic organizational settings. The research interest is gender and ethnicity. However, neither happens all...

  17. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology,...

  18. Design of Controllers for Liquid Level Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Simon,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The liquid level control system is commonly used in many process control applications. The aim of the process is to keep the liquid level in the tank at the desired value. The conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is simple, reliable and eliminates the error rate but it cannot handle complex problems. Fuzzy logic controllers are rule based systems which simulates human behavior of the process. The fuzzy controller is combined with the PID controller and then applied to the tank level control system. This paper proposes Inverse fuzzy with fuzzy logic controller for controlling liquid level system for a plant. This paper also compares the transient response as well as error indices of PID, Fuzzy logic controller, inverse fuzzy controllers. The responses of the controllers are verified through simulation. From the simulation results, it is observed that inverse fuzzy-PID controller gives the superior performance than the other controllers. The inverse fuzzy-PID controller gives better performance than the PID and fuzzy controller in terms of overshoot and settling time. Performance analysis is carried out with Liquid Flow Control System Design with Fuzzy logic controller. Results are evaluated by comparing the response time of conventional PID, fuzzy logic and Inverse fuzzy controller. Comparative analysis of the performance of different controllers is done in MATLAB and Simulink.

  19. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  20. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.