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Sample records for cat leopardus colocolo

  1. Dieta de Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae en la Reserva Nacional de Junín, Junín, Perú

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    Ursula Fajardo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio caracteriza la dieta de Leopardus colocolo en los alrededores del lago Junín, en el centro del Perú, a partir de los restos de las presas presentes en 43 heces. El origen de las heces del predador se determinó a partir del ADN mitocondrial de las células epiteliales intestinales adheridas a la superficie de las heces, utilizando como marcador la región de control. Los restos de las presas fueron identificados utilizando literatura especializada y la comparación con especímenes de colección, identificando un total of 14 ítems alimenticios pertenecientes a mamíferos de las familias Cricetidae (6, Chinchillidae (1 y Caviidae (1 y aves de las familias Anatidae (3 y Rallidae (2, y un grupo de aves no identificadas (1. Los roedores fueron el principal componente de la dieta de L. colocolo, en frecuencia y biomasa, seguido por las aves. Entre los ítems alimenticios consumidos, el roedor cricétido pequeño Calomys sp. fue el más frecuente; sin embargo, el mayor aporte de biomasa relativa fue proporcionado por el roedor mediano Cavia tschudii. La amplitud de nicho obtenida fue baja (Bsta= 0.17, indicando una dieta especializada. Nuestros resultados confirman que, como ocurre con la mayoría de felinos pequeños neotropicales, L. colocolo es un predador especializado en la captura de vertebrados, principalmente mamíferos pequeños. No se registró variación estacional en la dieta y el análisis de las clases de edad de los roedores cricétidos mostró que los adultos fueron los más consumidos. Se infiere que L. colocolo tiene un patrón de actividad diurno y nocturno.

  2. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

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    Resende, Letícia de S; Pedretti Gomes, Karla C; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson; Remy, Gabriella L; Almeida Ramos, Valdir de

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z = 3.16, p behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X(2) = 2.69; p = .260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats. PMID:22044295

  3. Osteossíntese de fêmur em gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus Femur osteosynthesis in little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus

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    Ísis S. Dal-Bó

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus apresenta porte e proporção corporal semelhante ao gato doméstico e é a menor espécie de felídeo não doméstico do Brasil, sendo classificado com espécie da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Em gatos domésticos, o fêmur é o osso que mais sofre trauma e a porção distal é a mais acometida por fraturas. Uma fêmea de gato-do-mato-pequeno, com cinco meses de idade, apresentando fratura completa transversa supracondilar de fêmur direito foi tratada com sucesso por meio de osteossíntese com dois fios de Kirschner cruzados. Aos 60 dias de evolução do procedimento cirúrgico, a paciente recebeu alta do Hospital Veterinário, sendo devolvida ao seu local de origem. Segundo o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato de osteossíntese de fêmur com o uso de fios de Kirschner em Leopardus tigrinus. Assim, o tratamento foi desenvolvido com base em dados referentes ao gato doméstico em função da similaridade anatômica entre as duas espécies. O método de osteossíntese escolhido, nesse relato, mostrou-se eficaz, promovendo retorno adequado à função do membro.The little spotted cat or oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus is a wild feline that has size and body proportions similar to the domestic cat (Felis catus, but can be classified as the smallest wild feline all the way from Costa Rica to Brazil and Argentina threatened with extinction. In domestic cats, the distal portion of the long bone femur is more susceptible to fractures. The aim of this paper is to report the treatment of a complete, transverse, supracondylar fracture of the right femur on a five-month-old little female oncilla, by internal fixation by two crossed Kirschner wires. At 60 days after surgery, the patient was discharged from the veterinary hospital and returned to its place of origin. Considering the author's knowledge, this is the first report of osteosynthesis in L. tigrinus using this described technique

  4. Standardization of some electrocardiographic parameters of captive leopard cats (Leopardus tigrinus).

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    Oda, Sam Goldy Shoyama; Yamato, Ronaldo Jun; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Leomil Neto, Moacir; Larsson, Maria Helena Matiko Akao

    2009-09-01

    Thirty-three captive leopard cats, Leopardus tigrinus, were anesthetized with xylazine (1-2 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg), and electrocardiograph (ECG) tests were recorded in all leads with 1 cm = 1 mV sensibility and 25 mm/sec speed repeating DII lead at 50 mm/sec speed with the same sensibility. Results expressed by mean and standard deviation were: heart rate (HR) = 107 +/- 17 (bpm); P-wave = 0.048 +/- 0.072 (s) x 0.128 +/- 0.048 (mV); PR interval = 0.101 +/- 0.081 (s); QRS compound = 0.053 +/- 0.012 (s) x 1.446 +/- 0.602 (mV); QT interval = 0.231 +/- 0.028 (s); R-wave (CV6LL) = 1.574 +/- 0.527 (mV); R-wave (CV6LU) = 1.583 +/- 0.818 (mV); heart rhythm: normal sinus rhythm (15.2%), sinus rhythm with wandering pacemaker (WPM) (60.6%), sinus arrhythmia with WPM (24.2%); electric axis: between +30 degrees and +60 degrees (6.1%), +60 (6.1%), between +60 degrees and +90 degrees (57.6%), +90 degrees (9%), between +90 degrees and +120 degrees (21.2%); ST segment: normal (75.7%), elevation (18.2%), depression (6.1%); T-wave polarity (DII): positive (100%); T-wave (V10): absent (6.1%), negative (63.6%), positive (18.2%), and with interference (12.1%). Through ECG data comparison with other species, unique features of Leopardus tigrinus' (leopard cat) ECG parameters were detected. Some of the study animals presented with an R-wave amplitude that was indicative of left ventricle overload according to patterns for normal domestic cats (Felis cati). Echocardiographic exams revealed normal heart cavities' function and morphology. The aim of this study was to establish some electrocardiographic parameters of captive L. tigrinus. PMID:19746854

  5. On the morphological variation and taxonomy of the Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 (Carnivora, Felidae

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 is a small cat found in the Southern Cone of South America and, depending on the author, four or five subspecies have been usually recognized (L. g. geoffroyi, L. g. paraguae, L. g. euxanthus, L. g. salinarum and L. g. leucobaptus, mainly based on external morphological characters, such as color pattern of the pelage. In order to clarify the taxonomy of L. geoffroyi, I analyzed approximately 200 specimens housed in museums. I have examined the external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms in the search for patterns of congruent characters that would indicate the existence of taxonomic units. Twenty craniodental measurements were taken and tested by univariate and multivariate (MANOVA, PCA and DFA procedures. In this study I detected a great variation in the morphological characters, and thus it was not possible to determine whether any of these were geographically consistent and could be used to determine any taxonomic unit. Based on this, I do not recognize any subspecific division for L. geoffroyi. Along its geographic range, a gradual and subtle change from one color pattern to the next along the latitude was detected, but the morphological characters that were used to define the putative subspecies were also detected in a same population. Furthermore, the present study is congruent with the results obtained by previous molecular data, suggesting that L. geoffroyi has a high level of genetic diversity with no geographic structure. This indicates the existence of a large panmictic population with no significant barriers to gene flow and, as a consequence, no subspecies should be recognized.

  6. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile.

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    Mora, Mónica; Napolitano, Constanza; Ortega, René; Poulin, Elie; Pizarro-Lucero, José

    2015-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are two of the most common viruses affecting domestic cats (Felis catus). During the last two decades, reports show that both viruses also infect or affect other species of the family Felidae. Human landscape perturbation is one of the main causes of emerging diseases in wild animals, facilitating contact and transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild animals. We investigated FIV and FeLV infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile. Samples from 78 domestic cats and 15 guignas were collected from 2008 to 2010 and analyzed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Two guignas and two domestic cats were positive for FIV; three guignas and 26 domestic cats were positive for FeLV. The high percentage of nucleotide identity of FIV and FeLV sequences from both species suggests possible interspecies transmission of viruses, facilitated by increased contact probability through human invasion into natural habitats, fragmentation of guigna habitat, and poultry attacks by guignas. This study enhances our knowledge on the transmission of pathogens from domestic to wild animals in the global scenario of human landscape perturbation and emerging diseases. PMID:25380363

  7. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gomes da Rocha; Rahel Sollmann; Emiliano Esterci Ramalho; Renata Ilha; Tan, Cedric K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared ...

  8. Density estimates and conservation of Leopardus pardalis southernmost population of the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos B. Kasper; Fábio D. Mazim; José B. G. Soares; Tadeu G. de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using camera traps and capture/recapture analyses we recorded the presence and abundance of cat species at Turvo State Park, in southern Brazil. Ocelot [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] population density was estimated for two areas of the park, with differing management profiles. Density estimates varied from 0.14 to 0.26 indiv. km2. Another five cat species were recorded at very low frequencies, precluding more accurate analyses. We estimate 24 to 45 ocelots occur in the reserv...

  9. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae), appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

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    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos; Maurício E. Graipel; Marcos A. Tortato; Carlos A. Zucco; Nilton C. Cáceres; Fernando V. B. Goulart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775), a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km²) and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more d...

  10. Genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus tigrinus.

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    Grisolia, A B; Moreno, V R; Campagnari, F; Milazzotto, M P; Garcia, J F; Adania, C H; Souza, E B

    2007-01-01

    The microsatellite loci FCA045, FCA077, FCA008, and FCA096 are highly variable molecular markers which were used to determine the genetic diversity in 148 captive Leopardus sp. The PCR-amplified products of microsatellite loci were characterized in ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer. Allele numbers, heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, exclusive allele number, and shared alleles were calculated. Sixty-five alleles were found and their sizes ranged from 116 to 216 bp in four microsatellite loci. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 in Leopardus pardalis, 0.57 to 0.67 in L. tigrinus and 0.80 to 0.92 in L. wiedii. The polymorphism information content was from 0.80 to 0.88 in L. pardalis, 0.76 to 0.88 in L. tigrinus and 0.77 to 0.90 in L. wiedii. The margay (L. wiedii) showed the highest index of polymorphism among the three species in this study. These results imply that microsatellite DNA markers can help in the study of the genetic diversity of Leopardus specimens. PMID:17624861

  11. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia

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    da Rocha, Daniel Gomes; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species. PMID:27191598

  12. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species. PMID:27191598

  13. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Density in Central Amazonia.

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    Daniel Gomes da Rocha

    Full Text Available Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2 was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  14. Cats

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    ... those experienced by humans. Cats that hunt wild rodents and rabbits in the western, particularly the southwestern, ... caused by a fungus that can infect skin, hair, and nails of both people and animals. Ringworm ...

  15. Morphological description of the male reproductive system of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

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    Raysa Melul Carneiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Innumerable species of wild animals have not yet been described anatomically. The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, a wild cat with ample geographic distribution, is an example of this. With the aim of describing the morphology of this animal, we studied the reproductive system of a young male taken from the area of Mina de Bauxita Paragominas/PA – Vale do Rio Doce, that was donated post mortem to the Instituto de Saúde e Produção Animal (ISPA of the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. The animal was fixed with formaldehyde 10% and kept in this same solution until the dissection of system under study. The masculine reproductive organs of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis are represented by: a pair of testis; an epididymis consisting of a head, body and tail; accessory genital glands, i.e. prostate and bulbourethral glands; a masculine urethra and penis.

  16. Morphological description of the male reproductive system of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Raysa Melul Carneiro; Érika Branco; Luane Lopes Pinheiro; Danielli Martinelli Martins; Suzy Silva de Santa Brígida; Elenara Botelho Araújo; Ana Carla Barros de Souza; Luiza Corrêa Pereira; Ana Rita de Lima

    2010-01-01

    Innumerable species of wild animals have not yet been described anatomically. The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), a wild cat with ample geographic distribution, is an example of this. With the aim of describing the morphology of this animal, we studied the reproductive system of a young male taken from the area of Mina de Bauxita Paragominas/PA – Vale do Rio Doce, that was donated post mortem to the Instituto de Saúde e Produção Animal (ISPA) of the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA)....

  17. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

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    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  18. Density estimates and conservation of Leopardus pardalis southernmost population of the Atlantic Forest

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    Carlos B. Kasper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Using camera traps and capture/recapture analyses we recorded the presence and abundance of cat species at Turvo State Park, in southern Brazil. Ocelot [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758] population density was estimated for two areas of the park, with differing management profiles. Density estimates varied from 0.14 to 0.26 indiv. km2. Another five cat species were recorded at very low frequencies, precluding more accurate analyses. We estimate 24 to 45 ocelots occur in the reserve, which is probably too small for long-term maintenance of the population, if isolated. However, if habitat integrity and connectivity between the Park and the Green Corridor of Misiones is maintained, an estimated ocelot population of 1,680 individuals should have long-term viability.

  19. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae, appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

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    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km² and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more diurnal, with a cathemeral activity pattern, when the other cats were present. Oncilla is likely to be in a subordinate position in interactions with larger cats and changes its activity to decrease the chances for interspecific encounters. In this study, however, the presence of other cat species covaries with habitat changes (from coastal forest patches to dense evergreen forests. We also verified the highest oncilla relative abundance in an area with no sympatric larger cats, with abundance decreasing when it was in sympatry with margay, ocelot and puma. Our results, together with recent records of oncilla in other degraded landscapes of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, provide evidence that oncillas may thrive even in harsh environments where other cats have already been extinct. This raise interesting conservation insights, as in the absence of other cats, L. tigrinus may assume a top predator role of these impoverished vertebrate communities.

  20. Molecular detection of Cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids.

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    André, Marcos R; Adania, Cristina H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Allegretti, Silmara M; Felippe, Paulo A N; Silva, Ketty F; Nakaghi, Andréa C H; Dagnone, Ana S

    2009-01-01

    Cytauxzoon spp. DNA was detected for the first time in blood samples from asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids. In 2006, 72 EDTA blood samples from seven wild felids species: Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), Leopardus wiedii (margay), Leopardus tigrinus (little spotted cat), Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat) and Panthera onca (jaguar) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18S rRNA gene segment in order to verify the presence of Cytauxzoon spp. DNA. Nine samples were positive: six ocelots, two pumas, and one jaguar. In Brazil, wild felids may be natural reservoirs for Cytauxzoon spp. PMID:19204356

  1. Carcinoma hepatocelular metastático em Jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis )

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    Dayane F.H. Miranda; Francisco de A.L. Souza; Luciano S. Fonseca; Hatawa M. Almeida; Juliana F.V. Braga; Francisco A.L. Costa; Silvana M.M. de S. Silva

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO: O carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) é uma neoplasia rara nos animais domésticos e em espécies selvagens foi relatado somente em antílopes, veado, cães da pradaria e furões, mas não existem relatos em Leopardus pardalis (jaguatirica). Este trabalho descreve um caso de carcinoma hepatocelular metastático em uma fêmea felina de aproximadamente 18 anos de idade, da espécie Leopardus pardalis, proveniente do Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina-PI, com histórico de anorexia, apatia e evolução ao óbi...

  2. Tick and flea infestation in a captive Margay Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 (Carnivora: Felidae: Felinae in Peru

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    M. Quevedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between wild and domestic animals can increase the risk for transmission of parasites in both directions, and thus, affects the ecology of diseases. Wild felids have been proven to be sensitive to infectious agents commonly found in domestic animals, and those agents have had detrimental effects on wildlife conservation. A margay Leopardus wiedii which had been kept captive as a pet for about fifteen days, was found moderately infested with the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Considering that the captive Margay lived close to domestic dogs and cats, this interaction might be the source of that infestation. Based on this finding, careful attention should be paid to wildlife and domestic animals interactions as ectoparasites can be easily transmitted and new host-pathogen interactions are possible.

  3. Morphological description of the brachial plexus in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kylma Lorena Saldanha Chagas; Lara Cochete Moura Fé; Luiza Correa Pereira; Érika Branco; Ana Rita de Lima

    2014-01-01

    The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of the spinal nerves, which unite to form the nerve trunks. It is usually formed by contributions of the last three cervical nerves and the first two thoracic nerves. Due to the scarcity of information on neuroanatomy, this study aimed to determine the macroscopic morphology of the brachial plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). In this work, we used two ocelot specimens from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, P...

  4. Influence of cooling rate on the ability of frozen-thawed sperm to bind to heterologous zona pellucida, as assessed by competitive in vitro binding assays in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudi, D L K; Jewgenow, K; Pukazhenthi, B S; Spercoski, K M; Santos, A S; Reghelin, A L S; Candido, M V; Javorouski, M L; Müller, G; Morais, R N

    2008-01-15

    We evaluated the influence of two cooling rates (from 25 to 5 degrees C) on post-thaw function of frozen sperm in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n=3 males) and tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n=4 males). Seven normospermic (>70% normal sperm) electroejaculates from each species were diluted with a 4% glycerol freezing medium, divided into two aliquots, and assigned to one of two cooling rates: fast or slow (0.7 or 0.16 degrees C/min, respectively). Sperm motility index (SMI) and percentage of sperm with an intact acrosome were assessed before freezing and after thawing, and the ability of sperm to bind to the zona pellucida of IVM domestic cat oocytes were assessed in a competitive in vitro sperm-binding assay. Regardless of the cooling rate, frozen-thawed sperm from both species exhibited a SMI of 50; approximately 20 and approximately 32% of post-thaw sperm had an intact acrosome in ocelots and tigrinas, respectively (P<0.05). The mean (+/-S.E.M.) number of sperm bound per oocyte was higher for fast-cooled (8.5+/-1.3) than slow-cooled (2.5+/-0.3; P<0.01) ocelot sperm. In contrast, more tigrina sperm bound to domestic cat oocytes when cooled slowly versus quickly (5.8+/-0.9 versus 2.7+/-0.4, P<0.05). In conclusion, cryopreservation decreased sperm function in both species, and the oocyte-binding assay was the most efficient method to detect functional differences in post-thaw sperm. PMID:17977588

  5. Testis stereology, seminiferous epithelium cycle length, and daily sperm production in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis).

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    Silva, R C; Costa, G M J; Andrade, L M; França, L R

    2010-01-15

    Similar to most wild felids, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is an endangered species. However, knowledge regarding reproductive biology of the ocelot is very limited. Germ cell transplantation is an effective technique for investigating spermatogenesis and stem cell biology in mammals, and the morphologic characterization of germ cells and knowledge of cycle length are potential tools for tracking the development of transplanted germ cells. Our goal was to investigate basic aspects related to testis structure, particularly spermatogenesis, in the ocelot. Four adult males were used. After unilateral orchiectomy, testis samples were routinely prepared for histologic, stereologic, and autoradiographic analyses. Testis weight and the gonadosomatic index were 11+/-0.6g and 0.16+/-0.01%, respectively, whereas the volume density of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells was 83.2+/-1.6% and 9.8+/-1.5%. Based on the acrosomic system, eight stages of spermatogenesis were characterized, and germ cell morphology was very similar to that of domestic cats. Each spermatogenic cycle lasted 12.5+/-0.4 d, and the entire spermatogenic process lasted 56.3+/-1.9 d. Individual Leydig cell volume was 2522mum(3), whereas the number of Leydig and Sertoli cells per gram of testis was 38+/-5x10(6) and 46+/-3x10(6). Approximately 4.5 spermatids were found per Sertoli cell, whereas daily sperm production per gram of testis was 18.3+/-1x10(6), slightly higher than values reported for other felids. The knowledge obtained in this study could be very useful to the preservation of the ocelot using domestic cat testes to generate and propagate the ocelot genome. PMID:19853903

  6. Morphology of the lumbosacral plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Albuquerque Lopes; Lara Cochete Moura Fé; Ana Rita de Lima; Érika Branco; Luiza Corrêa Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Popularly known as the ocelot, Leopardus pardalis occurs throughout Brazil in all ecosystems, but prefers riparian regions and forests. The objective of this study was to learn more about the macroscopic, anatomical aspects of the plexus lumbossacral of this species. Three specimens were studied, two males and one female, from the region near the Bauxite Mine in Paragominas, PA. The specimens were donated to the Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA) at UFRA after being run over (...

  7. Os ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Luane L. Pinheiro; Elenara B. Araújo; Ana Rita de Lima; Danielli M. Martins; Raysa Melul; Ana Carla B. Souza; Luiza C. Pereira; Érika Branco

    2014-01-01

    A jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis) é uma das espécies de felino silvestre que pouco foi investigada quanto a sua morfologia. Assim, o estudo objetivou detalhar a origem e distribuição dos ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal deste animal. Avaliou-se dois exemplares, sendo um macho e uma fêmea, jovens, provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA) da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA). O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex pigmenta...

  8. Gastroinvasive Helicobacter infection in an Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Y; Fukui, D; Yamamoto, S; Shibahara, T; Ishikawa, Y; Kadota, K

    2005-11-01

    Highly invasive Helicobacter-like organisms were found in a 19-year-old female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) with multiple ulcers in the fundic region of the stomach. The bacteria, resembling Helicobacter heilmannii, were located largely within canaliculi or in the cytosol of parietal cells. Except in the ulcerative lesions, parietal cells were hyperplastic, while chief cells and neck mucous cells were reduced in number. The term "gastroinvasive Helicobacter-like organism" was applied. It seems probable that this organism differs from other Helicobacter organisms in pathogenicity, and possible that its behaviour in vitro would help it to evade antibacterial treatment. PMID:16154138

  9. Identification of Novel Gammaherpesviruses in Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Panama and Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Caitlin C; Sweanor, Linda L; Wilson-Henjum, Grete; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Ryan M

    2015-10-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) have been identified in many species and are often associated with disease. Recently, we characterized three novel felid GHVs in domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor). We investigated whether free-ranging ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats are infected with additional GHVs. We screened DNA samples from ocelots on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and bobcats in western Colorado, US, by using a degenerate nested PCR that targets the GHV glycoprotein B gene. We identified a novel GHV glycoprotein B sequence in two ocelots and a second novel sequence in a bobcat, which is distinct from the previously characterized bobcat GHV (Lynx rufus GHV 1). Utilizing additional degenerate and virus-specific PCRs, we extended these sequences to include 3.4 kilobases of the GHV glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. These sequences identify the first GHV detected in ocelots and the second GHV in bobcats. These viruses were provisionally named L. pardalis GHV 1 and Lynx rufus GHV 2, respectively. The viruses are most closely related to recently identified GHVs of the Percavirus genus found in domestic cats (F. catus GHV 1) and bobcats (L. rufus GHV 1), suggesting that a cluster of felid GHVs exists within the Percavirus genus. PMID:26280877

  10. Carcinoma hepatocelular metastático em Jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane F.H. Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC é uma neoplasia rara nos animais domésticos e em espécies selvagens foi relatado somente em antílopes, veado, cães da pradaria e furões, mas não existem relatos em Leopardus pardalis (jaguatirica. Este trabalho descreve um caso de carcinoma hepatocelular metastático em uma fêmea felina de aproximadamente 18 anos de idade, da espécie Leopardus pardalis, proveniente do Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina-PI, com histórico de anorexia, apatia e evolução ao óbito que foi encaminhada ao Setor de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal do Piauí para exame anatomopatológico. À necropsia foram observadas duas nodulações de aproximadamente 8,0cm de diâmetro no fígado, de coloração variando da brancacenta ao vermelhado claro, amarelada a vermelho escuro, subdivididas em lóbulos por tecido conjuntivo. No pâncreas foram observadas múltiplas nodulações de aproximadamente 1,0 cm de diâmetro, com superfície lisa, consistência firme, coloração vermelho-amarelada. A superfície de corte dos rins também apresentava várias nodulações milimétricas de distribuição multifocal, na região córtico-medular, consistência firme, coloração branco-acinzentada ou amarelada, sugerindo metástase. Os fragmentos das lesões de fígado foram coletados e no exame microscópico observaram-se proliferação de hepatócitos em cordões bem diferenciados, formando trabéculas com espessura de três ou mais células. Os hepatócitos apresentavam-se volumosos, pleomórficos, com citoplasma eosinofílico. Na coloração com PAS constataram-se, regularmente, acúmulo de glicogênio nos hepatócitos neoplásicos. A confirmação foi feita pela técnica de imunoistoquímica, utilizando-se anticorpo monoclonal (Hepatocyte Specific Antigen. Os achados anatomohistopatológicos, e o auxilio da imunoistoquímica permitiram concluir pelo diagnóstico de hepatocarcinoma trabecular metastático em Leopardus pardalis

  11. Morphology of the lumbosacral plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Albuquerque Lopes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Popularly known as the ocelot, Leopardus pardalis occurs throughout Brazil in all ecosystems, but prefers riparian regions and forests. The objective of this study was to learn more about the macroscopic, anatomical aspects of the plexus lumbossacral of this species. Three specimens were studied, two males and one female, from the region near the Bauxite Mine in Paragominas, PA. The specimens were donated to the Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA at UFRA after being run over (authorization numbers 485/2009 and 522/2009. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde and then the hind limb was dissected by removing some muscles to expose the nerves. In two animals, the femoral nerve originated in the fourth lumbar nerve (L4 and transformed into the saphenous nerve. The obturator nerve and sciatic nerve originated in the last lumbar nerve (L5, and the latter was divided into branches that formed the tibial and common peroneal nerves, which dorsally formed the cranial gluteal and caudal gluteal nerves.

  12. Morphological description of the brachial plexus in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylma Lorena Saldanha Chagas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of the spinal nerves, which unite to form the nerve trunks. It is usually formed by contributions of the last three cervical nerves and the first two thoracic nerves. Due to the scarcity of information on neuroanatomy, this study aimed to determine the macroscopic morphology of the brachial plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In this work, we used two ocelot specimens from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, PA, Brazil/Empresa Terra LTDA, with permission from SEMA – BP Nos. 455/2009 and 522/2009. The animals were donated to the Research Laboratory of Animal Morphology (LaPMA, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA, after they were accidentally run over. They were fixed by intramuscular injection of 10% formaldehyde. After fixation, the animals were dissected, allowing visualization of the thoracic nerves, as well as the identification of the ventral rami of the cervical and thoracic spinal nerves forming the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus was found to be formed by four trunks, which originated the ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves C6, C7 and C8 and the first thoracic (T1. These trunks gave rise to the suprascapular, subscapular, musculocutaneous, axillary, radial, median, ulnar, thoracodorsal and lateral thoracic nerves.

  13. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; D'elia, Mirella Lauria; de Magalhães Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Álvaro Roberto; Leal, Rodrigo Costa; Cavalcanti, Guilherme; Pereira, Pedro Lúcio Lithg; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to report a case of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The animal, a 24-month-old male, was referred to the Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS) with a history of having been run over and tibia and fibula fractures. After a surgery to repair the fractures, the ocelot underwent antibiotic therapy with two doses of sodium cefovecin, during which he presented with diarrhea. A stool sample was positive for A/B toxins by a cytotoxicity assay, and a toxigenic strain of C. difficile was isolated. No other enteropathogens were detected. The association between the history, clinical signs and laboratory exams confirmed the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. The present report confirms C. difficile as a potential pathogen for wild felids and suggests that the C. difficile-associated diarrhea should be considered in diarrhea cases, especially when the clinical signs began after antimicrobial use. PMID:23467074

  14. Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Kays, R.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Boyce, W.M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  15. Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Samuel P; Troyer, Jennifer L; Terwee, Julie A; Lyren, Lisa M; Kays, Roland W; Riley, Seth P D; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2007-10-01

    Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide an adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. PMID:17984266

  16. Comparison of different sperm cryopreservation procedures on post-thaw quality and heterologous in vitro fertilisation success in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Monica A; Bond, Jennifer B; Bateman, Helen L; Campbell, Mark K; Levens, Gregory P; Bowsher, Todd R; Ferrell, Shannon T; Swanson, William F

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from free-living ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) could benefit their conservation by facilitating gene flow between in situ and ex situ populations without requiring removal of additional cats from the wild. The objective of this study was to investigate three different methods of ocelot sperm cryopreservation to identify the most appropriate technique for use in a field environment. Male ocelots (n = 10), housed in North American zoos, were anaesthetised with tiletamine-zolazepam (7 mg kg(-1) bodyweight; i.m.) and subjected to a regimented electroejaculation procedure. Recovered semen was evaluated for sperm concentration, motility and morphology and processed for cryopreservation by three methods: (1) pelleting on dry ice, (2) freezing in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour; and (3) freezing in straws in a dry shipper. Frozen samples were thawed and assessed for post-thaw acrosome status, viability, motility over time and ability to fertilize viable domestic cat oocytes. Although several post-thaw sperm parameters varied (P 0.05) capacity to bind, penetrate and fertilize viable domestic cat oocytes. These findings suggest that spermatozoa collected from male ocelots under field conditions may be frozen in straws either using liquid nitrogen alone or in a charged dry shipper to retain adequate functional competence after thawing for use with assisted reproductive procedures. PMID:17601417

  17. Avaliação de alguns parâmetros ecocardiográficos do gato-do-mato (Leopardus tigrinus, mantido em cativeiro e submetido à anestesia com xilazina e quetamina Evaluation of some echocardiographic parameters of Oncilla (L. tigrinus, kept in captivity and submitted to anesthesia with xilazine and ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se alguns parâmetros ecocardiográficos em modos B, M e Doppler de 27 gatos-do-mato, Leopardus tigrinus, pequeno felídeo selvagem, mantidos em cativeiro e submetidos à anestesia com 1 a 2mg/kg de xilazina e 10mg/kg de quetamina. Observaram-se alterações dos parâmetros cardiovasculares quando os resultados foram comparados aos do gato doméstico (Felis catus não anestesiado.Some echocardiographic parameters in B, M-mode and Doppler of 27 Oncillas, Leopardus tigrinus, a wild little feline, kept in captivity and submitted to anesthesia with 1 to 2mg/kg of xilazine and 10mg/kg of ketamine, had been evaluated. Changes of the cardiovascular parameters were observed when the results were compared to non anesthetized domestic cat (Felis catus.

  18. Molecular and morphologic characterization of Sarcocystis felis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in South American wild felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; López-Orozco, Natalia; Christoff, Alexandre Uarth; de Castilho, Camila Schlieper; de Araújo, Flavio Antônio Pacheco; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, J P; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2016-02-15

    Wild felids are thought to share parasites with domestic cats. However, little is known of the coccidian parasites of wild felids. We investigated the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in tissues of 6 species of 90 Neotropical small felids killed in road accidents in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by using microscopic and molecular techniques. Formalin-fixed tissues from 28 felids were examined, and Sarcocystis felis-like sarcocysts were detected in 4 wild cats (2 Puma yagouaroundi and 2 Leopardus guttulus). By transmission electron microscopy, sarcocysts from a P. yagouaroundi were identical to S. felis from domestic cats in the USA. Direct sequencing of PCR amplicons resulted the unambiguous sequences of the ITS-1 region from 18 of the 31 PCR positive wild cats; 5 sequences from each P. yagouaroundi, and Leopardus geoffroyi, 4 sequences from L. guttulus, and 2 sequences from each Leopardus wiedii, and Leopardus colocolo. Sequences analysis of ITS-1 region revealed the highest identiy (97-99%) with that of previously describe isolates of S. felis from domestic cats in the USA and identified them as S. felis. Tissues of 1 Leopardus pardalis tested by PCR and histology were negative. The phylogenetic relationship indicated that S. felis is quite different to species which employ opossums as their definitive host. This is the first report of S. felis infection in small wild felids from Brazil. PMID:26827854

  19. Comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (Felidae), dogs (Canidae), bears (Ursidae) and hyaenas (Hyaenidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, A A; Johnstone, M.

    1995-01-01

    The structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the Felidae, Canidae, Ursidae and Hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. The Felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (Felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (Uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (Leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (Panthera leo), a panther neonate (Panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (Neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. The Canidae were represented ...

  20. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals. PMID:24450052

  1. Registros adicionales de felinos del estado de Guerrero, México Additional records of cats in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Almazán-Catalán

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la información sobre distribución, hábitat y medidas somáticas y craneales de las 6 especies de felinos que se distribuyen en nuestro país y que se encuentran en Guerrero. La presencia de estas especies se obtuvo a través de métodos directos y registros indirectos. Lynx rufus está representado por la piel y el cráneo de un joven y es el segundo registro para el estado; mientras que Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii y Panthera onca incrementan su área de distribución en el estado. Las principales amenazas para estos felinos son la fragmentación del hábitat y la cacería furtiva.Information on distribution, habitat and measurements of the 6 species of cats found in Mexico and in Guerrero is provided. The specimens were recorded through direct and indirect methods. Lynx rufus is represented by the skin and skull of a young specimen and it is the second record for the state, while Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii and Panthera onca increase its distribution range in the state. The main threats to cats are habitat fragmentation and poaching.

  2. Prey refuges as predator hotspots: ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) attraction to agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) dens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsens, W.J.; Hirsch, B.T.; Kays, R.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that prey refuges attract predators, leading to elevated predator activity in the vicinity of refuges. We used camera traps to determine whether the spatial activity of a predator, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), was biased toward refuge locations of its principal prey, the

  3. Os ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane L. Pinheiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis é uma das espécies de felino silvestre que pouco foi investigada quanto a sua morfologia. Assim, o estudo objetivou detalhar a origem e distribuição dos ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal deste animal. Avaliou-se dois exemplares, sendo um macho e uma fêmea, jovens, provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex pigmentado de vermelho e os cadáveres foram preservados com solução de formaldeído tamponado a 10%. A aorta abdominal do L. pardalis teve origem entre T12 e L1, sendo a artéria celíaca o primeiro ramo visceral no sentido crânio-caudal, resultando nas artérias hepática, gástrica esquerda e esplênica. A artéria mesentérica cranial surgiu como segundo ramo da aorta abdominal, originando as artérias jejunais. Na sequência localizamos artéria pancreáticoduodenal caudal, artérias ileais, artérias ileocólicas, artérias renais direita e esquerda, artérias adrenais direita e esquerda e artérias ováricas ou testiculares direita e esquerda. Parietalmente, a aorta abdominal originou em média seis ramos lombares, bem como a artéria frenicoabdominal, as artérias circunflexas ilíacas profundas e artérias ilíacas externa e interna. A aorta abdominal gerou ainda a artéria mesentérica caudal, a qual dividiu-se em artérias cólica esquerda e retal cranial. A artéria cólica esquerda seguiu cranialmente paralela ao cólon descendente irrigando-o, originando em média 18 ramos, e anastomosando-se com a artéria cólica média. A artéria retal cranial seguiu em direção caudal distribuindo oito ramos à porção final do cólon descendente e ao reto, e uniu-se com a artéria retal média. Por fim, a aorta abdominal emitiu como ramo terminal a artéria sacral mediana. A vascularização arterial abdominal desta espécie é bastante semelhante ao

  4. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira; João Fábio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá) é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopar...

  5. Primeiro relato de Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda, Strongyloididae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae do município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil First report of Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda, Strongyloididae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina R. dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo reporta o primeiro caso de infecção por Strongyloides sp. em Leopardus tigrinus no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Fezes do exemplar parasitado de L. tigrinus foram cultivadas em fezes eqüinas esterilizadas e foi realizada infecção experimental em gato (Felis catus domesticus com três mil larvas L3 infectantes por via subcutânea, para a identificação da espécie de Strongyloides envolvida no parasitismo. As fêmeas partenogenéticas obtidas do animal experimental foram analisadas porém a comparação dos dados biométricos encontrados com os dados da literatura não permitiu a identificação da espécie. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a ocorrência de Strongyloides sp. Em L. tigrinusThe present study reports the first case of infection by Strongyloides sp. in Leopardus tigrinus in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Feces of the infected L. tigrinus specimen were cultivated in sterilized equine feces and a cat (Felis catus domesticus was experimentally infected with three thousand infective L3 subcutaneous route, in order to identify the Strongyloides species involved in the parasitism. Parthenogenetic females recovered from the experimental animals were analyzed but comparison between the biometric data found and the data in the literature did not enable identification of the species. This is the first report on the occurrence of Strongyloides sp. in L. tigrinus.

  6. Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Belize: the impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, A.; Kelly, M J

    2007-01-01

    We used remote cameras to obtain information on an elusive species and to examine the effects of different camera trapping methodologies on abundance estimates. We determined activity pattern, trail use, trap success, and density of ocelot Leopardus pardalis in seven camera-trap surveys across two habitat types in western Belize: tropical broad-leaf rainforest and tropical pine forest. Ocelots in the rainforest were active mostly at night, in particular immediately after sunset, and they trav...

  7. Differential detectability of rodents and birds in scats of ocelots, Leopardus pardalis (Mammalia: Felidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Mathias M.; Cynthia E. Widmer; Claudio Silva; Setz, Eleonore Z. F.

    2011-01-01

    Scat analysis is a valuable tool for the description and quantification of mammal diets. However, estimating the number of prey eaten using prey remains found in feces is difficult mainly due to differential digestibility of prey. In this context, we performed feeding trials with captive ocelots, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1785), to evaluate the time needed until complete elimination in feces of different prey such as rodents and birds. Rodents took up to five days and birds two days until...

  8. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) in Southeast Mexican rainforests

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Pérez-Irineo; Antonio Santos-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22km 2 ) durin...

  9. Lack of Population Genetic Structuring in Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in a Fragmented Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Marina G.; Marcelo Cervini; Fernando P. Rodrigues; Eduardo Eizirik; Fernando C. C. Azevedo; Laury Cullen; Peter G. Crawshaw; Pedro M. Galetti

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can promote patches of small and isolated populations, gene flow disruption between those populations, and reduction of local and total genetic variation. As a consequence, these small populations may go extinct in the long-term. The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), originally distributed from Texas to southern Brazil and northern Argentina, has been impacted by habitat fragmentation throughout much of its range. To test whether habitat fragmentation has already induced gene...

  10. Cat Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A man takes his motionless dog to the vet."Doc,I think my dog is dead.”The vet looks the dog over, goes into a backroom,and comes out with a cat.He places the caton the table next to the dog.The cat walks aroundand sniffs at the dog.The dog does not move.The

  11. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

  12. Ovarian response to repeated administration of alternating exogenous gonadotropin regimens in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and tigrinus (Leopardus tigrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, Regina Celia Rodrigues; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Barnabe, Valquíria Hippólito; Barnabe, Renato Campanarut

    2006-10-01

    Exogenous gonadotropins are used to stimulate ovarian follicular growth and ovulation in mammalian species, including wild cats. However, successes in application of assisted reproduction techniques in nondomestic felids have been sparse. Our objectives were to assess the effectiveness of alternating gonadotropin regimens on ovarian responses. Five adult female ocelots and four adult female tigrinus were treated four to six times, using alternating eCG/hCG and pFSH/pLH at 4-month intervals. Laparoscopies were done to assess follicular development and to collect oocytes from matures follicles. The average number of follicles and corpus luteum (CL) per stimulation was higher in ocelots (7.0 +/- 0.8; mean +/- S.E.M.) than in tigrinus (2.5 +/- 0.4; P < 0.05), but the percentage of mature oocytes did not differ between the two species (mean range, 54-55%). Within species, both gonadotropin regimens were equally effective in inducing follicular growth and oocyte maturation. The total number of ovarian structures and oocyte maturation percentages did not decrease in either species with sequential stimulations. In summary, female ocelots and tigrinus continued to respond to repeated alternating ovarian stimulation protocols. In conclusion, the use of alternating gonadotropin regimens may permit more intensive reproductive management in these endangered cats. PMID:16472853

  13. Aspectos bioecológicos de Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771), Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) e Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) na reserva natural Salto Morato, Guaraqueçaba, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vidolin, Gisley Paula

    2013-01-01

    De janeiro de 2000 a agosto de 2002, foi realizado um estudo com Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardaus (jaguatirica) e Leopardus tigrinus (gato-do-mato-pequeno) na Reserva Natural Salto Morato, Guaraqueçaba, com os objetivos de determinar e caracterizar as áreas utilizadas pelas espécies; descrever a sua dieta; verificar se há correlação da freqüência dos itens encontrados nas fezes, em função de sua disponibilidade na natureza (médio e grandes mamíferos); gerar informações sobre os tipos d...

  14. Cat scratch disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of ...

  15. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: cat’s claw, uña de gato Latin Name: Uncaria tomentosa, ...

  16. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  17. Differential detectability of rodents and birds in scats of ocelots, Leopardus pardalis (Mammalia: Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias M. Pires

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Scat analysis is a valuable tool for the description and quantification of mammal diets. However, estimating the number of prey eaten using prey remains found in feces is difficult mainly due to differential digestibility of prey. In this context, we performed feeding trials with captive ocelots, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1785, to evaluate the time needed until complete elimination in feces of different prey such as rodents and birds. Rodents took up to five days and birds two days until complete elimination. Our results are consistent in showing that elimination time differs for different prey and some prey may take a long time to be expelled, inducing errors in dietary studies.

  18. Reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the Leopardus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N.; Monteiro-Filho, E.L.A.; Moraes, W.; Swanson, W.F.; Graham, L.H.; Pasquali, O.L.; Gomes, M.L.F.; Morais, R.N.; Wildt, D.E.; Brown, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive endocrine patterns were characterized in female ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n = 3), tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 2), and margays (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2) housed in captivity in southern Brazil. Females were maintained as singletons and exposed to natural fluctuations in photoperiod. Cyclic changes in ovarian steroids were monitored by analyzing estrogen and progestogen metabolites in fecal samples collected five times weekly for 14 to 18 months. Based on intervals between fecal estrogen peaks, mean (+/- SEM) duration of the estrous cycle was 18.4 +/- 1.6 days for the ocelots (range, 7-31 days; n = 75 cycles), 16.7 +/- 1.3 days for the tigrinas (range, 11-27 days; n = 23 cycles), and 17.6 +/- 1.5 days for the margays (range, 11-25 days; n = 32 cycles). Fecal progestogen analyses combined with two laparoscopic observations of the ovaries confirmed that ocelots and tigrinas did not ovulate spontaneously. In contrast, non-mating-induced luteal phases of 40.1 +/- 6.3 days in duration (range, 30-60 days) were observed frequently in both margays. There was no evidence of gonadal seasonality in margays in either follicular or luteal activity. In ocelots, cyclic changes in estrogen excretion were observed during each month of the year; however, only one female cycled continuously. In the other two ocelots, periods of acyclicity of several months' duration were observed. It was not possible to conclude whether tigrinas were aseasonal because estrous cyclicity was observed in only one of two individuals. In the female that cycled, a 3-month period of acyclicity was observed in the late fall/early winter. These data demonstrate similarities among three felid species of the genus Leopardus, including evidence they are polyestrous but experience unexplained periods of ovarian inactivity. Only the margays differed by exhibiting occasional spontaneous, non-mating-induced ovulations. Historically, these species have not bred well in captivity. However, it is

  19. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  20. Detecção de estro em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis utilizando citologia vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.R Paz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a citologia vaginal por meio de diferentes métodos de coloração para detecção de cio em jaguatirica, Leopardus pardalis, pela estimulação hormonal exógena e pela avaliação das estruturas ovarianas por videolaparoscopia. Cinco fêmeas foram tratadas com eCG/hCG e FSH/LH a cada quatro meses pelo período de dois anos. Videolaparoscopia foi realizada após cada tratamento utilizando-se cetamina-xilazina e isoflurano. Esfregaços vaginais foram obtidos 15 dias antes e após a videolaparoscopia. As lâminas foram analisadas ao microscópio de luz quanto aos tipos celulares predominantes. Todos os animais apresentaram folículos maduros (>2mm e corpos lúteos recentes em todas as intervenções. Não houve diferença significativa entre os resultados obtidos na mesma coloração de acordo com os tratamentos utilizados. Todas as técnicas mostraram-se eficientes na detecção de células superficiais queratinizadas anucleadas e nucleadas, intermediárias, parabasais e basais. Foi possível determinar a fase de estro em Leopardus pardalis por meio da citologia vaginal

  1. Reproductive periodicity and steroid hormone profiles in the sex-changing coral-reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A. J.; McCormick, M. I.; Pankhurst, N. W.

    2007-03-01

    The reproductive biology of coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) was investigated by correlating gonadal condition with plasma levels of gonadal steroids. Female fish were found to be regressed from mid-summer to early spring, after which rapid and cyclical increases in gonado-somatic index ( I G), maximum oocyte diameter (MOD) and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17β and testosterone were detected. Male fish, in contrast, commenced recrudescence slightly earlier in winter and responded with less dramatic increases in both I G and plasma concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. The mode of oocyte development was multiple group-synchronous, and cyclical fluctuations in reproductive parameters ( I G, MOD and gonadal steroid concentrations) were synchronized with new-moon lunar phases. It is likely, therefore, that individual P. leopardus have the capacity to spawn on multiple occasions, with lunar periodicity. However, evidence suggests that early bouts of reproduction may be more important in terms of reproductive investment than subsequent bouts later in the same season. It is concluded that patterns of gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in P. leopardus are similar to the patterns displayed by other tropical groupers, suggesting that management regimes and propagation protocols developed for these fishes may also be appropriate for use with P. leopardus.

  2. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  3. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  4. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

  5. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Rita De Cassia; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2007-10-01

    This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). The most frequent items found in the fecal samples analyzed were Calomys (n=16) and non-identified Aves (n=15), followed by A. guariba (n=12). Although Rodentia was the most common group consumed (n=52) Primates were found in 27% of total fecal samples and were the third most consumed group in relation to the total items. Particularly, predation of A. guariba by ocelots (20% of the total fecal samples) was not an isolated event; our results showed that this species was preyed on across several months. Predation on primates was far higher at CBS than at other sites where comparable studies have been carried out. PMID:17330310

  6. Detecção de estro em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis) utilizando citologia vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    R.C.R. Paz; C.H Adania; V.H. Barnabe; R.C. Barnabe

    2010-01-01

    Utilizou-se a citologia vaginal por meio de diferentes métodos de coloração para detecção de cio em jaguatirica, Leopardus pardalis, pela estimulação hormonal exógena e pela avaliação das estruturas ovarianas por videolaparoscopia. Cinco fêmeas foram tratadas com eCG/hCG e FSH/LH a cada quatro meses pelo período de dois anos. Videolaparoscopia foi realizada após cada tratamento utilizando-se cetamina-xilazina e isoflurano. Esfregaços vaginais foram obtidos 15 dias antes e após a videolaparosc...

  7. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  8. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis disease in a Brazilian oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus Doença do Verme do Coração (Dirofilaria immitis em gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Filoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heartworm disease is caused by the intravascular nematode Dirofilaria immitis, a pathogen of public health importance usually associated to domestic dogs and cats, and to a lesser extend to other mammal species. The oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus is a threatened neotropic felid species that naturally occurs in Brazil. Here, we report the encounter of adult and larval stages of heartworms in a female specimen of L. tigrinus, probable of free-ranging origin, from Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, which died showing clinical signals compatible with heartworm disease. This was the first reported case of D. immitis infection and associated disease in L. tigrinus, also suggesting that the oncilla acted as a definitive host for this parasite. The present findings confirmed D. immitis as a pathogenic agent for this felid species, thus supporting the recommendation for the inclusion of diagnostic testing for this pathogen in routine health screening procedures for captive and free-ranging oncillas in Brazil, especially in those localities where climate conditions support the occurrence of the parasite. Potential reservoirs as oncillas are established beyond the reach of veterinary care, thus representing a continuing risk for domestic animals and humans acquiring heartworm infection. We encourage further serologic and molecular studies aiming to establish D. immitis prevalences in L. tigrinus and other wild carnivores in the region of Ubatuba, as well as ecological and veterinary studies to access the role of this pathogen for the survival of this threatened felid species.A doença do verme do coração é causada pelo nematódeo intravascular Dirofilaria immitis, um patógeno de importância em Saúde Pública geralmente associado a cães e gatos domésticos e, em menor extensão, a outras espécies de mamíferos. O gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus é uma espécie ameaçada de felídeo neotropical que ocorre naturalmente no Brasil. Aqui relatamos o

  9. Osteossíntese de fêmur em gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis S. Dal-Bó

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus apresenta porte e proporção corporal semelhante ao gato doméstico e é a menor espécie de felídeo não doméstico do Brasil, sendo classificado com espécie da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Em gatos domésticos, o fêmur é o osso que mais sofre trauma e a porção distal é a mais acometida por fraturas. Uma fêmea de gato-do-mato-pequeno, com cinco meses de idade, apresentando fratura completa transversa supracondilar de fêmur direito foi tratada com sucesso por meio de osteossíntese com dois fios de Kirschner cruzados. Aos 60 dias de evolução do procedimento cirúrgico, a paciente recebeu alta do Hospital Veterinário, sendo devolvida ao seu local de origem. Segundo o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato de osteossíntese de fêmur com o uso de fios de Kirschner em Leopardus tigrinus. Assim, o tratamento foi desenvolvido com base em dados referentes ao gato doméstico em função da similaridade anatômica entre as duas espécies. O método de osteossíntese escolhido, nesse relato, mostrou-se eficaz, promovendo retorno adequado à função do membro.

  10. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Gallas; Eliane Fraga da Silvera

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n...

  11. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some things you ...

  12. Ocorrência de Platynosomum illiciens em felinos selvagens mantidos em cativeiro no estado da Bahia, Brasil Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. de Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de ovos de Platynosomum illiciens nas fezes de três espécies de felídeos silvestres Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Panthera onca e Leopardus tigrinus coletados nos recintos do Parque Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Sendo o primeiro registro deste parasito em P. onca e F. tigrinus.This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus.

  13. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  14. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection at some ... Poor appetite For people with weak immune systems, CSD may cause more serious problems. The best way ...

  15. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  16. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  17. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  18. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  19. Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild small felids from Brazil: molecular detection and genotypic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Franco, W A; Araújo, F A P; López-Orozco, N; Jardim, M M A; Keid, L B; Dalla-Rosa, C; Cabral, A D; Pena, H F J; Gennari, S M

    2013-11-01

    Brazil harbors the largest number of wild Neotropical felid species, with ten of the twelve species recorded in the American continent. Although these animals are considered to be definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii, there are few descriptions of the parasite in these species. Here, we performed a molecular detection of T. gondii by amplification of the marker ITS-1 from tissue samples obtained from 90 free-ranging wild small Neotropical felids from Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Of the sampled animals, 34.4% (n=31) were positive including the species Puma yagouaroundi - jaguarondi (9/22), Leopardus geoffroyi - Geoffroy's cat (6/22), Leopardus tigrinus - oncilla (8/28), Leopardus wiedii - margay (6/10), Leopardus pardalis - ocelot (1/1) and Leopardus colocolo - Pampas cat (1/7). Toxoplasma DNA was detected with a frequency of 14.6% (63/433) in primary samples of tongue (16/56), brain (8/43), skeletal muscle (15/83), heart (7/63), diaphragm (3/56), vitreous humor (2/44), eye muscle (6/44) and eyeball (6/44). Multilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping of eleven small Neotropical felids using the molecular markers SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3 allowed the partial characterization of eight genotypes. We fully characterized two new genotypes that have not been described previously in Brazil (Lw#31Tn from L. wiedii and Py#21Sm from P. yagouaroundi) and one genotype Py#56Br from P. yagouaroundi that has been described previously in isolates from cats, dogs and capybaras from São Paulo state. This study constitutes the first detection and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in free-ranging felids in Brazil, demonstrating the occurrence of the parasite in wild populations and suggesting its potential transmissibility to humans and other domestic and wild animals. PMID:23932730

  20. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) na região amazônica, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Scofield; Rafaelle Cunha dos Santos; Nadino Carvalho; Áurea Linhares Martins; Gustavo Góes-Cavalcante

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen ...

  1. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae) Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae)

    OpenAIRE

    João M. D. Miranda; Itiberê P. Bernardi; Kauê C. Abreu; Fernando C. Passos

    2005-01-01

    There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758). With our document...

  2. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  3. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  4. Phylogeographic patterns and evolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in two neotropical cats (Mammalia, felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizirik, E; Bonatto, S L; Johnson, W E; Crawshaw, P G; Vié, J C; Brousset, D M; O'Brien, S J; Salzano, F M

    1998-11-01

    The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and margay (L. wiedii) are sister-species of Neotropical cats which evolved from a lineage that migrated into South America during the formation of the Panamanian land bridge 3-5 million years ago. Patterns of population genetic divergence of each species were studied by phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences in individuals sampled across the distribution of these taxa. Abundant genetic diversity and remarkably concordant phylogeographic partitions for both species were observed, identifying parallel geographic regions which likely reflect historical faunal barriers. Inferred aspects of phylogeography, population genetic structure, and demographic history were used to formulate conservation recommendations for these species. In addition, observed patterns of sequence variation provided insight into the molecular evolution of the mtDNA control region in closely related felids. PMID:9797412

  5. Unusual observation of an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) eating an adult Linnaeus’s two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus)

    OpenAIRE

    Delibes, M.; Calzada, Javier; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Revilla, Eloy; Ribeiro, Beatriz A.; Prado, Denise; Keller, Claudia; Palomares, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) eating from an adult Linnaeus’ two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) was described. Observation was made at the Viruá National Park of northern Brazil. The sloth had an estimated weight of 7 kg and a portion of its hairs were plucked after the kill. The ocelot began to eat its prey by the braincase. Three days after the finding, only the harder parts of skin and the bones of the extremities of the sloth remained. Field observations of ocelots ...

  6. Morfofisiologia do tecido intertubular e das células de Leydig de jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis) adulta

    OpenAIRE

    Sarti, P; T.A.R. Paula; G.O Polli; T Deco Souza; G.R. Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Estudou-se o espaço intertubular e descreveu-se seu arranjo em jaguatirica adulta (Leopardus pardalis). Para tal, colheram-se fragmentos dos testículos, de cinco jaguatiricas adultas, provenientes de cativeiro, obtidos por biópsia incisional. O compartimento intertubular correspondeu a 19,4% do parênquima, sendo 3,9% ocupado por células de Leydig. Estes se apresentaram uninucleados, com o núcleo arredondado e nucléolo único, e com grande quantidade de grânulos pigmentares no citoplasma. O com...

  7. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  8. In Silico Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Color Morphs of the Common Coral Trout (Plectropomus Leopardus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Wang

    Full Text Available The common coral trout is one species of major importance in commercial fisheries and aquaculture. Recently, two different color morphs of Plectropomus leopardus were discovered and the biological importance of the color difference is unknown. Since coral trout species are poorly characterized at the molecular level, we undertook the transcriptomic characterization of the two color morphs, one black and one red coral trout, using Illumina next generation sequencing technologies. The study produced 55162966 and 54588952 paired-end reads, for black and red trout, respectively. De novo transcriptome assembly generated 95367 and 99424 unique sequences in black and red trout, respectively, with 88813 sequences shared between them. Approximately 50% of both trancriptomes were functionally annotated by BLAST searches against protein databases. The two trancriptomes were enriched into 25 functional categories and showed similar profiles of Gene Ontology category compositions. 34110 unigenes were grouped into 259 KEGG pathways. Moreover, we identified 14649 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and designed primers for potential application. We also discovered 130524 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the two transcriptomes, supplying potential genomic resources for the coral trout species. In addition, we identified 936 fast-evolving genes and 165 candidate genes under positive selection between the two color morphs. Finally, 38 candidate genes underlying the mechanism of color and pigmentation were also isolated. This study presents the first transcriptome resources for the common coral trout and provides basic information for the development of genomic tools for the identification, conservation, and understanding of the speciation and local adaptation of coral reef fish species.

  9. Lack of Population Genetic Structuring in Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in a Fragmented Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Figueiredo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation can promote patches of small and isolated populations, gene flow disruption between those populations, and reduction of local and total genetic variation. As a consequence, these small populations may go extinct in the long-term. The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, originally distributed from Texas to southern Brazil and northern Argentina, has been impacted by habitat fragmentation throughout much of its range. To test whether habitat fragmentation has already induced genetic differentiation in an area where this process has been documented for a larger felid (jaguars, we analyzed molecular variation in ocelots inhabiting two Atlantic Forest fragments, Morro do Diabo (MD and Iguaçu Region (IR. Analyses using nine microsatellites revealed mean observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. The MD sampled population showed evidence of a genetic bottleneck under two mutational models (TPM = 0.03711 and SMM = 0.04883. Estimates of genetic structure (FST = 0.027; best fit of k = 1 with STRUCTURE revealed no meaningful differentiation between these populations. Thus, our results indicate that the ocelot populations sampled in these fragments are still not significantly different genetically, a pattern that strongly contrasts with that previously observed in jaguars for the same comparisons. This observation is likely due to a combination of two factors: (i larger effective population size of ocelots (relative to jaguars in each fragment, implying a slower effect of drift-induced differentiation; and (ii potentially some remaining permeability of the anthropogenic matrix for ocelots, as opposed to the observed lack of permeability for jaguars. The persistence of ocelot gene flow between these areas must be prioritized in long-term conservation planning on behalf of these felids.

  10. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) in Southeast Mexican rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irineo, Gabriela; Santos-Moreno, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22 km2) during a two years period (March 2011-June, 2013), in Oaxaca state, Southeast Mexico. Data allowed the estimation of the population density, activity pattern, sex ratio, residence time, and spatial distribution. Population density was calculated using Capture-Recapture Models for demographically open populations; besides, circular techniques were used to determine if nocturnal and diurnal activity varied significantly over the seasons, and Multiple Discriminant Analysis was used to determine which of the selected environmental variables best explained ocelot abundance in the region. A total of 103 ocelot records were obtained, with a total sampling effort of 8,529 trap-days. Density of 22-38 individuals/100 km2 was estimated. Ocelot population had a high proportion of transient individuals in the zone (55%), and the sex ratio was statistically equal to 1:1. Ocelot activity was more frequent at night (1:00-6:00h), but it also exhibited diurnal activity throughout the study period. Ocelot spatial distribution was positively affected by the proximity to the village as well as by the amount of prey. The ocelot population here appears to be stable, with a density similar to other regions in Central and South America, which could be attributed to the diversity of prey species and a low degree of disturbance in Los Chimalapas. PMID:25720177

  11. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Rafael; Moreno, Ricardo S; Kays, Roland W; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot's parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult's increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. PMID:19256443

  12. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  13. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  14. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  15. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco(TM. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.

  16. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  17. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A ...

  18. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de ...

  19. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  20. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot’s parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult’s increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 779-787. Epub 2008 June 30.Los desplazamientos del ámbito hogareño de mamíferos subadultos previos a la dispersión natal rara vez han sido documentados. Sin embargo, los eventos que llevan a un animal subadulto a abandonar una parte de su ámbito natal

  1. Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitizing four species of wild felines in Southern Brazil Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitando quatro espécies de felinos silvestres no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus and Puma yagouaroundi are wild feline species endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and vehicle run overs. Seventeen felines hit on the roads were collected in Southern Brazil and examined for parasites. Cestodes were identified as Mesocestoides sp. The parasites were found in the small intestine of the hosts with a prevalence of 66.7% (L. colocolo and L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi and 50% (L. geoffroyi. Rodents and lizards were found in the stomach contents and they possibly were intermediate hosts of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides sp. in wild felines in Brazil.As espécies Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus e Puma yagouaroundi, são felídeos silvestres ameaçados de extinção, principalmente pela destruição do hábitat e morte em rodovias. Dezessete felídeos foram coletados atropelados no sul do Brasil e, analisados na pesquisa de parasitos. Cestóides encontrados foram identificados como Mesocestoides sp. Os parasitos foram encontrados no intestino delgado dos hospedeiros com prevalência de 66,7% (L. colocolo e L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi e 50% (L. geoffroyi. Roedores e lagartos foram encontrados no conteúdo estomacal, podendo ser os hospedeiros intermediários para Mesocestoides sp. Este é o primeiro registro de Mesocestoides sp. em felídeos silvestres no Brasil.

  2. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  3. Haemobartonellosis in Van Cats

    OpenAIRE

    AKKAN, Hasan Altan; Karaca, Mehmet; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine prevalence of Haemobartonella felis in Van cats. 121 Van cats (82 female, 39 male, aged 1-9 years) were the materials of the study. To determine biochemical and haematological parameters, 2 ml blood with and without anticoagulant were taken according to technique from vena cephalica antebrachii. H. felis was detected in blood smears preparations of 18 (14.88%) by Papenheim staining. Among biochemical parameters aspartate amino transferase (AST), al...

  4. Resolving Schrodinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson, Art

    2016-01-01

    Schrodinger's famous cat has long been misunderstood. According to quantum theory and experiments with entangled systems, an entangled state such as the Schrodinger's cat state is neither a superposition of states of either subsystem nor a superposition of compound states of the composite system, but rather a nonlocal superposition of correlations between pairs of states of the two subsystems. The entangled post-measurement state that results from an ideal measurement is not paradoxical, but ...

  5. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  6. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J.K.; Panciera, D L; Abbott, J.A.; Zimmerman, K.C.; Lantis, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT‐proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism. Hypothesis Plasma NT‐proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary myocardial disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats. Animals Twenty‐three hyperthyro...

  7. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  8. Tick and flea infestation in a captive Margay Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821) (Carnivora: Felidae: Felinae) in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, M.; Gomez, L.; J. Lescano

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between wild and domestic animals can increase the risk for transmission of parasites in both directions, and thus, affects the ecology of diseases. Wild felids have been proven to be sensitive to infectious agents commonly found in domestic animals, and those agents have had detrimental effects on wildlife conservation. A margay Leopardus wiedii which had been kept captive as a pet for about fifteen days, was found moderately infested with the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguin...

  9. Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder with metastasis in lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an ocelot(Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Y.R. Nakagaki; Pâmela A. Lima; Kiyoko U. Utiumi; Marco A.M. Pires; Rosana Zanatta; Fabiana M Boabaid; Edson M. Colodel; Djeison L. Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a case of nonpapillary and infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder with metastasis of lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an adult female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The ocelot had pelvic limb paralysis and skin ulcers in the posterior region of the body and was submitted to euthanasia procedure. At necropsy was observed a multilobulated and irregular shaped, yellowish to white nodule in the urin...

  10. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 na região amazônica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scofield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 µm and 137.6 × 104.9 µm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon.O presente estudo descreve um caso de sarna notoédrica em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis na região da Amazônia Brasileira. Um macho jovem com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade, ilegalmente mantido como animal de estimação, foi apreendido em uma residência em Altamira, Estado do Pará, Brasil. O animal foi transportado para o Parque Mangal das Garças, município de Belém, estado do Pará. A jaguatirica apresentava prurido e lesões sugestivas de escabiose na cabeça, por isso um raspado cutâneo foi realizado e examinado ao microscópio óptico. Foi observado um grande número de ovos, larvas, ninfas e ácaros adultos. Os exemplares fêmeas mediram em média 230,2 × 200,4 µm, e os exemplares machos mensuraram 137,6 × 104,9 µm. Com base nas características morfológicas e análises morfométricas, o ácaro foi classificado como Notoedres cati. Esse é o primeiro relato da sarna notoédrica em L. pardalis na Amazônia Brasileira.

  11. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5 were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.Para o Brasil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 foi registrada em cinco espécies de felídeos silvestres. No presente estudo, cinco gatos-do-mato-pequenos (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775, vítimas de atropelamento, foram coletados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Lesões crônicas causadas por O. pardalis foram observadas no intestino delgado de um dos espécimes. Cortes histológicos permitiram a identificação de um infiltrado leucocitário bem definido e uma área de fibrose do colágeno. Somente machos (n = 5 de O. pardalis foram encontrados, com prevalência de 20%. O ciclo biológico das espécies de Oligacanthorhynchus é pouco conhecido, no entanto, artrópodes foram considerados como hospedeiros intermediários. A baixa prevalência encontrada pode estar relacionada ao número de hospedeiros examinados, bem como, com a ingestão de poucos artrópodes infectados por larvas de O. pardalis. Este é o primeiro registro de O. pardalis parasitando L. tigrinus para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  12. Serological Detection of Viral Infections in Captive Wild Cats from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Kinndle Blanco; Roberto Peña; Carmen Hernández; Mauricio Jiménez; Luis Nazario Araya; Juan José Romero; Gaby Dolz

    2011-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (Panthera onca) were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and p27 antigen of feline leu...

  13. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  14. ServCat Sensitivity Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This guide covers sensitivity in ServCat. This document provides technical guidance on how sensitivity fields work in ServCat, and provides suggestions on what...

  15. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  16. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  17. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic cat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available domestic cat ... Felis silvestris cat us Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Felis ... _silvestris_cat us_L.png Felis_silvestris_cat us_NL.png Felis_silves ... tris_cat us_S.png Felis_silvestris_cat us_NS.png http://biosc ...

  19. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  20. Chemodectoma in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of a thoracic mass. Radiographs demonstrated a 4 by 5-cm mass dorsal to the heart. Cytology of specimens obtained by ultrasound-guided needle aspiration was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor. Scintigraphy, thoracic exploratory, and histology were used to identify the mass as an aortic body chemodectoma

  1. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  2. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  3. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  4. Oligopsonistic Cats and Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dewit, Dr. Gerda; Leahy, Dr. Dermot

    2005-01-01

    We study the strategic investment behaviour of oligopsonistic rivals in the labour market. Under wage competition, firms play "puppy dog" with productivityaugmenting investment and "fat cat" with supply-enhancing investment. Under employment competition, investing strategically always involves playing "top dog".

  5. Morfofisiologia do tecido intertubular e das células de Leydig de jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis adulta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sarti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o espaço intertubular e descreveu-se seu arranjo em jaguatirica adulta (Leopardus pardalis. Para tal, colheram-se fragmentos dos testículos, de cinco jaguatiricas adultas, provenientes de cativeiro, obtidos por biópsia incisional. O compartimento intertubular correspondeu a 19,4% do parênquima, sendo 3,9% ocupado por células de Leydig. Estes se apresentaram uninucleados, com o núcleo arredondado e nucléolo único, e com grande quantidade de grânulos pigmentares no citoplasma. O compartimento intertubular apresentou padrão do tipo II, e o tecido conjuntivo foi o componente mais abundante do tecido intertubular. Observou-se pequeno percentual de células de Leydig na espécie estudada, e o número médio por grama de testículo, 33,39 x10(6, apresentou-se dentro da amplitude descrita para a maioria dos mamíferos.

  6. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  7. The Cat nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguously predict the conscious experience of the cat and the observer. Keywords: brain states of observer, stochastic choice, state reduction, wave collapse.

  8. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, J P; Johnson, W E; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1994-09-01

    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using the methods of Fitch-Margoliash and neighbor-joining on a matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic distances for all pairs of species. Results of a relative-rate test indicate changes in two-dimensional electrophoresis data are constant among all South American felids with respect to a hyena outgroup. Allelic frequencies were transformed to discrete character states for maximum parsimony analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates a major split occurred approximately 5-6 million years ago, leading to three groups within the ocelot lineage. The earliest divergence led to Leopardus tigrina, followed by a split between an ancestor of an unresolved trichotomy of three species (Oncifelis guigna, O. geoffroyi, and Lynchailuris colocolo) and a recent common ancestor of Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii. The results suggest that modern South American felids are monophyletic and evolved rapidly after the formation of the Panama land bridge between North and South America. PMID:7932791

  9. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome. PMID:22546621

  10. The Cheshire Cat revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Vento, V

    1998-01-01

    The concept of effective field theory leads in a natural way to a construction principle for phenomenological sensible models known under the name of the Cheshire Cat Principle. We review its formulation in the chiral bag scenario and discuss its realization for the flavor singlet axial charge. Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. The presence of this surface term allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. We show that one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge.

  11. Patrones de actividad y densidad del ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en la reserva de la biosfera "Sierra del Abra Tanchipa", San Luis Potosí, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernández, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    México cuenta con escasos estudios sobre el ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) a pesar de ser una especie en peligro de extinción. En el Estado de San Luis Potosí, se ha confirmado la presencia de poblaciones residentes y probablemente se encuentran en situación de riesgo debido a las intensas modificaciones del hábitat. Por esta razón es necesario generar información para conocer el estado actual de la población y para implementar estrategias efectivas de manejo para la conservación de esta especi...

  12. Parámetros genético poblacionales en seis especies de Felidae neotropicales ( Leopardus tigrina, L. wiedii, L. pardalis, Herpailurus jagouroundi, Puma concolor y Pantera onca )

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-01-01

    Se analizaron 196 muestras pertenecientes a 68 Leopardus pardalis (Ocelote; Colombia, Perú), a12 L. wiedi (Margay; Colombia y Bolivia), a 24 L. tigrinus (Tigrillo; Colombia), a 16 Herpailurus jagouroundi (yagouroundi; Colombia, Venezuela, Brasil) a 50 Puma concolor (Puma; Colombia, Perú, Bolivia) y a 24 Panthera onca (Jaguar; Colombia) con 6 marcadores microsatélites diferentes (FCA08, FCA43, FCA45, FCA90, FCA96 y FCA126). Los resultados y conclusiones más obvias fueron las siguientes: (1) Pa...

  13. Análisis comparativo de las subespecies de Ocelote Leopardus pardalis (Felidae) a partir de datos craneométricos y moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Duque Carolina

    2005-01-01

    El ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) es uno de los felinos con mayor distribución geográfica a lo largo del continente americano. Se han designado 11 subespecies, soportadas en características morfológicas. Sin embargo, estas subdivisiones no han sido aclaradas molecularmente. En este trabajo se analizaron siete subespecies, L. p. mearnsi, L. p. pseudopardalis, L. p. maripensis, L. p. pusaeus, L. p. aequatorialis, L. p. steinbachi, y L. p. mitis a nivel craneométrico, para reconocer y verificar la...

  14. Primer registro de ocelote (Leopardus pardalis) en el Parque Nacional Lagunas de Zempoala, Estado de México y Morelos, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Aranda; Francisco Botello; Enrique Martínez-Meyer; Arturo Pineda

    2014-01-01

    Mediante fototrampeo se registró la presencia de un individuo macho adulto de ocelote ( Leopardus pardalis ) en el Parque Nacional Lagunas de Zempoala (PNLZ), en los estados de México y Morelos, México. Este es el primer registro de la especie para el PNLZ y es el más cercano a las ciudades de México, Toluca y Cuernavaca; también es la ubicación de mayor altitud para la especie en México (3 150 m) y la primera vez que se documenta en un bosque de oyamel.

  15. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  16. Environmental Enrichment for Indoor Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Herron, Meghan E.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations to cat owners to house their cats indoors confer the responsibility to provide conditions that ensure good health and welfare. Cats maintain their natural behaviors, such as scratching, chewing, and elimination, while living indoors, and they may develop health and behavior problems when deprived of appropriate environmental outlets for these behaviors. This article divides the environment into five basic “systems” to enable identification of features that may benefit from imp...

  17. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  18. Environmental enrichment for indoor cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Meghan E; Buffington, C A Tony

    2010-12-01

    Recommendations to cat owners to house their cats indoors confer the responsibility to provide conditions that ensure good health and welfare. Cats maintain their natural behaviors, such as scratching, chewing, and elimination, while living indoors, and they may develop health and behavior problems when deprived of appropriate environmental outlets for these behaviors. This article divides the environment into five basic "systems" to enable identification of features that may benefit from improvement. It also addresses practical means of meeting cats' needs in each of these systems. PMID:21882164

  19. The Cat nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguousl...

  20. cats and dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜玉秀

    2003-01-01

    有这样一则英语成语:“To rain cats anddogs.”如果望文生义,则会被译为“下猫下狗”,因而会弄出许多笑话来,这应当是值得引以为戒的。其实这句成语的真正含义是:“下倾盆大雨”。那么下雨为什么会与cats和dogs联系在一起呢?

  1. EzCatDB: M00143 [EzCatDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://ezcatdb.cbrc.jp/EzCatDB/search/get.do?dbcode=M00143 EzCatDB M00143 0) { response = "?" + ... 1995 Volume 34 Pages 955-64 Authors Mimeault M, De Lean ... A, Lafleur M, Bonenfant D, Fournier A Title Evalua ...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Adania, C H; Ferreira, F; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Ferreira-Neto, J S

    2001-12-13

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 865 captive neotropical felids from 20 states from Brazil, sampled from September 1995 to April 1997. Sera were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies (MAT> or =1:20) to T. gondii were found in 472 of 865 (54.6%) cats: in 45 of 99 (45.9%) jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), in 97 of 168 (57.7%) ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), in 68 of 131 (51.9%) oncillas (L. tigrinus), in 35 of 63 (55.5%) margays (L. wiedii), in 1 of 8 (12.5%) Pampas-cat (Oncifelis colocolo), in 9 of 12 (75.0%) Geoffroys-cat (O. geoffroyi), in 134 of 212 (63.2%) jaguars (Panthera onca), and in 83 of 172 (48.2%) pumas (Puma concolor). Antibody titers were: 1:20 in 27 felids, 1:25 in 142 felids, 1:40 in 6 felids, 1:50 in 292 felids, and > or =1:500 in 5 felids. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested a widespread exposure of neotropical cats to T. gondii in zoos in Brazil. The results warrant an investigation on the mode of exposure and oocyst shedding by neotropical cats. PMID:11777601

  3. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  4. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  5. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  6. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  7. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  8. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat is often an incidental finding on a routine thoracic or abdominal radiograph. Clinical signs are nonspecific-usually respiratory (dyspnea) or gastrointestinal(vomiting or diarrhea). Some of the cats with this anomaly are asymptomatic. The physical examination may be normal: muffled heart sounds are the most common abnormality noted during a physical examination. Cats of many breeds are affected, although 26% of reported cases were inPersians. Age of the cat at diagnosis ranged from 6 days to 14 years. Thirty of the 52 reported cases were in females. Diagnostic studies used to confirm the diagnosis included echocardiography, upper gastrointestinal study, ultrasonography, angiography, positive-contrast peritoneography, and laparotomy. Surgical correction was reportedly successful in 22 of 25 cats

  9. Like herding cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change. PMID:9464034

  10. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its ass...

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  12. Contenção farmacológica do gato-do-mato-pequeno, Leopardus tigrinus, para colheita de sêmen, pela associação de tiletamina zolazepam e xilazina Chemical restraint of tigrinas, Leopardus tigrinus, for semen collection with allometrically scaled doses of tiletamine, zolazepam, and xylazine

    OpenAIRE

    Julio C. Juvenal; Renato H. Erdmann; Nei Moreira; Wanderlei Moraes; Patrícia H. Cubas; Luis E.S. Delgado; Anderson L. Carvalho; José R. Pachaly

    2008-01-01

    Foram avaliados os efeitos anestésicos da associação de cloridrato de tiletamina, cloridrato de zolazepam e cloridrato de xilazina para contenção farmacológica de gatos-do-mato-pequenos, Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 (Felidae), submetidos à colheita de sêmen por eletroejaculação. Formularam-se três diferentes protocolos, sendo as doses calculadas individualmente, por meio de extrapolação alométrica interespecífica, com base nas indicações posológicas usuais para o cão doméstico com massa ...

  13. Short colon in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old male Japanese domestic cat was referred to the veterinary hospital with a chronic diarrhea and signs of pain and vocalization when defecating. The cat has discharged unformed feces throughout his life. Morphological diagnosis of short colon was made radiographically after barium enema. The ileocolic junction and cecum was located to the left of the midline at the proximal end of the descending colon. Additional endoscopic examination demonstrated the difference in visual structures of the mucosal surface and in histological structures on mucosal biopsy specimens, between the colon and ileum. This is the first report of short colon in a cat in Japan

  14. Fundamentals of ServCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This training manual for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog (ServCat) provides detailed instructions on searching for records, creating records, and...

  15. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Centers priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents which include annual narrative reports,...

  16. Parámetros genético poblacionales en seis especies de Felidae neotropicales ( Leopardus tigrina, L. wiedii, L. pardalis, Herpailurus jagouroundi, Puma concolor y Pantera onca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 196 muestras pertenecientes a 68 Leopardus pardalis (Ocelote; Colombia, Perú, a12 L. wiedi (Margay; Colombia y Bolivia, a 24 L. tigrinus (Tigrillo; Colombia, a 16 Herpailurus jagouroundi (yagouroundi; Colombia, Venezuela, Brasil a 50 Puma concolor (Puma; Colombia, Perú, Bolivia y a 24 Panthera onca (Jaguar; Colombia con 6 marcadores microsatélites diferentes (FCA08, FCA43, FCA45, FCA90, FCA96 y FCA126. Los resultados y conclusiones más obvias fueron las siguientes: (1 Para la mayoría de esas especies no se dio equilibrio Hardy- Weinberg cuando se analizaron individuos de localidades diferentes por exceso de homocigotos. Probablemente, el efecto Wahlund es responsable de ese hecho.

  17. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  18. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Moore SA

    2014-01-01

    Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structura...

  19. Echocardiographic Findings in 11 Cats with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J A; Lunn, K.F.; Bright, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information regarding cardiac changes in domestic cats with acromegaly is limited. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the echocardiographic findings in cats with acromegaly. Animals Eighteen cats diagnosed with acromegaly at Colorado State University between 2008 and 2012. Of these 18 cats, 11 had echocardiography performed. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was made to identify cats with acromegaly that also had echocardiography perfo...

  20. Schrodinger's cat: much ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.

  1. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  2. Primary hypoadrenocorticism in ten cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Greco, D S; Orth, D N

    1989-01-01

    Primary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in ten young to middle-aged cats of mixed breeding. Five of the cats were male, and five were female. Historic signs included lethargy (n = 10), anorexia (n = 10), weight loss (n = 9), vomiting (n = 4), and polyuria (n = 3). Dehydration (n = 9), hypothermia (n = 8), prolonged capillary refill time (n = 5), weak pulse (n = 5), collapse (n = 3), and sinus bradycardia (n = 2) were found on physical examination. Results of initial laboratory tests revealed anemia (n = 3), absolute lymphocytosis (n = 2), absolute eosinophilia (n = 1), and azotemia and hyperphosphatemia (n = 10). Serum electrolyte changes included hyponatremia (n = 10), hyperkalemia (n = 9), hypochloremia (n = 9), and hypercalcemia (n = 1). The diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency was established on the basis of results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests (n = 10) and endogenous plasma ACTH determinations (n = 7). Initial therapy for hypoadrenocorticism included intravenous administration of 0.9% saline and dexamethasone and intramuscular administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate in oil. Three cats were euthanatized shortly after diagnosis because of poor clinical response. Results of necropsy examination were unremarkable except for complete destruction of both adrenal cortices. Seven cats were treated chronically with oral prednisone or intramuscular methylprednisolone acetate for glucocorticoid supplementation and with oral fludrocortisone acetate or intramuscular injections of repository desoxycorticosterone pivalate for mineralocorticoid replacement. One cat died after 47 days of therapy from unknown causes; the other six cats are still alive and well after 3 to 70 months of treatment. PMID:2469793

  3. Reported cat bites in Dallas: characteristics of the cats, the victims, and the attack events.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J C

    1990-01-01

    Associated with the increased popularity of cats as pets in American households has been an increase in the number of cat bites reported to health departments. Bite reports from Dallas, TX, for 1985 were analyzed for different aspects of the cat bite event, including characteristics of the cats, the people bitten, the wounds, and the attack events. Cat bites and scratches constituted 25 percent of the 2,494 reported animal bites. Biting cats were typically stray females. People 21 to 35 years...

  4. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist

  5. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  6. Comparison of two commercial kits and two extraction methods for fecal glucocorticoid analysis in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) submitted to ACTH challenge Comparação do desempenho de dois conjuntos comerciais e de dois métodos de extração para a análise de glicocorticóides fecais em jaguatiricas (Leopardus pardalis) submetidas ao desafio com ACTH

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Antunes Dias; Marcilio Nichi; Marcelo A.B.V Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is included in list of wild felid species protected by CITES and is part of conservation strategies that necessarily involve the use of assisted reproduction techniques, which requires practical and minimally invasive techniques of high reproducibility that permit the study of animal reproductive physiology. The objective of this study was to compare and validate two commercial assays: ImmuChem Double Antibody Corticosterone 125I RIA from ICN Biomedicals, Costa...

  7. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    CERN Document Server

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we question both these positions and also the assumption that the atom and the cat are entangled and further whether the atom could be considered to be in a state of decay and not decay. We let the cat either out of the bag (chamber) or rest in peace with or without the atom or the observer.

  8. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  9. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range. PMID:26993807

  10. The Nucleon as a Holographic Cheshire Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit.

  11. The nucleon as a holographic Cheshire cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit

  12. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  13. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis

  14. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if my pet has a tapeworm infection? Although cats and dogs are rarely ill as a result of a ... and outdoor environments. Have your veterinarian treat your dogs and cats promptly if they have tapeworms. Clean up after ...

  15. ServCat Document Selection Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ServCat document selection guidelines were developed for selecting appropriate documents to upload into ServCat. When beginning to upload documents into...

  16. Dirac Cat States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a relativistic version of Schrodinger cat states, here called Dirac cat states, can be built in relativistic Landau levels when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily Dirac cat states involving the orbital quanta of the particle in a well defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that the proposed Dirac cat states have a purely relativistic origin and cease...

  17. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H.M.S; Razauden Z; Harisun Y; Ida I.M; Mona Z

    2014-01-01

    Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM) is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian governm...

  18. Cats & Dogs%猫狗大战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿萌

    2003-01-01

    @@ ( Dogs and cats are permanent enemies. A dog named Bubby is catnapped by the cats. The whole cats' world is shocked and alert. ) Dog Chairman: Gentlemen, a few moments ago I received word of the gravest nature. The key agent working the Brody case has been catnapped. Although he is safe, new must replace him as soon as possible.

  19. Genitourinary dysplasia in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six-month-old kitten had congenital urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence due to urethral hypoplasia and associated uterine hypoplasia and vaginal aplasia. Diagnosis was based on radiographic examination, surgical exploration and histological examination of the lower urinary tract. Surgical correction resulted in a marked clinical improvement. The cat became fully continent following treatment with phenylpropanolamine

  20. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  1. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  2. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs.

  3. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  4. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  5. My Experience of Feeding a Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔琳

    2006-01-01

    I liked cat very much. In my old opinion, cat was cute and gentle. One day, my friend asked me to feed the cat for him. So I went to his house in order to take care of his cat. His neighbor was an old woman. When I was doing some cleaning, the old woman asked me if I needed some help. Suddenly, the cat stretched out its sharp claws, and clawed me and bit me with its sharp teeth. WowA It was too abrupt. The old woman got scared. “It goes crazyA” I said and asked her to get out of the room, otherwise she woul...

  6. Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-11-01

    There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids. PMID:24751217

  7. Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder with metastasis in lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an ocelot(Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Y.R. Nakagaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of nonpapillary and infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder with metastasis of lumbar vertebrae and spinal cord compression in an adult female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, from the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The ocelot had pelvic limb paralysis and skin ulcers in the posterior region of the body and was submitted to euthanasia procedure. At necropsy was observed a multilobulated and irregular shaped, yellowish to white nodule in the urinary bladder. The nodule had a soft consistency and arised from the mucosa of the urinary bladder extending throughout the muscular layers and the serosa. Nodules of similar appearance infiltrating the vertebral column the at L6 and L7 vertebrae with corresponding spinal canal invasion were also observed. The histological evaluation showed epithelial neoplastic proliferation in the urinary bladder with characteristics of nonpapillary and infiltrative TCC, with positive immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin, and strong immunostaining for cytokeratin of low molecular weight, and weak or absent labeling for high molecular weight cytokeratin. This is the first report of TCC of urinary bladder in ocelot in Brazil.

  8. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  9. Experimental cochlear hydrops in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, T L

    1986-11-01

    An experimental model of cochlear hydrops was created in cats. Ten cats underwent surgical procedures to obliterate the saccule, and their temporal bones were studied by light microscopy after sacrifice at 10 weeks. In one group the saccules were destroyed by maceration and aspiration. However, in these ears the saccular lumens were not obliterated and endolymphatic hydrops did not develop. Obliteration of the saccules was achieved in the second group after fascia was introduced into the area of the injured saccules. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was a consistent finding in these ears except when a fistula of the membranous labyrinth was present. However, in addition to fibrosis and new bone formation in the vestibules there were also degenerative changes in the hair cells, tectorial membranes, and striae vasculares of these cochleae. The results supported the longitudinal flow theory of endolymph and are consistent with the reported examples of cochlear endolymphatic hydrops in man. PMID:3812642

  10. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  11. Cat scratch disease in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Karpathios, T; Golphinos, C; Psychou, P; Garoufi, A; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P

    1998-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion or a fourfold change of the antibody titre to B henselae in 12 patients and on a single high titre...

  12. Temporomandibular ankylosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the cat is an unusual complication of traumatic lesions involving articular (true ankylosis) or periarticular structures (false ankylosis). Seven cats with true ankylosis of the TMJ (four cases unilateral and three cases bilateral), of which previous trauma had been documented in five cases, were referred to the authors' clinic between September 1991 and October 1996. Radiographic assessment was performed in all cases, using dorsoventral and oblique projections. Five subjects underwent arthroplastic excision of the TMJ and, in the remaining two cases, stretching of the jaws was performed under general anaesthesia. The surgical outcome was satisfactory in all but one case, where partially decreased joint mobility was observed (follow-up time one to five years), but in the two cases where non-surgical treatment was carried out, recurrence of TMJ ankylosis was observed (follow-up time two to five months). In the authors' experience, surgery represents the treatment of choice for TMJ ankylosis in cats. Additional mandibular symphysiotomy can confirm the radiological findings in unilateral cases

  13. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  14. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h...

  15. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (131I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  16. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  17. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  18. Spatially explicit inference for open populations: estimating demographic parameters from camera-trap studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Beth; Reppucci, Juan; Lucherini, Mauro; Royle, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We develop a hierarchical capture–recapture model for demographically open populations when auxiliary spatial information about location of capture is obtained. Such spatial capture–recapture data arise from studies based on camera trapping, DNA sampling, and other situations in which a spatial array of devices records encounters of unique individuals. We integrate an individual-based formulation of a Jolly-Seber type model with recently developed spatially explicit capture–recapture models to estimate density and demographic parameters for survival and recruitment. We adopt a Bayesian framework for inference under this model using the method of data augmentation which is implemented in the software program WinBUGS. The model was motivated by a camera trapping study of Pampas cats Leopardus colocolo from Argentina, which we present as an illustration of the model in this paper. We provide estimates of density and the first quantitative assessment of vital rates for the Pampas cat in the High Andes. The precision of these estimates is poor due likely to the sparse data set. Unlike conventional inference methods which usually rely on asymptotic arguments, Bayesian inferences are valid in arbitrary sample sizes, and thus the method is ideal for the study of rare or endangered species for which small data sets are typical.

  19. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact. PMID:19744306

  20. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  1. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Director. (e) Additional requirements for the importation of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats shall be subject... all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a... persons except for contact necessary for its care or, if the dog or cat is allowed out of the...

  2. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  3. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  4. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao;

    2007-01-01

    sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web at...... http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT and...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca), Pumas (Puma concolor), and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09), followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16), and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08). We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes. PMID:26974968

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca), Pumas (Puma concolor), and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2016-01-01

    With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09), followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16), and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08). We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes. PMID:26974968

  7. Seasonal analysis of semen characteristics, serum testosterone and fecal androgens in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), margay (L. wiedii) and tigrina (L. tigrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, R N; Mucciolo, R G; Gomes, M L F; Lacerda, O; Moraes, W; Moreira, N; Graham, L H; Swanson, W F; Brown, J L

    2002-05-01

    Captive adult male ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, n = 3), margays (L. wiedii, n = 3) and tigrinas (L. tigrinus, n = 4) in two locations in southern Brazil were studied for 14 consecutive months to evaluate the effect of season on testicular function. Reproductive evaluations, including testicular measurements, electroejaculation and blood collection were conducted monthly. Fecal samples were collected weekly for androgen metabolite analysis to assess testicular steroidogenic activity. Ocelots had the highest number of motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate (114.7+/-15.8 x 10(6); P < 0.05), the highest percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (82.4+/-1.2%; P < 0.05) and the highest concentration of fecal androgens (1.71 vs. 0.14 microg/g; P < 0.05). Margays and tigrinas had lower numbers of motile spermatozoa (23.4+/-2.8 x 10(6), 74.2+/-8.9 x 10(6), respectively), lower percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa (57.4+/-2.8, 59.2+/-3.5%, respectively), and lower fecal androgen concentrations (0.15+/-0.01, 0.23+/-0.01 microg/g, respectively). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar among the three species. Fecal androgen concentrations were not affected by season, with the exception of the ocelot where concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the summer. Ejaculates were collected throughout the year; however, peaks in average sperm production were observed during the summer for all species. In summary, this study has identified several species differences in male testicular traits among ocelots, margays and tigrinas. Results of longitudinal reproductive assessments suggest males of each species are capable of breeding throughout the year. PMID:12066863

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca, Pumas (Puma concolor, and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wultsch

    Full Text Available With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis. We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09, followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16, and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08. We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes.

  9. Análisis comparativo de las subespecies de Ocelote Leopardus pardalis (Felidae a partir de datos craneométricos y moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales Duque Carolina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El ocelote (Leopardus pardalis es uno de los felinos con mayor distribución geográfica a lo largo del continente americano. Se han designado 11 subespecies, soportadas en características morfológicas. Sin embargo, estas subdivisiones no han sido aclaradas molecularmente. En este trabajo se analizaron siete subespecies, L. p. mearnsi, L. p. pseudopardalis, L. p. maripensis, L. p. pusaeus, L. p. aequatorialis, L. p. steinbachi, y L. p. mitis a nivel craneométrico, para reconocer y verificar la
    diferenciación entre subespecies de ocelote; y a nivel molecular, mediante el uso de marcadores heterólogos para comprobar la existencia de estas subespecies e igualmente conocer detalles de su estructura poblacional e historia evolutiva. Únicamente para el análisis craneométrico fueron incluidas dos subespecies norteamericanas L. p. pardalis, y L. p. albescens; y para comparar el nivel molecular se emplearon los datos de Walker (1997. Pudieron ser ratificadas solo cuatro subespecies,
    de las cuales, L. p. pardalis, L. p. albescens y L. p. steinbachi fueron las más diferenciadas para ambos niveles. Las demás subespecies, presentaron altos niveles de flujo génico que indican una homogenización de la especie. No obstante, se evidenció un exceso de homocigotos posiblemente causado por alelos nulos o endogamia. Al combinar los resultados de cada estudio, se puede clarificar entonces cuestiones taxonómicas y sugerir manejos de conservación para la especie, ya sea como una unidad integral o como varias unidades particulares.

  10. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  11. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  12. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  13. Probing a Gravitational Cat State

    CERN Document Server

    Anastopoulos, Charis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially-separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit, quantum fluctuations of the stress energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle system...

  14. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance. PMID:26975352

  15. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  16. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  17. Ectopic ureter in a male cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A male cat with persistent urinary incontinence is described. Definitive diagnosis of unilateral ectopic ureter was obtained by intravenous urography, after which surgical re-implantation of the ureter into the bladder was performed. The literature on ureteral ectopia in cats is discussed

  18. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of feline oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma are described. In both cases, diagnosis was achieved by radiography, endoscopy and cytology, and later confirmed by histology. One cat underwent oesophagectomy followed by end-to-end anastomosis, but died three days postsurgery; the second cat was euthanased after diagnosis

  19. Management of hypertension in a geriatric cat

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and chronic renal disease occur commonly in geriatric cats, often in association with potentially life-threatening primary or secondary hypertension. Early treatment of hypertension minimizes damage to vital organs. This case illustrates the complexity of managing hypertension in a geriatric cat with both hyperthyroidism and renal disease.

  20. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  1. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  2. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  3. Serological Detection of Viral Infections in Captive Wild Cats from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinndle Blanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina, and one jaguar (Panthera onca were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and p27 antigen of feline leukemia virus (FeLV, 42 samples for antibodies against feline parvovirus (FPV, and 30 for antibodies against feline calicivirus (FCV. None of the samples contained detectable antibodies against FIV or p27 antigen of FeLV, all samples contained antibodies against FPV, and one sample contained antibodies against FCV.

  4. Serological detection of viral infections in captive wild cats from costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Peña, Roberto; Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez, Mauricio; Araya, Luis Nazario; Romero, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2011-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (Panthera onca) were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and p27 antigen of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), 42 samples for antibodies against feline parvovirus (FPV), and 30 for antibodies against feline calicivirus (FCV). None of the samples contained detectable antibodies against FIV or p27 antigen of FeLV, all samples contained antibodies against FPV, and one sample contained antibodies against FCV. PMID:21547230

  5. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  6. Comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (Felidae), dogs (Canidae), bears (Ursidae) and hyaenas (Hyaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, A A; Johnstone, M

    1995-04-01

    The structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the Felidae, Canidae, Ursidae and Hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. The Felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (Felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (Uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (Leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (Panthera leo), a panther neonate (Panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (Neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. The Canidae were represented by a golden jackal neonate (Canis aureus), a newborn wolf (Canis lupus), 8 domestic dog fetuses (Canis familiaris), 3 red fox neonates (Vulpes vulpes) and a dhole neonate (Cuon alpinus). The Ursidae were represented by a brown bear neonate (Ursus arctos), a day-old grizzly bear cub (Ursus arctos horribilis), a polar bear neonate (Ursus maritimus), and 2 additional bear fetuses (species unknown). The Hyaenidae were represented by a striped hyaena neonate (Hyaena hyaena). In each species, the foramen ovale, when viewed from the terminal part of the caudal vena cava, had the appearance of a short tunnel. A thin fold of tissue, the developed remains of the embryonic septum primum, extended from the distal end of the caudal vena cava for a variable distance into the lumen of the left atrium and contributed towards the 'tunnel' appearance in all specimens. It constituted a large proportion of the tube, and its distal end was straight-edged. There was fibrous material underlying the endothelium of the flap, the apparent morphology of which suggested that it comprised cardiac muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7649822

  7. Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

  8. Subarachnoid cyst in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-year-old domestic longhair was presented with hind-limb ataxia and some degree of incontinence of two weeks' duration. An enlarged spinal canal from the twelfth thoracic (T-12) vertebra to the third lumbar (L(3)) vertebra was identified on survey radiographs. An intradural-extramedullary cavity at the twelfth (T-12) and thirteenth (T-13) thoracic vertebrae, filled with contrast material, was demonstrated on myelography. A left-sided hemilaminectomy was performed over this region, and a subarachnoid cavitation or cyst was found to be the cause of the severe spinal-cord compression. The cyst was drained. The cat showed improvement in the neurological signs during the first three weeks postoperatively. Six months later no neurological deficits were identified on follow-up examination

  9. The Mice and the Cat

    OpenAIRE

    ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī, Niẓām al-Dīn; Muhaddis, Ali; Utas, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This work consists of an edition of a hitherto unknown manuscript of the Persian poem Mūš u gurbah (The Cat and the Mice), ascribed to ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī (d. 771–772 A.H.q. [corresponding to Aug. 1369 – July 1371 A.D.]), a facsimile of this manuscript which is preserved in the National Library of Tunis, and translations into English and Swedish of the poem. ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī’s authorship of the poem Mūš u gurbah is discussed and refuted in favour of a more likely theory, namely that Mūš u gurbah w...

  10. Chronic methylmercurialism in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, T A; Costigan, P; Wilkinson, G T; Seawright, A A

    1978-04-01

    The mercury levels in 69 muscle samples from fish weighing from 0.3 to 200 kg caught in Moreton Bay, Queensland, in the latter half of 1976 ranged from less than 10 to 2,030 ng/g. Mercury levels in blood samples from 53 humans and 100 dogs in Brisbane almost all contained less than 10 ng/ml while the level in 162 cats sampled ranged from less than 10 to 329 ng/ml. Chronic methylmercurialism developed in 2 cats dosed daily with methylmercury, bound to cysteine, at the rate of 0.6 mg/kg body weight for 74 and 77 days respectively. Terminal clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, knuckling over at the carpus and tarsus, hypermetria initially involving the forelegs and later the hindlegs, sluggish reflexes, paresis involving all limbs, persistent crying, apparent blindness, tonic and clonic convulsions and salivation. Pathological changes were confined to the nervous system and included degeneration of neurones and perivascular cuffing in the cerebrocortical grey matter, focal atrophy of the granular layer, focal spongiosus of the molecular layer and degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and demyelination in the fibre tracts of the dorsal funiculus, mainly the fasciculus cuneatus and in the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts. Terminal blood methylmercury levels were in excess of 18 microgram/ml, while brain methylmercury levels ranged from 21.0 to 28.4 microgram/g. The liver and kidney contained the highest total levels of mercury of 50 to 80 microgram/g, of which 23 to 37% was inorganic. PMID:687273

  11. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  12. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  13. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900

  14. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor sa

  15. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  16. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

  17. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  18. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  19. CAT -- computer aided testing for resonant inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of computer technology relates to inspection and quality control. The computer aided testing (CAT) can be used to analyze various NDT technologies, such as eddy current, ultrasonics, and resonant inspection

  20. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  1. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  2. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various...... scientific and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of...

  3. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Nielsen, Dorte Hald;

    2010-01-01

    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more...... severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands....... After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compute tomography....

  4. Cats and the law: research report

    OpenAIRE

    Nurse, Angus; Ryland, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the legal status of cats, within the UK’s legal system (primarily in England and Wales) but also in an international context. It considers a range of different areas of law and conflicting perspectives within the UK’s animal welfare, contract, criminal and environmental law and also addresses issues of ownership and liability. In particular, the research examines how both domestic and wild cats are subject to different protection under the law and the manner in wh...

  5. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; Williams, June H.; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  6. Dermoscopic evaluation of skin in healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zanna, G.; Auriemma, E; Arrighi, S.; Attanasi, A.; Zini, E.; Scarampella, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a diagnostic tool that can reveal morphological structures not visible upon clinical examination. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness and applicability of dermoscopy for the examination of healthy cat skin. ANIMALS: Twenty-one domestic short-haired cats from a feline rescue association. METHODS: Four regions (head, dorsal neck, sacral and abdominal regions) were examined with both a contact hand-held nonpolarized light dermoscope at 10-fold magni...

  7. Sonographic pleural fluid volume estimation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimali, Jerry; Cripps, Peter J; Newitt, Anna L M

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a recently published study used to objectively monitor pleural fluid volumes in dogs could be successfully employed in cats and secondly to assess its accuracy. Eleven feline cadavers were selected. Using the trans-sternal view employed in dogs, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the centre of the heart to the furthest ventro-lateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 400 ml total volume was reached. The mean measurement increased in a linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume for all cats individually. An equation was produced to predict the volume of fluid from the mean linear measurement for all cats combined: Volume=[-3.75+2.41(mean)](3)(P<0.001) but variability in the slope of the curve for individual cats limited the accuracy of the combined equation. Equations were derived to predict the constant and slope of the curve for individual cats using the thoracic measurements made, but the residual diagnostic graphs demonstrated considerable variability. As in dogs, good correlation was found between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual cats. An accurate equation to predict absolute pleural fluid volume was not identified. Further analysis with reference to thoracic measurements did not increase accuracy. In conclusion, this study does provide a method of estimating absolute pleural fluid volume in cats, which may be clinical useful for pleural fluid volume monitoring but this is yet to be validated in live cats. PMID:19744872

  8. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Andrade; M. SAKATE; C.B. Laposy; S.F. Valente; V.M. Bettanim; L.T. Rodrigues; J. Marcicano

    2007-01-01

    This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz....

  9. Cat scratch disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious lymphadenitis frequently occurring in children and adolescents. We present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of two patients with this disease. In both cases, lymphadenopathy was characterized by extensive stranding of the surrounding soft tissues, consistent with the inflammatory nature of this condition. Magnetic resonance imaging can be diagnostic and may obviate the need for invasive means of evaluation in patients suspected of having cat scratch disease. (orig.)

  10. Videotutoriales Biblioteca: El Cat??logo ULE WordCat Local

    OpenAIRE

    S??inz-Ezquerra Foces, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    La Biblioteca de la ULE ofrece algunas utilidades que ayudar??n al usuario en sus visitas al OPAC, a aumentar sus funcionalidades. Estas utilidades se las ofrece la Biblioteca a sus usuarios en formato video. Utilidad: El Cat??logo ULE WordCat Local

  11. Computed tomographic appearance of inflammatory polyps in three cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the inner ear, tympanic bullae, nasopharyngeal area, and external ear canals of three cats. All cats presented for evaluation of upper respiratory signs or chronic ear infection. Nasopharyngeal masses were present in two cats, and a mass in the external ear canal was present in the third cat. In all three cats, CT was able to define the extent of osseous bulla involvement, which was confirmed at surgery. Computed tomography also defined the extent of the polyp in the nasopharyngeal area in two cats, and in the external ear canal in one cat. Surgical removal of the polyps was accomplished with a combined oral approach and ventral bulla osteotomy in cats 1 and 2. The polyp was removed from cat 3 using a combination of ventral bulla osteotomy and excision of the mass through the external ear canal. Microscopic examination confirmed all masses as nasopharyngeal (inflammatory) polyps

  12. Serological survey of paracoccidioidomycosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves de; Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate infection of cats by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Serum samples of 136 cats from rural (n = 86) and urban areas (n = 50) were analyzed by indirect ELISA and immunodiffusion test using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively, and an overall reactivity of 31.6 % was observed by ELISA although no reactivity was detected by immunodiffusion. The positivity observed in animals living in rural areas (48.8 %) with free access to soil was significantly higher (P urban animals (2 %) with limited access to soil, although no significant difference was observed in relation to age or sex. The high rates of positivity observed in cats from rural areas suggest that not diagnosed cases of this mycosis may be occurring in cats living in endemic areas for human paracoccidioidomycosis. This is the first report showing serological evidence of P. brasiliensis infection in cats. PMID:23912468

  13. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2013-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets worldwide, but little is known about their domestication. This study of cats living 5,300 y ago at the agricultural village of Quanhucun, China provides the earliest known evidence for mutualistic relationships between people and cats. Isotopic data demonstrate that humans, rodents, and the cats ate substantial amounts of millet-based foods, with cats preying on grain-eating animals. One cat was old and one ate less meat and more millet than othe...

  14. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  15. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  16. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. PMID:26603046

  17. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  18. Osteosarcoma in cats: 22 cases (1974-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma was diagnosed in 22 cats. Diagnosis was based on results of physical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Fifteen tumors arose from the appendicular skeleton, 4 from the skull, 2 from the pelvis, and 1 from a rib. Radiography revealed that in 14 of 15 cats (93%) with appendicular tumors, the lesion was metaphyseal, primarily lytic, with a ''moth-eaten'' appearance; absence and presence of periosteal new bone formation were associated with the tumors in 12 and 3 cats, respectively. The remaining 7 cats had axial tumors that were characterized by the presence of periosteal new bone formation in addition to bony lysis. Of the 15 cats with appendicular tumors, 12 were treated by amputation and 3 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Of the cats undergoing amputation for treatment of their appendicular tumors, 6 cats were still alive 64 months after surgery (range, 13 to 64 months); the median survival time of the 5 cats (1 cat was lost to follow-up evaluation) that died was 49.2 months (range, 1 to 122 months). Four of 12 cats (33%) survived greater than or equal to 5 years after diagnosis. Of the cats with axial tumors that were not euthanatized at the time of diagnosis (6 of 7), the median survival time was 5.5 months. Based on these findings, we concluded that cats with appendicular osteosarcoma have a better prognosis than those with axial osteosarcoma, and that amputation is a viable treatment for cats with appendicular osteosarcoma

  19. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A; Smith, Vicki; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and a...

  20. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  1. KnowCat: Catalizador de Conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Ruth; Alamán, Xavier; Esquivel, José A.

    2001-01-01

    KnowCat es un sistema distribuido que tiene como meta la creación incremental de conocimiento estructurado. El nombre del sistema, KnowCat, es el acrónimo de "Knowledge Catalyser" o "catalizador de conocimiento", que hace referencia a la propiedad principal que exhibirá: la catalización del proceso de cristalización del conocimiento como resultado de la interacción de los usuarios con dicho conocimiento. Un área de aplicación del sistema es la generación de materiales educativos de alta c...

  2. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H.M.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian government. The promising market potential of cat food is estimated to be over USD27 billion with over 7 million tonnes produced in 2013 (35% of the pet food market. It is expected to grow at 5.5% in value and 2% in volume; and this had driven the project to be initiated by UTM. The idea of halal, itself is a selling point to the Muslim consumers and the world at large.  The world’s Muslim population is estimated to be around 1.6 billion, while the world population is estimated to be at 4.6 billion. The demand for halal products is ever growing with emerging markets in India & China.  In addition, the purchasing power of the Muslims is growing, where between 1990 and 2010, the Growth Domestic Product (GDP per capita for Muslims globally had risen from a Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR of 6.8% in comparison to global GDP per capita which is only at CAGR of 5.0%. Cat food will come in human contact during feeding, handling, cleaning of feeding utensils under the same washing basin and dishwasher. Many times cat food will engage with human food storage facilities such as in the refrigerator and May to some extent affect the human food chain if it is not halal. Most of the available cat feed produce worldwide is non halal and majority are known to contain residues of porcine, dog materials and blood meal, deem unhealthy and unclean by the Muslims community.

  3. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Massimino Stefan; Hayek Michael G; Mathison Bridget D; Kim Hong; Park Jean; Reinhart Gregory A; Chew Boon P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW) were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment). Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body wei...

  4. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331

  5. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors. PMID:16620942

  6. Tits boundary of CAT(0) 2-complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the Tits boundary of locally compact CAT(0) 2-complexes. In particular we show that away from the endpoints, a geodesic segment in the Tits boundary is the ideal boundary of an isometrically embedded Euclidean sector. As applications, we provide sufficient conditions for two points in the Tits boundary to be the endpoints of a geodesic in the 2-complex and for a group generated by two hyperbolic isometries to contain a free group. We also show that if two CAT(0) 2-complexes are...

  7. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  8. Feline lost: making microchipping compulsory for domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M

    2016-08-13

    The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564

  9. Computed Tomographic Findings in Cats with Mycobacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Alison; Holmes, Andrea; Warren-Smith, Christopher; Lalor, Stephanie; Littler, Rebecca; Schwarz, Tobias; Gunn-Moore, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the CT imaging findings associated with confirmed mycobacterial infection in cats.Methods: CT images from 20 cats with confirmed mycobacterial disease were retrospectively reviewed. Five cats underwent conscious full-body CT in a VetMouseTrapTM device. All other cats had thoracic CT performed under general anaesthesia, with the addition of CT investigation of the head/neck, abdomen and limbs in some cases.Results: Mycobacterial infection...

  10. Remission of diabetes mellitus in cats with diabetic ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Kley, S; Tschuor, F; Zini, E.; Ohlerth, S; Boretti, F.S.; Reusch, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has long been considered a key clinical feature of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans although. An increasing number of cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in people with type-2 DM. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Cats initially diagnosed with DKA can achieve remission from diabetes. Cats with DKA and diabetic remission are more likely to have been administered glucocorticoids before diagnosis. ANIMALS: Twelve cats with DKA and 7 cats with uncomplicate...

  11. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, whi...

  12. Prevention of hypothermia in cats during routine oral hygiene procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, F A; Anthony, J M

    1997-01-01

    While thermally supported cats experienced a drop in body temperature during dental procedures, the drop was significantly greater in cats without thermal support. As cats are at risk of developing clinical hypothermia during dental procedures, steps should be taken to minimize the loss of body heat.

  13. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E

    2005-03-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  14. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H.; Soiderer, Emily E.

    2005-01-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes.

  15. Erythromycin induces expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, E J; Lovett, P S

    1990-01-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. This gene, like the erythromycin-inducible erm genes, is regulated by translational attenuation. Here we show that cat-86 is also inducibly regulated by erythromycin. cat-86 does not confer resistance to erythromycin.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  17. Cats and the law: aspects of the co-authored research undertaken for International CatCare

    OpenAIRE

    Ryland, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This research was initially commissioned by the Feline Advisory Bureau, now International CatCare, and has resulted in both a Research Report and Plain English Guide on Cats and the Law, co-author Dr Angus Nurse, Middlesex University.

  18. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  19. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  20. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  1. Mammary carcinosarcoma in cat: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    J.D.G. Paniago; A.L.S. Vieira; N.M. Ocarino; S.A. França; C. Malm; Cassali, G.D.; R. Serakides

    2010-01-01

    A case of mammary carcinosarcoma is reported in a 13-year-old, mixed breed female cat, which was not spayed and had not received contraceptives. The patient presented extensive and coalescent nodules in all mammary glands. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings, the diagnosis of mammary carcinosarcoma was confirmed.

  2. Halpern's Iteration in CAT(0 Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satit Saejung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Halpern's result, we prove strong convergence theorem of an iterative sequence in CAT(0 spaces. We apply our result to find a common fixed point of a family of nonexpansive mappings. A convergence theorem for nonself mappings is also discussed.

  3. Diet and breeding performance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovson, S G

    1986-07-01

    A conventional cat breeding colony with 70 queens (female cats) was studied during a 4 year period 1979-1982. During that time the fat content in the diet was increased from 15% to 27% of dry matter. An increase in the number of kittens per litter (from 4.5 to 5.5) and in the annual number of litters per queen (from 1.4 to 2.3) was found. In addition, the mortality decreased from over 20% to 9%. Bodyweight gain under the new diet was such that the males reached 2500 g in 4 months while the females showed this same weight at 5 months of age. Litter size and sex distribution as a function of queen age, litter interval and time of year are presented. It is concluded that husbandry and diet are factors which are of great importance in a cat breeding unit. It is shown that under our conditions it is possible to breed conventional cats with good results. PMID:3795859

  4. Mammary Hypertrophy in an Ovariohysterectomized Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Pukay, B.P.; Stevenson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  5. Vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female domestic shorthair was diagnosed with a vaccine- associated fibrosarcoma and treated with full course radiation therapy, aggressive surgery, and postoperative chemotherapy. Histopathologic examination confirmed that excision of the tumor was complete. The cat was doing well 278 days after initial presentation.

  6. Release of opioid peptides in anaesthetized cats?

    OpenAIRE

    Dashwood, M. R.; Feldberg, W.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effect on arterial blood pressure of intravenous injections of naloxone (200 μg) was examined in cats anaesthetized with chloralose. Usually these injections have no effect on blood pressure unless morphine or opioid peptides have been injected, when they produce a pressor response with tachycardia.

  7. Proximal minimization in CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Espínola, Rafa; Nicolae, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we provide convergence results for the proximal point algorithm and a splitting variant thereof in the setting of CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces with $\\kappa > 0$ using a recent definition for the resolvent of a convex, lower semi-continuous function due to Kimura and Kohsaka (J. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 18 (2016), 93-115).

  8. Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, P G

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in both dogs and cats. Ante-mortem diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis can be challenging. The clinical picture of dogs and cats with pancreatitis varies greatly (from very mild to severe or even fatal) and is characterised by non-specific findings. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis should always be performed in dogs and cats suspected of having pancreatitis, although findings are not-specific for pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase activities and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) concentrations have no or only limited clinical value for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in either dogs or cats. Conversely, serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) concentration is currently considered to be the clinicopathological test of choice for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis. Abdominal radiography is a useful diagnostic tool for the exclusion of other diseases that may cause similar clinical signs to those of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography can be very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, but this depends largely on the clinician's experience. Histopathological examination of the pancreas is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of pancreatitis, but it is not without limitations. In clinical practice, a combination of careful evaluation of the animal's history, serum PLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography, together with pancreatic cytology or histopathology when indicated or possible, is considered to be the most practical and reliable means for an accurate diagnosis or exclusion of pancreatitis compared with other diagnostic modalities. PMID:25586803

  9. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Oryszczyn; R. Ree; J. Maccario; R. Nadif; F. Kauffmann

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test (SPT

  10. Contenção farmacológica do gato-do-mato-pequeno, Leopardus tigrinus, para colheita de sêmen, pela associação de tiletamina zolazepam e xilazina Chemical restraint of tigrinas, Leopardus tigrinus, for semen collection with allometrically scaled doses of tiletamine, zolazepam, and xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Juvenal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos anestésicos da associação de cloridrato de tiletamina, cloridrato de zolazepam e cloridrato de xilazina para contenção farmacológica de gatos-do-mato-pequenos, Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 (Felidae, submetidos à colheita de sêmen por eletroejaculação. Formularam-se três diferentes protocolos, sendo as doses calculadas individualmente, por meio de extrapolação alométrica interespecífica, com base nas indicações posológicas usuais para o cão doméstico com massa de 10,0 kg. No Protocolo 1 (n=10 a base para o cálculo alométrico foi 5,0mg/kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 0,5mg/kg para xilazina; no Protocolo 2 (n=12, foi 5,0mg/kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 0,75mg/kg para xilazina; e no Protocolo 3 (n=11, foi 5,0mg/ kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 1,0mg/kg para xilazina. Os animais foram anestesiados em três ocasiões, com intervalo mínimo de 30 dias. Após a administração dos fármacos, monitorizaram-se durante 120 minutos freqüência cardíaca, freqüência respiratória, temperatura retal, miorrelaxamento e nocicepção. Também foram avaliados período de latência, período anestésico hábil e contaminação do ejaculado por urina. De um total de 32 colheitas, houve contaminação por urina em 10 colheitas (31,2% e em 18 alíquotas (0,07%, as quais foram desprezadas, não inviabilizando a análise e o processamento do sêmen. Observou-se pequeno aumento da temperatura retal durante a eletroejaculação, justificado pela contração muscular, ocorrendo redução da temperatura após o procedimento. As freqüências cardíaca e respiratória oscilaram durante o experimento, porém se mantiveram dentro dos padrões fisiológicos para a espécie. Nos três protocolos analisados não houve diferença significativa de sensibilidade de membros torácicos entre momentos antes e durante a eletroejaculação (pe"0,10, caracterizando assim a eficácia dos protocolos em propiciar analgesia e

  11. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  12. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  13. The radiographic appearance of pulmonary histoplasmosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 18 cats with pulmonary histoplasmosis was conducted to evaluate radiographic patterns of disease and to determine age, breed, and sex distributions. All cats had active disease confirmed by biopsy/aspiration cytology (lung, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, pleural fluid) or necropsy examination. Cats 3 years of age or less had the highest incidence of disease; females outnumbered males 2 to 1. Radiographically, most cats had an interstitial pattern which appeared as a fine, diffuse or linear pattern, or as a more distinct nodular pattern. An alveolar pattern was an uncommon radiographic finding. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and calcified lymph nodes or pulmonary parenchymal lesions were not identified in these cats

  14. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  15. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using [32P]-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed

  16. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  17. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  18. Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Marta; Camps, Tomàs; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Domestic cats are exposed to a variety of stressful stimuli, which may have a negative effect on the cats' welfare and trigger a number of behavioural changes. Some of the stressors most commonly encountered by cats include changes in environment, inter-cat conflict, a poor human-cat relationship and the cat's inability to perform highly motivated behaviour patterns. Stress is very likely to reduce feed intake, and stress-related anorexia may contribute to the development of potentially serious medical conditions. Stress also increases the risk of cats showing urine marking and some forms of aggression, including redirected aggression. A number of compulsive disorders such as over-grooming may also develop as a consequence of stressful environments. Some of the main strategies to prevent or reduce stress-related behavioural problems in cats are environmental enrichment, appropriate management techniques to introduce unfamiliar cats to each other and the use of the synthetic analogue of the feline facial pheromone. As the stress response in cats depends, to a large extent, on the temperament of the animal, breeding and husbandry strategies that contribute to the cat developing a well-balanced temperament are also very useful. PMID:26101238

  19. Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in newly diagnosed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerschbach, V; Eule, J C; Eberle, N; Höinghaus, R; Betz, D

    2016-03-01

    Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are described in humans and dogs but rarely in cats. In this prospective study, cats with newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve lymphoma were evaluated concerning clinical stage and ophthalmologic findings. Twenty-six cats were included. In 12 cats (48%), ocular changes were documented. Uveitis anterior and posterior were predominant findings, being present in 58% of affected individuals. Other findings included exophthalmos, corneal surface lesions and chemosis. Eight cats received chemotherapy, two of which had ocular involvement. In these two cats, a complete remission of an anterior and a partial remission of a posterior uveitis were documented. Due to the detection of ocular involvement, a stage migration from stage IV to V occurred in four patients. In the light of these findings, an opthalmological examination may be considered as an important part of staging in feline lymphoma as well as of follow-up examination in affected cats. PMID:24102737

  20. Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial Drug-resistant Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; De Buck, Jeroen; Rychlik, Ivan; Hradecka, Helena; Collard, Jean-Marc; Wildemauwe, Christa; Heyndrickx, Marc; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether cats were a risk for transmission of Salmonella to humans, we evaluated the excretion of Salmonella by pet cats. Rectal-swab specimens were taken from 278 healthy house cats, from 58 cats that died of disease, and from 35 group-housed cats. Group-housed cats were kept in one room with three cat trays and a common water and feed tray. Eighteen (51.4%) of 35 group-housed cats, 5 (8.6%) of 58 diseased cats (5/58), and 1 (0.36%) of 278 healthy house cats excreted Salmonella. ...

  1. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  2. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  3. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  4. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  5. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests. PMID:8211961

  6. Habituation of motion sickness in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, George H.; Lucot, James B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty femal cats were subjected to a motion sickness stimulus in three series of tests. A series consisted of five tests given biweekly, weekly, or daily. Each test consisted of 30 min of stimulation followed by 1 min of rest, and series were separated by a period of not less than 14 d. Retching was the dependent variable. No habituation (reduction in the incidence of retching) was found with biweekly testing but pronounced habituation was observed with weekly and daily testing. The 30 cats were divided evenly into high and low susceptibility groups based on the results of the biweekly tests. The rate of habituation was the same for the two susceptibility groups in both the weekly and daily series.

  7. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  8. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  9. Dissipative Quantum Metrology with Spin Cat States

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jiahao; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust high-precision phase estimation scheme via spin cat states in the presence of particle losses. The input Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, which may achieve the Heisenberg-limited measurement in the absence of particle losses, becomes fragile against particle losses and its achieved precision becomes even worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). However, the input spin cat states, a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two spin coherent states, are of excellent robustness against particle losses and the achieved precision may still beat the SQL. For realistic measurements based upon our scheme, comparing with the population measurement, the parity measurement is more suitable for yielding higher precisions. In phase measurement with realistic dissipative systems of bosonic particles, our scheme provides a robust and realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the SQL.

  10. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  11. Atypical membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Kami-ie, J; Ohtake, S; Wakui, S; Machida, S; Shirota, K

    2001-07-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was observed in a 2-year-old male Japanese domestic cat with clinical renal failure. In the glomeruli, moderate mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls were prominent. In addition, frequent duplication of the capillary walls, splitting, and spike formation were observed in the glomerular basement membrane. Granular cat IgG and complement component deposition were detected globally along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense deposits in the subendothelial and subepithelial regions and the mesangium. Mesangial interposition was also observed. These glomerular lesions are also found in humans with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III, which has not been reported in animals. PMID:11467485

  12. [Bacteriological and virological status in upper respiratory tract infections of cats (cat common cold complex)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Kerstin; Radeloff, Isabel; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich; Hellmann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2005,460 bacteriological samples from cats with an acute upper respiratory tract infection were analysed in clinical field studies in two accredited laboratories in Germany. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from these cats and sent to the laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the swab samples of 460 cats 382 bacteria strains were isolated. The following bacteria were isolated most frequently: Pasteurella spp. (32.5 %), Staphylococcus spp. (18.5 %), Escherichia coli (17.0 %), Streptococcus spp. (9.1 %), Pseudomonas spp. (6.9 %) and Klebsiella spp. (3.0 %). Bordetella bronchiseptica was found in 0.4 % of the animals To evaluate possible regional and time influences, the animals were split into three populations: 1: Germany, laboratory A; 2: Germany, laboratory B; 3: France and Belgium, laboratory B. In population 1 an 2 Pasteurella spp. were found most frequently with 42.2 % and 36.5 %, respectively. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species were Staphylococcus spp. with 14.1 % and 21.4 % and E. coli with 13.6 % and 17.5 % respectively. In population 3 Staphylococcus spp., E. coli (20 % each) and Pasteurella spp. (18.5 %) were isolated at almost the same frequency. Virological parameter were additionally analysed in 328 cats (population 2 and 3). Serum samples were analysed for antibodies specific for Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and for Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV) antigen. Oropharyngeal swabs were analysed for Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) by using PCR. Calicivirus-specific antibodies were found in 99.6 % of the cats of population 2 and in 100 % of the animals in population 3. Herpesvirus was detected in 15.3 % and 23.3 % of the cats, respectively. FeLV-Antigen was found in 0.4 % of the animals in population 2 and in 10.1 % of the cats in population 3, while FIV-antibodies were identified in 8.7 % of the animals of population 2 and in 6.1 % of the cats of population 3. In total FHV was

  13. Cat-Scratch Disease With Bone Involvemnet

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...

  14. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. PMID:23718784

  15. The vomeronasal organ of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, I.; Sanchez Quinteiro, P; Cifuentes, J M; Garcia Caballero, T

    1996-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ of the cat was studied macroscopically, by light microscopy and by immunohistochemical techniques. Special attention was paid to the general distribution of the various soft tissue components of this organ (duct, glands, connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves.) Examination of series of transverse sections showed that the wall of the vomeronasal duct bears 44 different types of epithelium: simple columnar in the caudal part of the duct, respiratory and receptor respe...

  16. Study of Giardia Infection in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zarebavani, M; A Pezeshki; Sh. Jamshidi; M Rezaeian

    2006-01-01

    Giardiasis caused by the intestinal flagellate Giardia duodenalis. It is postulated that animals may be a reservoir for human infection and vice versa, thus, giardiasis classified as a zooanthroponotic disease. Therefore, accurate information about the Giardia infection in animals can help the control and prevention of disease in human. With respect to considerable population of cats in Iran and close relation to human, in the current study we tried to determine the infection rate of Giardia ...

  17. Insulin therapy for dogs and cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, P M

    1995-01-01

    Management of diabetic dogs and cats requires a tremendous cooperative effort between the practitioner and the client. Consistency in the handling, availability, and formulations of the different insulins will improve client compliance. In addition to insulin therapy, successful management of the diabetic animal includes the client's perceptions of the animal's health, maintenance of the animal's body weight, consistency in water consumption, and monitoring serial blood glucose concentrations...

  18. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  19. Orofacial Cat Bite: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chandna, Preetika; Adlakha, Vivek Kumar; Prabhakar, Manisha; Julka, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    The article describes an unusual case of a 7 years old male child presenting with orofacial cat bite injury that occurred in infancy. This resulted in loss of deciduous and permanent tooth buds and consequently hampered alveolar growth. The patient was given a removable partial denture to restore function and aesthetics. The article highlights the importance of complete history, diagnosis and management of such injuries in children.

  20. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  1. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  2. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Hiroshi; ISOGAI, Tomomi; Aoki, Takuma; WAKAO, Yoshito; Fujii, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM...

  3. Folliculogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol-Gould, Sarah; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2006-07-01

    The dynamic regulation of mammalian folliculogenesis is a key component of the reproductive process. Traditionally, the rodent had been used as a model to study ovarian function and reproductive physiology due to the availability of animals, their relatively short cycle length, high rate of fecundity and short generation interval. We maintain that much basic information can be determined using domestic cat ovaries retrieved from local veterinary clinics following routine spaying, without having the expense of maintaining a colony of laboratory cats. Studies of normal feline reproductive physiology and advances in reproductive technology may be extrapolated for use in endangered non-domestic felids. Increased understanding of feline reproduction will be beneficial to veterinary medicine, and to groups working to control feral cat populations. It is important to examine reproductive mechanisms in alternative animal models as there are a vast number of threatened and endangered species in which we lack the critical reproductive information needed to assist in preserving their long-term survival. PMID:16620931

  4. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  5. Computed tomography of nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats. PMID:23441677

  6. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  7. Risk factors associated with sero-positivity to Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Silva, Jean Carlos; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda Vianna; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2007-03-17

    From September 1995 to February 2001, blood samples were collected from 865 neotropical felids belonging to 8 different species. These animals were housed in 86 institutions located in 78 cities of 20 Brazilian states. Our goal was to identify the risk factors associated with sero-positivity to Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil. All serum samples were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT), using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. For each animal an individual questionnaire was filled with questions about tattoo number, felid species, age, sex, origin, number of animals in the group, introduction of new animals in the group, time in the institution, eating meat previously frozen for a period Leopardus pardalis); 50% (95% CI: 45%, 56%) for oncilla (L. tigrinus); 54% (95% CI: 46%, 62%) for margay (L. wiedii); 12% (95% CI: 4%, 31%) for Pampas-cat (L. colocolo); 83% (95% CI: 65%, 93%) for Geoffroy's-cat (L. geoffroyi); 64% (95% CI: 50%, 68%) for jaguar (Panthera onca) and 48% (95% CI: 42%, 54%) for puma (Puma concolor). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the variables in the questionnaire and sero-positivity to T. gondii. We concluded that the independent risk factors for toxoplasmosis were: age >3 years (OR=4.75 [2.75; 8.2]), eating meat previously frozen for a period <7 days (OR=2.23 [1.24; 4.01]), and consumption of animals that were run-over or euthanized (OR=1.64; [1.14; 2.37]). PMID:17140683

  8. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  9. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean 51Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma 59Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished

  10. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  11. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  12. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted of...... seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  14. Limited sampling pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats, cats with chronic kidney disease, and cats with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R L; Wittenburg, L A; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Quimby, J M

    2016-08-01

    Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous (SQ) ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats to cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or liver disease using a limited sampling strategy. 60 cats participated; 20 per group. Blood was drawn 30 and 120 min following one 2 mg (mean 0.49 mg/kg, range 0.27-1.05 mg/kg) SQ dose of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Drug exposure represented as area under the curve (AUC) was predicted using a limited sampling approach based on multiple linear regression analysis from previous full sampling studies, and clearance (CL/F) estimated using noncompartmental methods. Kruskal-Wallis anova was used to compare parameters between groups. Mean AUC (ng/mL·h) of subcutaneous ondansetron was 301.4 (geriatric), 415.2 (CKD), and 587.0 (liver). CL/F (L/h/kg) of SQ ondansetron was 1.157 (geriatric), 0.967 (CKD), and 0.795 (liver). AUC was significantly higher in liver and CKD cats when compared to geriatric cats (P < 0.05). CL/F in liver cats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to geriatric cats. In age-matched subset analysis, AUC and CL/F in liver cats remained significantly different from geriatric cats. PMID:26667224

  15. Do free-falling quantum cats land on their feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a quantum description of the mechanism by which a free-falling cat manages to reorient itself and land on its feet, having all along zero angular momentum. Our approach is geometrical, making use of the fiber bundle structure of the cat configuration space. We show how the classical picture can be recovered, but also point out a purely quantum scenario, that ends up with a Schroedinger cat. Finally, we sketch possible applications to molecular, nuclear, and nano-systems. (paper)

  16. Case report:Calcaneal fractures in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, Mark J; Hannes, Bergmann,; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J.

    2016-01-01

    A one year four month old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented for sudden onset, left pelvic limb lameness. Upon clinical examination, pain was localised to the hock region and the cat was found to have persistent deciduous teeth. No evidence of trauma was apparent. Radiographs revealed a transverse fracture at the base of the calcaneus. The fracture was stabilised with a Steinmann pin and tension band wire. Eleven weeks after fixation of the fracture, the cat presented with lam...

  17. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  18. Concurrent Diseases and Conditions in Cats with Renal Infarcts

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, M.C.; Jandrey, K.; Farrell, K.S.; Carlson‐Bremer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal infarcts identified without definitive association with any specific disease process. Objective Determine diseases associated with diagnosis of renal infarcts in cats diagnosed by sonography or necropsy. Animals 600 cats underwent abdominal ultrasonography, necropsy, or both at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods Information obtained from electronic medical records. Cats classified as having renal infarct present based on results of sonographic evaluation or necro...

  19. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  20. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination sche...

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats – clarification regarding genetic testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, L.A.; Grahn, R. A.; Genova, F; M. Beccaglia; Hopwood, J J; M. Longeri

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of dis...

  2. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  3. HyperCat:an IoT interoperability specification

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Rodger

    2013-01-01

    HyperCat is an open, lightweight JSON-based hypermedia catalogue format for exposing collections of URIs. Each HyperCat catalogue may expose any number of URIs, each with any number of RDF-like triple statements about it. HyperCat is simple to work with and allows developers to publish linked-data descriptions of resources. HyperCat is designed for exposing information about IoT assets over the web. It allows a server to provide a set of resources to a client, each with a set of semantic anno...

  4. Handling manual of computer aided tracing system 'CATS' (version I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an application of computer graphics, we have developed a code named as ''CATS'' which stands for computer aided tracing system. With CATS, many kinds of graphs and tables can be fed into the host computer as graphic data by a digitizing tablet. After editing figures on the graphic display terminal, one can obtain color pictures by hard copy unit or fair monocromatic copies by a laser printer through host computer. We employ an interactive graphical input in Japanese, so that users of ''CATS'' can easily edit figures without any knowledge on the complicated FORTRAN utility package for graphic display. The usage of ''CATS'' is summarized in this report. (author)

  5. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  6. Model category structures \\`a la Thomason on 2-Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    In his paper "Th\\'eories homotopiques des 2-cat\\'egories", Jonathan Chiche studies homotopy theories on 2-Cat, the category of small strict 2-categories, given by classes of weak equivalences which he calls basic localizers of 2-Cat. These basic localizers of 2-Cat are a 2-categorical generalization of the notion of a basic localizer introduced by Grothendieck in "Pursuing stacks". In this paper, we deduce from the results of Jonathan Chiche and results we have obtained with Georges Maltsinio...

  7. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  8. Distinguishing Schroedinger cats in a lossy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical Schroedinger cat states-that is, even and odd coherent states-are considered as possible candidates for forming a computational basis for a coherent state qubit. The distinguishability of the two originally orthogonal states after experiencing loss is quantified in terms of quantum relative entropy. This is a physically instructive quantity related to probabilities of faults in identifying the state. This distinguishability is important for classical communication and for the problem of reading out the result of a quantum computation by a lossy device. It is shown that the distinguishability can significantly increase if the environment is prepared in an appropriately chosen squeezed state

  9. From Pedigree Cats to Fluffy-Bunnies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunningham, Jacob; Rau, Alexander; Burnett, Keith

    2005-02-01

    We consider two distinct classes of quantum mechanical entanglement. The first ``pedigree'' class consists of delicate highly entangled states, which hold great potential for use in future quantum technologies. By focusing on Schrödinger cat states, we demonstrate not only the possibilities these states hold but also the difficulties they present. The second ``fluffy-bunny'' class is made up of robust states that arise naturally as a result of measurements and interactions between particles. This class of entanglement may be responsible for the classical-like world we see around us.

  10. Halpern Iteration in CAT(κ) Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo(z)ena PI(A)TEK

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that an iterative sequence generated by the Halpern algorithm converges to a fixed point in the case of complete CAT(κ) spaces. Similar results for Hadamard manifolds were obtained in[Li,C.,López, G., Martín-Márquez, V.:Iterative algorithms for nonexpansive mappings on Hadamard manifolds. Taiwanese J. Math., 14, 541-559 (2010)], but we study a much more general case. Moreover, we discuss the Halpern iteration procedure for set-valued mappings.

  11. Schrodinger's cat The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper we examined the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules were given that were found to govern the stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It was shown that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are repeated below. In this paper, these rules are successfully applied to two different versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. Key Words: brain states, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann

  12. A comparison of lymphatic tissues from cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), cats with FIP virus infection but no FIP, and cats with no infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Köhler, K; Leukert, W; Reinacher, M

    2001-01-01

    Lymphatic tissues (spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus) from 24 cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry for cellularity, cellular composition, and degree of cellular turnover. Additionally, the formation of granulomatous lesions in lymphatic tissues in cats with FIP was examined. For comparison, tissues from 14 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats and seven cats infected with FIP virus (FIPV; as the result of long-term exposure) but free from FIP were examined. In cats with FIP, the precardial mediastinum (including site of the thymus) and mesenteric lymph node parenchyma were often affected by granulomatous-necrotizing processes. In general, lymphoid tissues showed T- and B-cell depletion, often including massive to complete thymic involution or atrophy. In some cases, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes was increased in lymphoid follicles as well as in T-cell zones. The number of macrophages was increased in the splenic red pulp. In contrast, the FIPV-exposed cats without FIP generally showed a distinct lymphoid hyperplasia. The findings indicated that the major difference in lymphatic tissues between FIPV-infected cats with FIP and those without FIP was the development of lymphocyte depletion in the first group and lymphocyte proliferation in the second. PMID:11578135

  13. Electroencephalographic features of familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Hamamoto, Yuji; Ogawa, Fukie; Matsuki, Naoaki; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujita, Michio

    2014-08-01

    A feline strain of familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) with typical limbic seizures was identified in 2010, and have been maintained as a novel animal model of genetic epilepsy. In this study, we characterized the electroencephalographic (EEG) features of FSECs. On scalp EEG under sedation, FSECs showed sporadic, but comparatively frequent interictal discharges dominantly in the uni- or bilateral temporal region. Bemegride activation was performed in order to evaluate the predisposition of epileptogenicity of FSECs. The threshold doses of the first paroxysmal discharge, clinical myoclonus and generalized convulsion in FSECs were significantly lower than those in control cats. Chronic video-intracranial EEG monitoring revealed subclinical or clinical focal seizures with secondarily generalization onset from the unilateral amygdala and/or hippocampus. Clinical generalized seizures were also recorded, but we were unable to detect the onset site. The results of the present study show that FSECs resemble not only feline kindling or the kainic acid model and El mouse, but also human familial or sporadic mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, our results indicate that FSECs are a natural and valuable model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24893833

  14. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  15. Systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Kirby, Kerry D; Sanchez, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Our study describes a case of systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat with acute dyspnea, anorexia, and aggressiveness. Physical examination revealed multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions on the abdomen, neck, and thorax. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound showed multiple mediastinal nodules and marked pleural effusion, respectively. A cutaneous biopsy from the ulcerated wounds revealed necrogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal culture on fresh swab samples from the cutaneous lesions yielded growth of a fungal organism that was further identified as Trichosporon loubieri by PCR and DNA sequencing. The cat was subsequently euthanized and submitted to autopsy. Gross pathology changes consisted of multifocal to coalescing white nodules ranging from 5 to 10 mm in diameter that expanded the mediastinal fat, intrathoracic lymph nodes, lungs, and costal pleura. These lesions consisted of areas of necrogranulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae morphologically similar to those observed in the cutaneous biopsy sample. Gross and histologic changes were consistent with a systemic fungal infection, and the etiologic diagnosis was supported by fungal culture. Fungal identity was confirmed by DNA sequencing of D1-D2 and TS1 regions. PMID:27016724

  16. Effects of stressors on the behavior and physiology of domestic cats

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judi; Croney, Candace; Buffington, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed with FIC after exposure to a five day stressor. Ten healthy cats and 18 cats with FIC were housed at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSUVMC) vivarium...

  17. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, L.; Sharkey, L.C.; Armstrong, P.J.; Little, K.; Rendahl, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Hypothesis Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Animals Twenty‐eight client‐owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. ...

  18. Primary pulmonary neoplasia in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article covers the pertinent clinical, physical, and radiographic findings in dogs and cats with primary pulmonary neoplasia. Diagnostic and treatment recommendations are made. Although primary pulmonary neoplasia is rare in both the dog and cat, it appears to be diagnosed with increasing frequency. Early detection and surgical treatment of carefully selected cases can prolong a good quality of life

  19. Delayed physeal closure associated with castration in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of 152 cats under four years of age were examined for evidence of physeal closure. Radiographic closure was compared between entire male, castrated male, and female (neutered and entire] cats. Physeal closure in castrated males was delayed when compared to that of entire males

  20. Gastric emptying in the normal cat: a radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-phase gastric emptying times of cats have been documented, but not solid-phase gastric emptying times. Gastric transit times, gastric emptying times, and small intestine transit times were determined in eight normal cats. The mean values +/- SD were 42.5 +/- 15.6 min, 11.6 +/- 0.9 hrs, and 4.1 +/- 3.0 hrs respectively

  1. Toxoplasmosis and other intestinal coccidial infections in cats and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much needs to be learned concerning the pathogenesis of clinical coccidiosis in dogs. Why does coccidiosis occurs after shipping, and nothing is known of biologic differences among isolates of Isospora species of dogs and cats. Transmission of Isospora felis in cats in breeding colonies despite of s...

  2. Stallings folds for CAT(0) cube complexes and quasiconvex subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Beeker, Benjamin; Lazarovich, Nir

    2016-01-01

    We describe a higher dimensional analogue of the Stallings folding sequence for group actions on CAT(0) cube complexes. We use it to give a characterization of quasiconvex subgroups of hyperbolic groups which act properly co-compactly on CAT(0) cube complexes via finiteness properties of their hyperplane stabilizers.

  3. Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Chamberlin, Amy J; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Neutering is often associated with obesity in companion animals. However, the maintenance energy requirement (MER) for these animals has not been clearly defined. The present study investigated the MER for spayed cats whose body weights (BW) began to increase shortly after ovariohysterectomy. A total of twenty-two shorthair adult female cats were fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain their BW and body condition score (BCS) before the present study. All cats were spayed and the diet was fed for 11 weeks using the same MER as previously. During these weeks, all cats gained weight. Beginning with week 12, a weight-loss regimen was initiated until each cat achieved a BCS of 5 out of 9. After each cat obtained a BCS of 5, an appropriate amount of diet was fed to maintain its BW for at least 4 weeks to determine a modified MER. Daily food consumption, weekly BW and BCS were monitored. Blood was collected before and after weight loss for plasma biochemistry profiles. BW and BCS increased by 16 % and one point (P spaying significantly increased BW when using MER values for intact cats. Thus, 313.6 × ideal BW(0.67) kJ is proposed for the MER of spayed adult cats. PMID:22005410

  4. Chronic progressive polyarthritis in a domestic shorthair cat

    OpenAIRE

    Inkpen, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat was presented with shifting leg lameness and palpable effusion of the carpal and tarsal joints. Blood work, arthrocentesis, and radiographs identified an immune-mediated erosive polyarthritis. The cat was positive for feline syncytia-forming virus, and with his signalment, was diagnosed with feline chronic progressive polyarthritis.

  5. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  6. Local Dependence in an Operational CAT: Diagnosis and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerich, Mary; Segall, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of CAT scores can be negatively affected by local dependence if the CAT utilizes parameters that are misspecified due to the presence of local dependence and/or fails to control for local dependence in responses during the administration stage. This article evaluates the existence and effect of local dependence in a test of…

  7. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN CATS FROM PENNSLYVANIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 122 domestic cats from Bensalem, Pennsylvania. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in 25 (20.4%) of the 122 cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 4, 1:100 in 6, 1:200 in 3, 1:400...

  8. Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  9. Cats: their history and our evolving relationship with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cats have had a long relationship with people, and their history as a domesticated animal can be traced back as far as 2000 BC. Delegates at a recent conference titled 'People, cats and vets through history' delved a little deeper into the changing nature of this relationship. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27389749

  10. Visual discrimination learning under switching procedure in visually deprived cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fine visual discrimination learning is severely impaired in cats binocularly deprived in the early period of life (BD cats) and also somewhat in control cats reared with open eyes in the limited laboratory environment (C cats) compared with cats reared in a normal rural environment (N cats). It was concluded that visual deprivation impairs perceptual learning. In the present study discriminative stimuli were dissimilar and so the task was perceptually easy, but using a switching procedure made it associatively difficult. In regular trials a gate with a grating pattern was positive and a blank gate negative, whereas in switching trials the meaning of the gates was reversed. The switching stimulus was intermittent light in some stages of training and intermittent tone in others. Learning was severely impaired in BD cats and somewhat in C cats and the deficit was similar under visual and auditory switching. Thus, early visual deprivation impairs associative learning. The impairment probably includes associations between switching stimulus and instrumental responses and configural associations between switching stimulus and discriminative stimuli. PMID:10212071

  11. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  12. Measurement-induced amplification of optical cat-like states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Rigas, J.; Kragh, Christian; Tipsmark, Anders; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    pairs of small cats and then to interfere them on a balanced beam splitter. The projective measurement of one of the outputs is used to herald a larger cat resulting from the constructive interference of the initial states. The scheme proposed here uses the projection |x = 0〉〈x = 0| as the heralding...

  13. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2003-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our findi

  14. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  15. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  16. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P), originall

  17. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.

  18. Eliot's "Cats" and a CATalog of Language Arts Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeberl, Susan M.

    Inspired by the Broadway musical "Cats" and by T. S. Eliot's collection of poems, "Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats," this language arts teaching unit for seventh grade includes a variety of activities using the poems and musical as focal points. Activity types include the following: (1) reading, listening, and singing activities in which…

  19. Immunofluorescent Detection of Intraerythrocytic Bartonella henselae in Naturally Infected Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, J. M.; La Scola, B; Liang, Z.; B. Davoust; D. Raoult

    2001-01-01

    To determine the presence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in six cats, we compared isolation using blood culture with direct immunofluorescence on blood smears. Three cats that were positive by blood culture were also positive by direct immunofluorescence, and laser confocal microscopy confirmed the intraerythrocytic location of B. henselae.

  20. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. PMID:22830565

  1. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusekom, C.D. van; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Russel, F.G.; Schrickx, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the f

  2. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Nov 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  3. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Jul 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  4. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Feb 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  5. Abdominal (liver, spleen) and bone manifestations of cat scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cat scratch disease is usually a self-limiting illness. Patients may develop systemic complications including hepatic granulomas, splenic abscesses, mesenteric adenitis, osteolytic lesions, as well as dermatologic and CNS complications. In this paper the literature is reviewed and two cases are discussed which present the imaging findings in patients with hepatic, splenic, mesenteric, and bony manifestations of cat scratch disease. (orig.)

  6. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daignault, D.; Chouinard, L.; Møller, Kristian;

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of a 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed....

  7. PENGEMBANGAN COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING (CAT MENGGUNAKAN METODE POHON SEGITIGA KEPUTUSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarno Winarno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan CAT menggunakan metode pohon segitiga keputusan dalam prosedur pemilihan item dan mengetahui kemampuan CAT dalam mengestimasi kemampuan peserta tes dengan tepat. Penelitian ini menggunakan Research and Development (R&D. Peng-ambilan data dengan observasi, dokumentasi, dan angket. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik analisis deskriptif evaluatif dan teknik analisis deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 CAT yang dikembangkan berdasar kebutuhan pemakai yaitu: berbasis internet, memiliki sistem ke-amanan, dan mudah diakses, (2 CAT dapat mengenali tiga pengguna, yaitu: administrator, guru, dan siswa, (3 CAT mampu memberikan butir-butir yang bersifat adaptif berdasarkan respon jawaban peserta tes. Secara keseluruhan kinerja CAT mampu melaksanakan tugas dengan baik untuk memilih butir tes dan mengukur kemampuan peserta tes dengan akurat dan tepat dilihat dari nilai korelasi antara hasil estimasi kemampuan (θ dengan nilai ulangan murni (NUM di sekolah siswa cukup tinggi yakni 0,67. Kata kunci: metode pohon segitiga keputusan, metode maximum likelihood ______________________________________________________________ DEVELOPING COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING (CAT BY USING THE TRIANGLE DECISION TREE METHOD Abstract This research aims at producing a CAT software that uses the tri-angle decision tree method in the test item selection procedure and detecting the CAT ability in estimating the test-takers’ ability accurately and correctly. This research used the research and development approach (R&D. The data were collected through observation, documentation, inquiry, and the data were analyzed descriptively and quantitatively. The findings are as follows. (1 The CAT developed is:based on users’ need, web-based, user-friendly, interactive, highly secured, and easily accessible. (2 The CAT can recognize three different users: school administrators, teachers, and students. (3 The CAT software is able

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Mejer, H.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Olsen, C. S.; Thamsborg, S. M.; Enemark, Heidi

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n = 92) and household cats with outdoor access (n = 7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region...... and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82...

  9. Diagnosis of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Deborah S

    2006-02-01

    Whereas hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in the cat, hypothyroidism is the least common feline endocrine disorder. This is a the result of several factors including low index of suspicion, rarity of the naturally occurring hypothyroidism in cats, and a lack of species specific tests for endogenous TSH and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Nonetheless, hypothyroidism does occur in cats, especially in kittens and after radioactive treatment for hyperthyroidism. The clinician should become familiar with the common presentations of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats. In addition, some of the tests specific to dogs (such as endogenous canine TSH) may be utilized to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism in cats. Fortunately, the treatment of feline hypothyroidism with synthetic levothyroxine is both straightforward and effective. PMID:16584030

  10. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  11. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  12. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R. W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K. M.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as “cat states,” have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger’s famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

  13. Community attitudes and practices of urban residents regarding predation by pet cats on wildlife: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, C M; Adams, N. A.; Bradley, J.S.; Bryant, K.A.; Davis, A A; Dickman, C.R.; Fujita, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lepczyk, C.A.; McBride, E. A.; Pollock, K.H.; Styles, I.M.; van Heezik, Y.; Wang, F.; Calver, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents ...

  14. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered. PMID:27045191

  15. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  16. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  17. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions. PMID:26154131

  18. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  19. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  20. Schroedinger cat states and multilevel atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that the generalization of the two-level Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) to an N-level atom leads to the creation of up to N macroscopically distinct field states. These field states are Schmidt-orthogonalized superpositions of Fock states. They correspond to macroscopic states of the field, attainable with large mean photon numbers. Unlike the situation with a two-level atom and a coherent-state field, which evolves into a macroscopic coherent superposition state (a Schrodinger cat), we find that when the additional levels participate strongly in the excitation (e.g all transitions are resonant with equal dipole moments) then the system does not evolve into a pure state. We will present some examples of special cases, giving insight into the behavior of three-level atoms and the two-level two-photon JCM

  1. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life.

  2. AAHA anesthesia guidelines for dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, Richard; Grimm, Kurt; Harvey, Ralph; Lukasik, Victoria M; Penn, W Sean; Sargent, Brett; Spelts, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Safe and effective anesthesia of dogs and cats rely on preanesthetic patient assessment and preparation. Patients should be premedicated with drugs that provide sedation and analgesia prior to anesthetic induction with drugs that allow endotracheal intubation. Maintenance is typically with a volatile anesthetic such as isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered via an endotracheal tube. In addition, local anesthetic nerve blocks; epidural administration of opioids; and constant rate infusions of lidocaine, ketamine, and opioids are useful to enhance analgesia. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous system functions are continuously monitored so that anesthetic depth can be modified as needed. Emergency drugs and equipment, as well as an action plan for their use, should be available throughout the perianesthetic period. Additionally, intravenous access and crystalloid or colloids are administered to maintain circulating blood volume. Someone trained in the detection of recovery abnormalities should monitor patients throughout recovery. Postoperatively attention is given to body temperature, level of sedation, and appropriate analgesia. PMID:22058343

  3. EPSP depression following neocortical seizures in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Dragos A; Cissé, Youssouf; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-04-01

    To study the possible mechanism(s) underlying unresponsiveness following neocortical seizures, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of cortical neurons evoked by ipsilateral cortical stimulation before and after spontaneous or elicited seizures. Regular-spiking neurons (n = 32) were intracellularly recorded in association area five of cats under ketamine-xylazine or barbiturate anesthesia. Compared with control responses, cortically evoked EPSPs were characterized by decreased amplitude after electrographic seizures. Synaptic responses and intrinsic properties were measured by applying extracellular electrical stimuli followed by intracellular hyperpolarizing current pulses. The input resistance decreased during seizures but quickly recovered to control level after the paroxysms, whereas the amplitude of evoked EPSPs remained lower following seizures, generally for 2-12 min, suggesting that the decreased EPSPs were not due to an alteration of intrinsic response. Data demonstrate a long-lasting decreased synaptic responsiveness following generalized spike-wave seizures slowly recovering in time. PMID:18031546

  4. The cat is out of the bag

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal

    2009-01-01

    In the quest for cognitive computing, we have built a massively parallel cortical simulator, C2, that incorporates a number of innovations in computation, memory, and communication. Using C2 on LLNL\\'s Dawn Blue Gene/P supercomputer with 147, 456 CPUs and 144 TB of main memory, we report two cortical simulations - at unprecedented scale - that effectively saturate the entire memory capacity and refresh it at least every simulated second. The first simulation consists of 1.6 billion neurons and 8.87 trillion synapses with experimentally-measured gray matter thalamocortical connectivity. The second simulation has 900 million neurons and 9 trillion synapses with probabilistic connectivity. We demonstrate nearly perfect weak scaling and attractive strong scaling. The simulations, which incorporate phenomenological spiking neurons, individual learning synapses, axonal delays, and dynamic synaptic channels, exceed the scale of the cat cortex, marking the dawn of a new era in the scale of cortical simulations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  5. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a young cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Ohno, Koichi; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2008-12-01

    A 9-month-old male Japanese domestic cat showed pleural effusion, ascites, azotemia, hypoproteinemia and severe proteinuria. Histopathology of the percutaneous renal biopsy specimen revealed that all glomeruli showed intense mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls, resulting in lobular accentuation of the glomerular tufts. Frequent duplication of the capillary walls was also observed. Immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle actin distinctly revealed mesangial interposition. Diffuse global and linear deposition of C3 and IgG was observed mostly along the peripheral capillary loops. Electron microscopy confirmed frequent circumferential mesangial interposition and subendothelial dense-deposits in the glomerulus. The glomerular lesion was consistent with human membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I, and might be a rare case that developed at young age. PMID:19122409

  6. Registros adicionales de felinos del estado de Guerrero, México Additional records of cats in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Almazán-Catalán; Cornelio Sánchez-Hernández; Fernando Ruíz-Gutiérrez; María de Lourdes Romero-Almaraz; Alejandro Taboada-Salgado; Elizabeth Beltrán-Sánchez; Leobardo Sánchez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Se amplía la información sobre distribución, hábitat y medidas somáticas y craneales de las 6 especies de felinos que se distribuyen en nuestro país y que se encuentran en Guerrero. La presencia de estas especies se obtuvo a través de métodos directos y registros indirectos. Lynx rufus está representado por la piel y el cráneo de un joven y es el segundo registro para el estado; mientras que Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii y Panthera onca incrementan su ...

  7. Radiographic anatomy of Japanese domestic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 51 Japanese domestic cats the number of vertebrae, the distance between the occipital bone and the 1st cervical vertebra (C1), and that between C1 and the 2nd cervical vertebra (C2), as well as the sizes of the cardiac and local great vessels and kidneys were measured radiographically. The proportion of the C1 vertebral canal to the distance between the caudal margin of the occipital bone and C1 was 1 0.61, and that of the C1 diameter to the minimum distance between C1 and C2 was 1 0.19. The diameters of the trachea, thoracic aorta and caudal vena cave were almost similar and the diameters of the both pulmonary trank and pulmonary vein were almost equivalent to the smallest diameters of the 8th and 10th ribs, respectively. The depth of the thorax was greater in Japanese domestic cats than in the American mixed breed (Hamlin et al., 1963). The V-D view of the abdominal region showed that the proportions of L2 to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1: 2.49 and 1: 2.38, respectively. The ratio of L2 to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 3.05 and 1 3.03, respectively. On the lateral view, the proportions of L 2 length to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 2.39, while those to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 5.25 and 1 5.20, respectively

  8. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  9. Prevalence of Korean cats with natural feline coronavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myoung-Heon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline coronavirus is comprised of two pathogenic biotypes consisting of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV, which are both divided into two serotypes. To examine the prevalence of Korean cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and II, fecal samples were obtained from 212 cats (107 pet and 105 feral in 2009. Results Fourteen cats were FCoV-positive, including infections with type I FCoV (n = 8, type II FCoV (n = 4, and types I and II co-infection (n = 2. Low seroprevalences (13.7%, 29/212 of FCoV were identified in chronically ill cats (19.3%, 16/83 and healthy cats (10.1%, 13/129. Conclusions Although the prevalence of FCoV infection was not high in comparison to other countries, there was a higher prevalence of type I FCoV in Korean felines. The prevalence of FCoV antigen and antibody in Korean cats are expected to gradually increase due to the rising numbers of stray and companion cats.

  10. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A; Liu, Hongwei; Sørensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C

    2013-07-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: (1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and (2) cases 1½ years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed. PMID:23619280

  11. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  12. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  13. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective-To determine the diagnostic value of full-mouth radiographyin cats.Sample Population-115 cats referred for dental treatment without a previous full-mouth radiographic series available. Procedure-In a prospective nested case-control analysis of multiple outcomes in a hospital cohort of cats referred for dental treatment, full-mouth radiography was done prior to oral examination and charting. After treatment, the clinical and radiographic findings were compared, with reference to presenting problems, main clinical findings, additional information obtained from radiography and unexpected radiographic findings. Importance of the radiographic findings in therapeutic decision making was assessed. Results-The main clinical findings were radiographically confirmed in all cats. Odontoclastic resorption lesions, missed on clinical examination, were diagnosed in 8.7% of cats. Analysis of selected presenting problems and main clinical findings yielded significantly increased odds ratios for a variety of other conditions, either expected or unexpected. Radiographs of teeth without clinical lesions yielded incidental or clinically important findings in 4.8 and 41.7% of cats, respectively, and were considered of no clinical value in 53.6%. Radiographs of teeth with clinical lesions merely confirmed the findings in 13.9% of cats, but yielded additional or clinically essential information in 53.9 and 32.2%, respectively. Clinical Relevance-The diagnostic yield of full-mouth radiography in new feline patients referred for dental treatment is high, and routine use of full-mouth radiography is justifiable

  14. Adiponectin mRNA Expression in the Cat (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. Lusby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Adiponectin is a hormone expressed from adipose tissue in people, rodents and dogs. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory action with beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity. With increasing fat mass, adiponectin concentrations paradoxically decrease. Adiponectin’s role in metabolism and diabetes mellitus is of interest in feline medicine because cats are susceptible to developing type II diabetes with weight gain. This study determined relative amounts of adiponectin mRNA expression from various body tissues and organs in domestic cats. Approach: Two intact male cats and one intact female cat were evaluated post-mortem. All cats were estimated to be young adults and had lean body conditions. Tissues samples from inguinal subcutaneous adipose, visceral mesenteric adipose, liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, aorta, stomach fundus, duodenum, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal gland (cortex and medulla and renal cortex were collected and frozen. Following RNA extraction, adiponectin mRNA expression of each tissue was detected using Reverse Transcriptase (RT real-time (Q PCR. Results: Visceral adipose tissue had the highest level of expression, averaging 12% higher than subcutaneous adipose. All other tissues had negligible levels of expression compared to adipose samples. Conclusion: This study provided a valuable step for adiponectin research in cats by determining which tissues express this hormone. Cats differ from human beings by expressing higher levels of adiponectin in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. The metabolic impact of this expression pattern is not known and provides a basis for future research.

  15. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  16. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F; Lalor, Stephanie M; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  17. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuto de Oliveira, Adriana; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Captive domestic cats frequently suffer from the lack of physical space and opportunities to perform species-typical behaviors, such as climbing or hiding. Environmental enrichment is a technique that helps transform the space available to animals into a more appropriate habitat. In this study, we tested horizontal and vertical refuge boxes as environmental enrichment for cats living communally in a cat rescue shelter. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. Abstract The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics

  18. Extraskeletal osteochondroma on a cat´s elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Kirberger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A solitary extraskeletal osteochondroma was diagnosed in a 6-year-old, castrated male Burmese cat, positive for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV. The cat presented with a rapidly growing, solid, non-painful mass on the craniolateral aspect of the left elbow. Radiographs revealed an oval, well circumscribed 2.0 cm × 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm mineralised mass separated from the underlying bone. Surgical excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Feline extraskeletal osteochondromas are benign tumours frequently seen in FeLV-positive cats which can transform into osteosarcomas or chondrosarcomas. Radiographically, they cannot be distinguished from a parosteal or an extraskeletal osteosarcoma.

  19. Hip dysplasia in the cat: a report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hip dysplasia was diagnosed in three cats. Two were presented with a history of hindlimb lameness and the other had a history of constipation. All were confined for two weeks and showed considerable clinical improvement. At follow-up examination the cats were free of clinical signs despite the deterioration in the radiological appearance of their hips. Luxation or subluxation of the hips, insufficient development of the craniolateral acetabular edges, loss of the arched shape of the cranial subchondral acetabular bones, shallow acetabula and secondary degenerative changes on the femoral heads and necks were the main radiological findings in the affected cats

  20. Radiographically visualized skeletal changes associated with mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic skeletal form and structure of all cats with mucopolysaccharidosis VI is described. Common manifestations included epiphyseal dysplasia, generalized osteoporosis, abnormal nasal turbinate development, his subluxation, impaired development of skeletal growth, pectus excavatum, hyoid hypoplasia, aplasia, hypoplasia and fragmentation or abnormal ossification of the dens, and aplasia or hypoplasia of frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The skeletal measurements of two affected cats were compared with those of normal, sex-matched littermates, and the measurements of two affected female cats were compared with those of a normal male littermate

  1. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  2. Uniform exponential growth for CAT(0) square complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Aditi; Sageev, Michah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we start the inquiry into proving uniform exponential growth in the context of groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes. We address free group actions on CAT(0) square complexes and prove the more general statement that if $F$ is a finite collection of hyperbolic automorphisms of a CAT(0) square complex $X$, then either there exists a pair of elements in $a,b\\in F$ and a pair words of length at most 7 in $a$ and $b$ which freely generate a free semigroup, or there exists a flat (o...

  3. Lymph Drainage of the Mammary Glands in Female Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Sautet, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The mammary gland is a common site of neoplasms in the female cat. All the malignant tumors metastasize to a lesser or a greater extent through the lymphatic system. However, the anatomical knowledge of this system is not sufficiently well known in cats to develop a reasoned model for the extirpation of these glands in case of malignant tumors. A study of the lymph drainage in 50 female cats was done by indirect injection in vivo of India ink inside the mammary parenchyma. After a waiting inte...

  4. Congenital factor XI deficiency in a domestic shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Mark T; Brooks, Marjory B; Esterline, Meredith L

    2002-01-01

    A 6-month-old, female, domestic shorthair cat was examined after onychectomy and ovariohysterectomy because of bleeding from the paws. Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time was discovered, Coagulation factor analyses revealed deficiency of factor XI coagulant activity. Plasma mixing studies indicated factor deficiency or dysfunction rather than factor inhibition. Feline factor XI deficiency in one adult cat has been previously reported but was attributed to factor XI inhibitors. The signalment, lack of primary disease, and the finding of persistent factor XI deficiency in the absence of coagulation inhibitors were considered compatible with congenital factor XI deficiency in the cat of this report. PMID:12428887

  5. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive

  6. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Quimby, J. M.; Lake, R. C.; Hansen, R J; Lunghofer, P. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h af...

  7. Carpal arthrodesis in cats. Long-term functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, I; Farrell, M; Chase, D; Aisa, J; Rayward, R; Carmichael, S

    2009-01-01

    Pancarpal and partial carpal arthrodesis were performed in 22 carpi (20 cats) using various surgical methods. Short and long-term outcomes were assessed using a retrospective review of the case notes and via owner questionnaires. Carpal arthrodesis was associated with complications that did not affect the functional outcome, and in most cases, did not necessitate major revision surgery. Following arthrodesis, the cats did not jump as high, and showed a reduction in their willingness to jump and climb. Based on our results, carpal arthrodesis is a suitable salvage surgery to treat severe carpal injuries in the cat. PMID:19876518

  8. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  9. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [ISIS ' A Sorbelli' , I-41026 Pavullo nel Frignano, MO (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  10. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Illuminati, F; Paris, M G A

    2004-01-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed-coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  11. Laser Acupuncture for Postoperative Pain Management in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia I. Marques; Cassu, Renata N.; Nascimento, Felipe F.; Tavares, Rafaela C. P.; Crociolli, Giulliane C.; Guilhen, Rafael C.; Gabriel M. Nicácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate laser acupuncture as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in cats. Twenty cats, undergoing ovariohysterectomy, were sedated with intramuscular (IM) ketamine (5 mg kg−1), midazolam (0.5 mg kg−1), and tramadol (2 mg kg−1). Prior to induction of anaesthesia, the subjects were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 cats: Laser: bilateral stomach 36 and spleen 6 acupoints were stimulated with infrared laser; Control: no acupuncture was applied. An...

  12. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnár, J.; Valastyán, I.

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  13. Erosive polyarthritis associated with Mycoplasma gateae in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeugswetter, Florian; Hittmair, Katharina M; de Arespacochaga, Abigail G; Shibly, Sarina; Spergser, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    Erosive polyarthritis was diagnosed in an 11-month-old neutered male Egyptian Mau-cross cat with concurrent glucocorticoid-responsive dermatitis. Clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, serological tests and radiographic appearance could not differentiate between immune-mediated and infective arthritis. Mycoplasma gateae was isolated by strictly anaerobic culture of the synovial fluid. Treatment with Enrofloxacin led to a rapid improvement of the cat's condition. Two months later the cat was euthanased because of severe glomerulonephritis and direct Coombs' test positive anaemia, possibly caused by mycoplasma infection. M gateae could not be isolated at post-mortem examination. PMID:17175189

  14. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  15. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  16. Observations on the use of cyproheptadine hydrochloride as an antipruritic agent in allergic cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, D W; Rothstein, E; Beningo, K E; Miller, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride was administered to 20 presumed or proven allergic cats to determine its efficacy in controlling pruritus. Each cat received 2 mg, orally, every 12 h. The pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 9 cats. Side effects were seen in 8 cats, and included polyphagia, sedation, vocalization, affectionate behavior, and vomiting.

  17. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (ii) How, where, from whom, and when the dog or cat was obtained; (iii) How long the dog or cat was held by the pound or shelter before being transferred to the dealer; and (iv) The date the dog or cat was transferred to the dealer. (3) Any dealer who obtains or acquires a live dog or cat from a...

  18. Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, I; Raz, T; Berke, O; Klement, E

    2015-05-01

    Free roaming cats (FRC) are highly abundant in cities around the world. Increasing populations of these cats might result in impairment of cat welfare and cause nuisances and public health risks. In order to study the seasonal dynamics of FRC populations and its association with events of cat welfare impairment and nuisances, we analyzed a database of FRC-associated citizens' telephone complaint events, which were registered in five cities in Israel (total human population of 1.42 million residents) during the years 2007-2011. These complaint events were classified to the following six categories: cat's carcasses, kittens, parturition, aggressive behavior toward people, invasion to human facilities, and cat injuries and distress. Overall, 87,764 complaint events associated with these categories were registered in the five cities during the study period (123.2 complaint events per 10,000 citizens per year). Length of daylight was moderately correlated with the rate of complaints on kittens in the same month (r=0.64) and parturition in the previous month (r=0.54) (P<0.001). Both kitten and parturition-related complaints showed a prominent seasonal pattern, peaking in April and May, respectively, and declining gradually until November. 'Kittens' or 'parturition' were explicitly mentioned in 38%, 39% and 19%, respectively, of the complaints regarding cat aggressiveness toward people, cat invasion to human facilities and cat injuries and distress. In most of the cities the rate of citizen complaints regarding carcasses, aggression, invasion and injuries were still significantly correlated with rate of complaints regarding kittens after omission of these joint complaints and remained significant after controlling for seasonality. These findings imply an association of cat welfare impairment and nuisances with FRC reproduction intensity. The current study revealed the high rate of nuisances and potential public health hazards related to FRC, as well as the impairment of

  19. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase Null Allele at the Cat3 Locus in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, G. J.; Scandalios, J G

    1990-01-01

    Previous analysis has identified line IDS28 of maize (Zea mays L.) as being homozygous for a Catalase-3 (Cat3) null allele. Catalase-3 (CAT-3) protein-specific antibodies could not detect CAT-3 in extracts of several tissues of IDS28, which in a typical maize line possess CAT-3. The absence of CAT-3 resulted in a significant decrease in total catalase activity in those tissues where CAT-3 is the predominant catalase isozyme. RNA blot analysis indicated that IDS28 does not accumulate Cat3 tran...

  20. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  1. Multimode cat-state entanglement and network teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ba An; Kim, Jaewan

    2003-01-01

    Schemes for generation and protocols for network teleportation of multimode entangled cat-states are proposed. Explicit expressions for probability of successful teleportation are derived for both symmetric and asymmetric networks.

  2. A rare case of uterine adenomyosis in a Siamese cat

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman-Fleming, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A 12-year-old, female Siamese cat with a long-term history of megestrol acetate treatment for suppression of estrus was presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. Uterine adenomyosis was diagnosed after an ovariohysterectomy.

  3. Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

    2011-12-01

    A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 μg/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 μg/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of < 95% was recorded at least once during anesthesia in all cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. PMID:21885310

  4. Access database that calls ServCat REST Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Microsoft Access database that calls the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog ServCat Representational State Transfer REST Services to display the title and...

  5. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2002 through 12/31/2002. This dataset represents all data...

  6. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2001 through 12/31/2001. This dataset represents all data...

  7. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2008 through 12/31/2008. This dataset represents all data...

  8. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2004 through 12/31/2004. This dataset represents all data...

  9. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2005 through 12/31/2005. This dataset represents all data...

  10. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2010 through 12/31/2010. This dataset represents all data...

  11. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2009 through 12/31/2009. This dataset represents all data...

  12. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2007 through 12/31/2007. This dataset represents all data...

  13. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2003 through 12/31/2003. This dataset represents all data...

  14. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2011 through 12/31/2011. This dataset represents all data...

  15. A star in the eye: cat scratch neuroretinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gajula, Viswanath; Kamepalli, Ravi; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Neuroretinitis is one of the atypical presentations of Cat scratch disease (CSD). Fundoscopy showed star pattern macular exudates. CSD should be considered in patients who present with blurry vision and typical fundoscopic findings.

  16. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  17. OCLC, WorldCat und die Metadaten-Kontroverse

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The article gives an overview over the background, genesis, content and critic of OCLC's proposed metadata policy for WorldCat records. In the end it poses questions for an approach on licensing bibliographic data in germany.

  18. How to write a critically appraised topic (CAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Parker, Robert; Kelly, Aine Marie; Cronin, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Medical knowledge and the volume of scientific articles published have expanded rapidly over the past 50 years. Evidence-based practice (EBP) has developed to help health practitioners get more benefit from the increasing volume of information to solve complex health problems. A format for sharing information in EBP is the critically appraised topic (CAT). A CAT is a standardized summary of research evidence organized around a clinical question, aimed at providing both a critique of the research and a statement of the clinical relevance of results. In this review, we explain the five steps involved in writing a CAT for a clinical purpose ("Ask," "Search," "Appraise," "Apply," and "Evaluate") and introduce some of the useful electronic resources available to help in creating CATs. PMID:22480959

  19. Guide to entering HGM reports into ServCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides guidelines on entering HGM reports into ServCat. A brief overview of HGM reports is provided, followed by a template for metadata entry.

  20. Diagnosis and Outcome of Periosteal Chondrosarcoma in Two Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Fauber, Amy E; Pool, Roy R

    2016-01-01

    Two cats, both over 10 yr old, were presented for evaluation of non-painful bony proliferations on the appendicular skeleton. These proliferations were identifiable via palpation. Radiographs showed a smooth, proliferative bony lesion of the distal femur (case 1) and tarsus (case 2) with mild soft tissue swelling. Surgical debulking with incomplete resection was performed in each cat. Subsequent histopathology resulted in a diagnosis of periosteal chondrosarcoma (PC). Although both cats have experienced local recurrence, both are still alive more than 2.5 yr after mass debulking. Periosteal chondrosarcoma is a differential diagnosis in proliferative cortical bony lesions near an articular surface in older cats. Partial resection of these masses can lead to an excellent quality of life, and proper diagnosis can avoid amputation or even euthanasia. PMID:27487347

  1. Effect of yohimbine on xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W H; Lu, Z X

    1984-10-15

    Xylazine and ketamine are an anesthetic combination used in feline practice for routine surgical procedures. In a controlled study, we evaluated the effects of yohimbine, an antagonist of xylazine, on the anesthesia induced by this anesthetic combination in cats. Two intramuscular doses of xylazine and ketamine (2.2 mg of xylazine/kg plus 6.6 mg of ketamine/kg and 4.4 mg of xylazine/kg plus 6.6 mg of ketamine/kg) caused approximately 60 and 100 minutes of anesthesia, respectively, in control cats. When yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg) was given intravenously 45 minutes after ketamine administration, the cats regained consciousness within 3 minutes. They were ambulatory 1 to 2 minutes after regaining consciousness. Yohimbine also reversed the bradycardia and respiratory depression elicited by xylazine-ketamine. The results indicated that yohimbine may be useful for controlling the duration of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in cats. PMID:6501048

  2. U-Cat Roboterschildkröte aus Estland

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli teadlaste poolt merikilpkonna eeskujul konstrueeritud allveerobotist U-Cat. Konstrueerimisel on peetud silmas sukeldumist laevavrakkidesse. Robot konstrueeriti projekti Arrows (Archaeological Robot Systems for the World's Seas) raames

  3. q-deformed noncommutative cat states and their nonclassical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Sanjib

    2015-01-01

    We study several classical like properties of q-deformed nonlinear coherent states as well as nonclassical behaviours of q-deformed version of the Schrodinger cat states in noncommutative space. Coherent states in q-deformed space are found to be minimum uncertainty states together with the squeezed photon distributions unlike the ordinary systems, where the photon distributions are always Poissonian. Several advantages of utilising cat states in noncommutative space over the standard quantum mechanical spaces have been reported here. For instance, the q-deformed parameter has been utilised to improve the squeezing of the quadrature beyond the ordinary case. Most importantly, the parameter provides an extra degree of freedom by which we achieve both quadrature squeezed and number squeezed cat states at the same time in a single system, which is impossible to achieve from ordinary cat states.

  4. Uncanny Schr\\"odinger cats in driven-dissipative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minganti, F; Lolli, J; Casteels, W; Ciuti, C

    2016-01-01

    Since their conception, Schr\\"odinger's cats have captured the collective imagination. Photonic cat states are superpositions of two coherent states with opposite phases and with a significant number of photons. Recently, these states have been observed in the transient dynamics of a driven-dissipative resonator subject to engineered two-photon processes. Here we present an exact analytical solution of the steady-state density matrix for this class of systems by including one-photon losses, that are considered detrimental for the achievement of cat states. We demonstrate that the unique steady state is a statistical mixture of two cat-like states with opposite parity, in spite of significant one-photon losses. The transient dynamics to the steady-state depends dramatically on the initial state and can pass through a metastable regime lasting orders of magnitudes longer than the photon lifetime. By considering individual quantum trajectories in photon counting configuration, we find that the system intermitten...

  5. Generalized Schr\\"odinger cat states and their classical emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Moya-Cessa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that superpositions of coherent and displaced Fock states, also referred to as generalized Schr\\"odinger cats cats, can be created by application of a nonlinear displacement operator which is a deformed version of the Glauber displacement operator. Consequently, such generalized cat states can be formally considered as nonlinear coherent states. We then show that Glauber-Fock photonic lattices endowed with alternating positive and negative coupling coefficients give rise to classical analogs of such cat states. In addition, it is pointed out that the analytic propagator of these deformed Glauber-Fock arrays explicitly contains the Wigner operator opening the possibility to observe Wigner functions of the quantum harmonic oscillator in the classical domain.

  6. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding. PMID:21128045

  7. Squeezed and Schroedinger cat states in sling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlations and fluctuations of the boson fields in such nonclassical states as squeezed states, correlated states, and even and odd coherent states (Schroedinger cats) are considered. The possibilities of sling mechanism to create nonclassical field states are discussed. (author)

  8. Parasite Shed in Cat Feces Kills Sea Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Endangered sea otters in California have been found to suffer lethal infections from a parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, shed in cat feces. These infections may be a factor contributing to the marine mammal's slow recovery from near extinction.

  9. Measurement-induced amplification of optical cat-like states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Rigas, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Coherent state superpositions, also known as Schrödinger cat states, are widely recognized as promising resources in quantum information, quantum metrology, as well as fundamental tests. These states are hard to produce deterministically and most schemes for their probabilistic generation can only...... attain amplitudes too small for practical use. This is for example the case for photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum (PSSV), which can be used to approximate cat states of amplitude no larger than y = 1.5 if the fidelity is to be maintained above 95%. One way to reach larger amplitudes is to start with...... pairs of small cats and then to interfere them on a balanced beam splitter. The projective measurement of one of the outputs is used to herald a larger cat resulting from the constructive interference of the initial states. The scheme proposed here uses the projection |x = 0〉〈x = 0| as the heralding...

  10. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2006 through 12/31/2006. This dataset represents all data...

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  12. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei

  13. Luxation of the radial carpal bone in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of radial carpal bone luxation in the cat and its management is described. Open reduction was performed and surgically maintained, in combination with repair of rupture of the short radial collateral ligament and joint capsule. The carpus was supported for one month following surgery by application of transarticular external fixation. Four months after treatment the cat was sound, despite evidence of degenerative joint disease. The mechanism of luxation appears to be analogous to that seen in the dog

  14. Vertebral osteosclerosis in a cat secondary to rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5–year–old cat was presented for pelvic limb weakness. Sclerosis of the vertebral body of T–10 was visible on thoracic radiographs. A compressive lesion at this area was noted on myelography. A tumor was partially removed at surgery, but the cat was killed because of poor postoperative response. Rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed at necropsy, with bone marrow necrosis and myelofibrosis, and new bone proliferation of the body of T–10. Causes of bone necrosis are discussed

  15. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  16. Annotated features of domestic cat ??? Felis catus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Tamazian, Gaik; Simonov, Serguei; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Logachev, Anton; Komissarov, Aleksey; Shevchenko, Andrey; Brukhin, Vladimir; Cherkasov, Nikolay; Svitin, Anton; Goldman, David B. (David Benjamin); Antunes, Agostinho; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Gald??s, Bel??n, 1981-; Alkan, Can

    2014-01-01

    Background. Domestic cats enjoy an extensive veterinary medical surveillance which has described nearly 250 genetic diseases analogous to human disorders. Feline infectious agents offer powerful natural models of deadly human diseases, which include feline immunodeficiency virus, feline sarcoma virus and feline leukemia virus. A rich veterinary literature of feline disease pathogenesis and the demonstration of a highly conserved ancestral mammal genome organization make the cat genome annotat...

  17. ENTERIC PATHOGENS OF DOGS AND CATS WITH PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kantere; Athanasiou, L. V.; D. C. Chatzopoulos; Spyrou, V.; Valiakos, G.; V. Kontos; Billinis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats play an important role in modern society, enhancing the psychological and physiological well-being of many people. However, there are well-documented health risks associated with human animal interactions. More specifically, enteric pathogens of zoonotic risk which are transmitted by feces of dogs and cats can be grouped as follows: (a) Parasites such as Toxocara canis, T. cati, Ancylostoma sp, Uncinaria sp, Stron...

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Feline Infectious Peritonitis in Birman Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liu, Hongwei; Sorensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA...

  19. ProCAT: a data analysis approach for protein microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Protein microarrays provide a versatile method for the analysis of many protein biochemical activities. Existing DNA microarray analytical methods do not translate to protein microarrays due to differences between the technologies. Here we report a new approach, ProCAT, which corrects for background bias and spatial artifacts, identifies significant signals, filters nonspecific spots, and normalizes the resulting signal to protein abundance. ProCAT provides a powerful and flexible new approac...

  20. The Cat as a Model for Human Obesity and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenig, Margarethe

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder of cats and is a risk factor for diabetes. Similar to developments in obese people, obese cats show peripheral tissue insulin resistance and may demonstrate glucose intolerance when challenged with pharmacological amounts of glucose. However, they compensate well for the insulin resistance and do not show elevated glucose concentrations when monitored during their regular daily routine, including postprandial periods. This is possible because ob...

  1. Use of ketoprofen as an antipyretic in cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Glew, A; Aviad, A D; Keister, D M; Meo, N J

    1996-01-01

    The antipyretic effectiveness of Ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was investigated in pyretic cats with a variety of bacterial and viral infections. Cats were randomly assigned to receive either a broad-spectrum antibiotic or a broad-spectrum antibiotic plus ketoprofen. Body temperature was monitored 3 times daily, and attitude and appetite were evaluated once daily. The treatment groups were compared with respect to mean body temperatures, using a one-way analysis of varia...

  2. Progesterone intoxication inducing marked sedation in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Hung, Germaine C; Taylor, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A 3-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for sudden onset of severe lethargy and loss of balance a few hours after potentially ingesting capsules containing progesterone. Elevated serum progesterone was confirmed. Supportive care and time resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no long-term complications or recurrence of clinical signs noticed after 1-month follow-up. This is the first description of progesterone intoxication inducing neurological signs in a cat. PMID:20817586

  3. Immunomodulatory nutraceuticals with potential clinical use for dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Zaine; Mariana Monti; Ricardo Souza Vasconcellos; Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutraceuticals in veterinary medicine is growing and is assumed that they could aid in clinical treatment. This review aims to describe some nutraceuticals that act on the immunity of dogs and cats and show the possible benefits as an adjuvant treatment for some diseases. The action of some yeast derivates as immunomodulators, especially the beta-glucan fraction, was already proved to occur in dogs and cats, being beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in many clinical conditions. Omega...

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Melo Monteiro; Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos; Andréa Maria Campos Calado; Victor Fernando Santana Lima; Ingrid Carla do Nascimento Ramos; Rodrigo Ferreira Lima Tenório; Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino; Leucio Câmara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocarasp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and ...

  5. A preliminary trial comparison of several anesthetic techniques in cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. L.; Luna, S P; de Castro, G B; Massone, F; Rosa, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of several drug combinations (atropine, xylazine, romifidine, methotrimeprazine, midazolam, or fentanyl) with ketamine for short term anesthesia in cats. Twelve cats were anesthetized 6 times by using a cross-over Latin square protocol: methotrimeprazine was combined with midazolam, ketamine, and fentanyl; midazolam and ketamine; romifidine and ketamine; and xylazine and ketamine. Atropine was combined with romifidine and ketamine, and xylaz...

  6. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Poel, M.; Heylen, D.; Meulemans, M.; Bremen, van, A.; Nijholt, A; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.

    2009-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour serves several functions during social interaction such as mediating conversation flow, communicating emotional information and avoiding distraction by restricting visual input. There are several type...

  7. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with hig...

  8. A Rare Case Misinterpreted as Breast Cancer: Cat Scratch Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Böyük, Abdullah; ÜSTÜN, Cemal; SOLMAZ, Özgen Arslan; Altinsoy, Hasan Baki; Banli, Oktay

    2009-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is slow progressing disease that is mostly seen in children and young adults and is characterized with regional lymphadenopathy. It is caused by Bartonella henseleae. The causative agent is commonly transmitted from cats to human. The disease is presented with regional lymphadenopathy, fever, fatigue and weakness. A 44-year-old woman admitted to General Surgery Policlinic with right axillary mass was interned. Axillary lymphadenopathy was detected in her physical examin...

  9. Virulence of Rhodococcus equi Isolated from Cats and Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Shinji; Martens, Ronald J.; Julian, Alan; Garcia Ribeiro, Márcio; Rodrigues de Farias, Marconi; Sasaki, Yukako; Inuzuka, Kazuho; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Tsubaki, Shiro; Prescott, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Nine cat isolates and nine dog isolates of Rhodococcus equi from clinical material were investigated for the presence of the virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB) and virulence plasmids. Five of the cat isolates and one dog isolate were VapA positive and contained an 85-kb type I or an 87-kb type I plasmid. The remaining 12 isolates were avirulent R. equi strains and contained no virulence plasmids.

  10. Cat state, sub-Planck structure and weak measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, A. K.; P. K. Panigrahi

    2013-01-01

    Heisenberg-limited and weak measurements are the two intriguing notions, used in recent times for enhancing the sensitivity of measurements in quantum metrology. Using a quantum cat state, endowed with sub-Planck structure, we connect these two novel concepts. It is demonstrated that these two phenomena manifest in complementary regimes, depending upon the degree of overlap between the mesoscopic states constituting the cat state under consideration. In particular, we find that when sub-Planc...

  11. The Struggle with the Feminine Traits in the Black Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左静

    2012-01-01

    In the short novel of The Black Cat,the first black cat,the second one and the narrator's wife are very important figures.They all have their denotative meaning.But they also have something in common.Here explains them as the feminine traits in the narrator.He always tries to kill them because he denies them and wants to perish them way from him.

  12. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  13. The Relationship Between Coat Color and Aggressive Behaviors in the Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Stelow, EA; Bain, MJ; Kass, PH

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Taylor & Francis. The authors explored a possible relationship between coat color and aggressive behaviors in the domestic cat. This study used an Internet-based survey to collect information on coat color, affiliative behaviors toward cats/humans, agonistic behaviors toward cats/humans, other “problem” behaviors, and cat and guardian demographic data. A total of 1,432 cat guardians completed the online survey; after exclusions based on study protocol, data analysis included 1,274 comp...

  14. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S. M [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner.

  15. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended. PMID:26387062

  16. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs. PMID:27106666

  17. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam. PMID:26679806

  18. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests. PMID:22314098

  19. Design and development of microtrons at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the increase in the demand of low energy electron accelerators (up to few tens of MeV) in research, industry and medicine, it was decided in 1988 to start a project for design, development and construction of 20 MeV microtrons at the Centre for Advanced technology (CAT), Indore, India. The first machine under construction is a 22 orbit microtron having vertical mounting of magnet poles with magnetic field strength ∼1736 Oe and outer diameter ∼1.4 m. The magnet weighs around 2 tons and asymmetric variation in magnetic field is 6) pin of 3 mm diameter, mounted in the flat face of the cavity, and has peak emission current ∼3 A. The RF cavity, its waveguide, cooling connections and electric feedthrough of emitter power supply form a single demountable unit. This unit is attached to vacuum port of microtron and has inbuilt flexibility of adjustment of cavity location and orientation. The microtron is provided with internal probe for determination of orbit location and current. It also has various associated external instruments for monitoring beam energy, energy spread, average current and time structure of current pulse, beam position and beam emittances. (author). 2 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Schrodinger Cats and It from Bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2007-04-01

    Popular interpretations and illustrations of QM observer effect (Schrodinger Cats, Wigner friend), such as (A) MWIQM (Everett), and (B) gravitationally induced psi-reduction (Karolyhazy, Penrose) may turn out to be complimentary rather than contradictory to each other. We suggest existence of phase diagram separating areas of predominantly A or B where transitions between A and B, like melting lines on traditional material phase diagrams, indicate exponential enhancement of zero-point fluctuations near critical line at which density of states experiences singularity. Since at this point the effective masses of quasi particles composing system change sign (similar to electron hole transition in condensed matter), de- Broglie wavelength diverges. This indicates on-set of strong overall quantum nonlocality. Thus, coherency in system becomes frozen and may lead to non-exponential decay of many-body excitations. Strong coherency and nonlocality translates into enhancement of spontaneous pattern formation, informational connectivity akin to holographic memory (Benveniste) effect (Berezin, in Ultra High Dilution, Kluwer, 1994) and what J.A. Wheeler calls It from Bit paradigm. Critical aspect of latter may be individualization of elementary excitations (akin to labelability of elementary particles in Bohm theories of hidden variables) which can have implications to fundamental ascending processes including bioevolution and human creativity, origins of which may lie at Planck scale.