WorldWideScience

Sample records for casualties

  1. Tsunami Casualty Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  2. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  3. Methods of Vessel Casualty Process Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Soliwoda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maritime casualty is an event of considerable economic and social impact. For this reason, implemented the reporting systems of accidents at sea, and the Administration was obligated to establish a Commission of Maritime Accidents. On the basis of casualty analysis and reports are developed proposals preventing similar casualties in the future. However, there is no uniform evaluation system which check references of existing regulations and recommendations to the occurred casualties. This paper presents a method to evaluate the used methods of casualty prediction with respect to the real incident and catastrophe.

  4. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  5. Managing mass casualties and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects.

  6. Human casualties in earthquakes: modelling and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  7. Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients. PMID:19069034

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident means— (a) Any casualty or accident involving any vessel other than a public vessel that— (1) Occurs...

  9. Casualties distribution in human and natural hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Carla M. A.; Lopes, A. Mendes; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophic events, such as wars and terrorist attacks, big tornadoes and hurricanes, huge earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and landslides, are always accompanied by a large number of casualties. The size distribution of these casualties have separately been shown to follow approximate power law (PL) distributions. In this paper, we analyze the number of victims of catastrophic phenomena, in particular, terrorism, and find double PL behavior. This means that the data set is bett...

  10. On the emergency reception of radiation casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.K. National Health Services Emergency Reception of victims of accidents involving radiation was reviewed. A shortfall exists with inadequate provision of coordinated central funding, facilities and training. 50% of NAIR designated hospitals lacked a shower for decontamination. A Casualty Surgeons Association Broadsheet is presented which addresses some of these shortcomings. (Author)

  11. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  12. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of J...

  13. Risk management for property casualty insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mutenga, S.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis addresses the need to reduce inefficiencies in management of insurance company risk capital. The laxity in managing the cost of capital is a result of dysfunctional property/casualty risk classification and capital accumulation practices in the insurance industry. We reclassify risk based on both peril and financial functional features, in order to capture all the facets of risk affecting a firm and ultimately to achieve optimal capital allocation. With the purpose of reducing ine...

  14. Treatment effectiveness of complex casualty amputee patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study analyzes data from 182 Comprehensive Combat and Complex Casualty Care (C5) amputee patients with the goal to better understand the factors that influence their care. The data was provided from the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery while visiting the Naval Medical Center at San Diego. The analysis examines two response variables, opiate drug usage and duration in the C5 program, as a function of a number of exploratory vari...

  15. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, J. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations ...

  16. The Bosphorus : Factors Contributing to Marine Casualties

    OpenAIRE

    Akten, Necmettin

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Ships trade in a complex and high-risk operating environment; hence very many shipping casualties still occur at sea as well as waters connected therewith. Any accident, whatever in nature, is every seafarer's nightmare and comes under the fierce scrutiny of the public. It may take different shapes - i.e from a single operational mishap to a possible major regional catastrophe. Should it occur in a channel or a strait, where the shipping traffic is dense, the sea-room is relati...

  17. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination.

  18. Assessment of Hospital Pharmacy Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness.

  19. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  20. Treatment strategies for mass burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; YANG Hong-ming; HAO Dai-feng; SHEN Chuan-an; JIA Xiao-ming; LI Feng; JING Sa; LI Li-gen; SONG Hui-feng; JIA Chi-yu; TUO Xiao-ye; SUN Tian-jun; HU Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass burn casualties are always a great challenge to a medical team because a large number of seriously injured patients were sent in within a short time. Usually a high mortality is impending. Experiences gained from successful treatment of the victims may be useful in guiding the care of mass casualties in an armed conflict.Methods Thirty-five burn victims in a single batch, being transferred nonstop by air and highway from a distant province,were admitted 48 hours post-injury. All patients were male with a mean age of (22.4±8.7) years. The burn extent ranged from 4% to 75% ((13.6±12.9)%) total body surface area. Among them, thirty-two patients were complicated by moderate and severe inhalation injury, and tracheostomy had been performed in 15 patients. Decompression incisions of burn eschar on extremities were done in 17 cases before transportation. All the thirty-five patients arrived at the destination smoothly via 4-hour airlift and road transportation. Among them, twenty-five patients were in critical condition.Results These thirty-five patients were evacuated 6 hours from the scene of the injury, and they were transferred to a local hospital for primary emergency care. The patients were in very poor condition when admitted to our hospital because of the severe injury with delayed and inadequate treatment. Examination of these patients at admission showed that one patient was suffering from sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Dysfunction of the heart, lung, liver,kidney, and coagulation were all found in the patients. Forty-eight operations were performed in the 23 patients during one month together with comprehensive treatment, and the function of various organs was ameliorated after appropriate treatment. All the 35 patients survived.Conclusions A well-organized team consisting of several cooperative groups with specified duties is very important. As a whole, the treatment protocol should be individualized, basing on the extent of

  1. Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Holgersson, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public transportation constitutes a vulnerable sector in modern day society with a high probability of generating mass casualties if attacked. By preparing for mass-casualty attacks (MCAs), response can become more effective and public transportation can become a less rewarding target. However, preparedness for attacks, much like response, implies resource constraints, and this dissertation pinpoints some major dilemmas that inhibit achieving preparedness for MCAs on public transp...

  2. Medical management of toxicological mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Gal; Krivoy, Amir; Rotman, Eran; Schein, Ophir; Shrot, Shai; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2008-11-01

    The relative accessibility to various chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds, places a toxicological mass casualty event, including chemical terrorism, among the major threats to homeland security. TMCE represents a medical and logistic challenge with potential hazardous exposure of first-response teams. In addition, TMCE poses substantial psychological and economic impact. We have created a simple response algorithm that provides practical guidelines for participating forces in TMCE. Emphasis is placed on the role of first responders, highlighting the importance of early recognition of the event as a TMCE, informing the command and control centers, and application of appropriate self-protection. The medical identification of the toxidrome is of utmost importance as it may dictate radically different approaches and life-saving modalities. Our proposed emergency management of TMCE values the "Scoop & Run" approach orchestrated by an organized evacuation plan rather than on-site decontamination. Finally, continuous preparedness of health systems - exemplified by periodic CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radio-Nuclear) medical training of both first responders and hospital staff, mandatory placement of antidotal auto-injectors in all ambulances and CBRN emergency kits in the emergency departments - would considerably improve the emergency medical response to TMCE.

  3. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  4. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  5. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  6. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  7. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  8. 76 FR 53364 - Recreational Vessel Propeller Strike and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed... casualties caused by propeller strikes and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The Coast Guard, in particular... propeller strike and CO poisoning-related casualties to help guide the Coast Guard in selecting the...

  9. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... three years the voyage records of the vessel such as both rough and smooth deck and engineroom logs... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.807 Notice of casualty. (a) The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of a...

  10. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.;

    2005-01-01

    Prognostic estimations of the expected number of killed or injured people and about the approximate cost associated with the damages caused by earthquakes are made following a suitable methodology of wide-ranging application. For the preliminary assessment of human life losses due to the occurrence...... of a relatively strong earthquake we use a quantitative model consisting of a correlation between the number of casualties and the earthquake magnitude as a function of population density. The macroseismic intensity field is determined in accordance with an updated anelastic attenuation law, and the number...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...

  11. Volleyball injuries presenting in casualty: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Solgård, L; Nielsen, A B; Møller-Madsen, B; Jacobsen, B W; Yde, J; Jensen, J

    1995-01-01

    During 1986, all sports injuries (n = 5222) were prospectively recorded at the two casualty departments in Arhus, Denmark. Volleyball injuries (n = 278) accounted for 5.3% of all sports injuries. An evaluation of the rehabilitation period and the consequences of the injuries was undertaken by questionnaire three years after the injury. The injury incidence was 1.9 injuries/1000 inhabitants/year. Hand, finger, and ankle sprains were the most frequent injuries. Female players had significantly ...

  12. Multi-Injury Casualty Stream Simulation in a Shipboard Combat Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Edwin; Wing, Vern; Zouris, James; Vickers, Ross; Lawnick, Mary; Galarneau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forecasts of casualty streams are essential for estimating personnel and materiel requirements for future naval combat engagements. The scarcity of recent naval combat data makes accurate forecasting difficult. Furthermore, current forecasts are based on single injuries only, even though empirical evidence indicates most battle casualties suffer multiple injuries. These anticipated single-injury casualty streams underestimate the needed medical resources. This article describes a method of simulating realistic multi-injury casualty streams in a maritime environment by combining available shipboard data with ground combat blast data. The simulations, based on the Military Combat Injury Scale, are expected to provide a better tool for medical logistics planning. PMID:26741479

  13. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients.

  14. Nuclear and radiological risk: contaminated mass casualties in the hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic scenario for the medical response organization is the explosion of the dirty bomb in public places spreading radioactive material and contaminating casualties. The French plan gives precise directions for the organization of the emergency room and the simple protective measures for medical staff and equipment to avoid dissemination and contamination into the hospital. Decontamination consists of the undressing of the victims followed by showering. The detection of the contamination can limit the time-consuming unnecessary decontamination procedure and the radioactive waste. Medical and paramedical staff is trained to wear protective disposal paper suits and to direct the procedure of decontamination. (author)

  15. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    “There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning.” (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequa...

  16. Paper and people: the work of the casualty reception clerk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D

    1989-12-01

    This paper examines the exercise of discretion by casualty reception staff, focussing on the problems of accountability that arise when their judgements help shape the process of patient categorization that culminates in clinical diagnosis. Rules and guidelines which ostensibly relate to bureaucratic objectives, are applied in ways which reflect situational exigencies of reception work, and values embedded in organisational culture. But reception staff are reluctant to acknowledge the importance of their decisions, and, particularly where judgements relate to patient condition, present rule-use as a straightforward and certain activity in which interpretation plays little part. PMID:10304220

  17. Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlot, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Jones, David R; Carter, Holly; Turner, Elizabeth A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or "independent") design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore "contaminant", but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant ( appox. 20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures.

  18. On the Temporal Distribution of Casualties and Determination of Medical Logistical Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Lauren, Michael Kyle

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that World War II casualty data display statistical structure that would be expected from multifractal data. Given that the data displayed these properties, it is shown how the existence of power-law tails in the exceedence probability distributions can be used to estimate the likelihood of various casualty levels. Estimates made using this method matched the historical data well.

  19. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Supplement No. 7 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671...

  20. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, each State that has an approved numbering system must forward a copy of that report to...

  1. Medical strategies to handle mass casualties from the use of biological weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Kristi L.; Kahn, C A; Schultz, C H

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the definitions of biological weapons and mass casualties. In addition, it discusses the main operational and logistical issues of import in the medical management of mass casualties from the use of biological weapons. Strategies for medical management of specific biologic agents also are highlighted.

  2. 77 FR 52746 - Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... require specialized burn care-- patients may need to be transferred to specialized burn centers throughout..., performance, and patient compliance during and after a burn mass casualty incident; and a discussion of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty...

  3. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare. PMID:23372577

  4. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare.

  5. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hong Chen; Jun Yang; Yu Yang; Jing-Chen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China.Data Sources:Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014).The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014).We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/),National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/),and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/).Study Selection:We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China,the PT applied in China,guidelines and standards,and application and development of the carding PT method in China.Results:From 3976 potentially relevant articles,22 met the inclusion criteria,20 Chinese,and 2 English.These articles included 13 case reports,3 retrospective analyses of MCI,two methods introductions,three national or sectoral criteria,and one simulated field testing and validation.There were a total of 19 kinds ofMCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014.In addition,there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application.Conclusions:The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief.Classification is not clear.Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical.There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations.There is no data and evidence supported triage method.We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real,practical,and efficient PT method.

  6. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 1012 Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output

  7. Effect and Improvement Areas for Port State Control Inspections to Decrease the Probability of Casualty

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Sabine; Franses, Philip Hans

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis report is the fourth part of a PhD project called "The Econometrics of Maritime Safety – Recommendations to Enhance Safety at Sea" and is based on 183,000 port state control inspections and 11,700 casualties from various data sources. Its overall objective is to provide recommendations to improve safety at sea. The fourth part looks into measuring the effect of inspections on the probability of casualty on either seriousness or casualty first event to show the differences acr...

  8. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  9. Casualty Dynamics in Wars and Terrorism and the Scale-Free Organization of Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Piepers, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I propose a 'mechanism' for the explanation of power-law characteristics of casualty dynamics in inter-state wars, intra-state wars and terrorist attacks: the scale-free physical organization of social systems. Other explanations - self-organized criticality (Cederman, 2003) and the redistribution of total attack capabilities (Johnson et al. 2006) - do not provide a consistent framework for the power-law characteristics of casualty dynamics. The development in time of the power-...

  10. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  11. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle. [Glossaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output.

  12. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/ Nuclear Incident: Further Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard; Rubin, G. James; Drury, John

    2016-01-01

    This short report presents a response to an article written by Cibulsky et al. (2016). The paper by Cibulsky et al. presents a useful and timely overview of the evidence surrounding the technical and operational aspects of mass casualty decontamination. It identifies three priority targets for future research, the third of which is how casualties' needs can be met in ways that best support compliance with and effectiveness of casualty decontamination. While further investigation into behavioural, communication and privacy issues during mass decontamination is warranted, there is now a substantial body of research in this area which is not considered in detail in the succinct summary provided by Cibulsky et al. (2016). In this short report, we summarise the available evidence around likely public behaviour during mass decontamination, effective communication strategies, and potential issues resulting from a lack of privacy. Our intention is to help further focus the research needs in this area and highlight topics on which more research is needed.

  13. How Norwegian casualty clinics handle contacts related to mental illness: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Ingrid H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-threshold and out-of-hours services play an important role in the emergency care for people with mental illness. In Norway casualty clinic doctors are responsible for a substantial share of acute referrals to psychiatric wards. This study’s aim was to identify patients contacting the casualty clinic for mental illness related problems and study interventions and diagnoses. Methods At four Norwegian casualty clinics information on treatment, diagnoses and referral were retrieved from the medical records of patients judged by doctors to present problems related to mental illness including substance misuse. Also, routine information and relation to mental illness were gathered for all consecutive contacts to the casualty clinics. Results In the initial contacts to the casualty clinics (n = 28527 a relation to mental illness was reported in 2.5% of contacts, whereas the corresponding proportion in the doctor registered consultations, home-visits and emergency call-outs (n = 9487 was 9.3%. Compared to other contacts, mental illness contacts were relatively more urgent and more frequent during night time. Common interventions were advice from a nurse, laboratory testing, prescriptions and minor surgical treatment. A third of patients in contact with doctors were referred to in-patient treatment, mostly non-psychiatric wards. Many patients were not given diagnoses signalling mental problems. When police was involved, they often presented the patient for examination. Conclusions Most mental illness related contacts are managed in Norwegian casualty clinics without referral to in-patient care. The patients benefit from a wide range of interventions, of which psychiatric admission is only one.

  14. The effect of an out-of-hours reform on attendance at casualty wards. The Danish example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Morten Bondo

    2001-01-01

    in the attendance rate with casualty wards after the reform was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the total number of contacts with the out-of-hours primary health care after the reform was not met by a corresponding increase in casualty ward contacts. A clear-cut significant increase...

  15. Development and organization for casualty management on a 1,000-bed hospital ship in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, M G; Harviel, J D; Stafford, P W; Blankenship, C; Bosse, M J; Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E

    1992-04-01

    A 1,000-bed hospital ship designed for trauma patients was deployed to the Middle East with the objectives of preparing for large numbers of casualties resulting from Operation Desert Storm from conventional, chemical, and biological weapons. Plans for receipt and decontamination of casualties, triage, and optimal utilization of the 1,000-bed facility were developed. Mass casualty drills were conducted, involving all aspects of patient care from the flight deck to the wards. Trauma and critical care registries were developed to collect casualty data that could then be analyzed for specific military purposes and compared with current civilian registries. Attempts were made to identify the advances in shock resuscitation, systems management, and operative treatment from the civilian community that could be applied to care of combat casualties. Difficulties with accomplishing these objectives included limited trauma experience and supplies and poorly defined medical regulating and evacuation policies. The development of these programs, as well as the unique difficulties encountered, are discussed.

  16. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  17. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  18. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Supplement No. 3 to the Treasury Department Circular 570; 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 37893) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds...

  19. Effect and Improvement Areas for Port State Control Inspections to Decrease the Probability of Casualty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis report is the fourth part of a PhD project called "The Econometrics of Maritime Safety – Recommendations to Enhance Safety at Sea" and is based on 183,000 port state control inspections and 11,700 casualties from various data sources. Its overall objective is to provide recommendati

  20. Radiographic interpretation of the appendicular skeleton: A comparison between casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess how accurately and confidently casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers, practicing within the emergency department (ED), recognize and describe radiographic trauma within an image test bank of 20 appendicular radiographs. Method: The participants consisted of 7 casualty officers, 13 nurse practitioners and 18 radiographers. All 20 radiographic examinations selected for the image test bank had been acquired following trauma and included some subtle, yet clinically significant abnormalities. The test bank score (maximum 40 marks), sensitivity and specificity percentages were calculated against an agreed radiological diagnosis (reference standard). Alternative Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristic (AFROC) analysis was used to assess the overall performance of the diagnostic accuracy of these professional groups. The variation in performance between each group was measured using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, to identify any statistical significant differences in the performance in interpretation between these groups. The relationship between the participants' perceived image interpretation accuracy during clinical practice and the actual accuracy of their image test bank score was examined using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). Results: The results revealed that the radiographers gained the highest mean test bank score (28.5/40; 71%). This score was statistically higher than the mean test bank scores attained by the participating nurse practitioners (21/40; 53%) and casualty officers (21.5/40; 54%), with p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. When compared with each other, the scores from these latter groups showed no significant difference (p = 0.91). The mean 'area under the curve' (AUC) value achieved by the radiographers was also significantly higher (p < 0.01) in comparison to the AUC values demonstrated by the nurse practitioners and casualty officers, whose results, when compared, showed no significant

  1. Role of radiology in the study and identification of casualty victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiology is assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation of casualty victims. Radiographic screening for foreign bodies, personal effects, dental and surgical artifacts and occult skeletal injury has long been an established technique in forensic medicine. Positive radiographic identification of the victims by comparison with antemortem films and records in a more recent, important development. Large scale radiographic investigations may require improvised facilities posing unaccustomed technical and logistical problems. Radiologic experience gained from aviation accident investigation is found to apply in other casualty situations as well as in individual fatality investigations. Radiologic data may aid determination of the cause of incidents, resulting in improved safety procedures and design, as well as serving humanitarian and forensic functions. (orig.)

  2. Decontamination of multiple casualties who are chemically contaminated: a challenge for acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon F J; Chilcott, Rob P; Wilson, James C; Kamanyire, Robie; Baker, David J; Hallett, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have been contaminated by chemical compounds present a number of difficulties to emergency departments, in particular, the risk of secondary contamination of healthcare staff and facilities. The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has provided equipment to decontaminate chemically contaminated casualties who present at emergency departments. The capacity of this equipment is limited, and although both the ambulance and fire services have equipment to cope with mass casualties at the scene of a chemical incident, there is still the possibility that acute hospitals will be overwhelmed by large numbers of self-presenting patients. The risks and potential consequences of this gap in resilience are discussed and a number of possible practical solutions are proposed.

  3. Tactical Combat Casualty Care in the Canadian Forces: lessons learned from the Afghan war

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Erin; Forestier, Colleen; Withers, Nicholas; Tien, Homer; Pannell, Dylan

    2011-01-01

    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is intended to treat potentially preventable causes of death on the battlefield, but acknowledges that application of these treatments may place the provider and even the mission in jeopardy if performed at the wrong time. Therefore, TCCC classifies the tactical situation with respect to health care provision into 3 phases (care under fire, tactical field care and tactical evacuation) and only permits certain interventions to be performed in specific phase...

  4. Effect of Hospital Staff Surge Capacity on Preparedness for a Conventional Mass Casualty Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welzel, Tyson B MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess current medical staffing levels within the Hospital Referral System in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, and analyze the surge capacity needs to prepare for the potential of a conventional mass casualty incident during a planned mass gathering.METHODS: Query of all available medical databases of both state employees and private medical personnel within the greater Cape Town area to determine current staffing levels and distribution of personnel across public and private domains. Analysis of the adequacy of available staff to manage a mass casualty incident.RESULTS: There are 594 advanced pre-hospital personnel in Cape Town (17/100,000 population and 142 basic pre-hospital personnel (4.6/100,000. The total number of hospital and clinic-based medical practitioners is 3097 (88.6/100,000, consisting of 1914 general physicians; 54.7/100,000 and 1183 specialist physicians; 33.8/100,000. Vacancy rates for all medical practitioners range from 23.5% to 25.5%. This includes: nursing post vacancies (26%, basic emergency care practitioners (39.3%, advanced emergency care personnel (66.8%, pharmacy assistants (42.6%, and pharmacists (33.1%.CONCLUSION: There are sufficient numbers and types of personnel to provide the expected ordinary healthcare needs at mass gathering sites in Cape Town; however, qualified staff are likely insufficient to manage a concurrent mass casualty event. Considering that adequate correctly skilled and trained staff form the backbone of disaster surge capacity, it appears that Cape Town is currently under resourced to manage a mass casualty event. With the increasing size and frequency of mass gathering events worldwide, adequate disaster surge capacity is an issue of global relevance. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:189-196.

  5. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission–Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United Sta...

  6. Review of On-Scene Management of Mass-Casualty Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Holgersson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The scene of a mass-casualty attack (MCA entails a crime scene, a hazardous space, and a great number of people needing medical assistance. Public transportation has been the target of such attacks and involves a high probability of generating mass casualties. The review aimed to investigate challenges for on-scene responses to MCAs and suggestions made to counter these challenges, with special attention given to attacks on public transportation and associated terminals. Methods: Articles were found through PubMed and Scopus, “relevant articles” as defined by the databases, and a manual search of references. Inclusion criteria were that the article referred to attack(s and/or a public transportation-related incident and issues concerning formal on-scene response. An appraisal of the articles’ scientific quality was conducted based on an evidence hierarchy model developed for the study. Results: One hundred and five articles were reviewed. Challenges for command and coordination on scene included establishing leadership, inter-agency collaboration, multiple incident sites, and logistics. Safety issues entailed knowledge and use of personal protective equipment, risk awareness and expectations, cordons, dynamic risk assessment, defensive versus offensive approaches, and joining forces. Communication concerns were equipment shortfalls, dialoguing, and providing information. Assessment problems were scene layout and interpreting environmental indicators as well as understanding setting-driven needs for specialist skills and resources. Triage and treatment difficulties included differing triage systems, directing casualties, uncommon injuries, field hospitals, level of care, providing psychological and pediatric care. Transportation hardships included scene access, distance to hospitals, and distribution of casualties. Conclusion: Commonly encountered challenges during unintentional incidents were added to during MCAs, implying

  7. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ju Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Kijeong; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs’ epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible...

  8. Provenancing of unidentified World War II casualties: Application of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis in tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier.

  9. Resource planning for ambulance services in mass casualty incidents: a DES-based policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Marion S; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, Michaela M; Niessner, Helmut

    2012-09-01

    Due to an increasing number of mass casualty incidents, which are generally complex and unique in nature, we suggest that decision makers consider operations research-based policy models to help prepare emergency staff for improved planning and scheduling at the emergency site. We thus develop a discrete-event simulation policy model, which is currently being applied by disaster-responsive ambulance services in Austria. By evaluating realistic scenarios, our policy model is shown to enhance the scheduling and outcomes at operative and online levels. The proposed scenarios range from small, simple, and urban to rather large, complex, remote mass casualty emergencies. Furthermore, the organization of an advanced medical post can be improved on a strategic level to increase rescue quality, including enhanced survival of injured victims. In particular, we consider a realistic mass casualty incident at a brewery relative to other exemplary disasters. Based on a variety of such situations, we derive general policy implications at both the macro (e.g., strategic rescue policy) and micro (e.g., operative and online scheduling strategies at the emergency site) levels. PMID:22653522

  10. Car driver casualty rates in Great Britain by type of car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2008-07-01

    Since 1989, the British STATS19 national road accident reporting system has included the Vehicle Registration Mark (VRM). This allows the basic vehicle record to be augmented with details such as the date of first registration and codes that specify the vehicle's make and model. In order to examine the influence of car type upon the driver casualty rate, this paper groups car models into six types, ranging from 'Minis and Superminis' to '4x4s and people carriers (pc)'. Exploratory analyses of data from accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2005 show that the driver casualty rate falls markedly with size of car. In car-car collisions, the rate also rises markedly with the size of the other car. The car's year of first registration also influences the casualty rate, and represents the influence of changes in the characteristics of new cars. Statistical models are fitted to identify the separate influences on a driver's risk of injury in a car-car collision of the type and registration year of the driver's car and the type and registration year of the other car in the collision. The analysis is extended to include collisions with other vehicles such as lorries and buses. PMID:18606288

  11. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  12. Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Keenan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.

  13. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthep Nuttapong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%. These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%. A total of 18 patients (11.7% had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS. However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04, abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P P P Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future.

  14. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  15. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  16. Research approaches to mass casualty incidents response:development from routine perspectives to complexity science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Weifeng; Jiang Libing; Zhang Mao; Ma Yuefeng; Jiang Guanyu; He Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the research methods of mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and introduce the concept and characteristics of complexity science and artificial system,computational experiments and parallel execution (ACP) method.Data sources We searched PubMed,Web of Knowledge,China Wanfang and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies.Searches were performed without year or language restrictions and used the combinations of the following key words:“mass casualty incident”,“MCI”,“research method”,“complexity science”,“ACP”,“approach”,“science”,“model”,“system” and “response”.Study selection Articles were searched using the above keywords and only those involving the research methods of mass casualty incident (MCI) were enrolled.Results Research methods of MCI have increased markedly over the past few decades.For now,dominating research methods of MCI are theory-based approach,empirical approach,evidence-based science,mathematical modeling and computer simulation,simulation experiment,experimental methods,scenario approach and complexity science.Conclusions This article provides an overview of the development of research methodology for MCI.The progresses of routine research approaches and complexity science are briefly presented in this paper.Furthermore,the authors conclude that the reductionism underlying the exact science is not suitable for MCI complex systems.And the only feasible alternative is complexity science.Finally,this summary is followed by a review that ACP method combining artificial systems,computational experiments and parallel execution provides a new idea to address researches for complex MCI.

  17. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  18. Sociological Features of the Casualties from the 1996 Ms 7. 0 Lijiang Earthquake, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongqiang; Yang Jieying; Yang Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A statistics analysis was conducted on the basic information about fatalities from the Lijiang Ms 7.0 earthquake in 1996. The factors include age, gender, educational background, occupation, cause of death, death place, etc. We found that even though deaths caused by the Lijiang earthquake had some common features with those from earthquakes in other places in China, it also showed some specific features because of the multiracial and economically-underdeveloped situation of Lijiang area. The results reached in the paper can serve as a reference for studying the features of casualties caused by future strong earthquakes in Yunnan, and for the delicate and human-oriented emergency treatment.

  19. Military casualties in Baranja and east Slavonia during the first 9 months of the war in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropac, D; Milas, J

    1999-09-01

    The total number of Croatian Army soldiers killed in the period from the beginning of July 1991 until the end of March 1992 was 487. The number of severely wounded was 1,160, and 1,141 soldiers were slightly wounded. The ratio of the killed to wounded was 1:5, except in the municipality of Osijek, where it was 1:2.5. The number of casualties increased continually and culminated during November 1991, the period of fiercest fighting in this territory, followed by a gradual decrease. The most common mechanism of injury was explosives, which were responsible for almost half of all casualties (47.9%). An equal number of soldiers were killed by explosives and infantry weapons (46.4% and 44.9%, respectively). Casualties caused by motor vehicle crashes are not to be ignored, especially after the cease-fire agreement. Car crashes frequently resulted in death (from 4.5%-12.4%). PMID:10495635

  20. On constant alert: lessons to be learned from Israel's emergency response to mass-casualty terrorism incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-12-01

    In its short modern history, Israel has had to contend with numerous mass-casualty incidents caused by terrorism. As a result, it has developed practical national preparedness policies for responding to such events. Israel's Supreme Health Authority, a committee of the Ministry of Health, coordinates emergency management nationwide. All emergency personnel, health care providers, and medical facilities operate under national policies designed to ensure a swift and coordinated response to any incident, based on an "all hazards" approach that emphasizes core elements commonly encountered in mass-casualty incidents. Israel's emergency management system includes contingency planning, command and control, centrally coordinated response, cooperation, and capacity building. Although every nation is unique, many of the lessons that Israel has learned may be broadly applicable to preparation for mass-casualty incidents in the United States and other countries.

  1. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  2. Using the Design for Demise Philosophy to Reduce Casualty Risk Due to Reentering Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the reentry of a number of vehicles has garnered public attention due to their risk of human casualty due to fragments surviving reentry. In order to minimize this risk for their vehicles, a number of NASA programs have actively sought to minimize the number of components likely to survive reentry at the end of their spacecraft's life in order to meet and/or exceed NASA safety standards for controlled and uncontrolled reentering vehicles. This philosophy, referred to as "Design for Demise" or D4D, has steadily been adopted, to at least some degree, by numerous programs. The result is that many programs are requesting evaluations of components at the early stages of vehicle design, as they strive to find ways to reduce the number surviving components while ensuring that the components meet the performance requirements of their mission. This paper will discuss some of the methods that have been employed to ensure that the consequences of the vehicle s end-of-life are considered at the beginning of the design process. In addition this paper will discuss the technical challenges overcome, as well as some of the more creative solutions which have been utilized to reduce casualty risk.

  3. Challenges for rear hospital care of Wenchuan Earthquake casualties: experience from West China Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ying-kang; WANG Lan-lan; LIN Yi-dan; PEI Fu-xing; KANG Yan

    2010-01-01

    To review the challenges and countermeasures in the hospital care for Wenchuan earthquake casualties and draw lessons for the protective response in the future. Medical records and laboratory findings of the victims admitted in West China Hospital (WCH) were retrospectively analyzed. Related data were compared between beforemath and aftermath of the earthquake and between WCH and frontier county hospitals. One thousand and thirty-one earthquake survivors were hospitalized, 1358 victims underwent surgery and 142 victims were transferred to intensive care unit. The incidence of infection, crush syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)was 39.6%, 20.7% and 2.3% respectively. Wound classification showed that the incidence of extremity damage was 72%, while the incidence of chest trauma, abdominal trauma and brain trauma was less than 10% respectively. Isolating rates of environmental pathogens were increased in the aftermath of earthquake, and the spectrum of the pathogens and related antibiotic sensitivities were quite different from those in the beforemath of earthquake. The social economic and population conditions in the earthquake-stricken areas affected the composition of the victims and the geographic features restricted the efficiency of rescue. Trauma-induced MODS, crush syndrome and severe infections all constituted the dilemma for the hospital care, to resolve whether the multidiscipline team work was proved to be an optimizing choice. For a more effective disaster protective response in the future,the study on rescue plan and the ladder therapies for massive casualties should be potentiated.

  4. The development and features of the Spanish prehospital advanced triage method (META) for mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Garijo Gonzalo, Gracia; Martinez Monzon, Carlos; Pelaez Corres, Nieves; Rodriguez Soler, Alberto; Turegano Fuentes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text describes the process of development of the new Spanish Prehospital Advanced Triage Method (META) and explain its main features and contribution to prehospital triage systems in mass casualty incidents. The triage META is based in the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, patient's anatomical injuries and mechanism of injury. It is a triage method with four stages including early identification of patients with severe trauma that would benefit from a rapid evacuation to a surgical facility and introduces a new patient flow by-passing the advanced medical post to improve evacuation. The stages of triage META are: I) Stabilization triage that classifies patients according to severity to set priorities for initial emergency treatment; II) Identifying patients requiring urgent surgical treatment, this is done at the same time than stage I and creates a new flow of patients with high priority for evacuation; III) Implementation of Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols to patients previously classified according to stablished priority; and IV) Evacuation triage, stablishing evacuation priorities in case of lacks of appropriate transport resources. The triage META is to be applied only by prehospital providers with advanced knowledge and training in advanced trauma life support care and has been designed to be implemented as prehospital procedure in mass casualty incidents (MCI). PMID:27130042

  5. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to Tehran, capital of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Khaji; Shoaodin Fallahdoost; Mohammad Reza Soroush; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran,the capital of Iran,during Iraq-Iran war.Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war.Results: During 52 days,Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile).Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas.During Iraqi missile attacks,422 civilians died and 1579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile).During 52 days,8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily.Of the cases that died,101 persons (24%) were excluded due to the lack of information.Among the remainders,179 (55.8%) were male and 142 (44.2%) were female.The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years.Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded areas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran.The presence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties.Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces,rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile attacks are necessary.

  6. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L

    2008-02-01

    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  7. The influence of car registration year on driver casualty rates in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    A previous paper analysed data from the British national road accident reporting system to investigate the influence upon car driver casualty rates of the general type of car being driven and its year of first registration. A statistical model was fitted to accident data from 2001 to 2005, and this paper updates the principal results using accident data from 2003 to 2007. Attention focuses upon the role of year of first registration since this allows the influence of developments in car design upon occupant casualty numbers to be evaluated. Three additional topics are also examined with these accident data. Changes over time in frontal and side impacts are compared. Changes in the combined risk for the two drivers involved in a car-car collision are investigated, being the net result of changes in secondary safety and aggressivity. Finally, the results of the new model relating to occupant protection are related to an index that had been developed previously to analyse changes over time in the secondary safety of the car fleet. PMID:22269528

  8. Comparison of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States that were associated with repatriated casualties of the Iraq conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Kaufmann, Mary E; Gill, Martin J; Pike, Rachel; Scott, Paul T; Fishbain, Joel; Craft, David; Deye, Gregory; Riddell, Scott; Lindler, Luther E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2006-07-01

    Acinetobacter isolates associated with casualties from the Iraq conflict from the United States were compared with those from the United Kingdom by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and integron analysis. Representatives of the main outbreak strain associated with casualties from both countries were indistinguishable in DNA profile. Two further outbreak strains were common to both sets of isolates.

  9. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  10. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  11. 33 CFR 150.820 - When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must also include the information relating to alcohol and drug involvement specified by 46 CFR 4.05-12... CFR part 16. (c) If filed immediately after the event, the written report required by paragraph (a) of... casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? 150.820 Section 150.820 Navigation and Navigable...

  12. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. PMID:23126406

  13. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Markus; Kroetz, Michael M.; Wirth, Stefan; Boehm, Holger F.; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich [University Hospital Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg [University Hospital Munich, Department of Surgery, Munich (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated ''critical'' by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol. (orig.)

  14. Mining and milling sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle: an approach to placement of property and casualty insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining and milling are sectors of the fuel cycle in which the nuclear insurance pools are not involved; property and casualty insurance is placed in the conventional insurance markets. The underwriter will need to understand uranium mining and milling operations. Qualities which are desirable in a written presentation for an underwriter's review are described

  15. Truth hurts--hard lessons from Australia's largest mass casualty exercise with contaminated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas A; Caldicott, David G E; Eliseo, Tony; Pearce, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    In response to the increasing threat of a mass casualty incident involving chemical, biological or radiological agents, and concern over the preparedness of our hospital system to cope with patients from such an incident, we conducted the largest hospital-based field exercise involving contaminated patients that has been held in Australia. In the present paper, we outline the background to, and methodology of, Exercise Supreme Truth, and the efforts made to increase its realism. We focus our discussion on three issues highlighted by the exercise, which we believe have enormous implications for the development of hospital chemical, biological or radiological plans and the likelihood of their success--hospital security, crowd control and decontamination.

  16. Loss of cabin pressure in a military transport: a mass casualty with decompression illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mickaila J

    2008-04-01

    Presented here is the sudden cabin depressurization of a military C-130 aircraft carrying 66 personnel. They suffered a depressurization from 2134 to 7317 m, resulting in a potential 66-person mass casualty. The aircrew were able to descend to below 3049 m in less than 5 min. They landed in the Kingdom of Bahrain--the nearest hyperbaric recompression facility. Three cases of peripheral neurologic DCS and one case of spinal DCS were identified. Limited manning, unique host nation concerns, and limited available assets led to difficulties in triage, patient transport, and asset allocation. These led to difficult decisions regarding when and for whom to initiate ground level oxygen or hyperbaric recompression therapy.

  17. Rehabilitation of the Combat Casualty: Lessons Learned from Past and Current Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Shero, John C

    2016-01-01

    The field of rehabilitation is deeply rooted in military medicine, especially in promoting the restoration of function and community reintegration of injured service members returning from war. Since military operations began in Iraq and Afghanistan over a decade ago, rehabilitative care programs have been integral in supporting the Military Healthcare System in providing high quality comprehensive care for combat casualties and their families, particularly those with complex blast injuries resulting in conditions such as amputation and other limb dysfunction, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Fundamental to a successful rehabilitation program is the coordination of interdisciplinary care that not only crosses multiple medical specialties and disciplines, but also promotes ongoing education, research, quality improvement and readiness. This brief article is intended to highlight some of the most important lessons learned from current and past conflicts in delivering the highest quality rehabilitative care to our nation's heroes. PMID:27215872

  18. Blast overpressure and fallout radiation dose models for casualty assessment and other purposes. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of blast overpressures and fallout radiation doses at points on a sufficiently fine grid, for any part or for the whole of the UK, and for any postulated attack, is an essential element in the systematic assessment of casualties, the estimation of numbers of homeless, and the evaluation of life-saving measures generally. Models are described which provide the required blast and dose values and which are intended to supersede existing models which were introduced in 1971. The factors which affect blast and, more particularly, dose values are discussed, and the way in which various factors are modelled is described. The models are incorporated into separate computer programs which are described, the outputs of which are stored on magnetic tape for subsequent use as required. (author)

  19. Long-term disabilities associated with combat casualties: measuring disability and reintegration in combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Reiber, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Many physical and mental health problems associated with combat casualties affect the reintegration of service members into home and community life. Quantifying and measuring reintegration is important to answer questions about clinical, research, economic, and policy issues that directly affect combat veterans. Although the construct of participation presented in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a theoretical framework with which to understand and measure community reintegration in general, a measure was needed that specifically addressed the reintegration of combat veterans. To address this need, the Community Reintegration for Service Members global outcomes measure was developed. It consists of three scales, which measure extent of participation, perceived limitations, and satisfaction. The measure was validated in a general sample of veterans and in a sample of severely wounded service members. The computer-adapted test version shows good precision, reliability, construct validity, and predictive validity.

  20. Homebirth, freebirth and doulas: casualty and consequences of a broken maternity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, H G; Jackson, M; Stevens, J

    2011-03-01

    In Australia private homebirth remains unfunded and uninsured and publicly funded homebirth models are not widely available. Doulas are increasingly hired by women for support during childbirth and freebirth (birth intentionally unattended by a health professional) appears to be on the rise. The recently released Improving Maternity Services in Australia--The Report of the Maternity Services Review (MSR) exclude homebirth from the funding and insurance reforms proposed. Drawing on recent research we argue that homebirth has become a casualty of a broken maternity system. The recent rise in the numbers of women employing doulas and choosing to birth at home unattended by any health professional, we argue, is in part a consequence of not adequately meeting the needs of women for continuity of midwifery care and non-medicalised birthing options. PMID:21163719

  1. Relation between both oxidative and metabolic-osmotic cell damages and initial injury severity in bombing casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučeljić Marina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We have recently reported the development of oxidative cell damages in bombing casualties within a very early period after the initial injury. The aim of this study, was to investigate malondialdehyde (MDA, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and osmolal gap (OG, as a good indicator of metabolic cell damages and to assess their relationship with the initial severity of the injury in bombing casualties. Methods. The study included the males (n = 52, injured during the bombing with the Injury Severity Score (ISS ranging from 3 to 66. The whole group of casualties was devided into a group of less severely (ISS < 25, n = 24 and a group of severely (ISS ≥ 26, n = 28 injured males. The uninjured volunteers (n = 10 were the controls. Osmolality, MDA, sodium, glucose, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin and total protein levels were measured in the venous blood, sampled daily, within a ten-day period. Results. In both groups of casualties, MDA and OG levels increased, total protein levels decreased, while other parameters were within the control limits. MDA alterations correlated with ISS (r = 0.414, p < 0.01, while a statistically significant correlation between OG and ISS was not obtained. Interestingly, in spite of some differences in MDA and OG trends, at the end of the examined period they were at the similar level in both groups. Conclusion. The initial oxidative damages of the cellular membrane with intracellular metabolic disorders contributed to the gradual development of metabolic-osmotic damages of cells, which, consequently caused the OG increase. In the bombing casualties, oxidative cell damages were dependent on the initial injury severity, while metabolic-osmotic cell damages were not.

  2. The effects of congestion charging on road traffic casualties: a causal analysis using difference-in-difference estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Majumdar, Arnab

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to identify the impacts of the London congestion charge on road casualties within the central London charging zone. It develops a full difference-in-difference (DID) model that is integrated with generalized linear models, such as Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. Covariates are included in the model to adjust for factors that violate the parallel trend assumption, which is critical in the DID model. The lower Bayesian Information Criterion value suggests that the full difference-in-difference model performs well in evaluating the relationship between road accidents and the London congestion charge as well as other socio-economic factors. After adjusting for a time trend and regional effects, the results show that the introduction of the London congestion charge has a significant influence on the incidence of road casualties. The congestion charge reduces the total number of car accidents, but is associated with an increase in two wheeled vehicle accidents.

  3. Patient safety culture in Norwegian primary care: A study in out-of-hours casualty clinics and GP practices

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to investigate patient safety attitudes amongst health care providers in Norwegian primary care by using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, in both out-of-hours (OOH) casualty clinics and GP practices. The questionnaire identifies five major patient safety factors: Teamwork climate, Safety climate, Job satisfaction, Perceptions of management, and Working conditions. Design. Cross-sectional study. Statistical analysis included multiple linear regression an...

  4. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G.; RUSSELL, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean- René; Paquet, Francois; Li, ChunSheng; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize...

  5. DESIGN AND SELECTION OF HINGE JOINT CONCEPT FOR CASUALTY EVACUATION BACKPACK STRETCHER USING IPD TOOLS LIKE QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREM CHAND GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Casualty Evacuation (Casevac Stretcher plays an important role in the casualty evacuation chain. The designs of existing stretcher are single or double fold and heavy therefore difficult to carry. For the present war scenario, a strong need to design the multifold backpack Casualty Evacuation Stretcher is felt since it will be easy to carry use and store. To make the stretcher backpack, hinge joint is the most suitable method to meet the functional requirements. Various engineering considerations are required to design the hinge joint for the stretcher. The functional requirements of the hinge joint are worked out from the market survey conducted for stretcher.For the present work, an attempt is made to design the stretcher hinge joint by using Integrated Product Design Approach and tools like QFD (Quality Functions Deployment and CAD. (Computer Aided Design. The application of CAD is dovetailed to QFD to generate and visualize the shape, size, weight and assembly of the hinge joint with stretcher, in addition to the stress analysis. To evaluate and select the right design, QFD tool is applied since it is a convenient technique to deal with the various objectives like voice of customer (what’s, voice of engineers (how’s and technical difficulties to achieve the target values.

  6. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Masuko [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Casualty Council (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  7. Development of a lightweight portable ventilator for far-forward battlefield combat casualty support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Wiesmann, William P.; Pranger, L. Alex

    1999-07-01

    Immediate medical provision substantially reduces the number of fatalities sustained during military operations. However, the shift from large-scale regional conflicts to smaller peacekeeping and humanitarian missions has reduced the military medical support infrastructure. Civilian emergency medical services have long emphasized the 'golden hour' during which a patient must receive definitive medical attention. Without on-scene medical support, injured soldiers must be transported significant distances before receiving advanced medical care, and rapid transport to a medical facility is not always a viable option. Technological solutions enable military medics to deliver advanced medical care on the battlefield. We report here on the development of a small lightweight portable respirator for the treatment of far- forward battlefield casualties. The Far Forward Life Support System (FFLSS) utilizes a combination of COTS (commercial off the shelf) components and custom designed systems to provide ventilatory support to injured combatants. It also incorporates a small IV fluid pump and IV fluids for resuscitation. A microcompressor control system monitors both system performance and patient parameters for system control. Telemetry to a pager-like device worn by the front line medic alerts of any anomalies in ventilator or patient parameters, which will add greatly to triage decisions and resource management. Novel elements of the FLSS design include oxygen generation, low-pressure air generation, available patient suction, and the absence of any high pressure air cylinders. A prototype developed for animal testing will be described in detail as well as further design requirements for the human rated prototype.

  8. Data-driven Casualty Estimation and Disease Nonbattle Injury/Battle Injury Rates in Recent Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Barbara E; Humphrey, Rebecca J; Hosek, Barbara J; Stein, Catherine R

    2016-01-01

    To ensure Soldiers are properly equipped and mission capable to perform full spectrum operations, Army medical planners use disease nonbattle injury (DNBI) and battle injury (BI) admission rates in the Total Army Analysis process to support medical deployment and force structure planning for deployed settings. For more than a decade, as the proponent for the DNBI/BI methodology and admission rates, the Statistical Analysis Cell (previously Statistical Analysis Branch, Center for Army Medical Department Strategic Studies) has provided Army medical planners with DNBI/BI rates based upon actual data from recent operations. This article presents the data-driven methodology and casualty estimation rates developed by the Statistical Analysis Cell and accredited for use by 2 Army Surgeon Generals, displays the top 5 principal International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnoses for DNBI/BI in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OIF/OND), and discusses trends in DNBI rates in OIF/OND during the stabilization period. Our methodology uses 95th percentile daily admission rates as a planning factor to ensure that 95% of days in theater are supported by adequate staff and medical equipment. We also present our DNBI/BI estimation methodology for non-Army populations treated at Role 3 US Army medical treatment facilities. PMID:27215860

  9. Factor analysis of fatal road traffic crashes with massive casualties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis refers to a collection of statistical methods for reducing correlational data into a smaller number of dimensions or factors. In this study, factor analysis theory was used to determine the main influential factors of road traffic crashes with massive casualties. Twenty variables related to personnel, vehicles, roads, and environment were collected, and the significance of their correlations was tested for validity. A correlation coefficient matrix R was calculated, and its latent root λ was obtained based on the characteristic equation. A number of common factors were determined according to the value of latent root λ . Factor loading was used to express the relationship of each variable to the underlying main influential factors. An index system of accident factors was developed based on the results of factor loading, and the weight of each factor was calculated to classify the factor influence. The main influential factors of accidents were determined to be fault behavior, driving experience, condition of vehicle safety, purpose of vehicle, road lighting, driver, road surface condition, roadside protection facilities, and road terrain.

  10. Mass casualty events: blood transfusion emergency preparedness across the continuum of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Heidi; Glasgow, Simon; Kristoffersen, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Transfusion support is a key enabler to the response to mass casualty events (MCEs). Transfusion demand and capability planning should be an integrated part of the medical planning process for emergency system preparedness. Historical reviews have recently supported demand planning for MCEs and mass gatherings; however, computer modeling offers greater insights for resource management. The challenge remains balancing demand and supply especially the demand for universal components such as group O red blood cells. The current prehospital and hospital capability has benefited from investment in the management of massive hemorrhage. The management of massive hemorrhage should address both hemorrhage control and hemostatic support. Labile blood components cannot be stockpiled and a large surge in demand is a challenge for transfusion providers. The use of blood components may need to be triaged and demand managed. Two contrasting models of transfusion planning for MCEs are described. Both illustrate an integrated approach to preparedness where blood transfusion services work closely with health care providers and the donor community. Preparedness includes appropriate stock management and resupply from other centers. However, the introduction of alternative transfusion products, transfusion triage, and the greater use of an emergency donor panel to provide whole blood may permit greater resilience.

  11. A lightning multiple casualty incident in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Susanne J; Campagne, Danielle; Stroh, Geoff; Shalit, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Multiple casualty incidents (MCIs) are uncommon in remote wilderness settings. This is a case report of a lightning strike on a Boy Scout troop hiking through Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI), in which the lightning storm hindered rescue efforts. The purpose of this study was to review the response to a lightning-caused MCI in a wilderness setting, address lightning injury as it relates to field management, and discuss evacuation options in inclement weather incidents occurring in remote locations. An analysis of SEKI search and rescue data and a review of current literature were performed. A lightning strike at 10,600 feet elevation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains affected a party of 5 adults and 7 Boy Scouts (age range 12 to 17 years old). Resources mobilized for the rescue included 5 helicopters, 2 ambulances, 2 hospitals, and 15 field and 14 logistical support personnel. The incident was managed from strike to scene clearance in 4 hours and 20 minutes. There were 2 fatalities, 1 on scene and 1 in the hospital. Storm conditions complicated on-scene communication and evacuation efforts. Exposure to ongoing lightning and a remote wilderness location affected both victims and rescuers in a lightning MCI. Helicopters, the main vehicles of wilderness rescue in SEKI, can be limited by weather, daylight, and terrain. Redundancies in communication systems are vital for episodes of radio failure. Reverse triage should be implemented in lightning injury MCIs. Education of both wilderness travelers and rescuers regarding these issues should be pursued. PMID:25281586

  12. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  13. Global Earthquake Casualties due to Secondary Effects: A Quantitative Analysis for Improving PAGER Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER’s overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability.

  14. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  15. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  16. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies. PMID:27372441

  17. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jungeun

    2016-03-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs' epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6-5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals' resources. PMID:26955248

  18. Organization and implementation of medical rescue of mass casualties during earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ling ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, there were more than 40 earthquakes greater than 7 magnitude occurred worldwide, 10 of which in China, which killed 600 thousand people accounting for 53% of global earthquake deaths. On May 12, 2008, an 8.0-magnitude earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, causing 69000 deaths, 18000 missings, and 370000 injuries. Among 10 thousand severe injuries, most were traumatic injuries, 74% of which were fracture. On April 14, 2010, a 7.1-magnitude earthquake occurred in Yushu, Qinghai Province. There were 2698 deaths, 270 missings and 11000 injuries. Among 3100 severe injuries, fracture accounted for 58.4%. After each earthquake, the Chinese Army Medical Services took actions and made quick response according to the law. They sent out elites with efficient command and scientific organization, fully participating in the medical rescue operations. After Wenchuan earthquake, 397 mobile medical service units and 7061 health workers were sent out. A total of 69000 people were treated, and 22000 cases of surgeries were performed. After Yushu earthquake, a total of 25 mobile medical service units and 2025 health workers were sent. They performed 1635 cases of surgeries with a miracle of "zero death" in mass earthquake casualties and altitude diseases in cold highlands. After each earthquake, injuries cured within 1 week accounted for 60% of the total, and patients evacuated accounted for 80% of the total, which owed to the effective first aid in site of Chinese Army Medical Service. They effectively played the role as the main force, making significant contributions for the final victory of earthquake relief. From the practice of medical rescue revelation after the two earthquakes, what Chinese Army Medical Services Services learned are: firstly, the theory of medical relief should be innovated; secondly, military and civilian organizations should be coordinated; thirdly, professional rescue force should be strengthened

  19. Defining the problem, main objective, and strategies of medical management in mass-casualty incidents caused by terrorist events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Itamar; Kessel, Boris; Olsha, Oded; Khashan, Tawfik; Oren, Meir; Haspel, Jacob; Alfici, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Based on the experience of managing > 20 such events during the last decade, the authors' understanding of a mass-casualty incident is that it is an event in which there may be many victims, but only a few that actually suffer from life-threatening injuries. To make an impact on survival, one must identify those who are severely wounded as quickly as possible and offer those patients optimal care. Experienced trauma physicians are the most important resource available to achieve this objective, and they should be allocated to the treatment of seriously injured victims instead of more traditional management roles such as triage and incident manager. PMID:18491667

  20. Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared. In order to develop an evidence-based plan for ED and hospital management of contaminated patients, a review was conducted of the most effective strategies developed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and military guidelines on biowarfare. Six basic steps were identified: 1) lock down the hospital and control access to the ED; 2) protect emergency care personnel with appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) decontaminate and triage patients; 4) isolate patients; 5) treat patients with appropriate medications or measures, including decontamination of wounds; and 6) use restrictive admission and transfer guidelines. By emphasizing these six basic concepts, a rural ED passed an annual state-run bioterrorism mass-casualty drill. The drill provided health care personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for future bioterrorism casualties. These same concepts could also be used to manage highly virulent viral or bacterial outbreaks.

  1. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean-René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-11-02

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative's Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident.

  2. 成批烧伤救治50年%Experiences in rescue and treatment of mass burn casualties in fifty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周一平

    2008-01-01

    The article reviewed the history and the main experiences of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment during the past fifty years in China. Some issues including medical support for mass burn casually and treatment regime in future, such as the prevention of burn calamities, further elevation of the eure rate and lowering in the rate of disability, further development in network of burn care and preliminary scheme of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment, accelerating the development and study on the substitutes of allo-skin graft were discussed.

  3. Estimation real number of road accident casualties. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Deliverable D.1.15 : final report on task 1.5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J. Amoros, E. Bos, N.M. Evgenikos, P. Hoeglinger, S. Holló, P. Pérez, C. & Tecl, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of Task 1.5 of the SafetyNet IP has been to estimate the actual numbers of road accident casualties in Europe from the CARE database by addressing two issues: • the under-reporting in national accident databases and • the differences between countries of the definitions used to classif

  4. Indoor fire in a nursing home : evaluation of the medical response to a mass casualty incident based on a standardized protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, S. W.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Leenen, L. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study reports the outcome of a mass casualty incident (MCI) caused by a fire in a nursing home. Data from the medical charts and registration system of the Major Incident Hospital (MIH) and ambulance service were analyzed. The evaluation reports from the MIH and an independent res

  5. Book review of "The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine" by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sonal

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Public health ethics is neither taught widely in medical schools or schools of public health in the US or around the world. It is not surprising that health care professionals are particularly challenged when faced with ethical questions which extend beyond safeguarding the interests of their individual patients to matters that affect overall public good. The perceived threat of terror after September 11 2007, the anthrax attacks and the Katrina debacle are recent circumstances which may result in coercion. These have piqued the interest of medical professionals and the general public on public health ethics. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine written by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD attempts to fill a timely void in this area by examining the ethics of coercion in times of public health disasters.

  6. Engaging Active Bystanders in Mass Casualty Events and Other Life-Threatening Emergencies: A Pilot Training Course Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey O; Baker, Susan D; Roberts, Kathryn; Payne, Skip A

    2016-04-01

    Emerging research indicates the critical role members of the public can play in saving lives and reducing morbidity at the scene in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. It is anticipated that with training, more members of the public will be ready and able to assist should they be present at mass casualty events or other circumstances in which there are serious injuries or potential loss of life. This article describes a training course developed by multiple federal and nonfederal partners aimed at preparing the public to become "active bystanders" followed by a pilot demonstration project conducted by Medical Reserve Corps Units. The outcomes of the project indicated that the training was comprehensive and appropriate for members of the public with little or no first aid knowledge. National availability of the "Becoming an Active Bystander" training course is currently being planned. PMID:26841861

  7. Rural mass casualty preparedness and response: the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kristin P; Bass, Robert; Wijetunge, Gamunu; Altevogt, Bruce M

    2012-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events hosted a workshop at the request of the Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services (FICEMS) that brought together a range of stakeholders to broadly identify and confront gaps in rural infrastructure that challenge mass casualty incident (MCI) response and potential mechanisms to fill them. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions around 6 major issues specific to rural MCI preparedness and response: (1) improving rural response to MCI through improving daily capacity and capability, (2) leveraging current and emerging technology to overcome infrastructure deficits, (3) sustaining and strengthening relationships, (4) developing and sharing best practices across jurisdictions and sectors, (5) establishing metrics research and development, and (6) fostering the need for federal leadership to expand and integrate EMS into a broader rural response framework. PMID:23077273

  8. Mobilized progenitor cells as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties: a brief review of tocopherol succinate-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K; Singh, Pankaj K; Wise, Stephen Y; Seed, Thomas M

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear detonation through either military or terrorist action would most likely lead to a mass-casualty scenario involving victims with varying degrees of exposure to ionizing radiation. As a result of radiation injury to the hematopoietic system, victims would suffer from a lack of red blood cells that deliver oxygen, immune cells that detect and eliminate infectious agents, and blood platelets that promote blood clot formation. In part, these symptoms are generally referred to as acute radiation syndrome (ARS). While some victims of moderate to high levels of radiation will be beyond saving, most will have received enough radiation to injure but not kill their bone marrow cells completely. Such people will recover from their injuries but face a 30-60day period during which they cannot fully fight infections and are prone to uncontrolled bleeding and anemia. To keep them alive until their hematopoietic system recovers, they must receive supportive care. Recently, using experimental animal models of ARS, transfusion of myeloid progenitor cells have been tried as a bridging therapy for radiation-exposed animals. Such cells have been shown to be effective in protecting animals exposed to lethal doses of radiation. These myeloid progenitors (along with of other hematopoietic progenitor cell types) can be mobilized out of the bone marrow into the blood for the reconstitution of hematopoiesis. This review discusses various approaches to the mobilization of progenitors using different mobilizing agents, and their utility as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties. We suggest that α-tocopherol succinate (TS) is an optimal mobilizing agent for progenitors. The extent of progenitor mobilization TS elicits in experimental mice is comparable to clinically used drugs such as recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor rhG-CSF/Neupogen® and the bicyclam AMD3100 (plerixafor/Mozobil); therefore, we propose that TS be considered for further translational development

  9. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  10. Infographics as Eye Candy: Review of World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties by Peter Doyle (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Best

    2016-01-01

    Peter Doyle. World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties, illustrated by Lindsey Johns (Buffalo NY: Firefly Books, 2013). 224 pp. ISBN: 177085195X. Doyle’s book contains dozens of graphs of statistical data dealing with World War II. Many of these graphs are visually striking. However, they often violate fundamental graphing principles, in that they distort quantitative relationships, use unidentified scales, and often make it difficult ...

  11. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Sellström

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  12. Patterns of Road Traffic Accidents in North West of Iran during 2013 New Year Holidays: Complications and Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the patterns,complications and casualties of road traffic accidents in North West of Iran during 2013 New Year holidays. Methods: One hundred and eighty one patients with trauma-related vehicle crashes were investigated in a cross sectional-descriptive study. We only included those road traffic accidents which were recorded during the 2013 Iranian New Year holidays. Severity of injury based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, patient transmission type, damaged organ and the final diagnosis was determined. The mortality rate as well as complications were also recorded and reported. The pattern was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics. Results: Overall we included 181 patients who were victims of road traffic accidents during the study period. Most cases of multiple traumas were from two car accident (49.2%. Of 181 cases, 71 (39.2%, 66 (36.5%, 16 (8.8% and 11 (6.1% subjects had limb, head and neck, abdominal, and spinal cord injuries respectively, while 16 cases (8.8% did not have any organ damage. In final diagnosis, a limb fracture was noticed in 32 cases (17.7% and skull fractures in 5 subjects (2.8% as the first and second causes. Conclusion: As head and neck were the most damaged organs after the limbs in patients with multiple traumas, it seems that there is a necessity for these patients in transmission and examination of head traumas. So there is a need for a proper referral system.

  13. Air MEDEVAC in case of multiple casualties – The experience of civilian-military cooperation in RoAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș C. Tudose

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Starting September 2010 in Romania was created the Military Emergency Medical Service (SMMU by the Ministry of National Defense, which has as main mission to provide first aid and save the lives of military personnel during military operations using special equipped MEDEAVC aircraft. Nationwide exist the national emergency system which operates thru 112- SMURD acting in support of the civilian population. In case of accidents with multiple victims the experience has shown the need for collaboration between the two systems, in order to save lives. In the last 5 years there has been an increasing Airlift missions (MEDEVAC with multiple victims executed by joint civil-military medical teams using military aircraft. Material and methods. This paper provides a review of the most important aspects of particularities, advantages and disadvantages of this type of medical transport using the MEDEVAC missions based study carried out by the Air Force in recent years. Results and conclusions. Performing these tasks presents challenges to mission planning, use of medical equipment and procedures, command-control system, exercise programs jointly joint medical teams and, of course, managing a large number of patients in flight. The large number of patients transported safely and in the shortest time, regardless of weather conditions recommends this type of medical intervention. Given the Romanian military presence in various theaters and that NATO strategic medical evacuation is a national responsibility, the capacity of air transport in case multiple casualties is a priority.

  14. A Review of Socio-Economic Consequences, Losses and Human Casualties of the 1977 Vrancea, Romania Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil-Sever GEORGESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although its socio-economic disaster pattern was obvious, the March 4, 1977 Vrancea, Romania earthquake was studied mainly in seismological and earthquake engineering terms. In 1977, the loss data released in Romania, referred to 32,900 collapsed or heavily damaged dwellings, 35,000 homeless families, thousands of damaged buildings, many other damages and destructions in industry and economy, 1,578 people killed, 11,321 people injured (with 90% of the killed and 67% of the injured being in the city of Bucharest. The Romanian government reported the economic losses from this event in December 1977, as being US$ 2 billion. For a long time, the evaluation of human casualties vs. collapse pattern of buildings in 1977 was not addressed and we still miss integral data. The recovery and reevaluation of economic and social impacts of the 1977 disaster was a concern of the authors, with the intent to better understand its consequences and prepare a new strategy of seismic risk reduction in view of future earthquakes in Romania, and in order to fill that gap the authors recovered many unpublished and obscure data.

  15. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface.

  16. Recognition and Treatment of Nerve Agent Casualties: Evidence of Reduced Learner Engagement During Video-based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukoski, Alex; Uhlich, Rindi; Tucker, Johnny; Cooper, Chris; Barnes, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Changes in electrodermal activity (EDA) correlate with arousal and stress during stimulating experiences. We hypothesized that associations exist between short-term performance gains and changes in EDA. A total of 187 combat medics were randomly assigned to simulation (S), live tissue (L), or video (V) based training in the recognition and treatment of nerve agent casualties. Change in EDA from baseline to training was quantified for tonic and phasic responses and was categorized as positive (>+10%), no change (±10%), or negative (psychomotor skills assessments were applied before and after the baseline/training period to quantify short-term performance changes. Statistically significant differences in both EDA arousal measures between training modalities (p S ∼ V) were observed. Notably, larger proportions of trainees experienced negative changes in tonic (67%) and phasic (21%) EDA measures in the V group when compared to the L and S groups. Regardless of training modality, negative tonic and phasic EDA responses were associated with lower psychomotor performance gains and this finding approached statistical significance (tonic: p = 0.056, phasic: p = 0.08). No significant differences were noted in pre- to post-training cognitive performance between EDA response categories. As quantified by EDA response to training, reduced arousal was associated with lower short-term psychomotor, but not cognitive, performance gains. PMID:27168569

  17. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study

  18. An Engineer’s Mathematical Approach to Designing an Emergency Room Decontamination Area for Weapons of Mass Destruction Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldo E. Frezza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study will focus on the potential requirements for an emergency response facility in case of weapons of mass destruction casualties proposing mathematical models. A complete emergency room layout will be designed taking the following analyses and requirements into consideration: quality function development (QFD and product layout; average number of patients in the system, average time in the system, average number of patients in the waiting queue and average time waiting in the queue. Our analysis showed that, assuming 150 patients per day for 2 days with average service time of 14 minutes with two lines running. λ = 75 arrivals/day = 0.0521 arrivals/min. µ = 2 patients/14min = 0.1429 patients/min. Average number of patients in system (waiting and being served. Ls = λ / (µ - λ = 0.574 patients. Average time in system (waiting and service time Ws = 1 / (µ - λ = 11.02 min. Average number of patients waiting in queue. Lq = λ2 / µ (µ - λ = 0.209 patients Average time waiting in queue, Wq = λ / µ (µ - λ = 4.016 min. From our model, we conclude to set up an engineer’s perfect ER response we need: Having a stable patient and unstable patient track will make it easy to respond to the emergency. Patients requiring the emergency track feature would be dropped off before the vehicle shower at contaminated stabilizing rooms. Time of service: waiting 14 minutes with an average of 2 patients waiting in line to be served. This is an initial study having a flow of 150 patients arriving over a long time period and it is an attempt to apply a mathematical model to a multidisciplinary approach to a clinical potential discussion.

  19. Developing and organizing a trauma system and mass casualty management: some useful observations from the israeli trauma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, B; Khonglah, T

    2013-01-01

    A trauma system is a chain of arrangements and preparedness to provide quality response to injured from the site of injury to the appropriate hospital for the full range of care. Israel has a unique trauma system developed from the experience gained in peace and in war. The system is designed to fit the state's current health system, which is different from the European and American systems. An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence better. The aim of this paper is to discuss learning points to develop a trauma system based on the Israeli trauma model. After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, characterized by a central national organization responsible for management, coordination and ongoing quality control. Because of its unique geopolitical situation, the armed forces has a significant role in the system. Investing adequate resources on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team-work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for capacity building to develop a trauma system. Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to streamline work in skeletal trauma services of developing countries having fewer resources to bring consistency and acceptable standards in trauma care. PMID:23634336

  20. Clinical profile of medicolegal cases presenting to the eye casualty in a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Tripathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical profile of medicolegal cases (MLCs presenting to the eye casualty in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of records. The cases were grouped according to the Ocular Trauma Classification Group classification system. Results: Out of 188 MLCs, 164 (87.2% were male. Mean age (±standard deviation was 31.6 (±12.7 years. Age ranged from 7 to 75 years. Twenty-six (13.8% patients had bilateral involvement. The fist was the most common mode of injury, which was seen in 109 (58% cases. A total of 27 (14.3% patients had associated extraocular injury. No evidence of ocular or orbital trauma (malingering could be found in 13 (7% patients. Mechanical trauma was present in 169 (90% patients with injury to globe in 129 (69% patients and injury to lid or orbit without damage to the globe in 40 (21% patients. Chemical injury was observed in 6 (3% patients. Closed globe injury (CGI was seen in 116 eyes and open globe injury (OGI was noted in 29 eyes. The most common type of injury, zone, pupil, and grade of injury in CGI were Type A or contusion (79%, Zone I (72%, Pupil B (absence of relative afferent pupillary defect in 95%, and Grade A [visual acuity (VA ≥20/40] in 68% of the eyes, respectively. The most common type of injury, zone, pupil, and grade of injury in OGI were Type B or penetrating (48%, Zone II (38%, Pupil B (59%, and Grade D (VA 4/200-light perception (42%, respectively. Conclusions: The most common form and mode of ocular injury in MLC were closed globe injury and fist, respectively. The most common type of injury in CGI and OGI was contusion and penetrating injury, respectively.

  1. Study on casualties of Dujiangyan City in Wenchuan earthquake%汶川地震都江堰市人员伤亡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超; 刘爱文; 温增平

    2012-01-01

    Dujiangyan City suffered heavy casualties in Wenchuan earthquake. This paper studies the spatiotemporal distribution characters and factors impacting casualties of this city to provide some reference for urban earthquake disaster mitigation. Based on the earthquake intensity and casualty data of each town, the effects of earthquake intensity and population density on death rate are analyzed, and the empirical expressions are given. The result shows that there is an obvious positive correlation between mortality rate and earthquake intensity. The change of death rate with fault distance is studied, and it' s shown that the correlation between death rate and fault distance is higher than the correlation between death rate and earthquake intensity. To some extent, estimation of death rate based on fault distance reduces the human caused uncertainty in intensity evaluation, which is thus more objective. The changes of the number of reported deaths with time are quantitatively analyzed, and the effects of rescue efficiency on the reported deaths are qualitatively discussed. The ratio of reported deaths to total deaths is proportional to rescue efficiency. By summarizing several factors causing casualties, it is shown that destruction and collapse of building structures are the main reason of casualties, and the death rate caused by building damage depends on the building type. Attention should be paid to this issue when estimating the casualty rate.%都江堰市在汶川地震中人员伤亡严重,文中主要研究了该市所辖地区人员伤亡的时空分布特征及影响人员伤亡数的各种因素,希望对城市防震减灾具有参考意义.根据都江堰地区各乡镇的烈度及人员伤亡数据,分析了地震烈度及人口密度对人员死亡率的影响,并给出了死亡率与烈度及人口密度的经验关系式,结果表明死亡率与烈度具有较明显的正相关性.研究了死亡率随断层距的变化规律,分析表明死亡率与

  2. On Practice and Enlightenment of Casualty Evacuation of Vehicle Troops of Russian%俄军汽车部(分)队实施伤病员后送的做法及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 刘冀疆

    2012-01-01

    Casualty evacuation is an important part of evacuation transportation of the vehicle troops of Russian. The timing of implementation of casualty evacuation of Russian, the assignment of the task evacuation, the selection and preparation of vehicles,the organization and other aspects of running a team tell us on carrying out casualty evacuation with the help of the vehicle troops you should seriously make plans for casualty evacuation, enhance evacuation organization, make every prepa- ration for casualty evacuation and focus on the defense of evacuation teams.%伤病员后送是俄军汽车部(分)队后送运输的重要组成部分。俄军伤病员后送时机的选择、后送任务的受领、车辆选派准备、车队运行组织等方面的做法,启示我们在运用汽车部(分)队实施伤病员后送时,要认真拟制伤病员后送预案、加强后送组织、做好后送准备、注重后送车队的防卫工作。

  3. 成批重度烧伤患者相关感染的个体化治疗%Individualized treatment of infection on mass severe burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴特

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of mass severe burn casualties is one of the important criteria to test the emergency response ability of department. Burn sepsis, pulmonary infection, local wound infection, enterogenous infection, and a series of infections in the process of mass burn casualties are seriously threatening the life of the patients. In addition to the routine treatment of patients with severe burn, this article focuses on the individual treatment programs for patients with different infections, and achieved good results. Mass burn casualties with severe burn treatment, need to adjust the specific circumstances, in order to maximize the success rate of treatment.%成批重度烧伤患者的成功救治是考验科室对突发事件应急能力的重要标准之一。成批烧伤患者救治的过程中,烧伤脓毒症、肺部感染、局部创面感染以及肠源性感染等一系列感染问题严重地威胁着患者的生命。除了对重度烧伤患者的常规治疗以外,本文着重介绍了针对患者不同感染情况进行的个体化治疗方案,并且取得良好效果。成批重度烧伤患者的治疗,需要针对具体情况进行调整,才能最大程度地提高救治成功率。

  4. Infographics as Eye Candy: Review of World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties by Peter Doyle (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Best

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Doyle. World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties, illustrated by Lindsey Johns (Buffalo NY: Firefly Books, 2013. 224 pp. ISBN: 177085195X. Doyle’s book contains dozens of graphs of statistical data dealing with World War II. Many of these graphs are visually striking. However, they often violate fundamental graphing principles, in that they distort quantitative relationships, use unidentified scales, and often make it difficult to compare quantities. Graphic software makes it easy to create imaginative images, but these can fail to communicate the very information that is the graph’s purpose.

  5. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan. PMID:27158765

  6. Investigation on Emergency Rescuing Mode for Mass Casualties in Hospital%城市成批伤员院内应急救护模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝胜; 桂莉; 崔宏冰; 席淑华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore an emergency rescuing mode,so as to enhance hospitals' capacity in rescuing urban mass casualties orderly,efficiently and safely. Methods Forty victims were rescued timely by establishing nurse first diagnosis responsibility, emergency departments diagnosis and ward billabong rescue model of this hospital, who were wounded in a rear-end accident of Shanghai subway. Then the rescuing experience of mass casualties was summed up. Results With timely triage and treatment, the general rescue effectiveness was quite good and all the wounded were discharged after recovery. Conclusion The hospital's rescuing model to mass casualties has successful experiences to follow in timely triage and treatment, while the hospitals' capacity of mass casualties should be further enhanced by optimizing rescue scheme.%目的 探讨城市成批伤员的救护模式,以提高医院有序、高效、安全救护城市成批伤员的能力.方法 对第二军医大学长征医院运用"护士首诊负责、急诊科室诊治、病房收治分流"的救护模式实施某次地铁追尾事故的救护过程进行总结与分析.结果 40名伤员均得到了及时的分流及诊治,整体救护效果较为满意,患者均康复出院.结论 在城市成批伤救护中采用"护士首诊负责、急诊科室诊治、病房收治分流"的救护模式能使伤员快速分流、及时得到诊断及收治,值得临床推广应用,但需对救护方案进行优化,以进一步提高医院对成批伤员救护的能力.

  7. Analysis of Casualty Risk per Police-Reported Crash for Model Year 2000 to 2004 Vehicles, using Crash Data from Five States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom

    2011-03-20

    In this report we compare two measures of driver risks: fatality risk per vehicle registration-year, and casualty (fatality plus serious injury) risk per police-reported crash. Our analysis is based on three sets of data from five states (Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, and Pennsylvania): data on all police-reported crashes involving model year 2000 to 2004 vehicles; 2005 county-level vehicle registration data by vehicle model year and make/model; and odometer readings from vehicle emission inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs conducted in urban areas of four of the five states (Florida does not have an I/M program). The two measures of risk could differ for three reasons: casualty risks are different from fatality risk; risks per vehicle registration-year are different from risks per crash; and risks estimated from national data are different from risks from the five states analyzed here. We also examined the effect of driver behavior, crash location, and general vehicle design on risk, as well as sources of potential bias in using the crash data from five states.

  8. Prairie North: a joint civilian/military mass casualty exercise highlights the role of the National Guard in community disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotich, George; Bayram, Jamil D; Miller, Miriam I

    2012-01-01

    In a joint military/civilian exercise conducted in June 2010, military National Guard medical and decontamination response efforts proved to be paramount in supporting hospital resources to sustain an adequate response during a simulated terrorist event. Traditionally, hospitals include local responders in their disaster preparedness but overlook other available state and federal resources such as the National Guard. Lessons learned from the exercise included the value of regular joint disaster planning and training between the military and civilian medical sectors. Additionally, military communication and medical equipment compatibility with the civilian infrastructure was identified as one of the top areas for the improvement of this joint exercise. Involving the National Guard in community disaster planning provides a valuable medical support asset that can be critical in responding to multiple casualty events. National Guard response is inherently faster than its federal counterpart. Based on the findings from our joint exercise, states are encouraged to incorporate their corresponding National Guard in civilian critical medical infrastructure disaster preparedness activities, as the National Guard can be an integral part of the disaster response efforts in real multiple casualty events.

  9. Use of Clinical Decision Guidance as a New Public Health Tool for the Medical Management of Internal Contamination in Radiological Mass Casualty Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Albert L

    2016-09-01

    This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents. There is a public health need for rapidly identifying and quantifying the 'source term' of such radiation exposures and assessment of the associated committed doses, so that appropriate medical countermeasure(s) can be given as soon as possible. The CDG, which was initially defined in NCRP-161, was specifically developed to be a new public health tool for facilitating the integration of local community healthcare professionals into the general medical, mass casualty, triage and treatment response of internally contaminated populations. PMID:27574325

  10. Mass casualty management of a large-scale bioterrorist event: an epidemiological approach that shapes triage decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2002-05-01

    The threat of a BT event has catalyzed serious reflection on the troublesome issues that come with event management and triage. Such reflection has had the effect of multiplying the efforts to find solutions to what could become a catastrophic public health disaster. Management options are becoming more robust, as are reliable detection devices and rapid access to stockpiled antibiotics and vaccines. There is much to be done, however, especially in the organizing, warehousing, and granting/exercising authority for resource allocations. The introduction of these new options should encourage one to believe that, in time, evolving standards of care will make it possible to rethink the currently unthinkable consequences. Unfortunately the cost of such preparedness is high and out of reach of most governments. Most of the developing world has neither the will nor the means to plan for BT events and remains overwhelmed with basic public health concerns (i.e., water, food, sanitation, shelter) that must take priority. Therefore, developed countries will be expected to respond using international exogenous resources to mitigate the effects of such a disaster. As a result, the state capacity of the effected government will be severely compromised. If triage and management of casualties is further compromised, terrorists will have met their goals. One could argue that health sciences will continue for decades to play catch up with the advanced technology driving potential bioagent weaponry. If one lesson was learned from the review of the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, it is that the unthinkable remains an option to terrorists who have comparable expertise. It is crucial to develop realistic strategies for a BT event. Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) permits society to see cases in the context of diverse moral perspectives, limited resources, and compelling health care demands. This includes a competent

  11. Mass casualty management of a large-scale bioterrorist event: an epidemiological approach that shapes triage decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2002-05-01

    The threat of a BT event has catalyzed serious reflection on the troublesome issues that come with event management and triage. Such reflection has had the effect of multiplying the efforts to find solutions to what could become a catastrophic public health disaster. Management options are becoming more robust, as are reliable detection devices and rapid access to stockpiled antibiotics and vaccines. There is much to be done, however, especially in the organizing, warehousing, and granting/exercising authority for resource allocations. The introduction of these new options should encourage one to believe that, in time, evolving standards of care will make it possible to rethink the currently unthinkable consequences. Unfortunately the cost of such preparedness is high and out of reach of most governments. Most of the developing world has neither the will nor the means to plan for BT events and remains overwhelmed with basic public health concerns (i.e., water, food, sanitation, shelter) that must take priority. Therefore, developed countries will be expected to respond using international exogenous resources to mitigate the effects of such a disaster. As a result, the state capacity of the effected government will be severely compromised. If triage and management of casualties is further compromised, terrorists will have met their goals. One could argue that health sciences will continue for decades to play catch up with the advanced technology driving potential bioagent weaponry. If one lesson was learned from the review of the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, it is that the unthinkable remains an option to terrorists who have comparable expertise. It is crucial to develop realistic strategies for a BT event. Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) permits society to see cases in the context of diverse moral perspectives, limited resources, and compelling health care demands. This includes a competent

  12. Method paper--distance and travel time to casualty clinics in Norway based on crowdsourced postcode coordinates: a comparison with other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknes, Guttorm; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method that uses crowdsourced postcode coordinates and Google maps to estimate average distance and travel time for inhabitants of a municipality to a casualty clinic in Norway. The new method was compared with methods based on population centroids, median distance and town hall location, and we used it to examine how distance affects the utilisation of out-of-hours primary care services. At short distances our method showed good correlation with mean travel time and distance. The utilisation of out-of-hours services correlated with postcode based distances similar to previous research. The results show that our method is a reliable and useful tool for estimating average travel distances and travel times.

  13. New Pre-hospital Care Concepts in American Military Combat Casualty Care%美军战伤救治院前急救新理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽娟; 吴曙霞; 刁天喜

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the experiences of American military pre — hospital care from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, and comprehensively analyzes the new pre - hospital care concepts and strategies in terms of pre - hospital casualty documentation mode, fluid resuscitation concept, battlefield hemorrhage control strategy and "tactical evacuation" definition.%本文通过梳理总结美军伊拉克和阿富汗战争院前急救的经验教训,从院前伤员信息记录模式、液体复苏理念、战场出血控制策略、“战术后送”概念四个方面,综合分析美军院前急救的新理念和策略.

  14. Method paper--distance and travel time to casualty clinics in Norway based on crowdsourced postcode coordinates: a comparison with other methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttorm Raknes

    Full Text Available We describe a method that uses crowdsourced postcode coordinates and Google maps to estimate average distance and travel time for inhabitants of a municipality to a casualty clinic in Norway. The new method was compared with methods based on population centroids, median distance and town hall location, and we used it to examine how distance affects the utilisation of out-of-hours primary care services. At short distances our method showed good correlation with mean travel time and distance. The utilisation of out-of-hours services correlated with postcode based distances similar to previous research. The results show that our method is a reliable and useful tool for estimating average travel distances and travel times.

  15. Development of a national burn network: providing a co-ordinated response to a burn mass casualty disaster within the Australian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Robertson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of terrorist activity ever present since the incidents in Bali and Jakarta, the Australian health system must be prepared to manage another mass burn casualty disaster. The Australian and New Zealand Burns Association (ANZBA highlighted the lack of a national burn disaster response before the 2000 Olympics. With the limited number of burn beds available and the protracted length of stay after such injuries, any state or territory could be overwhelmed with relatively few patient admissions. In 2002, the Australian Health Minister's Conference called for a solution. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the process and development of the Australian National Burn Network, which underpins the National Burn Disaster Response (AUSBURNPLAN.

  16. 地震伤员后方医院救治经验%Trauma care of evacuated earthquake casualties: experience of a rear hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 金丹; 魏宽海; 相大勇; 裴国献; 林昂如; 王钢; 余斌; 任高宏; 胡稷杰; 张晟; 郭刚

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨汶川地震中伤员的后方医院救治经验.方法 2008年5月20日至2008年6月8日,对收治的53例四川地震伤员的救治工作进行同顾性分析,其中创伤骨科收治33例:手术治疗29例,保守治疗4例.结果 33例伤员获得较好预后,未出现骨折严重晚期并发症和手术并发症,未出现死亡病例.结论 在地震等突发性灾难的救治工作中,后方医院的工作需要做到组织有效、全面诊断、个体化治疗、积极心理疏导以及预防晚期并发症.%Objective To discuss our experience of trauma care of earthquake casualties evacuated from the earthquake-hit area in Sichuan province. Methods In this study, the medical records of 53patients who had been transferred to our hospital after the 5.12 Sichuan earthquake were analyzed retrospectively. Of them, 33 were assigned to the department of orthopedics. Twenty-nine were treated surgically and 4 conservatively. Results All the patients healed with good outcome and no severe late complications related to fracture or surgery were observed. No death occurred. Conclusion In treatment of earthquake casualties, many jobs should be taken into consideration and practice, including efficient organization, systematic and careful diagnosis, individualized treatment, psychological consultation and prevention of late complications.

  17. Focusing on hospital emergency plan for mass casualty%重视批量伤员医院救治应急预案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连阳; 马明炎

    2016-01-01

    批量伤员常由突发公共卫生事件造成。应急预案是医院针对各种突发公共卫生事件,在院外和院内对个体或群体伤员实施及时有效的救援措施,以挽救生命、减轻损害为目的而制订的行动计划。本文结合笔者参与2015年1月30日一起高速公路交通事故批量伤员医院内救援情况,阐述了批量伤员医院救治应急预案目前的现状、制订与演练过程中相关技术细节,以期有助于提高医院救治批量伤员能力。%Mass casualty is often caused by sudden public health events. The hospital emergency plan aims to provide timely and effective rescue for individual or group wounded outside the hospital and in the hospital, so as to save lives and reduce the damage for all kinds of public health emergencies. In this paper, the authors described their participation in the intra-hospital rescue of a highway traffic accident happened on 30 January, 2015 and pointed out the present situation of emergence plan and the related technical details in the process of the training, so as to improve the ability of the hospital to treat the mass casualty.

  18. Very early increase in nitric oxide formation and oxidative cell damage associated with the reduction of tissue oxygenation is a trait of blast casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In our previous experimental studies, we found evidence for the increase of nitric oxide (NO formation immediately after blast injury. In the present study we investigated whether NO overproduction was a trait for the period immediately after blast injury in humans. Concomitant metabolic disturbances were also studied, and compared to the alterations in other traumatized patients. Methods. Blast casualties (group B, n = 13, surgical patients with the hip replacement or fractures, not exposed to blast effects (group S, n = 7 and healthy volunteers as controls (group C, n = 10, were examined. Both arterial and venous blood samples were taken within 6 hours, and 24 hours after blast injuries or surgical procedures, respectively. Plasma levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx, superoxyde anion (O2.-, sulfhydrils (SH, malondialdehyde (MDA as well as acid-base status and other biochemical parameters (glucose, urea, creatinine, total proteins, albumin were measured. Results. Significant, but transient increase in plasma NOx levels occurred only in group B. It was associated with the significant increase of hemoglobin oxygen (sO2 saturation of the venous blood and the concomitant decrease of its arterial - venous difference. In group S the venous sO2 decreased, its arterial - venous difference increased, while NOx levels were within the control limits. In both groups, other parameters of arterial acid-base status were kept within the control limits throughout the examined period. The decrease of SH levels were similar in the examined groups, while the increase of O2 .- was greater in group B. Conclusion. Early NO overproduction was a trait of blast injuries in humans, contributing to the reduction of tissue the oxygenation and intensifying the oxidative cell damage that had to be considered in the therapy of casualties with blast injuries. These alterations were different from those observed in other surgical patients without blast injuries.

  19. 地震后送老年伤员的伤情特点与治疗对策%Therapy for elderly earthquake casualties transferred 2 weeks later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹烈虎; 张春才; 王志伟; 付青格; 刘欣伟; 苏佳灿; 李卓东; 鲍宏伟; 吴建明

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss the therapy for patients aged more than 60 years who were transferred 2 weeks after the 5.12 Sichuan earthquake. Methods A retrospective investigation was done for the 15 elderly patients who had been transferred to our hospital 2 weeks after the earthquake. Their injury conditions, medical interventions, and results were analyzed. Results Fourteen earthquake casualties survived, with stable life signs and improved physical and injury status. One patient aged 87 died because of aspiration 4 days after transfer to our hospital. Conclusion Since the state of injury of elderly earthquake casualties is usually complicated and complicated with severe wounds and complications of internal organs, a teamwork of multiple departments, accurate and overall diagnosis of systematic condition, reasonable therapeutic protocols, necessary mental innervation and considerate nursing are essential for diminishing risks for the elderly patients and improving their therapeutic efficacy.%目的 探讨60岁以上地震伤后送老年伤员的伤情特点与治疗对策.方法 回顾性分析2008年5月26日至28日汶川地震后收治的15名60岁以上老年伤员的具体伤情、救治过程和结果,并总结经验.结果 除1例87岁高龄伤员人院后4d因误吸死亡外,其余14名伤员获得成功救治,未发生伤情加重或死亡,且心理状况良好,均表现出对伤痛康复充满信心,现在生命体征平稳,身体状况及伤情较转入前明显改善.结论 地震伤后老年伤员的伤情复杂,常伴有严重的复合伤及内科并发症.多科室通力协作,全面、系统评估老年伤员全身情况,及时制定合理的治疗方案,必要的心理干预和人文护理,是降低老年伤员手术风险及死亡率、提高治疗效果以及康复的关键.

  20. Analysis of the personnel casualty reasons and evacuating behavior in the fire%火灾中人员伤亡原因及疏散行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞建军

    2012-01-01

    根据火灾调查取得的有关参数,使用FDS火灾模拟软件对火灾过程进行了模拟,取得了楼梯间内一氧化碳、二氧化碳、氧气含量及能见度等模拟数据.燃烧产物毒害性、高温烟气、烟气减光性是火灾中致人伤亡的原因.针对火灾中人员的疏散行为,分析了火灾事故教训,提出了预防伤亡的措施.%The paper uses the software of Fire Dynamics Simulator to simulate the course of fire by the parameter from the investigation the fire. FDS calculates the concentration of COi CO2 > O2 and the visibility in the course of fire. It is the poison from the products of combustion. the smoke and gas with high temperature and the strong smoke that make people die and injured in the fire. It analyzes the lessons of the fire accidents, puts forward the prevention measures of personnel casualty in the fire by analyzing of evacuating behavior.

  1. Emergency imaging after a mass casualty incident: role of the radiology department during training for and activation of a disaster management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ferco H; Körner, Markus; Bernstein, Mark P; Sodickson, Aaron D; Beenen, Ludo F; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Kool, Digna R; Bilow, Ronald M

    2016-05-01

    In the setting of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), hospitals need to divert from normal routine to delivering the best possible care to the largest number of victims. This should be accomplished by activating an established hospital disaster management plan (DMP) known to all staff through prior training drills. Over the recent decades, imaging has increasingly been used to evaluate critically ill patients. It can also be used to increase the accuracy of triaging MCI victims, since overtriage (falsely higher triage category) and undertriage (falsely lower triage category) can severely impact resource availability and mortality rates, respectively. This article emphasizes the importance of including the radiology department in hospital preparations for a MCI and highlights factors expected to influence performance during hospital DMP activation including issues pertinent to effective simulation, such as establishing proper learning objectives. After-action reviews including performance evaluation and debriefing on issues are invaluable following simulation drills and DMP activation, in order to improve subsequent preparedness. Historically, most hospital DMPs have not adequately included radiology department operations, and they have not or to a little extent been integrated in the DMP activation simulation. This article aims to increase awareness of the need for radiology department engagement in order to increase radiology department preparedness for DMP activation after a MCI occurs. PMID:26781837

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Surveyed Emergency Responders and the Identified Factors That Affect First Stage of Primary Triage Decision-Making of Mass Casualty Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelly R.; Burkle Jr., Frederick M.; Swienton, Raymond; King, Richard V.; Lehman, Thomas; North, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. Methods: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage. Results: 403 unique completed surveys were analyzed. 92% practiced a structural triage approach with the rest reporting they used “gestalt”.(gut feeling) Twelve per cent were identified as having placed patients in an expectant category during triage. Respiratory status, ability to speak, perfusion/pulse were all ranked in the top three. Gut feeling regardless of statistical analysis was fourth. Supplies were ranked in the top four when analyzed for those who had placed patients in the expectant category. Conclusion: Primary triage decisions in a mass casualty scenario are multifactorial and encompass patient mobility, life saving interventions, situational instincts, and logistics. PMID:27651979

  3. Casualty Searching, Evacuation and Telemedicine System Based on BeiDou Navigation Satellite System%基于北斗卫星定位的伤员搜救与后送、远程医疗系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬小军; 汪陈应; 刘志; 李学成; 赵军平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a casualty searching, evacuation and telemedicine system to make the soldiers accompanied by medical support. Methods Based on telemedicine technology and locating & two-way communication ability of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, the hierarchy of the system was designed. Remits The design plan of the casualty searching, evacuation and telemedicine system based on BeiDou Navigation Satellite System was put forward. Conclusion The Casualty precision location, rescue and evacuation are realized for medical support of military operationsother than war.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2011,32(12):9-12]%目的:研制适合于一线救护的伤员搜救与后送、远程医疗系统,最大限度地实现医疗与士兵同在.方法:立足军队现有远程医疗技术,利用北斗卫星同时具备定位与双向通信的能力,设计一整套伤员搜寻、后送与远程医疗体系架构.结果:构建了基于北斗卫星定位的伤员搜救、后送与远程医疗平台设计方案.结论:解决了战场伤员精确定位、援救与后送的难题,满足了非战争军事行动卫勤保障的需要.

  4. The influence of the pre-hospital application of non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin in the practice of emergency medical services in multiple and mass casualty incidents (MCI – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 a fire broke out in the Nursing Home (NH in the Henryszew village 5 km away from the district hospital in Żyrardów. At the time of the incident 52 residents and 16 staff members were present in the building. Due to a large number of casualties, the occurrence was classified as a potentially mass casualty incident (MCI. Troops of the State Fire Brigade, Paramedic Rescue Squads, choppers of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, the Police, and the NH staff took part in the rescue operation. The priority was given to the evacuation of the NH residents carried out by the NH staff and firefighters, extinguishing the fire, as well as to primary and secondary survey triage. Due to the pre-accident health state of the victims, the latter posed a considerable difficulty. A decisive role was played by the need to conduct non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin in all the casualties, which then made it possible to adequately diagnose the patients and implement proper procedures. The rescue operation was correctly followed although it proved to be a serious logistical and technical undertaking for the participating emergency services. The residents were not found to be suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning, therefore 46 of the residents safely returned to the building. The fact that all the Paramedic Rescue Squads were equipped with medical triage sets and were able to conduct non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin made it possible to introduce effective procedures in the cases of suspected carbon monoxide poisoning and abandon costly and complicated organisational procedures when they proved to be unnecessary. Med Pr 2014;65(2:289–295

  5. The "RTR" medical response system for nuclear and radiological mass-casualty incidents: a functional TRiage-TReatment-TRansport medical response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Chad M; Coleman, C Norman; Bogucki, Sandy; Bader, Judith L; Hayhurst, Robert E; Forsha, Joseph D; Marcozzi, David; Yeskey, Kevin; Knebel, Ann R

    2009-01-01

    Developing a mass-casualty medical response to the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) or large radiological dispersal device (RDD) requires unique advanced planning due to the potential magnitude of the event, lack of warning, and radiation hazards. In order for medical care and resources to be collocated and matched to the requirements, a [US] Federal interagency medical response-planning group has developed a conceptual approach for responding to such nuclear and radiological incidents. The "RTR" system (comprising Radiation-specific TRiage, TReatment, TRansport sites) is designed to support medical care following a nuclear incident. Its purpose is to characterize, organize, and efficiently deploy appropriate materiel and personnel assets as close as physically possible to various categories of victims while preserving the safety of responders. The RTR system is not a medical triage system for individual patients. After an incident is characterized and safe perimeters are established, RTR sites should be determined in real-time that are based on the extent of destruction, environmental factors, residual radiation, available infrastructure, and transportation routes. Such RTR sites are divided into three types depending on their physical/situational relationship to the incident. The RTR1 sites are near the epicenter with residual radiation and include victims with blast injuries and other major traumatic injuries including radiation exposure; RTR2 sites are situated in relationship to the plume with varying amounts of residual radiation present, with most victims being ambulatory; and RTR3 sites are collection and transport sites with minimal or no radiation present or exposure risk and a victim population with a potential variety of injuries or radiation exposures. Medical Care sites are predetermined sites at which definitive medical care is given to those in immediate need of care. They include local/regional hospitals, medical centers, other

  6. Estimation of the number of casualties in catastrophic earthquake%强震巨灾后受伤人数的估计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱兵; 郑静晨; 刘晓军; 张金红; 曲国胜; 宁宝坤; 刘庆; 张庆江; 李向晖

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨强震巨灾后早期估算受伤人数的方法,为灾难应急准备奠定科学依据.方法 选 取10个亚洲强震巨灾震例伤亡人员数据和中国汶川地震各地区伤亡人员数据,统计伤亡比.结果 10个 震例伤亡比变异较大,最低0.80,最大8.31,平均3.70.中国汶川地震各地伤亡比变异也很较大,最低 1.00、最大254.4,平均3.67,两组伤亡比均值近似,均约为4:1.结论 以多个震例的伤亡比均值作为预测参 数,可建立线性函数关系式:N=K×M.此函数模型需要进一步研究区域系数和受伤程度等参数.%Objective To explore the evaluation model of the total number of injuries after catastrophic earthquake and lay the scientific basis for disaster emergency preparation. Methods The numbers of deaths and injuries in the 10 catastrophic earthquake cases in Asia and those in different areas in the Wenchuan earthquake case in China were selected to analyze the mean wounded/death ratios. Results The wounded/death ratios in different earthquake cases were highly variable, with the lowest ratio of 0.80, the highest ratio of 8.3, and the mean of 3.70. Similarly, the wounded/death ratios in different areas in the Wenchuan earthquake case was highly variable too, with the lowest ratio of 1.00, the highest ratio of 254.4, and the mean of 3.67. However, the mean wounded/death ratio of the group of foreign Asian countries was similar to that of the Wenchuan earthquake, both being 4:1. Conclusion A linear function equation for estimating the number of casualties, namely N=KxM, has been established based on the mean wounded/death ratio. However, the parameters, such as region factor and trauma degree, remain to be studied so as to correct the equation.

  7. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e.g., wi...

  8. 大学生非正常伤亡的善后处理研究%Study on the handling of the aftermath matters of college students' fortuitous casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储水江

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,college students' fortuitous casualty exhibits an upward tendency.It is always the case that after the casualties the victims and their parents will claim high indemnity from the colleges.Due to the lack of integrity of laws and regulations,colleges are put in a rather passive position and imposed "unbearable burdens",with the daily teaching order badly affected.The central and local governments should set up a system of regulations and a fund to handle the aftermath matters of fortuitous casualty in colleges,which can on the one hand,psychologically and financially compensate for the victims and their parents,and on the other,relieve them from heavy financial burdens.Moreover,the warmth of the socialist family demonstrated in it can help promote the actual effects of the ideological and political education in colleges.%近年来,大学生非正常伤亡事故呈现逐年增多的态势。事件发生后,受伤害学生家长往往都会向高校"天价"索赔,由于法律法规的不完备,使高校在善后处理中处于极其被动的位置,正常的教学秩序受到严重影响,使事故成为高校"不能承受之重"。国家或社会应建立大学生非正常伤亡善后处理机制,设立大学生非正常伤亡善后处理准备金,一方面使受伤害学生及其家长得到精神上的抚慰与经济上的补偿,另一方面使高校从巨大的压力下解脱出来,还能充分体现社会主义大家庭的温暖,有利于提升高校思想政治教育的实效性。

  9. Efectividad a corto plazo de las intervenciones breves realizadas en pacientes lesionados por accidente de tráfico con alcoholemia positiva Short-term effectiveness of brief interventions in alcohol-positive traffic casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rodríguez-Martos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Investigar la efectividad de las intervenciones breves para reducir el consumo de alcohol en los pacientes lesionados por accidente de tráfico con alcoholemia positiva. Métodos: Se cribó la presencia de alcohol en 948 lesionados en accidente de tráfico (el 97,6% de los elegibles de un universo de 1.106, con 126 (13,3% positivos. Se intervino en 85 individuos, aleatoriamente distribuidos en intervención mínima (consejo simple e intervención breve (intervención de tipo motivacional, y se programó un seguimiento telefónico a los 3, 6 y 12 meses. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del seguimiento a los 3 meses. Resultados: A los 3 meses se ha seguido a 57 pacientes (67%. EL 73,7% ha reducido el consumo, porcentaje que fue mayor en el grupo intervención breve (p = 0,06; tamaño del efecto, 0,5 y en los incluidos en la categoría de los bebedores de riesgo (p Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness of brief interventions to reduce alcohol intake in traffic casualties with a positive blood alcohol concentration. Methods: Nine hundred forty-eight eligible casualties (97.6% of eligible casualties within a universe of 1106 were screened for alcohol and 126 (13.3% were identified as positive. Interventions were performed in 85, randomly allocated to a minimal intervention (simple advice or a brief intervention (motivational intervention. Telephone follow-up was scheduled for months 3, 6 and 12. The present study reports the results of follow-up at month 3. Results: Fifty-seven patients (67% were followed up at month 3. A total of 73.7% had reduced their alcohol intake and this percentage was greater in the group who underwent the brief intervention (p = 0.06; effect size 0.5 and among heavy drinkers (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The data indicate the effectiveness of the brief intervention, although the sample size does not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn.

  10. Analysis of accidental casualty occurred at terminal area in the Capital Airport%首都机场航站区意外伤害死亡事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霁; 王春伟; 张海; 张小梅; 董艳荣

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过对首都机场航站区近几年意外伤害死亡事件的分析,引起相关单位高度重视和改进工作。方法对首都机场航站区2008年1月至2012年12月各种意外伤害死亡事件进行分析。结果目前,抑郁症和公共区域设施安全是导致首都机场旅客和员工意外伤害死亡的主要原因。结论为了减少旅客和员工意外伤害事件,抑郁症应成为政府公共精神卫生管理的重要内容,机场管理机构应不断提高机场公共设施设备的安全管理水平。%Objective To analyze those cases of accidental casualty occurred in the capital airport terminal area in the recent years, and appeal for an joint effort to improve the abilities to cope with the situation. Methods An analysis was conducted on the accidental injury and death cases taken place in the terminal area in between January 2008 and December 2012. Results It reflected that both melancholia that victims suffered from and current management of the facility structure. Conclusion In order to eliminate travelers and the airport staff’ s accidental casualty, it is suggested that the public mental health authorities pay attention on increased number of victims who suffered from melancholia. On the other hand, the safety management in public facilities like airport also needs to be improved.

  11. Transport evaluation and selection method for mass casualty in emergency%突发事件中批量伤员转运评估及方法选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚元章; 丁茂乾

    2016-01-01

    Effective and timely transport of severe trauma patients is the basic requirement of trauma profes -sional treatment,and is also one of the important measures to reduce the mortality and disability rate of severe trau -ma.How to timely and efficiently transport and to provide more specialized treatment for mass casualty is the major challenge faced by the modern trauma care and the disaster emergency rescue .To provide scientific basis for mass casualty transport in future ,the injury assessment before transport and the transport methods were discussed in this paper,so as to provide a scientific basis for the standardization of future disaster emergency rescue transfer .%对严重伤病员高效、及时的转运,是创伤专业化救治的基本要求,也是降低严重创伤死亡率和伤残率的重要措施之一。如何对批量伤员进行及时、高效转运,及早为伤病员提供更专业化的救治,是现代创伤救治及灾难应急救援面临的重大挑战。本文就批量伤员转运前的伤情评估、转运方法等进行探讨,为今后批量伤员转运实施提供科学、规范的依据。

  12. 基于最低人员伤亡的资源优化配置模型研究%Study of optimized allocation model for emergency resource based on minimal casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪海; 李明泽; 李忠伟

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is aiming at introducing an optimized allocation model for emergency resource based on the minimal casualties in case of incidence of an unexpected disaster involving the entire city sphere. In order to optimize the emergency resource allocation based on the existing available emergency resources to be allocated, first of all, we have made careful consideration of the means for such kind of allocation. The so-called emergency resources can be divided into human resources, material resources and message resources according to their ability to perform their own respective functions. The urban emergency-available shelter, for instance, is a special temporary place that can provide secure refuge and basic facilities for people to shelter themselves in during the recovery period after a natural disaster. Also, it is an important means for the international society to deal with the emergent events and victims for mutual benefits. In order to minimize the total economic loss and minimize the number of casualty, it is desirable to allocate the available resources in an optimized manner. However, the traditional or habitual manner to manage the emergency resources in our country is based on the local authorities' experience without any clear-minded guide or theory for appropriate quantitative or qualitative allocation criteria and often leads to the failure to achieve the best advantage of the resources as is expected. And, secondly, the most influential factor for optimizing resource allocation in disaster-hitting period is time-urgency. The reason for this is obvious because the response to the disaster sufferers must be prompt, instantaneous and immediate, or unconditional. Therefore, we have given a detailed discussion over the most influential parameters that are likely relevant here. What is more, we have brought about a fatality model open to an open discussion. In our model, we have illustrated all the fatalities involving the likely

  13. Análisis de la analgesia en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española Analgesia in the management of the combat casualty: Experience of the Spanish Medical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navarro Suay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos: La analgesia del herido ha jugado un papel trascendental en la medicina militar. En la actualidad, continúa siendo un reto médico, táctico y logístico dentro del tratamiento integral de la baja en combate. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar la homogeneidad de los fármacos analgésicos administrados, del momento de inicio del tratamiento, del número y tipos de vías de acceso para administración de analgesia, así como del tipo de anestesia realizada en las bajas por arma de fuego o por artefacto explosivo atendidas en el ROLE 2E español de Herat (Afganistán entre 2005 y 2008, siguiendo un índice de gravedad anatómico (NISS de las lesiones. Material y métodos: Se realiza un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, obteniendo una muestra de 256 pacientes. Resultados: Los fármacos analgésicos más empleados fueron los AINEs (73%, seguidos de los mórficos mayores (44%, coadyuvantes (29%, mórficos menores (21% y ketamina (12%. La analgesia se realizó a nivel prehospitalario en un 61% y a nivel intrahospitalario en un 31% de los casos. La vía de administración más frecuente fue la intravenosa (79%. En el 75% sólo se consiguió un acceso para medicación analgésica. El procedimiento anestésico más empleado fue la anestesia general (32%. Conclusiones: El tratamiento analgésico prestado a las bajas en combate de la muestra es homogéneo en cuanto a los fármacos empleados, el tipo y número de vías de administración conseguidas. Sin embargo es heterogéneo en cuanto al tipo de AINE elegido y al inicio en la administración de los fármacos analgésicos.Antecedents and Objectives: The analgesia of the wounded has played a vital role in military medicine. Nowadays it still is a medical, tactical and logistical challenge in the integral management of the combat casualty. The objective of this study is to evaluate the homogeneity of the analgesic drugs used, starting point of the treatment, number and

  14. 财险公司存在的商业贿赂行为及治理策略研究%The Research about Commercial Bribery and Management Strategy in Property and Casualty Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜星明

    2012-01-01

    There are some commercial bribery in the course of accept insurance or settlement of claims in the current property and casualty company. The bribery are closely linked with the development stage of insurance industry, the insurance company management idea and mode of operation. The work against commercial bribery shall be combined with the promotion of the incorrupt company culture, the perfect company self-discipline mechanism, carrying out management, the promotion of the business mode change and the work intensifying investigation and punishment.%当前财险公司在展业和理赔过程中存在一定的商业贿赂行为,这与保险业发展阶段以及保险公司的经营理念和经营方式密切相联,治理商业贿赂工作应与推进公司廉政文化建设、健全公司自律机制、落实经营管理工作、促进经营方式转变以及加大案件查处力度相结合。

  15. 绿色通道在“7·23"温州动车事故早期急救中的作用%Role of fast passage for patients to enter emergency department in rescuing and triaging traumatic casualties from the bullet train accident occurred at Wenzhou station on 23 July 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱烈烈; 潘达; 吴钒; 闻浩; 陈大庆; 张春梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨急诊绿色通道在特大交通事故伤员救治中的作用,为今后重大灾害救援积累经验.方法 回顾“7·23”温州动车事故伤员在温州市各医院急诊科的救治过程,并对不同伤情伤员在急诊科救治时停留的时间进行比较和分析.结果 事故后72 h内收治伤员136例,其中单一伤患者28例,在急诊科平均停留时间为27 min;多发伤患者108例,在急诊科平均停留时间为62 min,两者差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).同时与本院前一年度的日常普通伤员救治时间进行回顾性对比发现,救治时间平均缩短达50 min,表明建立健全的急诊绿色通道制度,对加快应急状态下伤员救治有重要意义.结论 应根据实际情况,进一步完善绿色通道制度,使伤员在急诊科的停留时间不断缩短,从而保证伤员尽快得到专科救治,为抢救危重伤员赢得宝贵时间.%Objective To determine the effect of fast passage for patients' access to the emergency department of hospital on rescuing and triaging the traumatic casualties referred from the site of accident by collision between two bullet trains occurred at Wenzhou station on 23 July 2011 in order to accumulate experience of treating large number of traumatized casualties happened in a major accident or disaster.Methods A retrospective study was carried out to collect the data including the different courses of treatment for various types of injury in casualties and the length of stay of traumatized patients with different degrees of severity in the emergency department after casualties entered into the emergency department of hospital via fast passage.Results There were 136 traumatic casualties referred to hospital within 72 hours after the bullet train accident occurred at Wenzhou station.The average length of stay of patients with uncomplicated single injury in the hospital was 27min,and the average length of stay of 108 patients with multiple injuries in the

  16. Ananalysis on the characteristics of Casualties occurred terrorist attacks since 2010%2010年来全球恐怖活动伤亡特点的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杨; 陈活良; 周开园; 鱼敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 恐怖主义既是当代世界的一大公害,又是一个相当复杂的政治和社会问题,它是全人类文明社会的共同敌人,是危害世界和平与安全,经济发展与社会进步的毒瘤.方法 查阅美国国家反恐中心数据库2010年9月~2011年9月间的资料,对一年间恐怖主义事件进行统计分析.结果 本文对2010年9月~2011年9月间,全球恐怖袭击事件的数量、杀伤性、袭击方式以及打击目标的进行全面分析.结论 目前反恐怖袭击形势依然严峻,而恐怖袭击手段主要以武装袭击、爆炸为主,平民仍然是恐怖袭击的主要受害者.%Objective Today, terrorism has become a public hazard and the enemy to the whole world which threatens the peace and safety of the world. Methods A statistical analysis was performed on the record of terrorist attacks collected at the United States National Counterterrorism Center Database from September 2010 to September 2011. Results The number of terrorist attacks, casualties and their objectives were analyzed. Conclusion Bomb and armed attacks are considered as the major methods for terrorist attacks. Civilians are the target in terrorist attacks.

  17. 昆山“8·2”爆炸事故存活伤员损伤特点及救治分析%Features of survived casualties and treatment strategies in Kunshan "August 2" explosion aaccident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 赵富丽; 吴健; 吴曙华; 杨爱祥; 李晓英; 彭霄; 常新; 程宏宇

    2015-01-01

    目的 回顾性分析昆山“8·2”爆炸事故伤员损伤特点,探讨爆炸事故伤员的救治策略.方法 以“8·2”爆炸事故送至南京医科大学附属苏州医院ICU集中救治的40例伤者为对象,详细记录伤者性别、年龄、损伤类型、烧伤面积、深度等信息,分析伤后90 d内器官损伤的类型、感染部位及病原体、器官功能支持及医疗救治效果等.结果 爆炸事故后收住本院的伤者40例,男性28例,女性12例;创伤类型包括烧伤、吸入性损伤、爆震伤、颅脑损伤和骨折等;所有伤者均存在烧伤,平均烧伤面积为(92±14)%体表面积(TBSA),其中深Ⅱ度烧伤占(14±10)% TBSA,Ⅲ度烧伤占(77±19)% TBSA;病程中34例(85.0%)伤者出现多器官功能不全综合征(MODS),主要累及呼吸、循环、肝脏、胃肠道、肾脏及凝血功能;患者住院期间最常见的感染部位为创面、血液及肺,致病菌主要为革兰阴性菌(占91.3%),前5位致病菌分别为奇异变形杆菌、鲍曼不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、阴沟肠杆菌;积极救治后28 d死亡8例(病死率20.0%),90d死亡25例(病死率62.5%),主要死亡原因是感染性休克及MODS.结论 昆山“8·2”爆炸事故现场存活者主要呈大面积烧伤,以Ⅲ度烧伤为主,病程中多数伤者出现多器官功能不全综合征及合并感染.%Objective To retrospectively analyze the injury features of survived casualties and treatment strategies in the explosion accident on 2 August 2014 in Kunshan city (Kunshan "August 2" explosion accident).Methods A total of 40 survived victims in Kunshan "August 2" Explosion Accident were studied retrospectively.The age,gender,type of injury,burned extent and depth of the patients were recorded.Data of organ function,infection sites and strains of bacteria,treatment strategies and prognosis of the burned victims were analyzed.Results (1) A total of 40 victims were admitted to our hospital

  18. 成批特重度烧伤救治中临床多学科工作团队(MDT)机制的应用%Application of clinical multidisciplinary team (MDT) mechanism to treatment of mass severe burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志军; 王野; 柯家祥

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the clinical multidisciplinary team ( MDT) mechanism in the treatment to mass severe burn casualties process plays an important role .Methods:The mass severe burn casualties in the treatment process , including the emergency treatment , anti-shock treatment , operation treatment , anti -infection and Visceral complications were introduced into MDT system , summarize the experience of treatment , analysis of MDT in every link of the role play .Results:In this group , 5 patients were cured in the mechanism of MDT intervention, And no one in section (toe),prognosis was good.Conclusion:The mechanism of MDT in rescuing mass severe burn casualties should be with a significant role .%目的:探讨临床多学科工作团队( MDT)机制在救治成批特重度烧伤过程中发挥的重要作用。方法:成批特重度烧伤患者在整个救治过程中,包括急救处理、抗休克治疗、手术治疗、抗感染治疗及脏器并发症的治疗等环节均引入MDT机制,总结治疗经验,分析MDT在各环节发挥的作用。结果:本组5例患者在MDT机制干预下均治愈,且无1例出现截指(趾)情况,预后良好。结论:MDT机制在救治成批特重度烧伤患者中作用显著。

  19. Tissue banking for management of nuclear casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear material and technology has made the acquisition and adversarial use more probable than ever. Devastating medical consequences would follow a nuclear detonation due to the thermal, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Atomic explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki demonstrated the human agonies on vast scale. A full range of medical modalities are required to decrease the morbidity and mortality as a result of the use of nuclear weapons. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Processed tissues can be provided by the tissue banks and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. The aim of the tissue bank is to provide a wide range of processed biological tissues free from any transmissible disease, that help to restore the growth and function of the damaged tissues. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone allografts can be used for reconstructive approaches to the skeletal system. Tissue banking would thus ensure health care to the military personnel and population following a nuclear detonation. (author)

  20. A Triage Model for Chemical Warfare Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnevis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context The main objectives of triage are securing patient safety during the process of emergency diagnosis and treatment, and reduction of waiting time for medical services and transport. To date, there is no triage system for nerve agent victims. Evidence Acquisition This systematic review proposes a new triage system for patients exposed to nerve agents. Information regarding clinical signs and symptoms of intoxication with nerve agents, primary treatments, and classification of patients were extracted from the literature. All related articles were reviewed. Subsequently, specialists from different disciplines were invited to discuss and draft protocols. Results Finalized triage tables summarizing the classification methods and required protocols in the field were designed after several meetings. Conclusions The proposed triage protocol encompasses aspects from most of the existing triage systems to create a single overarching guide for unifying the triage process. The proposed protocol can serve as a base for the designing future guidelines.

  1. Medical management of mass radiological casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation accidents, are extreme situations involving one or many individuals. The general public and also emergency workers could be overexposed to radiation or be contaminated as a consequence of malicious acts involving radioactive material. The international view is that the likelihood of use of radiological and nuclear terrorism is low, but the impact could be high. This represents a new challenge for emergency responders and medical community. Without adequate preparedness for radiation emergencies, medical management of situation could be ineffective. Experience has shown that in many radiation emergencies, the severity and extent of the health consequences could be restricted by general response and, in particular medical triage. This article looks at the medical management of radiation accidents to derive principles for organizing and acting the medical community in cases of mass radiation accidents

  2. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  3. A behavioral ecology approach to traffic accidents: Interspecific variation in causes of traffic casualties among birds%鸟类交通致死原因的种间行为差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Pape M(o)ller; Helga Erritz(o)e; Johannes Erritz(o)e

    2011-01-01

    Birds and other animals are frequently killed by cars, causing the death of many million individuals per year. Why some species are killed more often than others has never been investigated. In this work hypothesized that risk taking behavior may affect the probability of certain kinds of individuals being killed disproportionately often. Furthermore, behavior of individuals on roads, abundance, habitat preferences, breeding sociality, and health status may all potentially affect the risk of being killed on roads. We used information on the abundance of road kills and the abundance in the surrounding environment of 50 species of birds obtained during regular censuses in 2001-2006 in a rural site in Denmark to test these predictions. The frequency of road kills increased linearly with abundance, while the proportion of individuals sitting on the road or flying low across the road only explained little additional variation in frequency of road casualties. After having accounted for abundance, we found that species with a short flight distance and hence taking greater risks when approached by a potential cause of danger were killed disproportionately often. In addition, solitary species, species with a high prevalence of Plasmodium infection, and species with a large bursa of Fabricius for their body size had a high susceptibility to being killed by cars. These findings suggest that a range of different factors indicative of risk-taking behavior, visual acuity and health status cause certain bird species to be susceptible to casualties due to cars.%鸟类和其他动物经常死于车撞,每年因车撞而死亡的个体可达数百万只.为什么有的物种比其他物种更易于死于车撞的问题,迄今未研究过.该文推测物种本身所具有的冒险行为可能是这些物种的某些个体更常死于车撞的一个原因.此外,不同物种个体在公路上的行为、个体数量、栖息地偏好、繁殖社会性以及健康状况都可能是影

  4. 两批危重烧伤患者转入院后的早期救治体会%Treatment strategies for mass burn casualties transferred from a distance-clinical experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 盛志勇; 杨红明; 贾晓明; 李利根; 郝岱峰; 申传安; 吴焱秋; 梁黎明

    2005-01-01

    目的本文介绍2批共13例危重烧伤病人,伤后3~4天经长途转运至我科的早期救治体会.方法 2001年6月27日和2002年6月9日先后收治两批13例伤后3~4天经长途转运入院的烧伤患者,男性4例,女性9例,年龄20~43岁,平均31.1±6.2岁,烧伤总面积74.3%±24.7%,Ⅲ度面积53.7%±31.2%.其中,特重度烧伤10例,烧伤总面积86.0±11.5%,Ⅲ度面63.9±26.3%,合并有重度吸入性损伤4例,中度吸入性损伤6例;重度烧伤3例,烧伤总面积35.3%±10.0%,Ⅲ度面积15.3%±5.0%,均合并有中度吸入性损伤.13例患者都已气管切开,四肢或胸腹部切开减张.13例患者中,有的高热或体温不升;有的心率、呼吸增快;有的腹胀或肠鸣音消失;有的白细胞、血小板低下.13例患者均有不同程度的肝、肾功能、心肌酶和凝血功能异常.结果除2例伤前分别患有心肌炎、慢性肝炎的危重烧伤患者,最终因心肌炎于伤后29天,肝功能衰竭于伤后45天死亡外,其余11例患者全部救治成功.结论成批烧伤转入院后的特点是,伤情重,并发症多,救治难度大.严密组织,责任明确;救治力量前伸机场;入院过程中尽快确定伤情;尽快处理危及生命的并发症;综合治疗措施得当、及时是挽救病人生命的先决条件;重视代谢和凝血功能的调理是后续治疗的重要组成部分.%This paper is to introduce our experiences in treating 2 batches of 13 burn victims transferred from remote areas on postburn days 3 and 4. Methods Thirteen burn victims of 2 mass casualties were transferred to our burns institute from remote areas on postburn days 3 and 4 on June 27, 2001 and June 2, 2002, respectively. There were 4 males and 9 females, age ranged from 20 to 43 years, with a mean age of 31.1±6.2 years. The mean total burn area was 74.3%±24.7% TBSA (range, 25% to 97%). Among them, 10 patients suffered from serious burn with mean total burn area involving 86.0%±11.5% TBSA (range, 60% to

  5. Análisis del agente lesivo en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán Analysis of the injuring agent in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navarro Suay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El conocimiento sobre aspectos relacionados con el armamento mejoran el diagnóstico y el tratamiento global del herido, sobretodo en el caso del médico militar. Se exponen los agentes lesivos de los principales conflictos recientes. El objetivo del estudio es el análisis del agente lesivo de las bajas atendidas en el Hospital Militar (ROLE 2 de Herat (Afganistán entre 2005 y 2008. Material y método: Se ha diseñado un estudio descriptivo, transversal sobre todo el personal civil y militar que hubiese recibido herida por arma de fuego o por artefacto explosivo en la Región Oeste de Afganistán, y fuese atendido por el ROLE 2 español de Herat (Afganistán durante los años 2005-2008. Resultados: El número total de casos analizados fue de 256. La mayor parte de los pacientes fueron heridos por artefacto explosivo, como los "Improvised Explosive Device" (IEDs (n = 183, 71%, mientras que el resto presentó lesiones por proyectiles de arma de fuego (n = 73, 29%. Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio, el mecanismo lesivo predominante ha sido el explosivo, seguido de las armas de fuego. Este dato es semejante al obtenido en otros estudios anglosajones sobre las bajas en combate durante los conflictos en Irak y Afganistán.Introduction: The medical officer's knowledge about armament-related aspects improves the diagnosis and medical care of the casualty. In this article the injuring agents in the main recent conflicts are presented. The objective of this study is the analysis of the injuring agent in the casualties received in the military hospital in Herat (Afghanistan between 2005 and 2008. Materials and methods: A descriptive, transversal study was carried out including all civilian and military personnel wounded by firearms or explosive devices in the West Region of Afghanistan, and taken care of in the Spanish Role 2 in Herat (Afghanistan during the years 2005-2008. Results: The total number of cases was 256. The majority of the

  6. Organization and implementation of medical rescue of mass casualties during earthquake%地震灾害批量伤员医学救援的组织与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁灵

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, there were more than 40 earthquakes greater than 7 magnitude occurred worldwide, 10 of which in China, which killed 600 thousand people accounting for 53% of global earthquake deaths. On May 12, 2008, an 8.0-magnitude earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, causing 69000 deaths, 18000 missings, and 370000 injuries. Among 10 thousand severe injuries, most were traumatic injuries, 74% of which were fracture. On April 14, 2010, a 7.1-magnitude earthquake occurred in Yushu, Qinghai Province. There were 2698 deaths, 270 missings and 11000 injuries. Among 3100 severe injuries, fracture injuries accounted for 58.4%. After each earthquake, the Chinese Army Medical Services took actions and made quick response according to the law. They sent out elites with efficient command and scientific organization, fully participating in the medical rescue operations. After Wenchuan earthquake, 397 mobile medical service units and 7061 health workers were sent out. A total of 69,000 people were treated, and 22,000 cases of surgeries were performed. After Yushu earthquake, a total of 25 mobile medical service units and 2025 health workers were sent. They performed 1635 cases of surgeries with a miracle of "zero death" in mass earthquake casualties and altitude diseases in cold highlands. After each earthquake, injuries cured within 1 week accounted for 60% of the total, and patients evacuated accounted for 80% of the total, which owed to the effective first aid in site of Chinese army medical service. They effectively played the role as the main force, making significant contributions for the final victory of earthquake relief. From the practice of medical rescue revelation after the two earthquakes, what Chinese Army Medical Services learned are: firstly, the theory of medical relief should be innovated; secondly, military and civilian organizations should be coordinated; thirdly, professional rescue force should he strengthened; fourthly, supporting

  7. Análisis de la topografía lesional en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán Analysis of the lesional topography in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navarro Suay

    2011-06-01

    officers deployed in the military hospital in Herat (Afghanistan about the body parts injured in combat casualties from 2005 to 2008. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, transversal study was carried out including all civilian and military personnel wounded by explosive artifacts or firearms in the West Region of Afghanistan and taken care of in the Spanish Role 2 from 2005 to 2008. Results: The total number of cases analyzed was 256. In the studied casualties the most affected area was the lower limbs (n=123; 48%, followed by the upper limbs (n=99; 39% and abdomen (n=56; 22%. The anatomical area where explosives (n=85 and firearms (n=38 have caused more injuries is the lower limbs. A little more than half the casualties (n=142; 55% presented only one affected area: 59 (23%. Conclusions: In our study the lower and upper limbs have been the anatomical areas most affected by explosives as well as firearms. These data coincides with the results obtained in other series.

  8. Research on the application of the improved emergency care system in clinical medical aid of casualties occurred during hurricane disasters%改进应急救护系统用于海岛暴风雨灾害临床急救的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符小玲; 张华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of the improved emergency care system in urgent medical aid of casualties occurred during hurricane disasters.Methods Four hundred patients who received urgent medical care during hurricane disasters were used as our research subjects, and they were randomly divided into the control and experimental groups.Retrospective survey and analysis were made on the general conditions of the casualties at the time of the hurricane disaster relief, urgent medical response time, the surviving conditions of the casualties and satisfaction to the application of the improved emergency care system.Results Significant differences could be noted in the clinical effects of urgent medical care during hurricane disaster relief, when comparisons were made with or without the application of the improved emergency care system.Urgent medical response time of the control group was 17 to 75 minutes, averaging (37.3 ± 13.13) minutes, while that of the experimental group was 6 to 49 minutes, averaging (19.8 ± 6.9) minutes.Significant statistics could be found, when comparisons were made between them(P < 0.05).The mortality rate of the experimental group was 1.5%, which was significantly lower than 5.0% of the control group (P <0.05).The satisfaction rate on the part of the patients in the experimental group was 95.5%, which was significantly higher than 83.5% of the control group(P < 0.05).Conclusions The improved emergency care system could significantly improve clinical emergency preparedness, pre-disaster prevention, disaster relief, as well as disaster predication.The improved system could enable medical facilities to provide in-time, accurate and effective medical care to the victims during hurricane disasters, and was obviously beneficial to the medical aid and recovery of casualties.%目的 探讨改进应急救护系统用于暴风雨灾害临床急救的效果.方法 以海口市暴风雨应急救护的患者400例作为研究

  9. Estimating Casualties for Large Earthquakes Worldwide Using an Empirical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Hearne, Mike

    2009-01-01

    We developed an empirical country- and region-specific earthquake vulnerability model to be used as a candidate for post-earthquake fatality estimation by the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. The earthquake fatality rate is based on past fatal earthquakes (earthquakes causing one or more deaths) in individual countries where at least four fatal earthquakes occurred during the catalog period (since 1973). Because only a few dozen countries have experienced four or more fatal earthquakes since 1973, we propose a new global regionalization scheme based on idealization of countries that are expected to have similar susceptibility to future earthquake losses given the existing building stock, its vulnerability, and other socioeconomic characteristics. The fatality estimates obtained using an empirical country- or region-specific model will be used along with other selected engineering risk-based loss models for generation of automated earthquake alerts. These alerts could potentially benefit the rapid-earthquake-response agencies and governments for better response to reduce earthquake fatalities. Fatality estimates are also useful to stimulate earthquake preparedness planning and disaster mitigation. The proposed model has several advantages as compared with other candidate methods, and the country- or region-specific fatality rates can be readily updated when new data become available.

  10. Development of a Fuzzy Model for Iranian Marine Casualties Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Moradi; Akbar Etebarian; Alireza Shirvani; Iraj Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Marine Accident investigation multidimensional and complex, so this study aimed to provide a systematic approach to determining the degree of the most influential parameters (dimensions) in accident occurrence in order to improve marine safety in the direction of good governance. In this paper, two-phase procedures are proposed. The first stage utilizes the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) to determine the critical factors of Marine Accident Investigation by interviewing the pertinent authorities. I...

  11. Development of a Fuzzy Model for Iranian Marine Casualties Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine Accident investigation multidimensional and complex, so this study aimed to provide a systematic approach to determining the degree of the most influential parameters (dimensions in accident occurrence in order to improve marine safety in the direction of good governance. In this paper, two-phase procedures are proposed. The first stage utilizes the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM to determine the critical factors of Marine Accident Investigation by interviewing the pertinent authorities. In the second stage, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied to pair fuzzy numbers as measurable indices and finally to rank by degree each influential criterion within accident investigation. This study considers 1 goal, 4 aspects, and 31 criteria (parameters and establishes a ranking model that allows decision-makers to assess the prior ordering of reasons and sort by the most effective parameters involved in marine accident occurrence. The empirical study indicated that People, working and living conditions, effect is considered the highest ranking aspect, and Ability, skills, and knowledge of workers is considered the most important evaluation criterion overall by experts. These results were derived from fuzzy Delphi analytical hierarchy processing (FDAHP. A demonstration of the prior ordering of accident-causing parameters by authorities was addressed as well. Therefore, ranking the priority of every influential criterion (parameter will help marine transportation decision makers emphasize the areas in which to improve in order to prevent future marine accidents.

  12. Mines and human casualties: a robotics approach toward mine clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Manthena, Dinesh; Ghaffari, Alireza; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-10-01

    An estimated 100 million landmines which have been planted in more than 60 countries kill or maim thousands of civilians every year. Millions of people live in the vast dangerous areas and are not able to access to basic human services because of landmines" threats. This problem has affected many third world countries and poor nations which are not able to afford high cost solutions. This paper tries to present some experiences with the land mine victims and solutions for the mine clearing. It studies current situation of this crisis as well as state of the art robotics technology for the mine clearing. It also introduces a survey robot which is suitable for the mine clearing applications. The results show that in addition to technical aspects, this problem has many socio-economic issues. The significance of this study is to persuade robotics researchers toward this topic and to peruse the technical and humanitarian facets of this issue.

  13. A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns. PMID:16928418

  14. 76 FR 8788 - Riverside Casualty, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    .../search/search.htm or by calling (202) 551-8090. Applicant's Representations 1. The Haskell Company (``THC..., construction, real estate and facility management services. All of the outstanding shares of THC's common stock are owned by The Haskell Company Employee Stock Ownership Trust (``THC ESOP''); Preston H. Haskell...

  15. [War casualty triage during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Lefort, Hugues; Tabbagh, Xavier; Pons, François

    2014-06-01

    Along with the front hospitals (HOE), the action of sorting out the injured was one of the most important innovations of the Great War. Progressively, it was implemented and codified on each level of the evacuating chain, with variations due to the different phases of the conflict, such as in Verdun or in the Somme. From 1917 onwards, specific sorting centers, managed by experimented soldiers, were set up in the evacuating hospitals.

  16. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... does not include the cost of salvage, cleaning, gas freeing, drydocking, or demurrage. (b) A vessel is... reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 185.203 satisfies the requirement of...

  17. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... condition before the occurrence, but does not include the cost of salvage, cleaning, gas freeing,...

  18. 46 CFR 28.80 - Report of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY... routine duties. (3) Loss of a vessel. (4) Damage to or by a vessel, its cargo, apparel or gear, except for fishing gear while not on board a vessel, or that impairs the seaworthiness of the vessel, or that...

  19. THE PRICE OF FANATICISM: THE CASUALTIES OF THE BULHOEK MASSACRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Makobe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bulhoek massacre is a well-known event in popular memory of many black South Africans and a standard feature in accounts of South African history. Despite this fact historians have not yet established the exact number of Israelites who were killed as a result of their attack on the Police on 24 May 1921. It is the purpose of this article to establish a reliable number of Israelites who were killed during the Bulhoek massacre. The Union Defence medical personnel that accompanied the Police force to Bulhoek consisted of Major M. Welsh (in charge, Sergeant Major W. Richardson, Sergeant S. Allan, Sergeant Wallace, Private Kriel and Driver Valentine with one motor ambulance and field equipment. En route from Pretoria to Queenstown, the team was joined by Private Sutton from Tempe hospital in Bloemfontein. On their arrival at Queenstown the medical personnel accompanied Colonel Truter to an interview with the senior Magistrate of Queenstown E.C.A. Welsh. The latter stressed the seriousness of the situation and warned that the Police would not be able to carry out the Government's instructions without bloodshed. The medical personnel became convinced that bloodshed was unavoidable. They decided to ascertain the exact number of available accommodation at the Frontier Hospital in Queenstown. They found that only about 25 Europeans and up to 40 Africans could be accommodated. After checking available accommodation at Frontier Hospital, they erected a tent hospital at the show grounds of Queenstown.

  20. Management protocol for irradiated and contaminated casualty in hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokaimura episode of September 1999 evoked enormous public concern about radiation accidents and exposures in Japan. Although a nuclear accident may occur only rarely, it can happen anywhere in the world. It might occur within the hospital's own radiology department. The increasing use of radioisotopes and radiation devices would increase the possibility of radiation accident. Thus even those hospitals that are isolated from nuclear power plants or radiologic laboratories should develop a plan to handle radiation injury. This report describes the protocol for emergent treatment of a radiation victim and its rationale. (author)

  1. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J A; King, J M

    2001-12-01

    This symposium addresses the complications encountered by medical planners when confronted by the use or threat of the use of weapons of mass destruction. The types of chemical warfare agents (CWA), their principal target organs, and physiological effects are discussed. We have reviewed the use of CWA in 20th century warfare and otherwise with emphasis on five cases: (1) use of sulfur mustard during World War I; (2) use by Italy against Ethiopia; (3) use in the Sino-Japanese War; (4) relatively well-studied use in the Iran-Iraq conflict; and (5) the use of sarin in the Tokyo subway terrorist incident. We reviewed the additional physiological and psychological consequences of their use and threat of use. Results from training and simulation are discussed. Finally, we present our conclusions derived from the analysis of these historical situations.

  2. Concurrent eruptions at Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano: casualty or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Funiciello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotes of concurrent eruptions at Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Southern Italy have persisted for more than 2000 years and volcanologists in recent and past times have hypothesized a causal link among these volcanoes. Here this hypothesis is tested. To introduce the problem and provide examples of the type of expected volcanic phenomena, narratives of the most notable examples of concurrent eruptions are provided. Then the frequency of eruptions at each individual volcano is analysed for about the last 300 years and the expected probability of concurrent eruptions is calculated to compare it to the observed probability. Results show that the occurrence of concurrent eruptions is often more frequent than a random probability, particularly for the Stromboli-Vulcano pair. These results are integrated with a statistical analysis of the earthquake catalogue to find evidence of linked seismicity in the Etnean and Aeolian areas. Results suggest a moderate incidence of non-random concurrent eruptions, but available data are temporally limited and do not allow an unequivocal identification of plausible triggers; our results, however, are the first attempt to quantify a more-than-2000-years-old curious observation and constitute a starting point for more sophisticated analyses of new data in the future. We look forward to our prediction of a moderate incidence of concurrent eruptions being confirmed or refuted with the passage of time and occurrence of new events.

  3. THE BULHOEK MASSACRE: ORIGINS, CASUALTIES, REACTIONS AND HISTORICAL DISTORTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Makobe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bulhoek massacre remains a standard feature in accounts of South African history. Historians who wrote on the incident before the birth of the Popular or Peoples history movement and evidence submitted to Sir Thomas Graham, the presiding judge at the trial of the Israelites, made it clear beyond all doubt that the Israelites were religious fanatics who were driven by their fanaticism and blind faith in Enoch Mgijima's words to attack the Police. In the 1980s, with the birth of the Popular history movement, the massacre was reinterpreted by social historians, especially those associated with the University of Witwatersrand (Wits History Workshop to fit into the perspective of the Popular history approach. The Israelites were seen as political heroes who stood against an oppressive system. The two different approaches to the massacre leads to the historical distortions of the event.

  4. Department of Defense (DOD) Military Casualty/Wounded Warrior

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA initiated this agreement with the Department of Defense (DOD) to transmit to SSA information that will identify military personnel injured or taken ill while in...

  5. First Aid for Female Casualties of the Information Highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Petrea

    2006-01-01

    Females are under-represented in education, training and employment in the area of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Research shows that girls are tuning out to ICTs in school and they have a low participation rate in ICT related tertiary study and employment. The Tech Savvy report by the American Association of University Women (2000)…

  6. Analysis on factors affecting the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder in transferred casualty after Earthquake%影响地震灾后转移伤员创伤后应激障碍症状严重程度的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新学; 况利; 刘婉婷; 楼丹丹; 李大奇; 艾明; 陈建梅; 黎雪梅; 赵正中

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigated the related factors which affecting the severity degrees of post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) in trailsferred casualty after Wenchuan Earthquake.Methods Taking PTSD symptoms self-assessment scale(PCL-C) to involve 386 wounded who sufiered 40 days after the earthquake disaster,from 11 hospitals and were transferred to Chongqing city.Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used.354 valid questionnaires were recovered to explore the relevant factors affecting the severity on the symptoms of PTSD.Results This survey contains 354 subjects,with male 154(43.6%),female 200(56.4%),age 43.76±21.22,nation alities:Han people 236(66.7%),Qiang people 114(32.2%),others4(1.1%),and marriage status as unmarried 92(26.1%),married 253(71.7%),others 9(2.2%).The wounded women PTSD have more seriotis symptoms than men,and there were differences between them in repeated and disturbing dreams of this stressful experience(t=2.46,P=0.014),a strong sense of psychological suffering annoyance (t=2.02,P=0.044),having difficulty concentrating(t=2.04,P=0.042),being"super-alert"(t=2.465,P=0.014) etc,also in the total scores(t=2.489.P=0.013)(P<0.05).The PTSD symptoms of wounded degree in who had been buried in Earthquake were more serious than those not been buried.There were significant difierences between them in the iterns as:avoid thinking about or talking about a stressful experience(t=2.661,P=0.008),avoid activities or situations that could fecall the stressful experience(t=2.705,P=0.007),trouble remembering important parts of a stressful experience (t=2.775,P=0.006),feeling emotionally numb or being unable to have loving feelings for those close to you(t=3.017,P=0.003),feeling as if your future will somehow be cut short(t=2.979,P=0.003) and total scores(t=3.175,P=0.002).The wounded that witnessed someone be buried or died in earthquake,in PTSD symptoms,were more serious than those without.In the items of feeling distant or cut off from other people

  7. The Application of Multi-objective Planning Theory in the Decision-making Management of Insurance Company --Taking the Line and Asset Structure Decision-making of Property and Casualty Insurance Company as an Example%多目标规划在保险公司决策管理中的应用研究——以产险公司业务和资产结构决策为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀芳; 傅国耕

    2012-01-01

    本文在公司价值最大化的终极目标下,通过分析保险公司各个层级的发展目标,指出保险公司的决策管理具有多目标属性。在对多目标规划理论进行系统梳理的基础上,以产险公司的业务和资产结构决策为例,构建了以公司规模、利润和风险为目标的资本和监管约束下的多目标规划模型。分析发现,将多目标规划理论应用于保险公司管理中的确能够平衡不同目标的关系,有效提高公司经营的稳健性。%Under the premise of value maximization of insurance company, this paper analyzed the development objectives at different levels, and pointed out that the decision-making management of insurance company had a multi- ple objective property. Based on the systematic summary of the theory of multi-objective planning, the paper gave an example of the lines and assets structure of a property and casualty insurance company, and constructed a multi-ob- jective planning model covering the company's size, earnings and risks under the restraints of capital and regulation. It found out that, using the theory of multi-objective planning in the management of an insurance company could bal- ance the relationship of different goals, and improve operation robustness of the company.

  8. 脉搏轮廓心排血量监测技术在成批特大面积烧伤患者延迟复苏中的应用效果%Effect of application of pulse contour cardiac output monitoring technology on delayed resuscitation of patients with extensive burn in a mass casualty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雯娴; 郭光华; 沈国良; 林伟; 赵小瑜; 祁强; 钱汉根; 谢文忠; 王志学

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the application of pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technology on delayed resuscitation of patients with extensive burn in a mass casualty.Methods The clinical data of 41 patients injured in Kunshan dash explosion hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University,the 100th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army,and Suzhou Municipal Hospital were retrospectively analyzed.The patients were divided into traditional monitoring group (T,n =22) and PiCCO monitoring group (P,n =19) according to the monitoring technic during delayed resuscitation.The input volumes of electrolyte,colloids,and water of patients in the two groups within 2 hours after admission,the first,second,and third 8 hours post injury (HPI),and the first 24 HPI were recorded.The fluid infusion coefficients of patients in the two groups within 2 hours after admission,the first,second,and third 8 HPI,and the first,second,third,and fourth 24 HPI were calculated.The urine volume,mean arterial pressure (MAP),and central venous pressure (CVP) of patients in the two groups at post injury hour (PIH) 8,16,24,48,72,and 96 were recorded.The blood lactate,base excess,hematocrit (HCT),and platelet count of patients in the two groups at PIH 24,48,72,and 96 were recorded.Complications and death of patients in the two groups were recorded.Data were processed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement,Chi-square test,t test,and Wilcoxon test.The deviations between figure 2 and the fluid infusion coefficients of the first or second 24 HPI,and the deviations between figure 1 and the fluid infusion coefficients of the second,third or fourth 24 HPI were calculated,and the three groups deviations were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis.Results (1) The input volumes of electrolyte of patients in group P were significantly more than those in group T within the first 8 and 24 HPI (with Z values respectively-3.506 and-2.654,P < 0.05 or P

  9. Vulnerability Situations associated with Flash Flood Casualties in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terti, G.; Ruin, I.; Anquetin, S.; Gourley, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the United States (U.S.) flash flooding (FF hereafter) is one of the leading cause of weather-related deaths. Because FF events can be distinguished from riverine floods by their fast response to rainfall and resulting impacts signature, analyzing FF-specific impact datasets seems a good way to identify the juxtaposition of social and physical circumstances leading to those impacts. This communication focuses on conceptual and methodological developments allowing testing hypotheses on FF-specific vulnerability factors through the analysis of human impact datasets. We hypothesize that the intersection of the spatio-temporal context of the FF phenomena with the distribution of people and their characteristics across space and time reveals various paths of vulnerability through the expression of different accidents' circumstances (i.e., vehicle-related, inside buildings, open-air, campsites). We argue that vulnerability and the resulting impacts vary dynamically throughout the day according to the location/situation under concern. In order to test FF-specific contextual vulnerability factors at the scale of the continental US, 1075 fatalities reported between 1996 and 2014 in the Storm Data publication of the U.S. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) are analyzed to statistically explore the timing, the duration and the location of the FF event, and the age and gender of the victims and the circumstance (i.e. location/activity) of their death. In this objective, a re-classification of the individual fatality circumstances and a discretization of the time in qualitative time-steps are performed to obtain possible trends and patterns in the occurrence of fatalities in certain circumstances and time (e.g., day vs night). The findings highlight the importance of situation-specific assessment of FF fatalities to guide the development of FF-specific vulnerability and impacts prediction modeling. Such analysis can provide valuable knowledge when the National Weather Service issues FF warning and emergencies. This is because targeted warnings can be communicated when we can relate the location of risky incidents in space (e.g., roads, campsites, mobile homes) with specific vulnerable groups (e.g., certain age groups, gender).

  10. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  11. Managing Annual Accounting Reports to Avoid State Taxes: An Analysis of Property-Casualty Insurers

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy R. Petroni; Douglas A. Shackelford

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesize that, in their annual accounting reports, insurers allocate premiums and losses from multistate policies to reduce total state taxes. To test this prediction, we examine firm-level data, collected from the publicly-available statutory reports used to compute tax bases and filed with each state government. If insurers manage allocations to avoid taxes, we anticipate an inverse relation between the tax rate and the premium-to-loss ratio, which is the industry's standard measure o...

  12. Evaluation of a Scalable Information Analytics System for Enhanced Situational Awareness in Mass Casualty Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuorui; Ciottone, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the utility of DIORAMA-II system which provides enhanced situational awareness within a disaster scene by using real-time visual analytics tools and a collaboration platform between the incident commander and the emergency responders. Our trials were conducted in different geographical areas (feature-rich and featureless regions) and in different lighting conditions (daytime and nighttime). DIORAMA-II obtained considerable time gain in efficiency compared to conventional paper based systems. DIORAMA-II time gain was reflected in reduction of both average triage time per patient (up to 34.3% average triage time reduction per patient) and average transport time per patient (up to 76.3% average transport time reduction per red patient and up to 66.3% average transport time reduction per yellow patient). In addition, DIORAMA-II ensured that no patients were left behind or transported in the incorrect order compared to the conventional method which resulted in patients being left behind and transported in the incorrect order. PMID:27433161

  13. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  14. Conducted electrical weapons or stun guns: a review of 46 cases examined in casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becour, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Low-lethality weapons are intended to neutralize a person with maximum security and with minimal risk of injury or death to the user of the weapon, the person arrested, and the witnesses. Under the same circumstances, the use of a firearm is causing mortality of 50%. Marketed since 1974, the Taser X26 is currently staffing services in the French police and gendarmerie. The Taser device has 3 damaging mechanisms: the direct effect of electric current on the tissues, the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy, and the injuries caused by the general muscle contraction and resulting fall. The study aimed to analyze the specificities of the conducted electrical weapon-related injuries treated in a emergency department on a series of 46 cases. The study population was predominantly middle-aged men. The circumstances of use of the Taser X26 were most often related to an arrest. The frequency of consultation after a shot by Taser X26 was stable. The management is essentially an outpatient because of frequent and benign lesions. The impacts of electrical impulse mainly affect the chest and abdomen. This distribution of impact zones is inhomogeneous, depending on the circumstances of use. PMID:23574872

  15. [The organizational aspects of treating light casualties in modern warfare (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, E A; Maksimov, G K; Agapov, V K; Golov, Iu S

    1993-07-01

    The experience gathered by Medical Service during the war in Afghanistan and during liquidation of the consequences of various disasters and accidents has shown that the most rational method of treatment of minor wounded near the combat area or zone of disaster was a two-staged (and sometimes a three-staged) management system. At the combat tactical zone it is expedient to render the secondary surgical care and reanimation procedures of vital cases, and also provide treatment of minor wounded who could be returned to their ranks in 10 days. For this purpose it is necessary to integrate the sections of medical triage and minor wounded treatment into organic structure of the Brigade medical company and Divisional hospital. As for Army Medical Brigade it must have in its structure a hospital for minor wounded who could be returned to their ranks in 20 days. All the wounded who have to be treated more than 20 days must be evacuated to the Front hospital for minor wounded.

  16. 17 CFR 210.12-18 - Supplemental information (for property-casualty insurance underwriters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form... claim adjustment expenses Discount, if any, deducted in column C 4 Unearned premiums Earned premiums...

  17. Bone densitometry by gamma ray attenuation measurement. Development of an apparatus for use on medullary casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed to follow changes in the bone mineral content of medullary damage cases by measuring the attenuation of a monoenergetic gamma ray according to the Cameron and Sorenson technique. Apart from their high cost, existing instruments are not designed for this bedside observation of patients. Our aim was therefore to design and develop an easily portable, inexpensive apparatus. The γ radiation is supplied by a sealed 125I source fitted with a narrow collimator. The battery-operated scintillation detector is that used to detect post-operative phlebites after injection of radio-fibrinogen. The source-detector unit can move to allow a transverse bone mineral content measurement. Data from the detector are processed electronically and the results given: - either graphically on a tracing board which gives an area proportional to the bone mineral content, - or numerically by means of an integrator computing this area and supplying the linear bone density directly. Experiments carried out in vivo showed the apparatus to be sensitive and the measurements reproducible, the results obtained being comparable with those of other authors. Using pieces of embalmed bone moreover an excellent correlation was observed between the bone mineral content obtained after incineration and the results displayed by our apparatus, which can therefore be calibrated

  18. Micronucleus test for radiation biodosimetry in mass casualty events: Evaluation of visual and automated scoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of a large-scale nuclear or radiological incidents a reliable estimate of dose is an essential tool for providing timely assessment of radiation exposure and for making life-saving medical decisions. Cytogenetics is considered as the 'gold standard' for biodosimetry. The dicentric analysis (DA) represents the most specific cytogenetic bioassay. The micronucleus test (MN) applied in interphase in peripheral lymphocytes is an alternative and simpler approach. A dose-effect calibration curve for the MN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes from 27 adult donors was established after in vitro irradiation at a dose range 0.15-8 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (dose rate 6 Gy min-1). Dose prediction by visual scoring in a dose-blinded study (0.15-4.0 Gy) revealed a high level of accuracy (R = 0.89). The scoring of MN is time consuming and requires adequate skills and expertise. Automated image analysis is a feasible approach allowing to reduce the time and to increase the accuracy of the dose estimation decreasing the variability due to subjective evaluation. A good correlation (R = 0.705) between visual and automated scoring with visual correction was observed over the dose range 0-2 Gy. Almost perfect discrimination power for exposure to 1-2 Gy, and a satisfactory power for 0.6 Gy were detected. This threshold level can be considered sufficient for identification of sub lethally exposed individuals by automated CBMN assay.

  19. Ensuring the safety of surgical teams when managing casualties of a radiological dirty bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team.

  20. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Allegheny Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division. BILLING CODE 4810-35-M ... AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice....

  1. Duration and predictors of emergency surgical operations - basis for medical management of mass casualty incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber-Wagner S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitals have a critically important role in the management of mass causality incidents (MCI, yet there is little information to assist emergency planners. A significantly limiting factor of a hospital's capability to treat those affected is its surgical capacity. We therefore intended to provide data about the duration and predictors of life saving operations. Methods The data of 20,815 predominantly blunt trauma patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German-Trauma-Society was retrospectively analyzed to calculate the duration of life-saving operations as well as their predictors. Inclusion criteria were an ISS ≥ 16 and the performance of relevant ICPM-coded procedures within 6 h of admission. Results From 1,228 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria 1,793 operations could be identified as life-saving operations. Acute injuries to the abdomen accounted for 54.1% followed by head injuries (26.3%, pelvic injuries (11.5%, thoracic injuries (5.0% and major amputations (3.1%. The mean cut to suture time was 130 min (IQR 65-165 min. Logistic regression revealed 8 variables associated with an emergency operation: AIS of abdomen ≥ 3 (OR 4,00, ISS ≥ 35 (OR 2,94, hemoglobin level ≤ 8 mg/dL (OR 1,40, pulse rate on hospital admission 120/min (OR 1,39, blood pressure on hospital admission Conclusions The mean operation time of 130 min calculated for emergency life-saving surgical operations provides a realistic guideline for the prospective treatment capacity which can be estimated and projected into an actual incident admission capacity. Knowledge of predictive factors for life-saving emergency operations helps to identify those patients that need most urgent operative treatment in case of blunt MCI.

  2. Duration and predictors of emergency surgical operations - basis for medical management of mass casualty incidents

    OpenAIRE

    Huber-Wagner S; Lefering R; Kay MV; Stegmaier J; Khalil PN; Paul AO; Biberthaler P; Mutschler W; Kanz K-G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hospitals have a critically important role in the management of mass causality incidents (MCI), yet there is little information to assist emergency planners. A significantly limiting factor of a hospital's capability to treat those affected is its surgical capacity. We therefore intended to provide data about the duration and predictors of life saving operations. Methods The data of 20,815 predominantly blunt trauma patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German-Tr...

  3. German battle casualties: the treatment of functional somatic disorders during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    World War I witnessed the admission of large numbers of German soldiers with neurological symptoms for which there was no obvious organic cause. This posed a considerable challenge for the military and medical authorities and resulted in an active discussion on the etiology and treatment of these disorders. Current historiography is reliant on published physician accounts, and this represents the first study of treatment approaches based on original case notes. We analyzed patient records from two leading departments of academic psychiatry in Germany, those at Berlin and Jena, in conjunction with the contemporaneous medical literature. Treatment, which can be broadly classified into reward and punishment, suggestion, affective shock, cognitive learning, and physiological methods, was developed in the context of the emerging fields of animal learning and neurophysiology. A further innovative feature was the use of quantitative methods to assess outcomes. These measures showed good response rates, though most cured patients were not sent back to battle because of their presumed psychopathic constitution. While some treatments appear unnecessarily harsh from today's perspective and were also criticized by leading psychiatrists of the time, the concentration of effort and involvement of so many senior doctors led to the development of psychotherapeutic methods that were to influence the field of psychiatric therapy for decades to come.

  4. A rarity that can lead to a casualty - A retrospective study of 12 cases of Dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Naesström

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Lesions of the skin are omnipresent in Internal Medicine practice. The varying etiopathology when facing multiple system involvement may pose a challenge when it comes to diagnostics and management, especially when faced with less common skin diseases. Dermatomyositis is a rare skin disorder that manifests on the skin and in muscle; it also comes with a higher risk of comorbid cancers. Therefor we present the cases of dermatomyositis diagnosed at our departmet during the last 17 years, with the specific attention to ocurrance of oncological processes. Method: A retrospective study was performed on 12 cases hospitalized between 1996 to 2011 due to dermatomyositis. The analysis was based on the course of the disease, clinical picture, treatment and frequency of neoplasms. Results: Within those 12 patients (in addition to dermatomyositis five patients had concomitant oncological process. The tumors of these five patients were located in discrete anatomical locations. The oncological process occured before, during, or after the appearance of dermatomyositis. Conclusions: The combination of hallmark signs and symptoms seen in dermatomyositis are specific for the disease. Physicians need to be better informed about this rare, yet important disease, because it can be considered a paraneoplastic process.

  5. The Empowerment Principle: Casualties of Two Schools' Failure to Grasp the Nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jacki; Turner, Katrina M.

    2004-01-01

    Pupil autonomy, empowerment, and clarity of school rules are factors underpinning school effectiveness in terms of supporting pupil health and education. This paper considers data collected from 27 one-to-one staff interviews conducted in two secondary schools. Analysis indicated that the schools subscribed to different philosophies regarding…

  6. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  7. [Stationary thromboprophylaxis in casualty surgery. Relevance of postoperative mobility and preexisting risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, R; Maier, E; Kinzl, L; Gude, U

    2004-04-01

    The presented thromboprophylactic concept includes weight bearing and ankle motion as well as breathing therapy and drug prophylaxis (antiphlogistics, analgesic drugs, heparin). Routinely performed ultrasound screening of the deep veins (legs and pelvis) before release showed a low DVT incidence of 2.5% in a prospective clinical observation of 841 inpatients. Obesity, venous insufficiency, and a history of previous thromboembolic events were associated with a significantly increased risk of thrombosis (relative risk 4.1, 4,9, and 5.8, respectively) The duration of immobilization also had a relevant influence indicating that early postoperative physiotherapy in traumatology and orthopedic surgery has a widely underestimated thromboprophylactic effect.

  8. Use of a Computer-Mediated Delphi Process to Validate a Mass Casualty Conceptual Model

    OpenAIRE

    Culley, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the original work on the Delphi technique, multiple versions have been developed and used in research and industry; however, very little empirical research has been conducted that evaluates the efficacy of using online computer, Internet, and e-mail applications to facilitate a Delphi method that can be used to validate theoretical models. The purpose of this research was to develop computer, Internet, and e-mail applications to facilitate a modified Delphi technique through which exper...

  9. Are we preparing health services administration students to respond to bioterrorism and mass casualty management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Houser, Howard W

    2006-01-01

    Bioterrorism/natural disaster events add significant specialized demands and disrupt normal operation of the health system, often for an indefinite period of time. Health administration leaders should be educationally prepared for and informed about these potential events, but few receive this knowledge via their academic preparation in health administration. This study examined the existence of coverage of bioterrorism topics in health administration curricula and characteristics of bioterrorism coverage in current health administration programs through a self-completed survey among AUPHA graduate and undergraduate program members. Of the total survey respondents, only 32% of programs have current coverage of bioterrorism. The main reasons for nothavingbioterrorism coverage were not having enough resources; not having enough time to develop course/materials; and not thinking it is necessary to add these courses/materials. To prepare better and to inform future health administrators regarding major disruptive circumstances, advocacy and documentation are important to develop and implement bioterrorism awareness. Possibly, suggested minimum curricular requirements, content, and mechanisms for inclusion can be developed in the near future. Health administration educators should address the new reality and demonstrate that their graduates can function and lead in crises and situations disruptive to normal commerce.

  10. [The organizational aspects of treating light casualties in modern warfare (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, E A; Maksimov, G K; Agapov, V K; Golov, Iu S

    1993-07-01

    The experience gathered by Medical Service during the war in Afghanistan and during liquidation of the consequences of various disasters and accidents has shown that the most rational method of treatment of minor wounded near the combat area or zone of disaster was a two-staged (and sometimes a three-staged) management system. At the combat tactical zone it is expedient to render the secondary surgical care and reanimation procedures of vital cases, and also provide treatment of minor wounded who could be returned to their ranks in 10 days. For this purpose it is necessary to integrate the sections of medical triage and minor wounded treatment into organic structure of the Brigade medical company and Divisional hospital. As for Army Medical Brigade it must have in its structure a hospital for minor wounded who could be returned to their ranks in 20 days. All the wounded who have to be treated more than 20 days must be evacuated to the Front hospital for minor wounded. PMID:8249347

  11. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  12. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, D. T.; Roberts, A. H.; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W. A.; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have t...

  13. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  14. The use of urinary bladder matrix in the treatment of trauma and combat casualty wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Ian L; Campbell, Paul; Sabino, Jennifer; Dearth, Christopher L; Fleming, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of combat injuries and resulting wounds can be difficult to treat due to compromised and evolving tissue necrosis, environmental contaminants, multidrug resistant microbacterial and/or fungal infections, coupled with microvascular damage and/or hypovascularized exposed vital structures. Our group has developed surgical care algorithms with identifiable salvage techniques to achieve stable, definitive wound coverage often with the aid of certain regenerative medicine biologic scaffold materials and advanced wound care to facilitate tissue coverage and healing. This case series reports on the role of urinary bladder matrix scaffolds in the wound care and reconstruction of traumatic and combat wounds. Urinary bladder matrix was found to facilitate definitive soft tissue reconstruction by establishing a neovascularized soft tissue base acceptable for second stage wound and skin coverage options within traumatic and combat-related wounds.

  15. Critical care nurses' experiences caring for the casualties of war evacuated from the front line: lessons learned and needs identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Deborah J; Hull, Mary S

    2008-03-01

    Nursing in a critical care environment is stressful, particularly when patients are young, previously healthy soldiers who have experienced multiple severe, life-threatening injuries. These injuries not only devastate the injured soldiers and their families, but also significantly impact the nurses caring for these patients. This article discusses some stressors identified by critical care nurses in two military medical treatment facilities where the most severely injured soldiers undergo definitive care, and examines the evolution of the concept of compassion fatigue, its symptoms, and methods of coping. Examples of how the nurses currently working with these young soldiers manage their own stressors are discussed and suggestions for successful coping strategies are provided. PMID:18206583

  16. Pulmonary (cardio) diagnostic system for combat casualty care capable of extracting embedded characteristics of obstructive or restrictive flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Treece, Dale A.; Pearce, Fred J.; Bentley, Timothy B.

    2000-08-01

    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a prototype pulmonary diagnostic system capable of extracting signatures from adventitious lung sounds that characterize obstructive and/or restrictive flow. Examples of disorders that have been detailed include emphysema, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and pneumothorax. The system is based on the premise that acoustic signals associated with pulmonary disorders can be characterized by a set of embedded signatures unique to the disease. The concept is being extended to include cardio signals correlated with pulmonary data to provide an accurate and timely diagnoses of pulmonary function and distress in critically injured soldiers that will allow medical personnel to anticipate the need for accurate therapeutic intervention as well as monitor soldiers whose injuries may lead to pulmonary compromise later. The basic operation of the diagnostic system is as follows: (1) create an image from the acoustic signature based on higher order statistics, (2) deconstruct the image based on a predefined map, (3) compare the deconstructed image with stored images of pulmonary symptoms, and (4) classify the disorder based on a clustering of known symptoms and provide a statistical measure of confidence. The system has produced conformity between adults and infants and provided effective measures of physiology in the presence of noise.

  17. English Language Literacies of Undergraduate Students in Malaysia's Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Environment: Casualties of National Language Policies and Globalisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Wahiza

    2015-01-01

    The issue of Malaysian graduates' unemployment, attributed largely to their flawed English language competence, has been a major concern in the country for many years. The study reported in this paper sought to better comprehend future graduates' perspectives and practices in dealing with the English language literacies prior to graduation. This…

  18. On the Police Culture and Police Casualties%论警察文化与警察伤亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟; 李隽谊

    2014-01-01

    警察是和平年代磨损最为严重的国家机器。警察出现伤亡有多方面原因。将奉献误解为过度奉献、将奉献与虚掷生命相等同、将奉献超越警察自身能力等警察文化建设的误区与警察的伤亡有着不可分割的关系。警察是正常的社会人,亦有人权,警察文化应以此为出发点进行建设、创新。为提高警察自身安全,警察文化应加强对警察自我保护意识的宣扬和培训。%Police suffer the greatest loss during the peacetime of a nation. Reasons for police causalities are diverse. Misunderstandings of police culture such as interpreting dedication as excessive devotion, equaling dedication with squandering life and dedication surpassing personal capabilities have close relations with police causalities. Police are normal members of the society and with human rights. This should be the starting point of police culture construction and innovation. To improve their safety, the awareness of self-protection should be strengthened in police culture construction.

  19. A Patient-Controlled Analgesia Adaptor to Mitigate Postsurgical Pain for Combat Casualties With Multiple Limb Amputation: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Isaacson, Brad M; Johnson, Elizabeth; Rhoades, Daniel S; Lindholm, Mark P; Grindle, Garrett G; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-08-01

    The use of explosive armaments during Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn has resulted in a significant number of injured U.S. service members. These weapons often generate substantial extremity trauma requiring multiple surgical procedures to preserve life, limb, and restore function. For those individuals who require multiple surgeries, the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) devices can be an effective way to achieve adequate pain management and promote successful rehabilitation and recovery during inpatient treatment. A subpopulation of patients are unable to independently control a PCA device because of severe multiple limb dysfunction and/or loss. In response to the needs of these patients, our team designed and developed a custom adaptor to assist service members who would otherwise not be able to use a PCA. Patient feedback of the device indicated a positive response, improved independence, and overall satisfaction during inpatient hospitalization. PMID:27483540

  20. Laser pointers revisited: a survey of 14 patients attending casualty at the Bristol Eye Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, C.; Grey, R; Hart, C.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—The largest clinical series of laser pointer exposures to date is described, to document any long term visual sequelae and assess objectively the visual threat from transient ocular exposure.
METHODS—14 cases were collected prospectively and triaged by ophthalmic nurses before referral to an ophthalmologist for a complete ophthalmic examination. Regardless of the need for clinical follow up, all patients were contacted by telephone at a mean interval of 10.5 months following exposure to ...

  1. 论警察文化与警察伤亡%On the Police Culture and Police Casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟; 李隽谊

    2014-01-01

    警察是和平年代磨损最为严重的国家机器。警察出现伤亡有多方面原因。将奉献误解为过度奉献、将奉献与虚掷生命相等同、将奉献超越警察自身能力等警察文化建设的误区与警察的伤亡有着不可分割的关系。警察是正常的社会人,亦有人权,警察文化应以此为出发点进行建设、创新。为提高警察自身安全,警察文化应加强对警察自我保护意识的宣扬和培训。%Police suffer the greatest loss during the peacetime of a nation. Reasons for police causalities are diverse. Misunderstandings of police culture such as interpreting dedication as excessive devotion, equaling dedication with squandering life and dedication surpassing personal capabilities have close relations with police causalities. Police are normal members of the society and with human rights. This should be the starting point of police culture construction and innovation. To improve their safety, the awareness of self-protection should be strengthened in police culture construction.

  2. EMS response to mass casualty incidents : the critical importance of automatic statewide mutual aid and MCI training

    OpenAIRE

    HILL, CHERYL

    2008-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Incidence of natural and man-made disasters are increasing and expanding in scope. While these events may cause mass injuries, the pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS) community is left out of the preparedness equation by virtue of being underrepresented on planning committees, not privy to disaster training, nor on the receiving end of preparedness funding. Additionally, for many states, outside standard mutual aid agreements a disaster declaration is require...

  3. Flash floods casualties in south of France: from « passive » to « active » connotation of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissier, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Keywords : flash floods, fatalities, human vulnerability, mitigation, South of France. With more than 150 victims in the past twenty years, mediterranean flash floods appear as the most threatening natural hazard in France. So, in purpose of reducing the number of victims by improving prevention, a good knowledge of human vulnerability is necessary. This contribution presents an accurate analysis of mortality in the south of France from 1988 to 2008 in regions exposed to « cevenoles floods » (i.e. the Languedoc-Roussillon region, Ardèche, Drôme, Vaucluse et Bouches-du-Rhône). Human vulnerability is analysed according to the detailed characteristics of victims (age, gender, origin), the exact location and the circumstances of decease. First, it introduces statistics on the characteristics of victims which offers keys to improve emergency management. It's possible to adapt the warning system by targeting the people exposed to flood's effects. Secondly, it shows that displacements in vehicle appear as the first circumstance of death (almost half of the cases). One of the reasons is that there is a lot of dangerous behaviours which are fatal to the victims. Indeed, numerous cases of fatalities are due to the lack of awareness (mainly because people lessen danger and believe they are unvulnerable) which means crossing hazardous roads prone to flooding and notably according to the type of used vehicle. But people also expose themselves to death ("dwelling death") by refusing to evacuate their homes. So, the main victims of floods are not the most vulnerable ones but those who are taking more risk through their behaviors. Those results show the shift from a so-called "passive connotation of vulnerability" (and a passive connotation of the victim) to a "responsible" vulnerability (which is an active connotation of the victim). Finally, this contribution focuses on the perspectives of prevention and wonder what can be the number of unavoidable losses of human lives, caused by uncontrollable individual behavior.

  4. Kathleen Sebelius was a casualty of the widespread expectation that cabinet secretaries have the wisdom and power to work miracles

    OpenAIRE

    Borrelli, MaryAnne

    2014-01-01

    On 10 April, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Kathleen Sebelius, announced her resignation. While the Obama administration’s Obamacare policy has now enrolled of almost 8 million people, Sebelius was widely blamed for last year’s failures of the healthcare.gov website. MaryAnne Borrelli reflects on Sebelius’ resignation, writing that the trials that Sebelius weathered show the scale of the challenges directed at cabinet secretaries and HHS secretaries in particular. Her successor, Sylv...

  5. CARTOONS KILL: casualties in animated recreational theater in an objective observational new study of kids’ introduction to loss of life

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, I.; Kingsbury, M.; Weeks, M; Ataullahjan, A.; Bélair, M. A.; Dykxhoorn, J.; Hynes, K.; Loro, A.; Martin, M. S.; Naicker, K.; Pollock, N.; Rusu, C.; Kirkbride, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the risk of on-screen death of important characters in children’s animated films versus dramatic films for adults. Design Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Cox regression comparing time to first on-screen death. Setting Authors’ television screens, with and without popcorn. Participants Important characters in 45 top grossing children’s animated films and a comparison group of 90 top grossing dramatic films for adults. Main outcome measures Time to first...

  6. The impact of the September 11 Terrorist Attack on the Global Insurance Markets: Evidence from the Japanese Property-Casualty Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyoshi Yanase; Yukihiro Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the significant effects of the September 11 attacks on the Japanese stock market, one of the largest markets in the world. Although several studies have examined the impact of the attacks on the domestic U.S. stock market, few studies have analyzed their impact on the foreign insurance industry through globally well-developed reinsurance transactions. Surprisingly, a mid-sized P/C insurance company, TAISEI Fire and Marine Insurance, went bankrupt on November 22, 2001, two month...

  7. Surge Capacity and Capability. A review of the history and where the science is today regarding surge capacity during a mass casualty disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy D. Kearns

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters which include countless killed and many more injured, have occurred throughout recorded history. Many of the same reports of disaster also include numerous accounts of individuals attempting to rescue those in great peril and render aid to the injured and infirmed. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the transition through several periods of time with managing a surge of many patients. This review will focus on the triggering event, injury and illness, location where the care is provided and specifically discuss where the science is today.

  8. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  9. 时间敏感目标打击杀伤链的优化问题%Optimization of Time Sensitive Target on Casualty Chain Strike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜越; 敖志刚; 李宁; 端木竹筠; 闫晶晶

    2012-01-01

    时间敏感目标的打击能力主要是指对战场上稍纵即逝的目标实施快速打击的能力.阐述时间敏感目标的概念,介绍时间敏感目标打击杀伤链;通过决策变量和约束条件对时间敏感目标打击杀伤链进行最优化描述,提出以网络中心化为主导、决策者主导、传感嚣主导以及射手主导的时间敏感目标打击链指挥控制模式.最后总结给出时间敏感目标打击的3个优化问题,时问敏感目标打击杀伤链的优化问题研究,能够使作战部队具有实时性,协调同步性、作战力量一体化,大幅度提高战斗力.%The strike capability of time sensitive target is the capability to quickly strike the fleeting target on battle fields. This article first describes the concept of time sensitive target and then depicts the time sensitive strike chain. Decision variables and constraint conditions are adopted for clarifying the optimization of time sensitive target strike chain. The command-and-control mode of time sensitive target strike chain with network-centric governing, decision maker governing, sensor governing and gunner governing is pointed out for optimization of time sensitive target strike chain. Three points on optimization of time sensitive target strike are summarized at the end. The research on the problem of time sensitive targets strike-chain optimization can enable combat forces real-time, coordination and synchronization, integration and significantly improve combat effectiveness.

  10. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society. PMID:24690957

  11. Casualties of the Global War on Terror and their future impact on health care and society: a looming public health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    This article is a primer to understand the medical advances and the future health care consequences of the current conflicts in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, known as the Global War on Terror. There have been significant advances in health care learned in caring for those injured by the conflict--often a polytrauma blast victim, but there are also very high incidence rates of the hidden injuries of war--traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and depression. These lead to disruptive behaviors, homelessness, and family violence. Global War on Terror returnees are using medical services and applying for disability at higher rates than in previous conflicts. The costs for veterans' care may peak 30 to 40 years or longer following the conflict, and will inflict an enormous burden on services and resources. The effects of the war will linger for years and impact across generations because of the stress on families and children. We must mobilize government agencies, create public-private partnerships, and invest our resources now to mitigate the approaching tsunami of veterans' health care needs, the impact on our social services, and the devastating costs to society.

  12. Five principles of early prophylaxis and treatment of ARDS in casualties injuried by earthquake%防治震后伤者发生ARDS的"五早"原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立祥

    2008-01-01

    @@ 大地震后由于房屋坍塌等灾害因素,带来的多发伤和严重感染并由此引发急性肺损伤(ALI)/急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)的比例大大增加,病死率高达34%~60%[1,2].ALI/ARDS是在严重感染、休克、创伤及烧伤等非心源性疾病过程中,肺毛细血管内皮细胞和肺泡上皮细胞损伤造成弥漫性肺间质及肺泡水肿,导致的急性低氧性呼吸功能不全或衰竭.

  13. USCG Other Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  14. USCG Vessel Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  15. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  16. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  17. USCG Injury

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  18. USCG Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  19. On "Victims Consent" and Its Application in School Casualty Accident%论"受害人同意"及其在学生伤害事故中的适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方益权; 陈英

    2007-01-01

    在侵权行为法中,对于受害人同意的含义、构成要件、法律效力等,学界存在很大争议,各国法律规定也不尽相同.尤其在学生伤害事故中,是否可适用受害人同意规则进行裁判,常是争议之焦点.在对抗性或具有风险性的体育竞赛活动中发生意外伤害等三种情况下,可适用受害人同意规则进行裁判.

  20. The Measurement of Economic Capital of Lines of Business of Chinese Property and Casualty Insurance Company%我国财产保险公司承保业务线经济资本的度量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪红; 王清涛

    2013-01-01

    承保风险是保险公司面临的主要风险之一,合理地计量其经济资本有助于提高公司的资本管理能力.采用多元Copula理论对我国某财险公司主要业务线的相依结构进行建模,选择拟合较好的GaussCopula,在此基础上,使用凹扭曲风险度量测度主要业务线的经济资本.结果显示:凹扭曲风险度量中的Wang风险度量能够根据风险的整体水平灵活地调整所需的经济资本.

  1. Psychological intervention in the casualties of 4·28 train crash on the Jiao-Ji railway line%"4·28"胶济铁路交通事故伤员心理危机的干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国秋; 汪永光; 王义强; 张素芬; 曹日芳; 唐济生; 路英智

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析淄博铁路交通事故伤员心理行为反应特点以寻找救治交通事故后患者的心理的有效方法.方法 采用心理危机结构式访谈问卷,对2008年4月28日发生的山东淄博胶济铁路重大交通事故中的226伤员进行心理状态评估,并对22名ASD患者进行眼动脱敏再加工(eyemovement desensitization and reprocessing,EMDR)治疗,比较EMDR治疗前后的心理行为反应的差异.结果 有22名达到ASD(急性应激障碍)诊断标准,本次铁路交通事故中ASD的发生率为9.73%,伤员中主要以闯入、警觉性增高表现为主,并伴随着其他的负性情绪体验.女性组ASD的发生率(14.85%)高于男性组(5.60%),P0.05).Conclusions The women showed more severe psychological consequences than men after train crash accident.EMDR was effective treatment on ASD but negative emotional symptoms.

  2. 大规模伤亡事件应对流程的前摄性调度优化%Proactive Scheduling Optimization of Emergency Response in Mass Casualty Incident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初翔; 仲秋雁; 曲毅

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates proactive scheduling optimization problem of emergency response , with fatalities minimization as objective .First, triage levels and its stochastic Markov Chain are introduced , to establish func-tion from rescued time to probability of death .Then we translate proposed problem to a proactive job shop sched-uling problem, and design a genetic algorithm to find solution .Finally, a simulation experiment is done , and it shows: the algorithm works feasibly and efficiently; although makespan increases , the proposed scheduling reduces number of fatalities significantly comparing to min-makespan scheduling .The research in this paper can provide decision supports for the organization and coordination of emergency response .%以死亡人数最少化为目标,研究大规模伤亡事件应对流程的前摄性调度优化问题。首先,使用伤情等级和伤情随机转化的马尔可夫链,建立伤员死亡概率与伤员处置时间的函数关系。随后,将研究问题转化为柔性作业车间静态调度问题,并设计遗传算法求解。最后用一个随机算例对算法进行仿真,结果表明:该算法可行有效;与现有研究中救援时间最短化的调度方法相比,伴随着可接受的救援时间跨度增加,该方法可大幅降低救援过程中的死亡人数。本文研究有助于决策者优化应急救援过程,有效减少死亡人员数量。

  3. 我国火灾同英、美、日本诸国火灾之比较%The comparison of fire casualties among Our Country and England、U. S. A、Japan etc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铭珍

    2003-01-01

    @@ 据不完全统计,全球每年约发生火灾700多万起,每年有70000人左右死于火灾.国际间衡量一个国家火灾势态如何,通常是以每10万人口平均值火灾发生次数、火灾死亡人数以及火灾损失额占GDP比值为标准的.有资料显示:

  4. 起重伤亡事故分析及司机行为特性研究%Analysis of crane casualties and research on characters of drivers' behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锋; 李红杰; 王海勇

    2002-01-01

    介绍了近年来起重伤亡事故概况,并通过对某企业历年来起重伤亡事故的分析,探讨了起重伤亡事故的原因,以及事故发生的一般规律,并对起重司机的行为特性作了研究,为起重事故预防提供了科学依据.

  5. La última baja de la División Azul (de la metralla al hepatocarcinoma The last casualty of 250 Wehrmacht Division (Blue Division (from shrapnel to liver carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lisbona Gil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí el caso clínico y evolución de un cabo de la División Azul, que habiendo sido herido en el frente ruso, sector de Nitlikino, por metralla, el 5 de diciembre de 1941, falleció cincuenta y un años más tarde como consecuencia probablemente de dicha herida.We present the case of a corporal belonging to 250 Wehrmacht Division (Blau Division, that after he was hurt by shrapnel in the Russia front during the II World War, fifth of December 1941, he died fifty one years later, owing probably to that wound.

  6. Psychological factors that limit the endurance capabilities of armor crews operating in a simulated NBC environment. Technical report, July 1985-May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharion, W.J.; Rauch, T.M.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.; Banderet, L.E.

    1986-05-01

    Factors which limit the performance capabilities of sustained armor operations in simulated conventional- and chemical-warfare environments were studied. In the simulated chemical-warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant personality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

  7. On the Law Conflicts of Compensation and Liability for Tourist Casualty in the Transportation on the Sea and the Application Range%论海上运输旅客人身伤亡赔偿责任的规范冲突及适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉初; 王茹

    2009-01-01

    文章尝试从分析我国立法现状出发,论证解决海上人身伤亡损害赔偿法律冲突之必要性,从而提出解决冲突的方法,进一步完善人身损害赔偿制度,加快与国际接轨的步伐,更好地服务于我国的航运事业.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulation in risk analysis of battle casualty forecasting in urban aggressive military action%蒙特卡罗模拟在城市进攻战斗减员预计风险分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓月仙; 秦超; 李瑞兴; 彭海文; 江雷

    2008-01-01

    目的:应用风险分析的理论方法改进现行预测方法.方法:以城市进攻作战减员预计为例,整理分析了历史数据和影响减员的不确定因素,确定了日均减员率的统计分布,以定量判断模型为基础,设定参战人数、地形、气候、态势、突然性、战斗效能等因素,应用蒙特卡罗方法进行模拟,采用Microsoft Excel和Crystal Ball 2000建立了相应的预测模型,对减员模拟结果进行风险分析.结果:城市进攻作战日均减员率可用正态分布变量表达.结合上述因素的量化值,1 000模拟的结果为,日均战斗减员率均数0.42%,标准差0.21%.结论:蒙特卡罗模拟方法是改进现行预测方法的有效手段.

  9. Análisis del agente lesivo en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán) Analysis of the injuring agent in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Navarro Suay; A. Hernández-Abadía de Barbará; C. Gutiérrez Ortega; R. Tamburri Bariain; E. Bartolomé Cela; F. Gilsanz Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: El conocimiento sobre aspectos relacionados con el armamento mejoran el diagnóstico y el tratamiento global del herido, sobretodo en el caso del médico militar. Se exponen los agentes lesivos de los principales conflictos recientes. El objetivo del estudio es el análisis del agente lesivo de las bajas atendidas en el Hospital Militar (ROLE 2) de Herat (Afganistán) entre 2005 y 2008. Material y método: Se ha diseñado un estudio descriptivo, transversal sobre todo el personal civi...

  10. Análisis de la topografía lesional en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán) Analysis of the lesional topography in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Navarro Suay; A. Hernández-Abadía de Barbará; C. Gutiérrez Ortega; E. Bartolomé Cela; R. Tamburri Bariain; F. Gilsanz Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La localización corporal de las lesiones por arma de fuego y por artefactos explosivos en el combatiente ha seguido un patrón diferente a lo largo de la historia. La distribución anatómica de dichas lesiones en los últimos conflictos ha demostrado que las áreas más afectadas son las extremidades, seguidas de la cabeza y el cuello. El objetivo del estudio es describir la experiencia de Médicos Militares españoles desplegados en el Hospital Militar Role 2 de Herat (Afganistán) sob...

  11. Monitor verkeersveiligheid 2010 : ontwikkeling in slachtoffers, risico, beleid en gedrag in 2009.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Goldenbeld, C. & Bos, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Road safety monitor 2010; Developments in casualties, casualty rate, policy and road user behaviour in the year 2009. This report discusses the recent road safety developments. First the developments of the number of road fatalities (up to and including the year 2009) and the number of serious road

  12. 78 FR 8220 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Change In Business Address and Redomestication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Change In Business Address and Redomestication: American Fire and Casualty Company (NAIC 24066) and The Ohio Casualty Insurance Company (NA1C..., 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202)...

  13. Verkeersslachtoffers door botsingen tegen geopende laadkleppen van vrachtauto's : inventarisatie van aantallen slachtoffers en veiligheidseisen aan laadkleppen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C. & Darouache, S.

    2004-01-01

    SWOV is often asked the question of how many casualties there are each year in collisions with an opened lorry tailboard. This was the reason to determine the size of this problem, and to simultaneously examine what could be done to improve safety. Casualties as a result of collisions with tailboard

  14. Medical aspects of the Battle of Waterloo: the battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumplin, Mick

    2015-06-01

    The Duke of Wellington's polyglot army assembled for the Waterloo campaign was hastily aggregated and the Army Medical Department was somewhat short of staff and not entirely of the calibre of the department serving latterly in the Peninsular campaigns. The casualty rates during the battles of this campaign were high and the regimental and hospital staff struggled with the large number of casualties. Lack of stretcher bearers and transport were significant problems, which were compounded by the high density of the casualties. Three quarters of the surviving wounded rejoined their units. PMID:25525203

  15. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  16. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 4007 - Policy Guidelines On Premium Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action. (b) A fire or other casualty or natural disaster destroyed relevant records or prevented... you from paying the premium in full and on time. The explanation you give should relate directly...

  17. 19 CFR 163.6 - Production and examination of entry and other records and witnesses; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... loss of the demanded record was the result of an act of God or other natural casualty or disaster... before the applicable due date for production of the records and must include an explanation of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer's control, such as destruction by fire, flood, earthquake, or other casualty, the taxpayer shall... unmarked vehicle (equipped with radio communication) for use during off-duty hours because C must be...

  19. 76 FR 54796 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... articles is a party to a free trade agreement with the United States; 2. The country to which the workers... Casualty Company, Chicago, Illinois. TA-W-80,279; Paris Accessories, Inc., Yellville, Arkansas....

  20. 超级成语SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静如

    2004-01-01

    @@ A: I heard that the building at the comer of the street was on fire last night. B: Yes. By the time the fire engine arrived, the house was burning like anything. A: Were there any casualties? B: Nope.

  1. Maxillofacial trauma resulting from terror in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Doron; Einy, Shmuel; Giveon, Adi; Goldstein, Liab; Peleg, Kobi

    2007-01-01

    During a 33 month period, maxillofacial injuries resulting from terrorist attacks in Israel were compared with non-terror trauma maxillofacial injuries. Files of patients hospitalized from October 1, 2000 to June 30, 2003 were obtained from the Israel National Trauma Registry. Data were evaluated and compared with a hospitalized non-terror related trauma population within the same period. A literature survey was also conducted. Terror casualties totaled 1,811. In 493 patients with facial injuries, 322 had soft facial tissue injuries (excluding eyes and ears), and 104 had hard tissue injuries of the maxillofacial complex. A significantly higher prevalence was found in terror casualties (explosions and gunshots) compared with non-terror related casualties. Most suffered multiple injuries. Maxillofacial terror casualties experience a unique epidemiology, with more severe injuries and higher prevalence of soft and hard tissue injuries. Preparedness and awareness to the unique pattern of injuries are needed when terrorists strike.

  2. ‘We are here to stay and we won’t shut up’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Blumensaat Rasmussen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    For those people who stood on that thin cusp between survival and becoming a casualty of war, the consequences of those actions were of existential proportions. For most Europeans these brushes with life, death and profiteering remain largely invisible....

  3. 76 FR 24504 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Guard Authorization Act-- Improvements to Reduce Human Error and Near Miss Incidents. (10) Updates on.... (11) Presentation on the Q4000 Marine Casualty and associated ``near miss.'' (12) Period for...

  4. Anaphylaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziz Sheikh; Samantha Walker

    2006-01-01

    @@ A 60 year old man attends to discuss his recent allergic reaction to an insect sting. He presents you with the casualty letter which reads: "Treated for anaphylaxis after bee sting-see GP for follow-up."

  5. 76 FR 38459 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Redomestication and Change in Business Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. BILLING CODE... Address; National Farmers Union Property and Casualty Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service,...

  6. Toxicological mass disaster management - a hospital deployment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniel, J; Ram, Z; Kami, A; Schindel, D

    1986-09-01

    Toxicological mass disasters have occurred frequently in past years and constitute a permanent threat in urban areas. From the standpoint of hospital planning, special consideration is required to treat a large number of poisoned casualties in a relatively short period. Several unique medical aspects characterize toxicological mass disasters: casualties present a single disease entity with many "borderline" cases, most medical personnel are unfamiliar with the problem and casualties present a potential contamination hazard to the hospital. A hospital deployment scheme is presented recommending Decontamination, Triage and simple Treatment Algorithms to meet the medical and organizational challenge of such a mass casualty situation. A further specific deployment scheme for treatment of organophosphorus agents poisoning is described to illustrate the principles presented.

  7. Nuclear emergencies: medical preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note outlines C.E.G.B. facilities and emergency plans to deal with casualties of on site radiation accidents, tested each year under the auspices of the U.K. HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. (U.K.)

  8. Communist Party Heroes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    When a catastrophic 8-magmtude earthquake hit south western Sichuan Province at 2:28 p.m. on May 12, causing 400,000 casualties and destroying towns and villages, the country faced a massive rescue operation.

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Value-Based Payment Modifier Quality and Resource Use Reports Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Compare ... Shooter and Intentional Mass Casualty Events Surgeons and Medical Liability Surgeons as Advocates Surgeons and Bundled Payment ...

  10. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Value-Based Payment Modifier Quality and Resource Use Reports Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Compare ... Shooter and Intentional Mass Casualty Events Surgeons and Medical Liability Surgeons as Advocates Surgeons and Bundled Payment ...

  11. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Enhance Survival in Active Shooter and Intentional Mass Casualty Events Surgeons and Medical Liability Surgeons as ... Benefits Current Openings Newsroom Newsroom Newsroom Press Releases Media Resources The FIRST Trial ACS Publications ACS in ...

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Enhance Survival in Active Shooter and Intentional Mass Casualty Events Surgeons and Medical Liability Surgeons as ... Benefits Current Openings Newsroom Newsroom Newsroom Press Releases Media Resources The FIRST Trial ACS Publications ACS in ...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  14. Les principaux accidents de déversements pétroliers en mer et la banque de données de l'Institut Français du Pétrole sur les accidents de navires (1955-1979 The Principal Offshore Oil-Spill Accidents and the Tanker Casualties Data-Bank(1955-1979 Compiled by Institut Français du Pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A. R. V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir exposé les principaux problèmes posés par le déversement accidentel de pétrole en mer sous ses aspects qualitatifs et quantitatifs, puis rappelé un certain nombre de données tirées d'études antérieures, nous indiquons les résultats de l'activité documentaire de l'Institut Français du Pétrole dans ce domaine : -liste d'accidents ayant donné lieu à un déversement supérieur à 500 t et d'origines diverses (navires, plates-formes, oléoducs, installations côtières; - banque de données sur les accidents de navires. Cette banque concernant plus de 400 accidents survenus de 1955 à 1979 a permis d'établir plusieurs corrélations et de préciser quelques points. En particulier si le nombre d'accidents « principaux » ne semble pas avoir augmenté d'une façon significative au cours de ces dernières années ainsi que le déversement global dû aux accidents, celui-ci nous paraît avoir été sous-estimé dans les évaluations antérieures. II devrait s'élever à 500 000 t/an au lieu de 300 000 t/an, chiffre donné en 1973 par la National Academy of Sciences américaine et constamment repris depuis dans de nombreux rapports et publications. After describing the main problems raised by occidental offshore oil spills from a qualitative and quantitative standpoint and then reviewing various data token from previous reports, this article goes on to describe the results of documentary activity by Institut Français du Pétrole in this field - list of accidents resulting in a spill of more than 500 t and coming from various origins (ships, platforms, pipelines, coastal installations; - data bank on ship accidents. This data bank includes more thon 400 accidents occurring between 1955 and 1979. It reveals various correlations and specific points. In particular, whereas the number of « principal » accidents does not seem to have appreciably increased in the last few years nor has the overall amount thus spilled, these data appear ta have been underestimated in previous evaluations. The figure for total spills due ta ship accidents should be closer to 500000 tons per year instead of the 300000tons per year, a figure given in 1973 by the National Academy of Sciences in the United States and constantly quoted since in reports and publications.

  15. Toxikologie zplodin hoření

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    Fire presents a significant risk of the formation of toxic combustion gases. These substances further endanger fire squad units and nearby residents. Toxic gases are responsible for almost 50% of all fire casualties and cause one third of fatal casualties. The amount and composition of gases depend to a great extent on the conditions of thermal degradation especially temperature and the amount of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. Prevention or minimisation of consequences of formation of ...

  16. Disaster Preparation and Recovery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ضع خطة وتدرّب علیھا - العربية Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Mass Casualty Patient Self-Assessment Form (Arabic) نرجو ملئ ... ku tababaro - af Soomaali (Somali) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Mass Casualty Patient Self-Assessment Form Fadlan Buuxi Warqaddan ...

  17. Protests focused on drones distract from the real issue of using targeted killings as a counter-terrorism strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the US has carried out hundreds of strikes against terrorist targets using unmanned aerial vehicles, known as drones. The use of these drones has accelerated under the Obama Administration, which has led to growing protests over civilian casualties stemming from their operations. Natalie Allen argues that drones are in fact one of the most effective forms of warfare to prevent civilian casualties, and that whether the war itself is justified is an entirely different matt...

  18. Studie připravenosti zdravotnické záchranné služby na mimořádnou událost s velkým počtem raněných a obětí - dopravní nehoda autobusu

    OpenAIRE

    PRUDEL, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with problematic of emergency medical service preparedness in the Czech Republic, in the place of disaster and during this situation especially in bus accident with large number of injuries and casualties. Bus accident can create high risk of forming mass disaster due to many people transported in small area with low safety components. High risk of many injuries and casualties with chaotic first call make hard decision to activate plans to solve this situation for em...

  19. Applying radiation protection issues to hospitals radiological emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updating Hospitals emergency preparedness to Radiological Emergency situations was an opportunity to reevaluate key issues: What is the main threat - Nuclear or Radiological? RDD or industrial? As a result of such a discussion-what kind of radiation monitors to select? Should they be similar to those other emergency organizations use? What Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) level to decide on? Who are hospital emergency team members and how deep is there radiation protection knowledge? How and where to train them? Are drills needed? How often so normal hospital activity is not disturbed? What kind of manuals to prepare? This paper describes the process that led to the change of policy from preparedness to nuclear accidents only, to all kind of radiological emergencies with an emphasis on radiological terror. Supply of new radiation and contamination detection equipment took place, same as the one that other emergency teams have. A new and simple level C PPE applied. Training set different team members on same level. Several manuals prepared: How to prepare Hospital to contaminated casualties in order to minimize normal routine - in case there is an information on contaminated casualties on the way and in case it was discovered after they arrived, how to treat a contaminated casualty, to decontaminate him or not? How to decide that a casualty is contaminated or not? What to do with casualties belongings? What to do with contaminated equipment? How to exit a contaminated zone? How to set hospital back to ordinary work? etc. (author)

  20. Exploration of key stakeholders' preferences for pre-hospital physiologic monitoring by emergency rescue services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Alasdair J; Rushworth, Gordon F

    2013-12-01

    To gather preferences for novel pre-hospital physiologic monitoring technologies from emergency rescue services. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with three groups from UK Search and Rescue (SAR); (1) Extractors (e.g. SAR teams), (2) Transporters (personnel primarily responsible for casualty transport), and (3) Treaters (e.g. Emergency Department doctors). Three themes were defined; SAR casualty management, novel physiologic monitor potential, and physiologic monitor physical properties. Some SAR groups already employed physiologic monitoring but there was no consensus on which monitor(s) to carry or what to monitor and how frequently. Existing monitors also tended to be bulky and heavy and could be unreliable in an unstable environment or if the casualty was cold. Those performing monitoring tended to have only basic first-aid training, and their workload was often high particularly if there was more than one casualty. The potential benefits of employing a novel monitor were strategic and clinical; an opportunity for transmitting data off-scene in order to facilitate monitoring or generate advice (i.e. telemedicine) was also voiced. A range of more intuitive, physical properties was also raised (e.g. small/compact, lightweight). SAR-specific technology should be simple to operate by those with less medical training, which means that clinical data interpretation and presentation should be carefully considered. It would be beneficial if novel monitors carried out a majority of the interpretation, allowing rescuers to proceed with their priority task of removing the casualty to safety.

  1. Biosimmer: A Virtual Reality Simulator for Training First Responders in a BW Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawver, D.M.; Sobel, A.L.; Stansfield, S.A.

    1998-11-11

    BioSimMER (Bioterrorism Simulated Medical Emergency Response) is a Virtual Reality-based mission rehearsal and training environment. BioSimMER employs contingency-oriented, multiple-path algorithms and MOESINIOPS focused on real-world operations. BioSimMER is network-based and immerses multiple trainees in a high resolution synthetic environment, including virtual casualties and instruments that they may interact with and manipulate. Trainees are represented as individuals by virtual human Avatars. The simulation consists of several components: virtual casualties dynamically manifest the symptoms of their injuries and respond to the intervention of the trainees. Agent transport analysis is used to simulate casualty exposures and to drive the responses of simulated sensors/detectors. The selected prototype scenario is representative of combined injuries anticipated in BW operations.

  2. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  3. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  4. Factors influencing the sustained-performance capabilities of 155-mm howitzer sections in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, T.M.; Banderet, L.E.; Tharion, W.J.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-04-01

    Factors that limit the performance capabilities of sustained artillery operations in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments were studied. The results show that perceptions of psychological (mental) fatigue, rather than perceptions of muscular fatigue, were primary factors affecting sustained artillery performance. Furthermore, variations in these psychological states were correlated with artillery task performance during the period. In the simulated chemical warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant perosnality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

  5. [It is not always necessary to establish a "first aid station" at mass gatherings. Cutty Sark Tallships Race 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S E; Sørensen, L; Røck, N D

    1995-12-18

    Previous studies from outdoor music festivals have recommended medical service facilities at first-aid stations. The Cutty Sark Tallships Race was a large outdoor event that took place over four days in Esbjerg harbour with about 500,000 participants and spectators. A total of 68 patients were treated, 28 in the first-aid station at the harbour and 40 at the nearby located hospital. The disease and injuries presented were not severe. The orthopaedic casualties dominated (82%), wounds, contusions and fractures being the most common ones. Only seven casualties were related to alcohol abuse. No casualties were related to drug abuse. The economic expense was estimated to DKK 14,676. Thus, at outdoor mass gatherings of a nature like the Cutty Sark Tallships Race, located near a hospital, first-aid stations are not necessary.

  6. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 赵新才; 王正国; 朱佩芳; 简华刚; 刘大维; 周金玲; 刘蕾

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics and preventive methods of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China through sampling investigation of traffic crashes in different regions of Chongqing city in recent years. Methods: Two police teams of traffic management in downtown, two teams in suburb, one team in county and one freeway team were randomly selected, and road traffic crashes between 1988 and 1997 were investigated and analyzed. Results: A total of 13121 road traffic crashes with 6201 crashes with casualties were analyzed. The incidence of crashes was higher in May, June and July, and on Friday and Wednesday and at 8:00-12:00 and 14:00-18:00 within a day. Casualties were 44.0% in pedestrians and 42.5% in passengers of total casualties. The deaths and severe injuries in pedestrians were59.1% of total deaths and 56.4% of total severe injuries. The age of drivers and passengers were mainly at 18-30 years, followed by 31-40 years. People over 60 years old accounted for 24.1% of total pedestrian casualty. Head injury was the most common reason for deaths. The main reasons for these crashes were improper driving and violating traffic laws. Violating traffic laws by pedestrian was one of the main reasons for pedestrian casualty. Conclusions: The crashes are related to the characteristics of geography, climate, society activity of people, and the sense of traffic safety, the basic traffic construction and management in Chongqing. The traffic casualty of pedestrian is a big problem in Chongqing. To prevent and decrease road traffic injuries effective methods should be worked out and propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management should be strengthened according to different characteristics of different regions. To strengthen the first aid and treatment of cranium-brain injury and chest-back injury is also helpful in decreasing traffic deaths.

  7. Radiation Injury Treatment Network®: Preparedness Through a Coalition of Cancer Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Cullen

    2016-08-01

    This article provides an overview of Radiation Injury Treatment Network® (RITN), its preparedness activities and capabilities, including training and educating over 11,500 hospital staff, coordinating over 500 exercises, developing treatment guidelines, developing standard operating procedures, and being recognized by the U.S. federal government as a national response asset. The RITN provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment for victims with marrow toxic injuries. Many of the casualties from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) (a.k.a. terrorist nuclear bomb) with only radiation injuries will be salvageable; however, they would require outpatient and/or inpatient care. Recognizing this, the U.S. National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), U.S. Navy, and American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) collaboratively developed RITN, which comprises medical centers with expertise in the management of bone marrow failure. The medical community will undoubtedly be taxed by the resulting medical surge from an IND despite the well-defined United States emergency medical system, the National Disaster Medical System; however, one area that is unique for radiological disasters is the care for casualties with acute radiation syndrome. Hematologists and oncologists purposefully expose their cancer patients to high doses of radiation and toxic chemicals for chemotherapy as they treat their patients, resulting in symptoms not unlike casualties with exposure to ionizing radiation from a radiological disaster. This makes the staff from cancer centers ideal for the specialized care that will be required for thousands of casualties following a mass casualty radiological incident. The RITN is a model for how a collaborative effort can fill a readiness gap-through its network of 76 hospitals, blood donor centers, and cord blood banks, the RITN is preparing to provide outpatient care and specialized supportive care to up to 63,000 radiological casualties

  8. Deprived children or deprived neighbourhoods? A public health approach to the investigation of links between deprivation and injury risk with specific reference to child road safety in Devon County, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewson Paul

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, injuries from road traffic collisions are a rapidly growing problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. The UK has amongst the worst records in Europe with regard to child pedestrian safety. A traditional view holds that resources should be directed towards training child pedestrians. In order to reduce socio-economic differentials in child pedestrian casualty rates it is suggested that these should be directed at deprived children. This paper seeks to question whether analysis of extant routinely collected data supports this view. Methods Routine administrative data on road collisions has been used. A deprivation measure has been assigned to the location where a collision was reported, and the home postcode of the casualty. Aggregate data was analysed using a number of epidemiological models, concentrating on the Generalised Linear Mixed Model. Results This study confirms evidence suggesting a link between increasing deprivation and increasing casualty involvement of child pedestrians. However, suggestions are made that it may be necessary to control for the urban nature of an area where collisions occur. More importantly, the question is raised as to whether the casualty rate is more closely associated with deprivation measures of the ward in which the collision occurred than with the deprivation measures of the home address of the child. Conclusion Conclusions have to be drawn with great caution. Limitations in the utility of the officially collected data are apparent, but the implication is that the deprivation measures of the area around the collision is a more important determinant of socio-economic differentials in casualty rates than the deprivation measures of the casualties' home location. Whilst this result must be treated with caution, if confirmed by individual level case-controlled studies this would have a strong implication for the most appropriate interventions.

  9. Virtual simulation-enhanced triage training for Iraqi medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizakevich, Paul N; Culwell, Andrew; Furberg, Robert; Gemeinhardt, Don; Grantlin, Susan; Hubal, Robert; Stafford, Allison; Dombroski, R Todd

    2007-01-01

    Triage, establishing the priority of care among casualties in disaster management, is generally practiced using constructive tabletop or live exercises. Actual disasters involving multiple casualties occur rarely, offering little opportunity for gaining experience and competency assessment. When they do occur, response needs to be rapid and well-learned. In the Iraqi medical education environment where the need for triage is immediate, but the ability to stage practice is nearly impossible, blending didactic learning with simulation-based triage offers an alternative training methodology. PMID:17377271

  10. Indications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and therapeutic strategies of accidental irradiations; Indications des greffes de cellules souches hematopoietiques et strategies therapeutiques des irradiations accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Produced by a group of experts, this document first discusses the issue of accidental irradiations in terms of medical management. They notably outline the peculiar characteristics of these irradiations with respect to therapeutic irradiations. They agreed on general principles regarding casualty sorting criteria and process, and their medical treatment (systematic hematopoiesis stimulation, allogeneic transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells). They discuss some practical aspects of these issues: casualty sorting within a therapeutic perspective (actions to be performed within 48 hours), therapeutic strategies (support therapy, use of cytokines, and therapy by hematopoietic stem cell transplant). They state a set of recommendations regarding the taking into care and diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, research perspectives, and teaching

  11. SOCIAL RIGHT AND ITS APPLICATION FOR MARTYR'S WIDOW, ORPHAN AND WAR VETERAN-VICTIM WHO NEEDED SPECIAL CARE AND PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent KARA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In respect to social state principle, the 61’ st article of the Constitution is allocated for disadvantaged people. Because of special situations of Turkey, social rights of the casualties, the orphans and the widows, the handicapped and the veterans were determined and organized in this article. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the laws, policies and problems of the casualties, the orphans and the widows, the handicapped and the veterans who were preserved by the Constitution and some laws.

  12. Leveraging Trauma Lessons from War to Win in a Complex Global Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Kyle N

    2016-01-01

    The US military has made great strides in combat casualty care since 2001. As the Army concludes combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, it faces new operational challenges in trauma care. The military medical community must stay ahead of the curve through sustaining current investments in combat casualty care research. This article describes lessons learned at war from a Joint Trauma System perspective in order to place in context how we should proceed in order to provide optimal care for our Warfighters in the future.

  13. Mobile Health Systems that Optimize Resources in Emergency Response Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Tammara; Gao, Tia

    2010-01-01

    During mass casualty incidents, a large number of patients need to be triaged accurately in order to save the maximum number of lives. Recently portable health systems have been developed that can gather patient's vital signs and wireless transmit this information to a central location for analysis. This research introduces a methodology to improve triage in mass casualty incidents by combining statistical optimization techniques with mobile health systems to manage resources using evidence based data. We combine data collected during a field test with data of patient's vital signs to simulate how mobile health systems can optimize resources in emergency response situations.

  14. Improvised explosive devices and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksel, Tamer

    2005-08-01

    Improvised explosive devices have created a new class of casualties that presents a unique surgical challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The injury pattern and severity are different from those seen in conventional trauma patients. Because of battlefield circumstances, patients are sometimes delayed significantly in their transport to a trauma center, and they frequently arrive at a trauma center with hypotension, hypothermia, and acidosis. Definitive care is delayed while the hemodynamic status and life-threatening injuries are stabilized. Hospital triage protocols must be well established in advance to prepare a timely response to the mass casualty event. Proper resource use is an ever-evolving challenge for hospital staff during these times.

  15. Lay further emphasis on the treatment in critical burn%进一步重视重症烧伤的救治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭光华

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,growth in number of mass burn casualties accompanied by large number of deaths,has increased,such as dust blast occurred in Kunshan in 2014 and explosion of chemicals occurred in Tianjin in 2015.These disasters made us aware that our knowledge of care of mass burn casualties must be renewed,and therapeutic strategies currently practiced in ICU should be adopted.This paper introduces the concept of critical burn and provides reference on how to carry out fluid resuscitation,early enteral nutrition,mechanical ventilation,continuous renal replacement therapy,wound management,as well as infection control,etc.

  16. [Lay further emphasis on the treatment in critical burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, G H

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, growth in number of mass burn casualties accompanied by large number of deaths, has increased, such as dust blast occurred in Kunshan in 2014 and explosion of chemicals occurred in Tianjin in 2015. These disasters made us aware that our knowledge of care of mass burn casualties must be renewed, and therapeutic strategies currently practiced in ICU should be adopted. This paper introduces the concept of critical burn and provides reference on how to carry out fluid resuscitation, early enteral nutrition, mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy, wound management, as well as infection control, etc.

  17. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    2015-01-01

    . Different countries show a range of values between 5% and 30%. Between 60% and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospitals or treated at emergency departments are victims of SBCs. The proportion of all injured cyclists who are injured in SBCs is unrelated to the share of cycling in the modal split. The share...... of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  18. Cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Cyclists are vulnerable in traffic. The number of fatalities amongst cyclists is decreasing more slowly than for other modes of transport and the number of serious injuries is increasing. In the Netherlands, many cycling casualties occur in the age groups 12 -17 year olds and the over 60’s. When the

  19. Insurance: Profitability of the Medical Malpractice and General Liability Lines. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report on the profitability of the property/casualty insurance industry and in particular of the medical malpractice insurance line was prepared at the request of Representatives Henry A. Waxman and James J. Florio and Senators Paul Simon, Daniel K. Inouye, Albert Gore, Jr., and Jay D. Rockefeller. Four different estimates of medical…

  20. The great eastern Japan earthquake and Tsunami: Field observations on the coast of Tohoku six month later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2011-01-01

    The tsunami that hit the north pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011 has been characterized as a mega disaster. It inundated over 560 square kilometers of land, devastating a large number of coastal communities, causing over 20,000 casualties and huge economic damage in Tohoku region. The purpose

  1. Problematiek rechtsafslaande vrachtauto's : een analyse gebaseerd op de ongevallen van 2003 en de nieuwe Europese richtlijnen met ingang van 2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of lorries turning right : an analysis based on crashes in 2003 and the new European guidelines beginning in 2007. In spite of the mandatory introduction of blind area mirrors and blind area cameras per 1 January 2003, there are relatively many casualties in crashes involving lorries tur

  2. The high risk location approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The high risk location approach is one of the most traditional ways of improving road safety. This reactive approach tackles unsafe situations at locations with the most crashes. On average, this approach results in an 18% reduction in casualties at such locations. However, in the Netherlands this a

  3. Available and (proper) adjustment of head restraints in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1993-01-01

    Dutch national accident data show a considerable increase of the number of rear end collisions during the last 10 years. The numbers of cars involved and casualties from these accidents have also increased. Neck injuries, typical for rear end collisions, are expected to become a major health problem

  4. The benefits of improved car secondary safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2003-07-01

    The term 'secondary safety' refers to the protection that a vehicle provides its occupants when involved in an accident. This paper studies information from the British database of road accident reports between 1980 and 1998, to estimate the reduction in the number of occupant casualties over these years which may be attributed to improvements to secondary safety in cars. The paper shows that the proportion of driver casualties who are killed or seriously injured (KSI) is lower for modern cars than for older cars. The reduction of this proportion is used to assess the improvement in secondary safety. Statistical models are developed to represent the proportion with 'year of first registration' as one of the independent variables, although only an incomplete assessment of the benefits of improved secondary safety can be made with the available data. The assessment compares the number of casualties that would have been expected if secondary safety had remained at the level found in cars first registered in 1980 with the actual casualty numbers. It is estimated that improved secondary safety reduced the number of drivers KSI by at least 19.7% in 1998, in comparison with what might have occurred if all cars had had that lower level of secondary safety. This figure relates to all cars on the road in 1998, and rises to 33%, when confined to the most modern cars (those which were first registered in 1998).

  5. 46 CFR 4.40-20 - Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cause or probable cause determinations from Board... Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-20 Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation. After an investigation conducted by the Board under § 4.40-15, the Board determines cause...

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 173 - Issuing Authorities and Reporting Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Authorities A Appendix A to Part 173 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Pt. 173, App. A Appendix A to Part 173—Issuing Authorities and Reporting Authorities (a) The State is the issuing...

  7. Blood Bank on Wheels : A Novel Concept

    OpenAIRE

    N Moorchung; Chattopadhyay, AB; Sivasubramanian, R

    2008-01-01

    The concept of supplying safe and screened blood to casualties in war has been a problem over the years. Using the equipments available in a Corp Blood Supply Unit, we describe a simple modification of a vehicle for blood supply and its potential use as a mobile blood bank.

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-6 - Qualified medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified medical personnel. 4.03-6 Section 4.03-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-6 Qualified medical personnel. The term qualified medical personnel means a physician, physician's...

  9. Troubled Times: The Role of Instructional Design in a Modern Dual-Mode University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele; Moseley, Alexander; Hayes, Nichola

    2012-01-01

    Reduced higher education funding and other austerity measures imposed by governments and institutions have resulted in cascading cuts in resources for programme design, delivery and revision. The instructional design function is often the first casualty of these cuts in many universities. This paper considers the roles and functions of…

  10. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  11. Kwaliteitsaspecten van duurzaam-veilige weginfrastructuur : voorstel voor een stelsel van DV-eisen waarin alle DV-principes zijn opgenomen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the report of late 2001 Safe, What is Safe?, SWOV indicated how the annual number of traffic casualties could be reduced considerably. These proposals were to be regarded as an addition to the proposals as were developed in the then National Traffic and Transport Plan of the Ministry of Transport

  12. China lost worship for the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗士

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis has dented the former sense of Western cultural superiority over Beijing and is taking all into unchartered waters.It may take a long time to recognize,but it will happen:The most important casualty of the financial crisis is not the disruption of the Wall Street-centered fi nancial order

  13. Analysis of the On the Spot (OTS) Road Accident Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansfield, H.; Bunting, A.; Martens, M.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2008-01-01

    The UK Government is seeking to substantially reduce the number of road traffic accidents (RTAs) leading to injury or loss of life. Specifically, relative to the average figures for 1994–98, the Government would like to meet the following road casualty reduction targets by 2010: • a 40% reduction in

  14. 42 CFR 423.504 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., fraud, embezzlement, and other casualty risks. (vi) Adopt and implement an effective compliance program... requirements as well as measures that prevent, detect, and correct fraud, waste, and abuse. The compliance... the Part D plan sponsor, parent organization or corporate affiliate. The compliance officer may not...

  15. 33 CFR 174.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS General § 174.3 Definitions. As used in this part: Operator means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 174.3 Section 174.3... claims lawful possession of a vessel by virtue of legal title or equitable interest therein...

  16. Probability & Statistics: Modular Learning Exercises. Teacher Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actuarial Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of these modules is to provide an introduction to the world of probability and statistics to accelerated mathematics students at the high school level. The modules also introduce students to real world math concepts and problems that property and casualty actuaries come across in their work. They are designed to be used by teachers and…

  17. After the Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  18. ANFO and TNT anti-vehicle mine blast: Experimental and numerical observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.; Leerdam, P.J.; Verhoeven, T.

    2014-01-01

    Anti-vehicle (AV) mines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) pose a major threat in recent and current missions. In the latest operational theatres of Iraq and Afghanistan they have been responsible for a significant proportion of all casualties. Understanding both the characteristics and strengt

  19. 26 CFR 1.1502-47 - Consolidated returns by life- nonlife groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... S3 for 10 years. S1 and S2 are active stock casualty companies and not holding companies. On January... market value of $50 million. The property transferred by S1 had a fair market value of $40 million. S2... apply. The old corporations (L1 and S1) and the new corporation (S2.) do not all have the same...

  20. 16 CFR 700.11 - Written warranty, service contract, and insurance distinguished for purposes of compliance under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... form of casualty insurance. The McCarran-Ferguson Act, 15 U.S.C. 1011 et seq., precludes jurisdiction under federal law over “the business of insurance” to the extent an agreement is regulated by state law... “service contract,” but are sold and regulated under state law as contracts of insurance. One example...

  1. Motorcyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Riding a motorcycle brings a relatively high risk of death or serious injury due to a crash. The vast majority of the casualties are men. The lack of any protection by the vehicle means that a motorcycle crash often has serious consequences for the rider and his passenger. Motorcycle crashes are mai

  2. Monitor verkeersveiligheid 2009 : analyse van ongevallen, mobiliteit, gedrag en beleid in 2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Goldenbeld, C. & Bos, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Road safety monitor 2009; Analysis of crashes, mobility, behaviour and policy in 2008. In this report, developments are discussed in the number of road casualties in 2008. Also discussed are the fatality and injury rates relative to the rates of previous years. In conclusion, this report addresses t

  3. Monitor verkeersveiligheid 2011 : ontwikkeling in verkeersdoden, ernstig verkeersgewonden, risico, maatregelen en gedrag in 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norden, Y. van Goldenbeld, C. & Weijermars, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Road safety monitor 2011; Developments in road fatalities, serious road injuries, casualty rate, measures, and behaviour in 2010. This report discusses the recent road safety developments in the Netherlands. The developments of the number of road fatalities (up to and including the year 2010), of th

  4. The War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression: Pain, Learning and Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sixty years on from the surrnder of Japanese invaders, the nightmare of cruclty and devastation that they inflicted on China still lingers.China fought Japan from September 18.1931 to August 15.1945,This 14-year-long war caused 35million casualties-

  5. Efficiency and competition in the Dutch non-life insurance industry: Effects of the 2006 health care reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jaap; Popescu, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost efficiency and competitive behaviour of the non-life – or property and casualty – insurance market in the Netherlands over the period 1995-2012. We focus on the 2006 health care reform, where public health care insurance has been included in the non-life insurance se

  6. Multidimensional credibility: a Bayesian analysis of policyholders holding multiple policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Antonio; M. Guillén; A.M. Pérez Martín

    2010-01-01

    Property and casualty actuaries are professional experts in the economic assessment of uncertain events related to non-life insurance products (eg fire, liability or motor insurance). For the construction of a fair and reasonable tariff associated with the risks in their portfolio, actuaries have ma

  7. Multidimensional credibility: a Bayesian analysis of policyholders holding multiple contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Antonio; M. Guillén; A.M. Pérez Marín

    2011-01-01

    Property and casualty actuaries are professional experts in the economic assessment of uncertain events related to non-life insurance products (e.g. fire, liability or motor insurance). For the construction of a fair and reasonable tariff associated with the risks in their portfolio, actuaries have

  8. Utilisation of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST in a referral hospital in an acute conflict zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Muller

    2015-03-01

    Discussion: The introduction of FAST training and requisite equipment in resource stressed healthcare settings is both desirable and feasible. In this study, the introduction of FAST by local providers had an important influence on the decision making process and enabled immediate triage of casualties to laparotomy, chest tube or clinical observations. Prospective controlled research is further needed to evaluate the impact.

  9. Posterior skulderluksation--en diagnostisk udfordring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trollegaard, Anton Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    A case of posterior shoulder dislocation is described. The dislocation was misinterpreted twice clinically and radiographically in two different casualty departments before it was diagnosed and treated with closed reposition in a third facility. Treatment was conservative and the arm was placed in...

  10. Sprinting on a running track: a rare cause of a Lisfranc dislocation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, F

    2012-02-03

    We present a case report of a young man who sustained a serious foot injury while sprinting in a straight line. We discuss the management of these injuries and emphasise the importance of a high index of suspicion amongst orthopaedic, casualty and radiology trainees.

  11. On the logical bases and gnosiological importance of the statistical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Gini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Author deals with a number of arguments inherent statistical inference and probability as the frequency limit by von Mises, the correlation between probability and chance, the concepts of casualty and causality, the inversion of Bernoulli’s theorem and the tests of significance.

  12. [Caring for the soldiers of the Great War, the nurses' contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The notion of the nurse serving in the Great War is very heterogeneous. It is important to emphasise the capacity to adapt which these nurses demonstrated. During the four years of conflict, they were able to keep up with the many changes made to the way casualties were treated.

  13. International Civil Litigation and the Pollution of the Marine Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.M. Smeele (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhenever a major accident occurs to a ship – whether a fire or an explosion on board of the ship, or a collision with another ship, or the ship running aground or sinking and becoming a wreck – it is likely that this casualty will result in considerable physical damage to the ship and it

  14. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 3, Data Warehouse: Deliverable 3.9: Assembly of basic fact sheets and annual statistical report 2012.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J. Brandstaetter, C. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Papantoniou, P. Candappa, N. Christoph, M.W.T. Duijvenvoorde, K. van Vis, M. Pace, J-F. Tormo, M. Sanmartín J. Haddak, M. Pascal, L. Amoros, E. Thomas, P. Kirk, A. Brown, L.

    2015-01-01

    The CARE database brings together the disaggregate details of road accidents and casualties across Europe. It is based on the national accident databases maintained by all EU member states, taking account of the differences between national systems for recording accidents. It is thus a vital resourc

  15. Brace for impact! A thesis on medical care following an airplane crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L.E. Postma

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the events and management of a mass casualty incident (MCI) of an airplane crash are studied from a medical point of view. The incident is broken down into areas that are applicable to other MCIs. it is believed that the detailed study of an exceptional event can provide vital informa

  16. The valuation of human losses of road deaths.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A considerable part of the total social road safety costs consists of human losses. This is damage in the form of suffering, pain, sorrow, and loss of the joy of living of the casualties as well as their family and friends. It is important for policy and its supporting research to be able to attach

  17. De waardering van bespaarde verkeersdoden : covernota bij het proefschrift ‘The value of a statistical life in road safety'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. Blaeij, A.T. de & Rietveld, P.

    2005-01-01

    The valuation of casualties saved; Memorandum with the PhD thesis ‘The value of a statistical life in road safety'. Crashes cause all kinds of social costs, among which immaterial damage. Immaterial damage, also called ‘human losses', is defined by the loss of quality of life for victims and their n

  18. Dutch dikes, and risk hikes; a thematic policy evaluation of risks of flooding in the Netherlands. Extended summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MNP; MNP

    2005-01-01

    Dams in the Netherlands have never been stronger so the probability of encountering floods from rivers or on the coast similar to the great flood in the south-western part of the Netherlands in 1953 has declined. However, the risks of casualties and economic damage from flooding have become much gr

  19. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2015-06-01

    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  20. Importance Must Be Attached to Seismic Disaster Reduction in the Surge of Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenqing

    2001-01-01

    @@ A cluster of seismic disasters attacked many areas of the world in 1999, such as the 7.4 Ms earthquake in Turkey on 17 August and the 7. 6 Ms earthquake in Chinese Taiwan on 21 September, causing great casualty and enormous property loss. How to raise the aseismatic capacity of cities has since become a hot topic of public concern worldwide.

  1. 26 CFR 1.262-1 - Personal, living, and family expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property by reason of casualty, etc. (5) Expenses incurred in traveling away from home (which include..., attorney's fees and other costs paid in connection with a divorce, separation, or decree for support are... of the other costs paid in connection with a divorce, legal separation, written separation...

  2. Financiering van duurzaam-veilige regionale weginfrastructuur : mogelijkheden voor versnelling van de aanleg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the report of late 2001 Safe, What is Safe?, SWOV indicated how the annual number of traffic casualties could be reduced considerably. These proposals were to be regarded as an addition to the proposals as were developed in the then National Traffic and Transport Plan of the Ministry of Transport

  3. 46 CFR 4.03-7 - Chemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical test. 4.03-7 Section 4.03-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-7 Chemical test. The term chemical test means a scientifically recognized...

  4. 46 CFR 4.03-2 - Serious marine incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serious marine incident. 4.03-2 Section 4.03-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-2 Serious marine incident. The term serious marine incident includes...

  5. Captive birds on Dutch Mauritius: bad-tempered parrots, warty pigeons and notes on other native animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Hume; R. Winters

    2015-01-01

    During the occupation of Mauritius by the Dutch in the seventeenth century, live dodos and other animals were transported to the east and west as curiosities and gifts by the Dutch East India Company. How these animals managed to survive these journeys, when human casualties on-board ship were so hi

  6. The combined use of Skype and the STORZ CMAC video laryngoscope in field intubation training with the Nebraska National Air Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Ben H; Bernhagen, Mary; Miller, David J; Miljkovic, Nikola; Kuper, Gail M; Murray, W Bosseau

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using Skype technology in basic manikin intubation instruction of Nebraska National Air Guard personnel at a Casualty Training Exercise. Results show that the Skype monitor provided clear sound and visualization of the airway view to the trainees and the combination of VoIP technology and videolaryngoscopy for intubation training was highly valued by study participants. PMID:21335766

  7. Factors limiting endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-03-13

    The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC conditions. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic conditions, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External conditions. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.

  8. The Never-Ending Siege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Citizens of Sarajevo, scared for their lives during the war, fled their homes and crowded into the stadium in hopes of surviving. As the casualties mounted, there was no place to put all the bodies. Those taking refuge in the stadium did the only thing they could do: They buried the dead in the football pitch beside the stadium. Now, as a daily…

  9. 76 FR 39473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1120-PC, U.S. Property and...: 1545-1027. Form Number: Form 1120-PC. Abstract: Property and casualty insurance companies are...

  10. Example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau (Java, Indonesia), February 20th 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guern, F. (Lab. mixte CNRS-CEA, Yvette, France); Tazieff, H.; Faivre Pierret, R.

    1982-01-01

    On February 20th, 1979, 142 inhabitants of Dieng Plateau (Indonesia) were asphyxiated by poisonous gases during a mild phreatic eruption. From later fields gas collection and analysis, the casualties are considered to be due to CO/sub 2/ rich volcanic gases.

  11. 46 CFR 4.07-30 - Testimony of witnesses under oath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testimony of witnesses under oath. 4.07-30 Section 4.07... CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Investigations § 4.07-30 Testimony of witnesses under oath. (a) Witnesses to... their testimony may be reduced to writing. (b) Written statements and reports submitted as evidence...

  12. 46 CFR 4.07-25 - Testimony of witnesses in other districts, depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testimony of witnesses in other districts, depositions... TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Investigations § 4.07-25 Testimony of witnesses in... which the investigation is being made, testimony or statements shall be taken from witnesses in...

  13. The Global View on Port State Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis report is the second part of a PhD project entitled "The Econometrics of Maritime Safety – Recommendations to Enhance Safety at Sea" which is based on 183,000 port state control inspections and 11,700 casualties from various data sources. Its overall objective is to provide recommen

  14. The Overall View of the Effect of Inspections and Evaluation of the Target Factor to target substandard vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis report is the third part of a PhD project entitled "The Econometrics of Maritime Safety – Recommendations to Enhance Safety at Sea" which is based on 183,000 port state control inspections and 11,700 casualties from various data sources. Its overall objective is to provide recommend

  15. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight lost or damaged-solely related; fringe benefits; casualties and insurance; joint facility, and...

  16. Færdselsuheldsstatistikkens dækningsgrad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, E L; Larsen, C F; Jørgensen, H R

    1989-01-01

    Only 19% of the 3,071 injured persons who were treated in the casualty department of Odense Hospital following traffic accidents in 1987 could be found again in the police registers of traffic accidents from the same region. All of the registrations from the police registers from the central region...... of the police registration forms....

  17. Buffering against Performance Classroom Goal Structures: The Importance of Autonomy Support and Classroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Keith D.; Middleton, Michael J.; Summers, Jessica J.; Sheldon, Kennon M.

    2010-01-01

    The culture of schooling in the United States has become increasingly focused on outwardly proving student competence. Some achievement goal theorists suggest that a major casualty of performance-oriented classroom environments may be student motivation for developing and improving competence. The present study extends across theoretical…

  18. Ulykker med motorkædesave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N H; Jørgensen, H R

    1991-01-01

    During the three-year period 1987-1989, 80 persons were registered with lesions following accidents with chain saws. The information in the casualty department records was supplemented by an interview questionnaire. Sale of chain saws increased from the middle of the nineteen eighties although...

  19. Exercise azm-e-nau-3, the laboratory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the adequacy of laboratory equipment and human resource for dealing one thousand war wounded casualties. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Bahawalpur, from 10th April to 19th April 2010. Material and Methods: Two teams each headed by a qualified pathologist worked round the clock in twelve hour shift dealing with the samples of war wounded (WW) casualties along with routine indoor /outdoor workload. Receipt of samples, analysis, reporting, record keeping, blood donation and transfusion were according to the protocol following turn around time (TAT). Results: A total of 5487 analyses were done in a period of ten days. All range of investigations were requested but blood complete picture (CP) constituted the maximum (33.9%) followed by hepatitis screening (22.7%) and biochemical profiles (17%). Other investigations were in connection with the preparation of the patients for surgery. A total of 101 pints of blood were issued during the course of exercise, with maximum on the 16th April 2010 constituting 20.7% of total. Maximum number of pints of blood issued to any single WW casualty was five amounting to 4.9% of the total. Conclusion: CMH Bahawalpur pathology laboratory successfully managed the load of 1000 WW casualties by providing prompt laboratory support for treatment, by timely delivery of requisite results of investigations and blood transfusion. (author)

  20. Moped and light-moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Moped and light-moped riders run a relatively high risk of becoming crash casualties. Although a trend can be observed in decreasing fatalities, the number of serious road injuries does not decrease and even seems to increase. The high risk is mainly due to the high riding speed in relation to the r

  1. Discovery of dormancy associated antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : novel targets for the development of post-exposure or therapeutic tuberculosis vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, May Young

    2009-01-01

    The growing number of tuberculosis (TB) casualties urges development of not only more effective drugs and preventive vaccines but also development of post-exposure/therapeutic TB vaccines. Post-exposure/therapeutic TB vaccines are needed since 2 billion people worldwide harbor a latent Mycobacterium

  2. 33 CFR 174.103 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required in Subpart D of this part. (46 U.S.C. 1486; 49 CFR 1.46(n)(1)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration. 174.103 Section....103 Administration. The State casualty reporting system must be administered by a State agency...

  3. Surviving Women's Learning Experiences from the Tsunami in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yan Fang Jane; Yusof, Qismullah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated surviving women's learning experiences from the 2004 tsunami in Aceh. Women were the majority of casualties and the most vulnerable after the tsunami. Almost a decade later, we used a conceptual framework of experiential learning, critical reflection, and transformative learning to understand the surviving women's…

  4. Decontamination exercise at a general hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a luminescent material as a substitute for radioactive contamination a realistic assessment of the emergency plans for dealing with contaminated radiation casualties at a Regional General Hospital was made. The areas where problems arose in these plans are described and the changes now made to them given. (author)

  5. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation. PMID:20521423

  6. The influence of weather conditions on road safety : an assessment of the effect of precipitation and temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.D. & Churchill, T.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of changes in extreme weather conditions is often identified as a cause of fluctuations in road safety and the resulting numbers of crashes and casualties. This report focuses on an analysis of the aggregate, accumulated effect of weather conditions (precipitation and temperature) on t

  7. Simulation of advanced concepts for damage control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.; Wolff, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Damage control on board navy ships requires a lot of manpower. On a frigate-sized ship of the Royal Netherlands Navy, up to ninety people can be involved in tasks like fire fighting, battle damage repair and treatment of casualties. In present times this is no longer attainable or affordable. To red

  8. Analysis of México's Narco-War Network (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Larralde, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves. PMID:25993657

  9. Analysis of Mexico's Narco-War Network (2007-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinal-Enríquez

    Full Text Available Since December 2006, more than a thousand cities in México have suffered the effects of the war between several drug cartels, amongst themselves, as well as with Mexican armed forces. Sources are not in agreement about the number of casualties of this war, with reports varying from 30 to 100 thousand dead; the economic and social ravages are impossible to quantify. In this work we analyze the official report of casualties in terms of the location and the date of occurrence of the homicides. We show how the violence, as reflected by the number of casualties, has increased over time and spread across the country. Next, based on the correlations between cities in the changes of the monthly number of casualties attributed to organized crime, we construct a narco-war network where nodes are the affected cities and links represent correlations between them. We find that close geographical distance between violent cities does not imply a strong correlation amongst them. We observe that the dynamics of the conflict has evolved in short-term periods where a small core of violent cities determines the main theatre of the war at each stage. This kind of analysis may also help to describe the emergence and propagation of gang-related violence waves.

  10. School Security after 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    More than 3,000 people died in the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, but the damage extended far beyond the physical casualties of that horrific day. The shock of the cold-blooded brutality and the devastation that resulted led to a grim realization that everyone was vulnerable to violence and tragedy. Although other…

  11. This Violence Must End

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing war between the Israeli army and Hezbollah military forces has dragged on for a fortnight since it broke out in mid-July, causing more than 400 casualties in Israel and Lebanon, and has thrust tens of thousands of civilians, including many women and children, into a state of utter helplessness.

  12. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liability claims, fire, theft, fraud, embezzlement, and other casualty risks. (2) Financial plan requirement... financial risk. 417.120 Section 417.120 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a)...

  13. Deadly Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Casualties mount in Chongqing landslide as questions arise over what triggered it At least nine people have died and 63 are still missing from a massive June 5 landslide in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality. A local gov- ernment spokesman said the landslide buried

  14. Trauma treatment in a role 1 medical facility in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Helsø, I; Jørgensen, H L;

    2013-01-01

    Most of the emergency care delivered in Afghanistan is currently provided by the military sector and non-governmental organisations. Main Operating Base (MOB) Price in Helmand Province has a small medical centre and due to its location provides critical care to civilians and military casualties a...

  15. The trauma of war in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Kaz de; Mulhern, M.; Ford, N.; Kam, S. van der; Kleber, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Civilians are increasingly targeted in today's wars. To reduce military casualties, civilians are used as protective shields; to facilitate guerrilla warfare, they are abducted or enslaved; torture, rape, and executions are carried out to undermine morale and to eradicate the cultural links and self

  16. First responder and physician liability during an emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    First responders, especially emergency medical technicians and paramedics, along with physicians, will be expected to render care during a mass casualty event. It is highly likely that these medical first responders and physicians will be rendering care in suboptimal conditions due to the mass casualty event. Furthermore, these individuals are expected to shift their focus from individually based care to community- or population-based care when assisting disaster response. As a result, patients may feel they have not received adequate care and may seek to hold the medical first responder or physician liable, even if they did everything they could given the emergency circumstances. Therefore, it is important to protect medical first responders and physicians rendering care during a mass casualty event so that their efforts are not unnecessarily impeded by concerns about civil liability. In this article, the author looks at the standard of care for medical first responders and physicians and describes the current framework of laws limiting liability for these persons during an emergency. The author concludes that the standard of care and current laws fail to offer adequate liability protection for medical first responders and physicians, especially those in the private sector, and recommends that states adopt clear laws offering liability protection for all medical first responders and physicians who render assistance during a mass casualty event.

  17. Bruikbaarheid van snelheidsgegevens uit 'floating car data' voor proactieve verkeersveiligheidsanalyses : analyse van TomTom-snelheidsgegevens en vergelijking met meetlusgegevens op het provinciale wegennet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Bijleveld, F.D. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Usefulness of 'floating car speed data' for proactive road safety analyses : analysis of TomTom speed data and comparison with loop detector speed data of the provincial road network in the Netherlands. Currently, data on road crash casualties provide local authorities with insufficient starting poi

  18. 36 CFR 910.3 - Program administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., described below, provides interested parties with the urban planning and design information sufficient to... subpart B of this part 910. Each set of Square Guidelines is adopted by the Board of Directors, issued by... of a major change or casualty which would render it impossible or impracticable to meet...

  19. ELASSTIC contributes to the resilience of infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Jagt, M.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    The growing world population, the ongoing urbanization, the ever increasing size, height and complexity of large scale built infrastructures lead to higher risks with respect to natural and manmade threats. in case of a real incident, the number of casualties and injured people and the amount of dam

  20. Time-Critical Detection of Anomalous Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Terrorist attacks such a suicide bombings and detonation of improved explosive devices are a worldwide problem that caused many casualties and economic damage. To prevent these attacks, human intelligence gathering, social network analysis and data mining of databases containing financial transactio

  1. Book review The Handbook of Road Safety Measures, Rune Elvik and Truls Vaa (eds.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    What effect does a road safety measure have on the number of casualties, what are the costs, and are there any side effects to be mentioned? The Norwegian researchers Rune Elvik and Truls Vaa have tried to answer these elementary questions. They have done this in a handbook of more than 1000 pages.

  2. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  3. Rainfall-triggering response patterns of post-seismic debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Tang, C.; van Asch, Th.W.J.; Zhou, nn.

    2013-01-01

    Several giant debris flows occurred in southwestern China after the Wenchuan earthquake, causing serious casualties and economic losses. Debris flows were frequently triggered after the earthquake. A relatively accurate prediction of these post-seismic debris flows can help to reduce the consequent

  4. Transfer of patients with severe burn injury%严重烧伤伤员的转运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭毅志

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of patients with severe burn injury is an important issue during the rescue of mass casualties,as it may give rise to great influence on the prognosis of patients.Timing of transfer,preparation before transfer,and details for attention are elaborated in this article,aiming to further specify the procedures of transfer of patients with burn injury.

  5. "Dye mon, gen mon" ("Beyond the Mountains, More Mountains"). Social Theatre, Community Mobilisation and Participation after Disasters: The International Organization for Migration Experience in Haiti, after January 2010's Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinina, Guglielmo; Voltaire, Justin; Ataya, Amal; Salem, Marie-Adele

    2011-01-01

    The earthquake that thumped the Haitian coast in January 2010, wiping off entire suburbs of Port au Prince and other cities, left 222,570 casualties with an estimated 80,000 corpses still missing. One and a half million people were displaced and the majority is still living in 1000 improvised camps, in tents or self-made shelters. The national and…

  6. Op weg naar een `Nationaal Programma Veilige Bermen' : interviews onder regionale wegbeheerders over aandacht voor bermmaatregelen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    In the report of late 2001 Safe, What is Safe?, SWOV indicated how the annual number of traffic casualties could be reduced considerably. These proposals were to be regarded as an addition to the proposals as were developed in the then National Traffic and Transport Plan of the Ministry of Transport

  7. Beprijzen en verkeersveiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R. Schermers, G. & Reurings, M.

    2010-01-01

    Road pricing aims to reduce the amount that is driven and thereby it can reduce the number of road accidents and casualties. The SWOV has calculated the road safety effects following the introduction of a road pricirig scheme called 'Anders Betalen voor Mobiliteit'. This road pricing scheme has a di

  8. Monitoring van de veiligheidskwaliteit van weginfrastructuur en fietsinfrastructuur : proefmetingen in een aantal regio's.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A. Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Aarts, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the safety of road infrastructure and cycling infrastructure : pilots in a number of Dutch regions. Currently, data on road crash casualties provide local authorities with insufficient starting points for their road safety policy. The regional road safety bodies of the Dutch provinces of

  9. Preventing mass killings : optimal strategies for protecting public targets against terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners with limited security resources lack appropriate guidelines when protecting targets against mass-casualty attacks. Existing guidelines about prioritization between targets and protective security measures are either very abstract or consist of roughly collected advice. Combining game theory with practically oriented literature, such as situational crime prevention, crime scripts and crime prevention through environmental design, this dissertation establishes a systematic framewo...

  10. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  11. EMS adaptation for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  12. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes have claimed approximately 8 million lives over the last 2,000 years (Dunbar, Lockridge and others, 1992) and fatality rates are likely to continue to rise with increased population and urbanizations of global settlements especially in developing countries. More than 75% of earthquake-related human casualties are caused by the collapse of buildings or structures (Coburn and Spence, 2002). It is disheartening to note that large fractions of the world's population still reside in informal, poorly-constructed & non-engineered dwellings which have high susceptibility to collapse during earthquakes. Moreover, with increasing urbanization half of world's population now lives in urban areas (United Nations, 2001), and half of these urban centers are located in earthquake-prone regions (Bilham, 2004). The poor performance of most building stocks during earthquakes remains a primary societal concern. However, despite this dark history and bleaker future trends, there are no comprehensive global building inventories of sufficient quality and coverage to adequately address and characterize future earthquake losses. Such an inventory is vital both for earthquake loss mitigation and for earthquake disaster response purposes. While the latter purpose is the motivation of this work, we hope that the global building inventory database described herein will find widespread use for other mitigation efforts as well. For a real-time earthquake impact alert system, such as U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER), (Wald, Earle and others, 2006), we seek to rapidly evaluate potential casualties associated with earthquake ground shaking for any region of the world. The casualty estimation is based primarily on (1) rapid estimation of the ground shaking hazard, (2) aggregating the population exposure within different building types, and (3) estimating the casualties from the collapse of vulnerable buildings. Thus, the

  13. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas Cham E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this

  14. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, William C; Dallas, Cham E

    2007-01-01

    Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this outcome would be the probable loss

  15. Shadow Bowl 2003: a collaborative exercise in community readiness, agency cooperation, and medical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, David; Taylor, Carl; Rosenthal, David; Bausch, Chris; Warner, Dave; Morris, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a model for homeland security, community readiness, and medical response that was applied during an operational exercise around Super Bowl XXXVII. In addition, it describes the products provided by private companies involved in the exercise and how they would have contributed to a medical disaster had one occurred. The purpose of Shadow Bowl was to demonstrate community readiness and medical response to a mass casualty event. The goals of the project were to: (1) provide enhanced public safety using an advanced communication network and sensor grid; (2) develop mass casualty surge capabilities through medical reach-back; and (3) build a collaboration model between civilian, military, public, and private partners. The results of the Shadow Bowl Exercise accentuated the value of new telehealth and disaster medicine tools in treating large numbers of patients when infrastructure overload occurs.

  16. The national disaster medical system: past, present, and suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Crystal; Toner, Eric; Waldhorn, Richard; Inglesby, Thomas V; O'Toole, Tara

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews the history and structure of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), with an emphasis on its definitive care component. NDMS's capacity to handle very large mass casualty events, such as those included in the National Planning Scenarios, is examined. Following Hurricane Katrina, Congress called for a reevaluation of NDMS. In that context, we make three key suggestions to improve NDMS's capacity to respond to large mass casualty disasters: (1) increase the level of engagement by the private (i.e., nonfederal) healthcare system in preparedness and response efforts; (2) increase the reliance on regional hospital collaborative networks as part of the backbone of the NDMS system; and (3) develop additional, alternative patient transportation systems, linked to the overall NDMS patient tracking effort, to decrease the sole reliance on DoD long-haul air transport in medical evacuation. PMID:18052820

  17. NAIR: handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) has been published. Following brief introductory sections on the administrative aspects and operational aspects, the main part of the handbook is devoted to operational and call-out lists including an index of police forces served by NAIR, an index of establishments providing assistance under NAIR, sources of stage 1 and stage 2 assistance for each police constabulary, hospitals prepared to accept contaminated casualties and to assist with decontamination of personnel, and hospitals prepared to advise on the treatment and admission of casualties exposed to large doses of radiation. Technical appendices are also given on radiological protection in NAIR incidents, instruments and equipment, radionuclide data and a guide to suitable detectors, package and source identification and disposal of radioactive materials involved in NAIR accidents. (U.K.)

  18. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2002-11-01

    In the initial months of the Korean War, very high numbers of psychological casualties occurred among American troops, 250 per 1,000 per annum. Initially, these men were evacuated to Japan or the United States, and very few of them were returned to duty. Then the principles of early and far-forward treatment, learned in the previous world wars, were reinstituted. Up to 80% of neuropsychiatric casualties were returned to duty. During and after the war, the prisoners of war were believed to have been "brainwashed," have "give-it-upitis," and exhibit apathy and depression. Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies. PMID:12448614

  19. Coping in a calamity: Radiology during the cloudburst at Leh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The service hospital at Leh is a multispeciality hospital situated at an altitude of 11000 feet above mean sea level. On the nights of 4 and 5 Aug 2010, Leh was struck by a cloudburst leading to mudslides and consequently extensive damage to life and property. Being the only functional hospital, over a period of about 48 hours, 331 casualties were received. 549 casualties were received over the week with 108 admissions, 16 major surgeries and 138 minor surgeries. 178 radiographs, 17 CT scans and 09 ultrasound-colour Doppler examinations were performed on an urgent basis over 48 hours apart from the routine radiological investigations. Apart from chronicling the event, we hope that sharing the unique experience of the Radiology Department in dealing with the large influx of patients would provide an insight into the role of Radiology during the disaster and help in planning and developing management protocols during other calamities.

  20. Evolution of acute orthopaedic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczak, Christiaan N; Born, Christopher T; Obremskey, William T; Dromsky, David M

    2012-01-01

    Current combat battlefield injuries are among the most complex and challenging orthopaedic cases. These injuries carry high risks for exsanguination and global contamination of extensive soft-tissue and complicated bony injuries. Military orthopaedic surgeons must employ the latest advances in acute combat casualty care to achieve favorable outcomes. Adaptive changes over the past 10 years of war have given today's surgeons the armamentarium to optimize patient care. Innovative methods of damage control resuscitation and surgery have led to increased survival. However, the fundamentals of surgical hemostasis and decontamination remain critical to successful management. The acute treatment of combat casualties involves a continuum of care from the point of injury through transport out of theater. Future research and education are paramount to better prepare military orthopaedic surgeons to further increase survivability and enhance the outcomes of service members with complex wounds.

  1. Medical Actions in Emergencies at Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casualties which could occur as a result of accidents at nuclear power stations can be categorized as follows. Those due to: (a) Over-exposure to external radiation; or (b) Excessive contamination of body surfaces with radioactive materials with, possibly, absorption of toxic quantities of these materials; (c) Combinations of (a) and (b) complicated by conventional injuries. This paper discusses the arrangements made within the Central Electricity Generating Board for dealing with casualties, taking account of the limited medical and nursing facilities. These arrangements can be summarized as follows: (a) Immediate actions on site, including first aid and rescue; (b) Plans have been agreed with the medical staff of appropriate hospitals for dealing with eventualities of this nature; (c) Adequate training programs have been instituted to include nursing and first-aid teams; (d) Rehabilitation and reemployment of injured personnel. Details of dosimetry both physical and biological which would be used to assess the extent of radioactive exposure are described. (author)

  2. Benchmark analysis for quantifying urban vulnerability to terrorist incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegorsch, Walter W; Cutter, Susan L; Hardisty, Frank

    2007-12-01

    We describe a quantitative methodology to characterize the vulnerability of U.S. urban centers to terrorist attack, using a place-based vulnerability index and a database of terrorist incidents and related human casualties. Via generalized linear statistical models, we study the relationships between vulnerability and terrorist events, and find that our place-based vulnerability metric significantly describes both terrorist incidence and occurrence of human casualties from terrorist events in these urban centers. We also introduce benchmark analytic technologies from applications in toxicological risk assessment to this social risk/vulnerability paradigm, and use these to distinguish levels of high and low urban vulnerability to terrorism. It is seen that the benchmark approach translates quite flexibly from its biological roots to this social scientific archetype.

  3. A UAV based system for real time flash flood monitoring in desert environments using Lagrangian microsensors

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Most casualties could be avoided with advance warning, for which real time monitoring is critical. While satellite-based high resolution weather forecasts can help predict floods to a certain extent, they are not reliable enough, as flood models depend on a large number of parameters that cannot be estimated beforehand. In this article, we present a novel flood sensing architecture to monitor large scale desert hydrological basins surrounding metropolitan areas, based on unmanned air vehicles. The system relies on Lagrangian (mobile) microsensors, that are released by a swarm of UAVs. A preliminary testbed implementing this technology is briefly described, and future research directions and problems are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. [Terrorists' target World Cup 2006: disaster medicine on the sidelines?! Aspects of hospital disaster planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidringer, J W; Ansorg, J; Ulrich, B C; Polonius, M-J; Domres, B D

    2004-09-01

    Focussing on possible mass casualty situations during events such as the soccer world championship in 2006, the Professional Board of Surgeons in Germany and the German Society for Surgery canvassed surgeons-in-chief in the last quarter of 2003 concerning disaster plans for hospitals. The rate of returned questionnaires amounted to 26% covering the following areas of interest: plans-ready to use, known by the employees as well as by the rescue coordination center, performance of exercises, and concepts on decontamination and detoxification. Based on past numbers of casualties during soccer disasters, an excursus into details also includes a description of an approach to reduce the danger of bottleneck effects at doors. A preliminary concept based on the upcoming system for funding hospitals in Germany and including new partnerships is outlined, succeeded by some hopefully helpful hints for a web-based hospital disaster plan.

  5. SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

  6. Emergency first-aid treatment of gunshot and stab wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, V; Deeny, P

    The number of violent crimes in Great Britain is on the increase and therefore there is a possibility that nurses will encounter a casualty with stab or gunshot wounds. On encountering a casualty with stab or gunshot wounds, the first aider must immediately assess the scene to avoid personal injury or risk to life. No matter how ugly or bad the injuries look, the basic principles of first aid still apply. Never attempt to remove any penetrating object still in situ as this may cause more serious bleeding. Any penetrating injury to the chest may result in instant respiratory distress. Make use of people present at the scene of the injury. Always ensure that the emergency services are notified immediately. PMID:8038560

  7. MEDEVAC: critical care transport from the battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R A

    2010-01-01

    In current military operations, the survival rates of critically injured casualties are unprecedented. An often hidden aspect of casualty care is safe transport from the point of injury to a field hospital and subsequently on to higher levels of care. This en route critical care, which is provided by flight medics under the most austere and rigorous conditions, is a crucial link in the care continuum. This article introduces the role and capabilities of US Army MEDEVAC and reflects the author's recent experience in Afghanistan as a flight medic. This article provides an assessment of the operational issues, medical capabilities, and transport experiences to provide a real-world view of critical care transport from the battlefield. The MEDEVAC helicopter environment is one of the most difficult, if not the most demanding, critical care environments. This overview brings to light a small but important piece of the care continuum.

  8. Vold i Arhus gennem to årtier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Ole; Bitch, Oluf; Petersen, Klaus Kjaer;

    2002-01-01

    dropped to 4.6 victims/1000. This decrease in violence was particularly seen among 15-24-year-old males. The extent of violence against women remained unchanged in the years 1999-2000. Foreigners were significantly higher represented among the victims. The character and severity of the violence were......INTRODUCTION: Data collected from hospitals and the police have on several occasions proved to be useful in gaining knowledge about violence. The casualty departments, the Institute of Forensic Medicine, and the police in Aarhus have co-operated in three earlier studies of inter-person violence......, the latest in 1993-1994. The aim of this study was to update knowledge about the incidence and character of violence in Aarhus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dynamic cohort study was carried out in the period 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2000. Persons who arrived at the casualty wards or Institute of Forensic Medicine...

  9. [Injuries following a hurricane in Nordmøre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhoff, A H; Naustdal, H; Skomsvoll, J F

    1992-12-10

    In this article we describe the efforts of local authorities to detect and treat casualties caused by a hurricane that struck the west coast of Norway January 1st, 1992 and prevent further injuries. Wind velocity exceeded 100 knots (117 mph), the strongest ever recorded in Norway. The damage to buildings, trees and power lines was so devastating that the Nordmøre area, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants, was left without electricity for five days. Altogether 56 casualties were reported by physicians and the local hospital (one death, caused by hypothermia and exhaustion, and six admissions to hospital) in the period 1-5 January. Nine old people suffered injuries by falling in the dark in their houses, and ten men were injured during repair work.

  10. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  11. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  12. Nehodovost cyklistů

    OpenAIRE

    TOMANDL, Petr

    2007-01-01

    In compliance with a worldwide there is a growing interest in cycling tourism even in the Czech Republic Cycling is getting modern and is starting to be an inseparable part of lifestyle. Today{\\crq}s situation brings positive and negative consequences. The most important negative one is growing accident rate that is connected with considerable economic losses and mainly with casualties. The aim of this work was to collect dates concerning all accidents with bikers attendance in the region of ...

  13. An Empirical Procedure for Rapid Magnitude Estimation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Schweitzer, J.; NORSAR, Kjeller, Norway

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Rapid estimates of source parameters are needed for reasons of civil protection in regions where destructive events often occur. This information can prevent further damage and casualties. A relation between the first seconds of a P- wave onset and the local magnitude ML of the earthquake has been developed for the Italy region following results obtained in Japan and Southern California. The proposed dominant period estimate has been used in the present work and i...

  14. Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities

    OpenAIRE

    Tod J Merkel; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K.; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Mosca, Joseph D.; Perera, Liyanage P.

    2010-01-01

    Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain ...

  15. Mobile Emergency, an Emergency Support System for Hospitals in Mobile Devices: Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pierfrancesco, Bellini; Sergio, Boncinelli; Francesco, Grossi; Marco, Mangini; Paolo, Nesi; Leonardo, Sequi

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospitals are vulnerable to natural disasters, man-made disasters, and mass causalities events. Within a short time, hospitals must provide care to large numbers of casualties in any damaged infrastructure, despite great personnel risk, inadequate communications, and limited resources. Communications are one of the most common challenges and drawbacks during in-hospital emergencies. Emergency difficulties in communicating with personnel and other agencies are mentioned in literatur...

  16. A Robust and Cost-Efficient Design of Lightweight Rockfall Catch Fences for Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Budairi, Hassan; Gao, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Trains and railway infrastructure are subjected to serious potential hazards from detached falling rock(s) in mountain regions worldwide. This can lead to severe damages, casualties and significant delays. In 2011, a rockfall event at Stromeferry bypass in Scotland caused 4 month railway closure that led to a negative impact on local businesses and the repair work cost was £3.2 million. Rock catch fences are widely used in protecting roads, railways and infrastructure from rockfall hazards...

  17. Framework of National Non-Structural Measures for Flash Flood Disaster Prevention in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dongya Sun; Dawei Zhang; Xiaotao Cheng

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, disasters caused by flash floods with many casualties have occurred frequently in China. In order to effectively prevent flash flood disasters, the State Council approved the National Flash Flood Control Planning (NFFCP) in 2006. In this planning, non-structural measures are recommended as the first step to be adopted in the prevention of flash floods, debris flow and landslide disasters caused by heavy rainfall. In order to effectively build up a comprehensive non-structural...

  18. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Webster; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive...

  19. Safety guidelines of ultimate hull girder strength for grounded container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, Jeom Kee;

    2013-01-01

    Various accidents commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. In this regard, an accidental risk-based approach that is in line with the Goal Based Standard (GBS) of the International Maritime...... damage criteria and making rapid salvage plans or rescue schemes for container ships that have sustained a grounding accident. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Risk Management by Insurers: An Analysis of the Process

    OpenAIRE

    David F. Babbel; Anthony M. Santomero

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the past year, on-site visits to financial service firms were conducted to review and evaluate their risk management systems. In the insurance sector, this evaluation covered a number of prominent life/health and property/casualty insurers, both in the U.S. and abroad. The information obtained covered both the philosophy and practice of financial risk management. This paper outlines the results of this investigation. It reports the state of risk management techniques in the industr...

  1. Spatio-Temporal Changes in Meteorological Dryness/Wetness Pattern and Hydrological Responses in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    South China is prone to floods and droughts, which are often caused by extremes in meteorological dryness and wetness conditions, such as heavy precipitation or dry spells, and their hydrological responses. Floods and droughts cause casualties and high agricultural and economic losses, whether directly or indirectly. Scientific information on the susceptibility of regional climate extremes and dryness and wetness pattern are neither available in high resolution nor quality, both in spatial an...

  2. How Vessel Fitness is Regulated by Hull Policy- from the perspective of English and Norwegian Marine Insurance Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    An insurance contract is one under which, for some considerations, the policyholder secures to himself some benefit upon the occurrence of an uncertain event beyond his own control and adverse to his interests by transferring some or all of the risk to the insurers. Thus according to the general principle of insurance: insurance is a commodity to protect against casualties and against unforeseeable losses. An issue arises where an unfit vessel is unable to encounter ordinary perils while at s...

  3. Identification of Assured with his servants in Marine Insurance : With focus on Shipowning structures, Master and Crew

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is to examine identifiction problems in marine insurance related to assured and his servants together with a focus on shipowning entities and shipmanagement organisation. For the sake of simplicity, by marine insurance, it is meant hull insurance for ocean-going ships, i.e. casualty insurance covering material loss of or damage to hull and machinery. That’s because the concept of other shipowning insurances does not differ in terms of the identification concept, excep...

  4. Radiation protection research during the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president commission of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft studied the contribution of German scientists to research projects during the Second World War, classified as ''important for the war''. The study is also thought as remembrance to the victims of these research projects. During the last years the history of the field office Oberschlema of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for biophysics was and the radium research institute Oberschlema was investigated. Obviously there were no casualties among the voluntary test persons.

  5. Overseas Deployment, Combat Exposure, and Well-Being in the 2010 National Survey of Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent military engagements in Iraq (OIF) and Afghanistan (OEF) raise questions about the effects on service members of overseas deployment, which can include service in a combat or war zone, exposure to casualties, or both. The 2010 National Survey of Veterans, which asked a broad cross section of living veteran cohorts about deployment to OEF/OIF and combat exposure, provides some new insights into short and long-term relationships between characteristics of military service and outcomes. A...

  6. Recovery from Hematopoietic Injury by Modulating Prostaglandin E2 Signaling Post-Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Singh, Pratibha; Stilger, Kayla N.; Plett, P. Artur; Sampson, Carol H.; Chua, Hui Lin; Orschell, Christie M.; Pelus, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    While high dose total body irradiation (TBI) is used therapeutically, the proliferation of nuclear weapons, increasing use of nuclear power, and worldwide radical terrorism underscore the need to develop countermeasures to a radiological mass casualty event. The hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome (HS-ARS) results from severe compromise to the hematopoietic system, including lymphocytopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and possible death from infection and/or hemorrhage....

  7. Inaccurate Prediction of Nuclear Weapons' Effects and Possible Adverse Influences on Nuclear Terrorism Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (September 2009), v.5 no.3 The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the accuracy of common effects estimates and describe how more realistic estimates might affect nuclear terrorism preparedness.[...].The likelihood of an attack [nuclear] has prompted considerable public debate about what are the best steps to prevent such an attack. In many of these discussions estimates of the number of casualties or the size of the area that woul...

  8. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dallas Cham E; Bell William C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resourc...

  9. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masayo

    2014-01-01

    Saeko Fujiwara,1 Etsuro Hamaya,2 Masayo Sato,2 Peita Graham-Clarke,3 Jennifer A Flynn,2 Russel Burge41Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for ...

  10. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara S; Hamaya E; Sato M; Graham-Clarke P; Flynn JA; Burge R

    2014-01-01

    Saeko Fujiwara,1 Etsuro Hamaya,2 Masayo Sato,2 Peita Graham-Clarke,3 Jennifer A Flynn,2 Russel Burge41Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for post...

  11. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  12. Engineering Ethics In Islam: An Evaluative And Comparative Study Between Code Of Ethics Of Institution Of Engineers, Bangladesh (Ieb) And Code Of Professional Conduct Of Board Of Engineers Malaysia (BEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Amanullah

    2012-01-01

    During the past two centuries or so a number of buildings and bridges had been structurally failed and collapsed all over the world. Some of these incidents caused a sizeable number of human casualties. For instance, collapse of Tay Bridge in 1879 killed at least sixty persons. Beside the problems related to their design and construction, probably the failure to follow engineering ethics properly was partially responsible for these incidents. Growing engineering professionalism during the ni...

  13. The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Facts and implications for flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of March 11, 2011 can be characterized as a catastrophe. It inundated over 560 km2 of land, devastating a large number of coastal communities, causing over 19,000 casualties and huge economic damage in the Tohoku region. Due to the relatively high frequency of tsunamis, the region was considered well prepared against extreme coastal events. Yet the event of March 11 exceeded all previous expectations and overwhelmed the Japanese disaster protecti...

  14. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Bomanji, Jamshed B.; NOVRUZOV, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with e...

  15. Holocene lahar history of Villarrica Volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Llurba Ruiz, Mateu

    2014-01-01

    Villarrica Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in south-central Chile. There are many hazards related to the volcano, but its main hazard for humans through Villarrica’s history have been the lahars. Since the arrival of the Spanish colonists (1550) to the towns beside the volcano, it have been reported hundreds to thousands of casualties and the towns were repeatedly destroyed by lahars. From the necessity to understand its behaviour for future events and reconstr...

  16. Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Avery Plaw; Matthew S. Fricker; Brian Glyn Williams

    2011-01-01

    U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their mo...

  17. 1993年釧路沖地震による住宅室内被害の評価 : アンケート資料にもとづく被害関数

    OpenAIRE

    村上, ひとみ; 岡田, 成幸; オカダ, シゲユキ; Okada, Shigeyuki

    1998-01-01

    Household questionnaire survey was conducted after the 1993 off Kushiro earthquake via elementary schools of Kushiro city and 9 other towns and villages in the disaster area. It aimed to elucidate human behavior, casualty and fire risks related with housing contents and interior damage and seismic intensity. This study examines the questionnaire data and derives content damage vulnerability functions with independent variable of seismic intensity for different room types and different damage ...

  18. Severe crush syndrome complicated with acute pancreatitis: a case report and review of the literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang; ZHANG Ling; FU Ping; SU Bai-hai; CHEN Xiao-lei; LIU Ling; CHEN Wei-xia; TAO Ye; HUANG Song-min

    2009-01-01

    @@ Earthquake is one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. As we know, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of mortality after the direct impact of trauma.~(1-3) It is a serious clinical case that develops among casualties of earthquakes or other catastrophic events that may also result in a variety of ensuing uncommon complications. Cases of crush syndrome complicated with acute pancreatitis (AP) following the earthquakes are seldom reported.

  19. WiP abstract: Optimal multi-agent path planning for fast inverse modeling in UAV-based flood sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Floods are one of the most commonly occurring natural disasters, and caused more than 120,000 fatalities in the world between 1991 and 2005. Most of these casualties are caused by the lack of a reliable real-time flash flood monitoring system. Given the area to monitor, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) appear as the most promising solutions for this task. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Symmetrical Greater Tuberosity Fracture following Seizure

    OpenAIRE

    Suryavanshi, Ashish; Mittal, Amber; Dongre, Snehal; Kashyap, Neeti

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Majority of bilateral shoulder dislocations are posterior. Simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations and bilateral anterior fracture-dislocations are rare and mostly of traumatic origin. We present a rare case of bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with symmetrical greater tuberosity fracture following an episode of seizure with an unusual injury mechanism which was treated conservatively. Case Report: A 45 year old office worker presented to the Casualty of our ...

  1. Analyse de la vulnérabilité du bati existant. Estimation et réduction des incertitudes dans l'estimation des dommages et des pertes pour un scénario sismique donné

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Ismaël

    2015-01-01

    Among the natural hazards and major catastrophes, earthquakes are one of the most deadly, damaging and unpredictable of all. With increasing impacts in countries' economies and casualties, modern earthquakes cost in average tens of billons of dollars and kill 35,000 people per year worldwide (USGS). The planet is experiencing the consequences of the large urban population growth of the last century.With the extensive damage observed after the moderate-to-strong earthquakes of the last decades...

  2. Threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) Posed by Modern Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Hadji-Janev, Metodi

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new non-state actors in the post Cold War reality have dramatically changed security environment around the globe. Modern terrorism practiced by Al Qaeda and its associated movement (AQAM) has posed serious threat to critical information infrastructure given the trend of connecting control systems that run these infrastructures to the internet. Although AQAM have not been successful to launch cyber-attack that will cause mass casualties, environment damage or financial effect...

  3. Advances in the diagnosis of shock, its assessment and resuscitation during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullingham, A G P

    2016-07-01

    The Great War of 1914-1918 ushered in a new era of technology on the battlefield resulting in casualties on an unprecedented scale. There had been progress in many related areas of medicine before the outbreak of hostilities but these had not been applied or fully developed in clinical practice. This is particularly true for the management of haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. This article discusses the history and development of medical treatment of shock and trauma patients during the conflict.

  4. Recent catastrophic landslides and mitigation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Increasing population density and development of mountainous terrain have brought human settlements within reach of landslide hazards.In recent years,due to the shortening of return period for severe natural events such as heavy rainfall,snowline retreating,great earthquake together with human activities,catastrophic landslides happened more frequently than before,resulting in large-scale casualties due to the increasing occurrences of rapid long-runout rock avalanches,especially in China.This paper present...

  5. The impact of Onboard Maintenance Training on surface ship readiness.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Carl A.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of shipboard equipment failure generated by merging Navy casualty report and Unified Industries Onboard Maintenance Training (OMT) data bases demonstrate a measurable positive effect on reliability in those ships which participated in the program. When comparing equipment failure rates of these trained ships before and up to three years after the training event, over 70 percent of the time there was definite net positive effect. Eleven OMT courses, comprising 1176 shipboard training ...

  6. Social support for terror-related victims: The Israeli system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Eytan; Sasporte, Jacob; Bar-On, Zvia; Sfez, Rolland; Cohen, Osnat; Taragin, Mark; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2016-01-01

    Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel.

  7. Comparative study between dutch and spanish structural safety performances

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Safont, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Dutch building industry has faced several major structural incidents for the past years. Some of them not only involved material damage and remarkable economical losses but also human casualties. Therefore a great concern has grown among the parties belonging to the Dutch building industry and the assumption is that a piece of the construction mechanism is inherently working in a defective way. Initiatives for locating the source of the mentioned problem and then trying to fix ...

  8. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  9. Performance indicators for initial regional medical response to major incidents: a possible quality control tool

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Heléne; Vikström Tore; Jonson Carl-Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Timely decisions concerning mobilization and allocation of resources and distribution of casualties are crucial in medical management of major incidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate documented initial regional medical responses to major incidents by applying a set of 11 measurable performance indicators for regional medical command and control and test the feasibility of the indicators. Methods Retrospective data were collected from documentation from regional me...

  10. Economic Evaluation of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  11. The recent dramatic decline in road mortality in France: how drivers' attitudes towards road traffic safety changed between 2001 and 2004 in the GAZEL cohort. : Driver‘s attitudinal changes toward traffic safety

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Aymery; Salmi, Louis Rachid; Lafont, Sylviane; Chiron, Mireille; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A very significant decline in the number of road casualties has been observed recently in France, concomitantly with a dramatic increase in law enforcement. The aim of this study was (i) to assess changes in attitudes about road traffic accident (RTA) prevention initiatives in France from 2001 to 2004 and (ii) to identify factors associated with an increase in positive attitudes towards RTA prevention initiatives. In 2001 and 2004, 9216 participants reported their atti...

  12. Opmerkingen bij het voorontwerp Reglement Verkeersregels en Verkeerstekens RVV 1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    Traffic regulations are to be revised in the Netherlands. SWOV was invited to comment on the draft regulations, to become effective in 1990. If the new regulations (RVV) are to improve driver- behaviour they have to be completely different. Rules on behaviour of fast traffic towards slow traffic should be clearer, because many casualties among "slow road users" are caused by the behaviour of " fast road users".

  13. Economic Efficacy of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  14. Communication and Networking Techniques for Traffic Safety Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chisalita, Ioan

    2006-01-01

    Accident statistics indicate that every year a significant number of casualties and extensive property losses occur due to traffic accidents. Consequently, efforts are directed towards developing passive and active safety systems that help reduce the severity of crashes, or prevent vehicles from colliding with one another. To develop these systems, technologies such as sensor systems, computer vision and vehicular communication have been proposed. Safety vehicular communication is defined as ...

  15. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2011-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sex...

  16. Expressed sequence tags in venomous tissue of Scorpaena plumieri (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio L. S. Costa; Lima, Maria E.; Adriano C. Pimenta; Figueiredo, Suely G.; Evanguedes Kalapothakis; Carlos E. Salas

    2014-01-01

    Species of the family Scorpaenidae are responsible for accidents and sporadic casualties by the shore they inhabit. The species Scorpaena plumierifrom this family populate the Northeastern and Eastern coast of Brazil causing human envenomation characterized by local and systemic symptoms. In experimental animals the venom induces cardiotoxic, hypotensive, and airway respiratory effects. As first step to identify the venom components we isolated gland mRNA to produce a cDNA library from the fi...

  17. Managing traumatic brain injury secondary to explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Paula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined.

  18. Geography, Poverty and Conflict in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Quy-Toan; Iyer, Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    We conduct an empirical analysis of the geographic, economic, and social factors that contributed to the spread of civil war in Nepal over the period 1996-2006. This within-country analysis complements existing cross-country studies on the same subject. Using a detailed dataset to track civil war casualties across space and over time, several patterns are documented. Conflict-related deaths are significantly higher in poorer districts and in geographical locations that favor insurgents, such ...

  19. The conflict trap in the Greek Civil War 1946-1949: an economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulakis, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a quantitative analysis of the armed confrontation that took place in Greece between the Communist Party and the Centre-Right Government during 1946-1949. Using monthly data for battle casualties a dynamic Lotka-Volterra framework is estimated, pointing to the existence of a conflict trap that explains the prolongation of the civil war and its dire consequences for the country. To examine the extent to which the confrontation was influenced by socio-economic factors, a regi...

  20. The comparison of the value of ct imaging and selected MRI sequences (including DWI) in the evaluation of axonal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Paszkowska, Emilia; Wasilewski, Grzegorz; Szalcunas-Olsztyn, Anna; Jancewicz, Patryk; Stefanowicz, Elżbieta

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Diffuse axonal injuries of the brain consist in the damage (overstretching or torsion) of white matter axons, as a result of the forces of energy waves, evoked in the moment of injury, together with its accelerating-retarding inertia effect. Patients with DAI are most frequently the casualties of high speed car accidents. Diffuse axonal injuries of the brain are one of the most common acute brain injuries, with lesions typically occurring in the periventricular white matte...

  1. Kwaliteitsaspecten van duurzaam-veilige weginfrastructuur : voorstel voor een stelsel van DV-eisen waarin alle DV-principes zijn opgenomen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, A

    2004-01-01

    In the report of late 2001 Safe, What is Safe?, SWOV indicated how the annual number of traffic casualties could be reduced considerably. These proposals were to be regarded as an addition to the proposals as were developed in the then National Traffic and Transport Plan of the Ministry of Transport. In Safe, What is Safe?, besides a speeding-up of the construction of a sustainably-safe infrastrucure, a qualitatively better implementation was advocated. During the last few years, the introduc...

  2. Application of passive defense in urban housing planning

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kamran; D. Amini; H. Hossaini Amini

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, with advances in the technology of weapons and military equipment, urban areas are most at risk of invasion. Among the most important factors in enhancing human casualties in military attacks on urban areas, one can point to the unrealistic architecture of houses which does not conform to principles such as optimal site selection and layout of the structure of human settlements, proper distribution, principles of concealment, camouflage and deception, the...

  3. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Asish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs, presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected.The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI, separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  4. In the Eye Of a Storm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Spiraling sectarian violence in Iraq triggers fresh fears of an outright civil war breaking out In addition to lingering terrorism, Iraqis have recently fallen prey to a more insidious threat, with casualties inflicted by violence between the country's two major religious sects, Sunnis and Shiites, constantly on the rise. The deteriorating security situation sounds the alarm over a possible all-out civil war. While

  5. Behavior of response controlled and seismically isolated buildings during severe earthquakes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive control techniques have been widely used in Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Until the end of 2011, nearly 3000 buildings and 4000 private houses are seismically isolated. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, which caused casualties more than 18300 people and collapse of 127830 building, allowed testing the effective seismic performance of several base isolated buildings. This is quite important for further dissemination of response control and seismic isolation technologies and to prove their effectiveness

  6. The dilemmas of risk-sensitive development on a small volcanic island

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Emily; Lovell, Emma; Carby, Barbara; Barclay, Jenni; Robertson, Richard E.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the Small Islands Developing State (SIDS) of St Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean, the most destructive disasters in terms of human casualties have been the multiple eruptions of La Soufrière volcano situated in the north of St Vincent. Despite this major threat, people continue to live close to the volcano and national development plans do not include risk reduction measures for volcanic hazards. This paper examines the development options in volcanic SIDS and presents a number ...

  7. Sir Geoffrey Marshall (1887-1982): respiratory physician, catalyst for anaesthesia development, doctor to both Prime Minster and King, and World War I Barge Commander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Neil H

    2011-02-01

    Sir Geoffrey Marshall was a remarkable, hard-working man who helped in the development of anaesthesia and respiratory medicine. Both were in someway helped by his military experiences in World War I, first when working on an ambulance barge and then in the Casualty Clearing Stations researching the increasing problem of surgical shock. Among a multitude of high-ranking medical posts he also acted as Physician to King George VI and Sir Winston Churchill when they developed respiratory conditions.

  8. Simulator experiments: effects of NPP operator experience on performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beare, A.N.; Gray, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the FY83 research, a simulator experiment was conducted at the control room simulator for a GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) NPP. The research subjects were licensed operators undergoing requalification training and shift technical advisors (STAs). This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of senior reactor operator (SRO) experience, operating crew augmentation with an STA and practice, as a crew, upon crew and individual operator performance, in response to anticipated plant transients. Sixteen two-man crews of licensed operators were employed in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The SROs leading the crews were split into high and low experience groups on the basis of their years of experience as an SRO. One half of the high- and low-SRO experience groups were assisted by an STA. The crews responded to four simulated plant casualties. A five-variable set of content-referenced performance measures was derived from task analyses of the procedurally correct responses to the four casualties. System parameters and control manipulations were recorded by the computer controlling the simulator. Data on communications and procedure use were obtained from analysis of videotapes of the exercises. Questionnaires were used to collect subject biographical information and data on subjective workload during each simulated casualty. For four of the five performance measures, no significant differences were found between groups led by high (25 to 114 months) and low (1 to 17 months as an SRO) experience SROs. However, crews led by low experience SROs tended to have significantly shorter task performance times than crews led by high experience SROs. The presence of the STA had no significant effect on overall team performance in responding to the four simulated casualties. The FY84 experiments are a partial replication and extension of the FY83 experiment, but with PWR operators and simulator.

  9. Risks of Mortality and Morbidity from Worldwide Terrorism: 1968-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-02-10

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. Adjusted data analyzed involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), and 86,568 ''casualties'' (injuries) of which 25,408 were fatal. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (IS) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (OR). IS had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of OR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in OR that increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2.5% (or 10%) of harm-ranked events in OR (or IS). Extreme values of victim/event rates were approximated fairly well by generalized Pareto models (typically used to fit to data on forest fires, sea levels, earthquakes, etc.). These results were in turn used to forecast maximum OR- and IS-specific victims/event rates through 2080, illustrating empirically based methods that could be applied to improve strategies to assess, prevent and manage terror-related risks and consequences.

  10. Multi-Parameter Decision Support with Data Transmission over GSM/GPRS Network: a Case Study of Landslide Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Satyajit; Sahoo, B. P. S.; Pandey, S.K.; Sandha, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    The planet Earth has hundreds of impact events, with some occurrences causing both in terms of human casualty as well as economic losses. Such attitudes of earth pushed the frontiers to develop innovative monitoring strategies for the earth system. To make that real, although, will require coherent and real-time data by observing the earth behavior contiguously. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) appears to be the best suitable infrastructure to sense environmental parameters of our interests. In ...

  11. International Insurance And Corporate Customers - Applying Principles Of Interactive Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, R P

    1993-01-01

    In the light of the growing acceptance of the proposition that services marketing problems require services marketing solutions, the present author is currently developing a conceptual framework for understanding the crucial issues involved in services inlernationalisation. ITie heterogeneity of services has led academics to recognise the value oj sub-sectoral studies, and this research is focusing on the internationalisatton of the Scandinavian and UK general (property & casualty) insurance ...

  12. RealityFlythrough: Enhancing Situational Awareness for Medical Response to Disasters Using Ubiquitous Video

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Neil J.; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    The first moments at a disater scene are chaotic. The command center initially operates with little knowledge of hazards, geography and casualties, building up knowledge of the event slowly as information trickles in by voice radio channels. RealityFlythrough is a tele-presence system that stitches together live video feeds in real-time, using the principle of visual closure, to give command center personnel the illusion of being able to explore the scene interactively by mo...

  13. Data fusion architecture for intelligent vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Traffic accidents are an important socio-economic problem. Every year, the cost in human lives and the economic consequences are inestimable. During the latest years, efforts to reduce or mitigate this problem have lead to a reduction in casualties. But, the death toll in road accidents is still a problem, which means that there is still much work to be done. Recent advances in information technology have lead to more complex applications, which have the ability to help or even substitute the...

  14. Assessment of the impact caused by natural disasters: simplified procedures and open problems

    OpenAIRE

    Petrucci, Olga; CNR-IRPI

    2012-01-01

    A natural hazard is a geophysical, atmospheric or hydrological event (e.g., earthquake, landslide, tsunami, windstorm, flood or drought) that has the potential to cause harm or loss, while a natural disaster is the occurrence of an extreme hazard event that impacts on communities causing damage, disruption and casualties, and leaving the affected communities unable to function normally without outside assistance (Twig, 2007). The definition of natural disaster impact (NDI) can change accor...

  15. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Wei Lo; Jyh-Horng Wu; Fang-Pang Lin; Ching-Han Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections...

  16. Profitability of Title Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin H. Duett; Robert A. Hershbarger

    1992-01-01

    The research in this paper examines the profitability of title insurance companies in relationship to property/casualty, life/health insurance and non-insurance firms. A series of four profitability measures which have previously been tested in prior literature have been used to determine if title insurance companies are more or less profitable than the other types of insurance companies and non-insurance firms.

  17. How political scientists got Trump exactly wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    One of the major casualties of the 2016 election season has been the reputation of political science, a discipline whose practitioners had largely dismissed Donald Trump’s chances of gaining the Republican nomination. Lloyd Gruber describes just how wrong political scientists were about Trump, and explains why they should have been able to predict his success. Looking ahead to the fall general election, he questions whether voters will want Trump’s trigger-happy fingers on America’s nuclear b...

  18. Terrorism Event Classification Using Fuzzy Inference Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dat Tran; Choochart Haruechaiyasak; Phayung Meesad; Uraiwan Inyaem

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has led to many problems in Thai societies, not only property damage but also civilian casualties. Predicting terrorism activities in advance can help prepare and manage risk from sabotage by these activities. This paper proposes a framework focusing on event classification in terrorism domain using fuzzy inference systems (FISs). Each FIS is a decision-making model combining fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. It is generated in five main parts: the input interface, the fuzzific...

  19. The Potential Benefit of 5% Sulfamylon Solution in the Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii–contaminated Traumatic War Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kucan, John O.; Heggers, John P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The recent report of high numbers of Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections among service members injured in Iraq and Afghanistan during the period January 2002 through August 2004 has prompted an investigation into their etiology. A review of the current guidelines for open combat casualty wounds as part of this broad investigation was not mentioned in the report. Objective: The objective of this study was 2-fold: to ascertain the susceptibility of A baumannii to currentl...

  20. Fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal, 2008-2011: analysis of surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Becknell, Kristin; Laurenge, Hugues; Danee, Luhar; Subedi, Krishna P

    2013-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the post-conflict countries affected by violence from explosive devices. We undertook this study to assess the magnitude of injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal during 2008-2011 and to describe time trends and epidemiologic patterns for these events. Methods We analyzed surveillance data on fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal that occurred between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011. The case definition included casualties ...