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Sample records for castor ricinus communis

  1. Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The castor plant has been cultivated for thousands of years, providing a useful source of medicine, lamp fuel and lubricant long before petroleum came into wide use. The oil content of castor seed ranges from 45 to 60%, with most cultivars closer to 50% oil content. The presence of the hydroxy fatty...

  2. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  3. Analysis of castor by ELISAs that distinguish Ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate the analysis of castor (Ricinus communis L.) seed fractions and germplasm for ricin content, we investigated the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to differentiate between ricin toxin and the related Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA). Both proteins are based on ...

  4. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  5. Expression profile of the genes involved in reserve synthesis in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil derived from the seed of castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) and has numerous industrial uses. Despite its economic importance, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of detrimental seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergeni...

  6. Effect of glyphosate on the castor plant Ricinus communis L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of a toxin in the castor seed has been a major impediment to the reintroduction of castor as a domestic crop in the US. Because dehiscent forms of castor are invasive and castor seed remains viable for years under the right conditions, there is concern that if castor were widely cultiva...

  7. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP...... could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work...

  8. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Rômulo A G; Milfont, Marcelo O; Silva, Eva M S da; Freitas, Breno M

    2012-12-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.

  9. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  10. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats.

  11. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Zou; Jun Gong; Qixing Huang; Yeyong Mo; Lifu Yang; Guishui Xie

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean gen...

  12. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  13. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo A.G. Rizzardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L. foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é cultivada principalmente para produção de biodiesel devido ao alto teor de óleo de suas sementes e considerada como sendo de polinização anemófila. Mas déficits de polinização podem levar a baixos índices de produtividade geralmente atribuídos a outros fatores. Neste trabalho foram investigados os requerimentos, mecanismos e déficit de polinização e o papel dos polinizadores bióticos em um monocultivo comercial de mamona. Os resultados mostram que R. communis possui um sistema de polinização misto, favorecendo a autopolinização por geitonogamia, embora o vento normalmente promova polinização cruzada. Observou-se também que a abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L. forrageando na mamoneira pode tanto transferir pólen das flores estaminadas para as pistiladas do mesmo racemo, quanto aumentar consideravelmente a liberação de p

  14. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  15. Effect of the organic garbage and castor oil plant pie on of crop growth characteristics of mamoneira (ricinus communis l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Maria Bezerra Guimarães; Edivan Silva Nunes Júnior; Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima; Napoleão Esberard de Macedo Beltrão; Fabiana Xavier Costa; Francisco Ademilton Vieira Damaceno

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the growth and development of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) submitted to the organic manuring, with castor oil plant pie and composed of organic garbage. The experiment was led at greenhouse, from October 2005 to March 2006, at Embrapa Algodão, state of Paraiba. The treatments were constituted from the addition of castor oil plant pie to the soil in the levels of 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 t ha-1 and organic garbage in the levels of 11.2; 22....

  16. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  18. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of microRNAs from castor bean (Ricinus communis L..

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    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L., one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. RESULTS: Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2 and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. CONCLUSIONS: The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor

  19. Genome-wide survey and expression profiles of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Li, Fei; Ling, Lizhen; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF transcription factor, one of the largest gene families in plants, plays a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae) is one of most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. The available genome provides a great chance to identify and characterize the global information on AP2/ERF transcription fa...

  20. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoo Bharat B; Jha Sanjay; Thakur Shalabh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehens...

  1. Proteomic profile of the nucellus of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Soares, Emanoella L;

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of nucellus from two developmental stages of Ricinus communis seeds by a GeLC-MS/MS approach, using of a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer, which resulted in the identification of a total of 766 proteins that were grouped into 553 protein...

  2. Identification and expression analysis of castor bean (Ricinus communis) genes encoding enzymes from the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Loss, Guilherme; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; Margis, Rogério

    2010-11-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) oil contains ricinoleic acid-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs). As a result of its physical and chemical properties, castor oil and its derivatives are used for numerous bio-based products. In this study, we survey the Castor Bean Genome Database to report the identification of TAG biosynthesis genes. A set of 26 genes encoding six distinct classes of enzymes involved in TAGs biosynthesis were identified. In silico characterization and sequence analysis allowed the identification of plastidic isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lysophosphatidate acyltransferase enzyme families, involved in the prokaryotic lipid biosynthesis pathway, that form a cluster apart from the cytoplasmic isoforms, involved in the eukaryotic pathway. In addition, two distinct membrane bound diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes were identified. Quantitative expression pattern analyses demonstrated variations in gene expressions during castor seed development. A tendency of maximum expression level at the middle of seed development was observed. Our results represent snapshots of global transcriptional activities of genes encompassing six enzyme families involved in castor bean TAG biosynthesis that are present during seed development. These genes represent potential targets for biotechnological approaches to produce nutritionally and industrially desirable oils.

  3. Energy flow in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. production systems Fluxos de energia em sistemas de produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Nunes da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although energy analysis is a way to evaluate the sustainability of production systems, this practice is not often used in the agribusiness. In this context, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L is an agricultural crop not yet well studied despite its great potential in the Brazilian energetic scenario. This article aimed to evaluate the productive potential of the castor bean oil, using an energetic view applied to two management systems: low (System 1 and medium (System 2 technologies. The quantification of the used material fluxes was made converting these factors in energy units. The input energy fluxes were 3,170.6 MJ ha¹ and 10,366.0 MJ ha¹ for Systems 1 and 2, respectively. The energy balance of System 1 was 11,938.2 MJ ha¹ and that of System 2 16,296.5 MJ ha¹. The net energetic gain or the energy gain over the invested energy (EROI of System 1 was 3.8 and of System 2, 2.6. Although presenting a greater energy demand and a lower EROI, System 2 had a greater energy balance, demonstrating a better viability of this cultivation system for the production of castor bean oil.A análise energética é uma forma de se avaliar a sustentabilidade de um sistema produtivo, apesar de ainda pouco utilizada no setor agropecuário. Inserida neste setor encontra-se a produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cultura ainda pouco estudada e que apresenta grande importância para o agronegócio brasileiro. Avaliou-se sob a ótica energética a produção potencial de óleo de mamona em dois sistemas de cultivo: com baixa (Sistema 1 e média (Sistema 2 tecnologias. Foi realizada a quantificação dos fluxos de materiais empregados nos dois sistemas de produção e conversão destes fatores em unidades de energia. Os fluxos de energia de entrada foram de 3.170,6 MJ ha¹ e 10.366 MJ ha¹ para os sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente. O balanço de energia foi de 11.938,2 MJ ha¹ no sistema 1 e 16.296,5 MJ ha¹ no sistema 2. A lucratividade energética, retorno

  4. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jun-Bo; Tian Bo; Yang Chun; Qiu Lijun; Liu Aizhong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular...

  5. Genomic surveys and expression analysis of bZIP gene family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengwei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-02-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators present extensively in plants, involved in regulating diverse biological processes such as flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and pathogen defense. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification and analysis of the bZIP transcription factors that exist in the castor bean genome in this study. In total, 49 RcbZIP transcription factors were identified, characterized and categorized into 11 groups (I-XI) based on their gene structure, DNA-binding sites, conserved motifs, and phylogenetic relationships. The dimerization properties of 49 RcbZIP proteins were predicted on the basis of the characteristic features in the leucine zipper. Global expression profiles of 49 RcbZIP genes among different tissues were examined using high-throughput sequencing of digital gene expression profiles, and resulted in diverse expression patterns that may provide basic information to further reveal the function of the 49 RcbZIP genes in castor bean. The results obtained from this study would provide valuable information in understanding the molecular basis of the RcbZIP transcription factor family and their potential function in regulating the growth and development, particularly in seed filling of castor bean.

  6. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  7. In vitro establishment of a highly effective method of castor bean (Ricinus communisL.) regeneration using shoot explants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-xing; CHI Yue; CHEN Yong-sheng; WANG Xiao-yu; FENG Zi-zhou; GENG Xue-jun; MU Sha-moli; HUO Hong-yan; TONG Huan; LI Meng-zhu; LI Yi

    2016-01-01

    An efifcient plant regeneration protocol was established for castor bean (Ricinus communisL.), in which 0.3 mg L–1 thidiazuron (TDZ) induced shoot clusters and increased the number of adventitious shoots from hypocotyl tissue. Our results showed that treatment under dark conditions signiifcantly promoted the average number of shoots per explant to 37.36±4.54 (with a 6-d treatment). Modiifed 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 440 mg L–1 Ca2+, 0.2 mg L–1 gibberelic acid and 0.1 mg L–1 TDZ signiifcantly increased shoot elongation rates and lowered vitriifcation rates. Further-more, 1/2 MS media supplemented with 0.2 mg L–1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid induced a higher rooting rate compared with other culture conditions.

  8. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  9. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  10. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization. PMID:26509832

  11. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  12. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  13. Radiation and water use efficiencies of rainfed castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) in relation to different weather parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments on rainfed castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) were conducted for 4 years (1990–1993) to explain the variability in radiation use efficiency (RUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) in relation to meteorological parameters. In these experiments castor c.v. Aruna was sown on three different dates (treatments) in each year. The results from this study indicate that both RUE and WUE vary from year to year and also were influenced by the planting dates. Variations in RUE and WUE ranged from 0.79–1.19 g MJ−1 and 0.72–1.25 g kg−1, respectively. The variability in RUE and WUE before and after flower initiation were quite contrasting. The variability in RUE and WUE was associated with saturation vapour pressure deficit (SVPD), drought index, temperature and wind velocity. RUE was related positively with SVPD and wind velocity and negatively with drought index and temperature. WUE showed inverse relationships with SVPD and temperature and a direct relation with wind velocity. The study emphasises the need for incorporation of the effect of weather on RUE and WUE in the algorithms for biomass estimation of crop simulation models. (author)

  14. Phloem mobility and translocation of fluorescent conjugate containing glucose and NBD in castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhiwei; Wang, Jie; Mao, Genlin; Wen, Yingjie; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-03-01

    Phloem mobility is an important factor for long-distance transport of systemic pesticides in plants. Our previous study revealed that a fluorescent glucose-insecticide conjugate, N-{3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-iodo-1H-pyrazol-5-yl}-N-{[1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}-N-{[1-((N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-amine))-propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}amine (IPGN), can be transported in tobacco cells. Several studies have also indicated that glucose moieties can guide the conjugates into plant cells. In this study, we investigated the phloem mobility of IPGN within castor bean seedlings. Cotyledon uptake experiment results show that IPGN could enter the phloem of the mid-veins of cotyledons. The results of further quantitative analysis show that IPGN was present in small amounts in the phloem sap despite the inconsistencies of physicochemical properties with diffusion through the plasma membrane. Its concentration in the phloem sap (about 370nM at 5h) was much lower than that in the incubation medium (100μM), which suggests that IPGN exhibited weak phloem mobility. After the leaves of Ricinus plantlets were treated with IPGN, green fluorescence could be observed in the phloem of the petioles, bud apical nodes, bud mid-veins, and mid-veins of the untreated leaves. The localization of the fluorescent conjugate at various levels of Ricinus plantlets indicates that it was translocated at a distance to sink organs via sieve tubes. The results proved that introducing a glucose group is a feasible approach to modify non-phloem-mobile pesticides and produce phloem-mobile pesticides.

  15. Antibody interactions with Ricinus communis agglutinins studied by biolayer interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two related agglutinins are present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor): ricin, a dichain ribosome-inactivating protein and Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA-1), a much less toxic hemagglutinin. Because ricin has been used for experimental cancer chemotherapy as well as for intentional poison...

  16. Use of acid phosphatase as biomarker during the castor bean seeds germination (ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ferreira Veríssima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main oil crop of prominent social and economic importance is to mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.; with countless application in the industry and agricultural. Broadly it distributed in Brazil; his cultivation can be an alternative of sustainability in the Brazilian northeast. It know the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the germination they are important for the best utilization of the plant. The objective of this work was use acid phosphatase as biomarker during the germination. In the rough extract occurred the dosage of the activity for pNPP; Tyr-Pi and PPi; determination of protein and inorganic phosphatse. The peak of activity for pNPP was in the seventh day; for PPi and Tyr-Pi in the ninth and for PEP in the fifth. The concentration of protein increased according to the days of germination; with peak of activity in the eighth day; being coincidental with the peaks of the activities for the substrates. The content of inorganic phosphate diminished with the time of germination and after the third day occurred a fall accentuated of its concentration. We concluded that acid phosphatase is important for the germination of the seeds and his paper is related with the mobilization of inorganic phosphate; the main nutrients for the development.

  17. Genotyping and Bioforensics of Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, A C

    2006-11-20

    The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. In spite of its common name, the castor plant is not a true bean (i.e., leguminous plants belonging to the family, Fabaceae). Ricinus communis is native to tropical Africa, but because the plant was recognized for its production of oil with many desirable properties, it has been introduced and cultivated in warm temperate regions throughout the world (Armstrong 1999 and Brown 2005). Castor bean plants have also been valued by gardeners as an ornamental plant and, historically, as a natural rodenticide. Today, escaped plants grow like weeds throughout much of the southwestern United States, and castor seeds are even widely available to the public for order through the Internet. In this study, multiple loci of chloroplast noncoding sequence data and a few nuclear noncoding regions were examined to identify DNA polymorphisms present among representatives from a geographically diverse panel of Ricinus communis cultivated varieties. The primary objectives for this research were (1) to successfully cultivate castor plants and extract sufficient yields of high quality DNA from an assortment of castor cultivated varieties, (2) to use PCR and sequencing to screen available universal oligos against a small panel of castor cultivars, (3) to identify DNA polymorphisms within the amplified regions, and (4) to evaluate these DNA polymorphisms as appropriate candidates for assay development (see Figure 1). Additional goals were to design, test and optimize assays targeting any DNA polymorphisms that were discovered and to rapidly screen many castor cultivars to determine the amount of diversity present at that particular locus. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to construct a phylogeographic tree representing the genetic relationships present among Ricinus communis cultivars from diverse geographic regions. These research objectives were designed to test the hypothesis that cultivated varieties

  18. Genotyping and Bioforensics of Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, Aubree Christine [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. In spite of its common name, the castor plant is not a true bean (i.e., leguminous plants belonging to the family, Fabaceae). Ricinus communis is native to tropical Africa, but because the plant was recognized for its production of oil with many desirable properties, it has been introduced and cultivated in warm temperate regions throughout the world (Armstrong 1999 and Brown 2005). Castor bean plants have also been valued by gardeners as an ornamental plant and, historically, as a natural rodenticide. Today, escaped plants grow like weeds throughout much of the southwestern United States, and castor seeds are even widely available to the public for order through the Internet. In this study, multiple loci of chloroplast noncoding sequence data and a few nuclear noncoding regions were examined to identify DNA polymorphisms present among representatives from a geographically diverse panel of Ricinus communis cultivated varieties. The primary objectives for this research were (1) to successfully cultivate castor plants and extract sufficient yields of high quality DNA from an assortment of castor cultivated varieties, (2) to use PCR and sequencing to screen available universal oligos against a small panel of castor cultivars, (3) to identify DNA polymorphisms within the amplified regions, and (4) to evaluate these DNA polymorphisms as appropriate candidates for assay development (see Figure 1). Additional goals were to design, test and optimize assays targeting any DNA polymorphisms that were discovered and to rapidly screen many castor cultivars to determine the amount of diversity present at that particular locus. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to construct a phylogeographic tree representing the genetic relationships present among Ricinus communis cultivars from diverse geographic regions. These research objectives were designed to test the hypothesis that cultivated varieties

  19. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a hi...

  20. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  1. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, A O; Okorie, A U

    2009-04-01

    A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) retention. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE than birds on 10%, 15% and 20% CBM diets. Birds fed 10% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher DM, nitrogen and NFE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest retention of DM, nitrogen and NFE was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. Birds fed 0% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher EE retention than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest EE retention was observed at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The results of the study indicate that up to 10% dehulled and cooked CBM can be included in broiler finisher rations for optimum performance.

  2. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  3. Pattern of genetic diversity among Fusarium wilt resistant castor germplasm accessions (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anjani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ricini (Wr Gordon is one of the major yield losing diseases in castor.Cultivating wilt resistant cultivars is an effective strategy to control the disease. Utilization of diverse sources ofstable resistance is a prerequisite for durable resistance breeding. The experiment was conducted to identifygenetically diverse resistant sources in castor germplasm. Genetic diversity among 20 identified wilt resistantgermplasm was assessed using multivariate classificatory methods. Wide genetic diversity was demonstratedamong these accessions. These accessions are valuable in wilt resistance breeding programme. They wouldserve as base diverse material for wilt resistance breeding, wilt resistant genepool construction and moleculartagging of resistant genes.

  4. Regiospecific analysis of diricinoleoylacylglycerols in castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    HPLC fractions of diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the loss...

  5. Enhanced accumulation of Cd in castor (Ricinus communis L) by soil-applied chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Guoyong, Huang; Jun, Zhu; Kubar, Kashif Ali; Hongqing, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Phytoextraction has been identified as one of the most propitious methods of phytoremediation. This pot experiment were treated with varying amounts of (ethylenediamine triacetic acid) EDTA 3-15, (Nitriloacetic acid) NTA 3-10, (Ammonium citrate) NH4 citrate 10 - 25 mmol and one mg kg(-1)Cd, filled with 5 kg soil. The addition of chelators significantly increased Cd concentration in soil and plant. The results showed that maximum Cd uptake was noted under root, shoot and leaf of castor plant tissue (2.26, 1.54, and 0.72 mg kg(-1)) under EDTA 15, NTA 10, and NH4 citrate 25 mmol treatments respectively, and in soil 1.08, 1.06 and 0.52 mg kg(-1) pot(-1) under NH4 citrate 25, NTA 10 and EDTA 15 mmol treatments respectively, as against to control (p < 0.05). Additions of chelators reduction biomass under the EDTA 15 mmol as compared to other treatments, However, Bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and remediation factor (RF) were significantly increased under EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol as against control. Our results demonstrated that castor plant proved satisfactory for phytoextraction on contaminated soil, and EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol had the affirmative effect on the Cd uptake in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil.

  6. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445

  7. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  8. Subcellular cadmium distribution and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the leaves of two castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars exhibit differences in Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Shen, Jianxiu; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Chen, Hui; Shao, Chunyan

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) the study of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in different castor cultivars (Ricinus communis L.); (2) to investigate changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the subcellular distribution of Cd in young and old leaves from two different castor cultivars, after exposure to two different Cd concentrations, and explore the underlying mechanism of Cd detoxification focusing on antioxidant enzymes and subcellular compartmentalization. The Cd concentration, toxicity, and subcellular distribution, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were measured in Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 cultivars after exposure to two different concentrations of Cd (2mg/L and 5mg/L) for 10 days. This research revealed Cd accumulation characteristics in castor are root>stem>young leaf>old leaf. Castor tolerance was Cd dose exposure and the cultivars themselves dependent. Investigation of subcellular Cd partitioning showed that Cd accumulated mainly in the heat stable protein (HSP) and cellular debris fractions, followed by the Cd rich granule (MRG), heat denatured protein (HDP), and organelle fractions. With increasing Cd concentration in nutrient solution, the decreased detoxified fractions (BDM) and the increased Cd-sensitive fractions (MSF) in young leaves may indicate the increased Cd toxicity in castor cultivars. The BDM-Cd fractions or MSF-Cd in old leaves may be linked with Cd tolerance of different cultivars of castor. The antioxidant enzymes that govern Cd detoxification were not found to be active in leaves. Taken together, these results indicate Cd tolerance and toxicity in castor can be explained by subcellular partitioning.

  9. Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) for tibial crest deviation in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed respectively at 30 (GI), 60 (GII) and 90 (GIII) days post-surgery. Evaluations methods included clinical assessment, radiology, gross and macroscopic study, tomography and statistical analysis. Clinically, there were no signs of implant rejection. Radiology revealed intense periosteal reaction and new bone formation. On gross examination, there was thickening and lateral deviation of the tibial crest and new bone neoformation. On microscopic examination, there was fibrous tissue around the polyurethane, periosteal proliferation on the medial side of the tibia and no bone proliferation towards the implant. Cat scans reveled lateral deviation of the tibial crest in eleven animals, which was statistically significant (p<5; pared T test)

  10. Diurnal changes in assimilate concentrations and fluxes in the phloem of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallarackal, Jose; Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2012-07-01

    Reports about diurnal changes of assimilates in phloem sap are controversial. We determined the diurnal changes of sucrose and amino acid concentrations and fluxes in exudates from cut aphid stylets on tansy leaves (Tanacetum vulgare), and sucrose, amino acid and K(+) concentrations and fluxes in bleeding sap of castor bean pedicel (Ricinus communis). Approximately half of the tansy sieve tubes exhibited a diurnal cycle of sucrose concentrations and fluxes in phloem sap. Data from many tansy plants indicated an increased sucrose flux in the phloem during daytime in case of low N-nutrition, not at high N-nutrition. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap of young Ricinus plants changed marginally between day and night, whereas the sucrose flux increased 1.5-fold during daytime (but not in old Ricinus plants). The amino acid concentrations and fluxes in tansy sieve tubes exhibited a similar diurnal cycle as the sucrose concentrations and fluxes, including their dependence on N-nutrition. The amino acid fluxes, but not the concentrations, in phloem sap of Ricinus were higher at daytime. The sucrose/amino acid ratio showed no diurnal cycle neither in tansy nor in Ricinus. The K(+)-concentrations in phloem sap of Ricinus, but not the K(+) fluxes, decreased slightly during daytime and the sucrose/K(+)-ratio increased. In conclusion, a diurnal cycle was observed in sucrose, amino acid and K(+) fluxes, but not necessarily in concentrations of these assimilates. Because of the large variations between different sieve tubes and different plants, the nutrient delivery to sink tissues is not homeostatic over time.

  11. Balanço energético para a produção de biodiesel pela cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. Energy balance for biodiesel production by the castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Glauber Chechetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. adquiriu prestígio ao interesse da indústria pela qualidade de seu óleo e, recentemente, pela busca de novas fontes de energias. O experimento que serviu como base para os dados utilizados nesse trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA - UNESP, no município de Botucatu - SP, no ano de 2008. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade energética da cultura através do balanço e da eficiência energética, desde a implantação até a produção de biodiesel, utilizando parâmetros de consumo operacional no manejo para instalação e manutenção da cultura, colheita e processamento de óleo. As operações de manejo de solo, semeadura e colheita consumiramo total de 266,20 MJ ha-1, que juntamente com fertilizantes, agrotóxicos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, mão-de-obra, sementes e processamento industrial totalizaram uma entrada de energia de 56.808,10 MJ ha-1. A produção de energia foi de 72.814,00 MJ ha-1. O setor ainda carece de estudos que contribuiriam para o levantamento de dados e coeficientes energéticos mais específicos. A cultura da mamona foi considerada eficiente, permitindo ganho de 15.983,44 MJ ha-1, equivalente a aproximadamente 415 L de óleo diesel.The castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L. has acquired prestige due to industries interest in the oil quality and recently for new sources of energy demand. The experiment that served as basis for the data used in this study was conducted at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in Botucatu - SP, 2008. This study aimed to avaluate the crop viability through energy balance and energy efficiency since the implantation until biodiesel production using parameters of consumption in operational management for installation and maintenance of culture harvest and oil production. The soil management operations, sow and harvest consumed the total of 266.20 MJ ha-1, gathering with the fertilizers, pesticides, fuels

  12. Semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona (Ricinus communis L. sob plantio direto Seeding of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. hybrid Lyra in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A semeadura mecanizada da mamona (Ricinus communis L. pode reduzir o tempo de operação e os custos associados à mão-de-obra, porém a escassez de informações nesta área tem prejudicado a adoção correta desta tecnologia. Assim, objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar a regularidade da distribuição longitudinal de sementes do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em área de plantio direto e sua relação com rendimento de grãos; bem como a viabilidade da aplicação de cartas de controle para a avaliação do processo de semeadura, nesta cultura. O ensaio foi conduzido em área comercial de produção de grãos de mamona sob plantio direto, sendo avaliadas: distribuição longitudinal, porcentagens de espaçamentos normais, falhos e duplos na linha, número de planta por metro linear, altura de plantas, altura e comprimento do racemo primário e rendimento de grãos. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, a análise de correlações e as cartas de controle para a avaliação dos parâmetros propostos. Há necessidade de refinamento nas regulagens de semeadoras-adubadoras de precisão para a semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em áreas de plantio direto; a distribuição longitudinal de sementes de mamona influencia vários parâmetros fitotécnicos, incluindo o rendimento de grãos; a aplicação da carta de controle é uma ferramenta eficiente para a avaliação do processo de semeadura da mamona.The mechanized sowing of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. can reduce the operation time and the costs associated to labor, however the privation of information in this area have damaged the correct adoption of this technology. Thus, the research had as an aim to verify the regularity of longitudinal distribution of hybrid Lyra castor bean seeds, in a no-tillage system area, and its relationship with yield; and the viability of control charts for evaluation of sowing in this crop. The essay was carded out in a commercial area of grain production in no

  13. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment. PMID:26589321

  14. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  15. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  16. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed.

  17. Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Recurrent selection efficiency for stature reduction of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inocencio Junior de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente para a redução da estatura de plantas de mamona da cultivar Guarani (Ricinus communis L., tornando-a com porte adequado para facilitar a colheita manual e/ou mecânica. Foram realizados quatro ciclos de seleção recorrente com a utilização de progênies autofecundadas na cultivar Guarani para redução da estatura das plantas, nas condições edafoclimáticas dos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP. As avaliações de estatura das plantas e de produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1, dos quatro ciclos de seleção e do ciclo original foram realizadas nos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP na safra 2005/2006, sob um delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e parcela útil de 30 m². A análise de variância para as características avaliadas foi feita separadamente para cada local e conjuntamente para os três locais e, posteriormente, realizada a comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram estimados, para as três localidades, por análise de regressão, os ganhos genéticos dos quatros ciclos de seleção para estatura de plantas. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que a seleção recorrente foi eficiente para a redução da estatura de plantas e que a cultivar de mamona Guarani apresenta variabilidade genética para essa característica e que a produtividade não foi influenciada pela redução da estatura de plantas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recurrent selection efficiency for reduction of stature of the castor bean plants of the Guarani cultivar (Ricinus communis L., turning it with appropriate strucuture to facilitate the manual and/or mechanic harvest. Four cycles of recurrent selection were accomplished through the utilization of self-pollinated progenies in the Guarani cultivar for reduction of plants stature, in

  18. The multigene family of lysophosphatidate acyltransferase (LPAT)-related enzymes in Ricinus communis: cloning and molecular characterization of two LPAT genes that are expressed in castor seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Caro, José María; Chileh, Tarik; Kazachkov, Michael; Zou, Jitao; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The multigene family encoding proteins related to lysophosphatidyl-acyltransferases (LPATs) has been analyzed in the castor plant Ricinus communis. Among them, two genes designated RcLPAT2 and RcLPATB, encoding proteins with LPAT activity and expressed in the developing seed, have been cloned and characterized in some detail. RcLPAT2 groups with well characterized members of the so-called A-class LPATs and it shows a generalized expression pattern in the plant and along seed development. Enzymatic assays of RcLPAT2 indicate a preference for ricinoleoyl-CoA over other fatty acid thioesters when ricinoleoyl-LPA is used as the acyl acceptor, while oleoyl-CoA is the preferred substrate when oleoyl-LPA is employed. RcLPATB groups with B-class LPAT enzymes described as seed specific and selective for unusual fatty acids. However, RcLPATB exhibit a broad specificity on the acyl-CoAs, with saturated fatty acids (12:0-16:0) being the preferred substrates. RcLPATB is upregulated coinciding with seed triacylglycerol accumulation, but its expression is not restricted to the seed. These results are discussed in the light of a possible role for LPAT isoenzymes in the channelling of ricinoleic acid into castor bean triacylglycerol.

  19. Role of ethylene in the germination metabolism of ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Simona; Dumitras, Dan C.; Godeanu, Adriana

    1999-03-01

    A CO2 laser-based photoacoustic method has been used to monitor the ethylene (C2H4) released by castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds during germination. The relationship between the evolution of the C2H4 germinating seeds and the respiration intensity is presented.

  20. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  1. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Hill, Allyson T; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

    2011-11-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism.

  2. 蓖麻的组织培养%Study on tissue culture of castor(Ricinus communis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兰; 王涛; 景宏伟; 高超

    2010-01-01

    以蓖麻(Ricinus communis L.)的胚芽顶、下胚轴、子叶和胚根为外植体,研究不同激素种类和浓度对其诱导脱分化和再分化能力和对丛芽增殖和生根的影响,为蓖麻离体快繁体系的成功建立提供重要依据.结果表明,胚芽顶是最适的芽增殖外植体,最适芽增殖培养基为MS+BA 0.4 mg·L-1+IAA 0.01 mg·L-1;生根培养基为MS+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1;在BA 0.5~1.0 mg·L-1和IAA 0.1~0.5 mg·L-1时,愈伤组织诱导率为56%~100%,分化率为零.

  3. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  4. Molecular and biochemical identification of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase encoding mRNA variants in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jaeju; Saiardi, Adolfo; Greenwood, John S; Bewley, J Derek

    2014-05-01

    During seed development, phytic acid (PA) associated with mineral cations is stored as phytin and mobilized following germination in support of seedling growth. Two parallel biosynthetic pathways for PA have been proposed; yet the pathway is still poorly understood in terms of its regulation and the enzymes involved. Here, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) gene for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (RcIPK1) has been identified. This encodes the enzyme implicated in catalyzing the final reaction in PA biosynthesis, and its expression is enhanced in isolated germinated embryos by application of phosphate and myo-inositol (Ins). Even though only one copy of the RcIPK1 gene is present in the genome, numerous RNA variants are present, most likely due to alternative splicing. These are translated into six closely related protein isoforms according to in silico analysis. Functional analyses using yeast ipk1Δ revealed that only three of the mRNA variants can rescue a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of this strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the synthesized inositol phosphates demonstrated that the ability to complement the missing yeast IPK1 enzyme is associated with the production of enzyme activity. The three active isoforms possess unique conserved motifs important for IPK1 catalytic activity.

  5. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  6. Characterization of a pollen-specific and desiccation-associated AP2/ERF type transcription factor gene from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís de Moura Cipriano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available DREB transcription factors (TF belong to the superfamily of AP2/ERF and their involvement in protein-protein interactions and DNA binding has been proposed. AP2/ERF proteins have important functions in the transcriptional regulation of a variety of biological processes related to growth and development, as well as various responses to environmental stimuli, regulating expression of plant biotic and abiotic stress-responsive genes. In this study an AP2/ERF TF gene (named RcDREB1 was isolated from castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and its expression was analyzed in developing seeds, leaves, ovules, stems and petals of plants cultivated under field conditions. Transcripts were only observed in pollen grains, peaking during anthesis. The RcDREB1 deduced amino acid sequence was compared to other AP2/ERF TF proteins and presented 38-78% identity. Phylogenetic analysis classified it as a member of the CBF/DREB subfamily, rooting with the subgroup A-5. The RcDREB1 promoter was fused to the gus reporter gene and used to transform tobacco. Transgenic plants were exposed to various abiotic stress treatments (low and high tempera- tures, drought, salinity and exogenous ABA and no detectable GUS expression was observed, suggesting that the RcDREB1 promoter is not active under tested conditions. In silico analyses revealed the presence of three copies of the regulatory late pollen-specific element (AGAAA in the RcDREB1 5 ́-region. Interestingly, GUS expression was only observed in pollen grains, starting when the flower opened and initiating the senescence process; at this point, desiccated mature pollen grains are released from anthers. In addition, dehydrated developing pollen grains also expressed the gus gene. This is the first study on a DREB gene presenting pollen-specific expression.

  7. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  8. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability.

  9. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yang; Mulpuri Sujatha; Liu Aizhong

    2015-01-01

    This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine) of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination), oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium). [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effe...

  10. Short communication. Evaluation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) induced mutants for possible selection in the improvement of seed yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, G.; Boota Chaudhry, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine selection criteria suitable for developing castor ideotypes with high yield potentials. Nineteen M4 generation castor mutants were obtained by gamma irradiation (100 to 1000 Gy) of DS30 castor seeds, and evaluated alongside this reference variety over 2006-07 for their possible use in the improvement of castor seed yield. Days to ripening, plant height, number of spikes/plant, length of main spike, number of main spike capsules, capsule weight, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant were recorded for each mutant. Correlation coefficients were calculated, path analyses performed, and the genetic features of the different traits were determined. A significant, positive correlation was seen between capsule weight and seed yield. The 100-seed weight showed a positive but non-significant phenotypic relationship plus a significant genotypic relationship with seed yield. Capsule weight also showed a strong direct effect on seed yield, plus a strong positive and significant genotypic correlation with this variable. More than 50% heritability was observed for all the traits studied except the 100-seed weight and capsule weight. The number of main spike capsules showed the greatest genetic advance, followed by spike length and number of spikes. Traits such as the number of capsules, spike length and number of spikes showed strong heritability and good genetic advance. These traits are therefore governed by additive genes, and for the improvement of seed yield selection may be based directly on these attributes. In conclusion, for the improvement of seed yield the main emphasis should be placed on the number of spikes and capsule weight, via the selection of the highest yielding mutants among those tested. However, spike length and 100-seed weight should also be taken into account. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT CHARACTERS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. HYBRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAMESH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the components of genetic variation were worked out by Kempthorne method from a Line x Tester analysis in castor for fourteen plant type related traits. The analysis for combining ability revealed significant mean sum of squares of both general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for all the characters which indicated the presence of both additive and non-additive gene actions. The ratio of GCA variance and SCA variance ratio revealed the predominance of non-additive gene action for all the traits except plant height up to primary spike, no. of nodes up to primary spike, no. of capsules/primary spike and total spike length of secondary. JP-87 was good general combiner for most of the characters including seed yield. The line DCS-106 was also a good general combiner for early flowering, days to maturity and number of capsules on secondary spike. Cross JP-87 × RG-1740/A was a good specific combiner for seed yield per plant and for other yield component. The hybrid DPC-9 × RG-156 with good specific combining ability for days to maturity can be used for yield improvement in castor. In general for yield and other yield attributing traits the promising hybrids with high heterosis were JP-87 × RG-1740/A, JP-87 × DCS-106, DPC-17 × RG-156, DPC-17 × DCS-106 and DPC-17 × DCS-107 were on par with the check. These cross combinations could be utilized for further use in breeding programme for improvement in yield of castor.

  12. Use of gamma rays for development of leaf hopper resistant pistillate lines in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non revertant stable pistillate line -DPC 9 of castor was developed at Directorate of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad. It is resistant to a major biotic stress like soil borne Fusarium wilt but susceptible to the incidence of leaf hopper - Empoasca flavescenes (Fabr). Resistance to leaf hopper is linked to presence of waxy coating called bloom on plant parts which is a highly heritable character and controlled by dominant, single to oligogenes. Castor is a sexually polymorphic species and pistillate character in S type is controlled by dominant and epistatic factors. Mutation breeding is resorted to strike a balance between a complex character like non revertant pistillate expression and a simply inherited character like presence of bloom. Seeds of DPC 9 were treated with different doses of gamma rays starting from 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 Gy rays in 2001. Observations recorded on germination (%), hypocotyl length and root length in 50 seedlings of 15 day age, grown under pot culture conditions indicated that 600Gy gamma rays resulted in 25-30% reduction in these parameters. Three hundred M1 plants of 550Gy gamma ray treated lot were raised in Rabi season, 2002-03 at a spacing of 90 x 45 cm and continued up to 6th to 7th order of spike for selection of stable pistillate expression and selfed. Plant to row progenies were continued in M2 and selection for pistillate expression continued up to M5 in Rabi season every year. Break down of resistance to Fusarium wilt was observed in M3 and majority of the plant progenies succumbed to wilt under filed conditions of the inoculum. In M5, DPC 9 plants with the presence of bloom on all parts (triple bloom), stem and lower side of the leaf (double bloom) were observed and advanced to M6. In M6, DPC 9 pistillate plants with triple bloom and high intensity of bloom on older leaves were identified. The pistillate line is under stabilization for its presence of bloom and stable pistillate character. Selection criteria in the

  13. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  14. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  16. Antiasthmatic activity of Ricinus communis L. roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; RavindraY Patil

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiasthmatic activity of Ricinus communis (R. communis) Linn (Euphorbiaceae) to validate its traditional use. Methods: The antiasthmatic activity of ethanol extract of R. communis (ERCR) root was evaluated on milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia in mice, mast cell degranulations in mice and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats at (100-150 mg/kg). Results: The ERCR significantly decreases milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia and protect degranulations of mast cells in mice. At the same dose ERCR inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of steroids, saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides. Conclusions: The flavonoids and saponins are reported to possess mast cell stabilizing and antianaphylactic activity. Hence ERCR shows antiasthmatic activity may be due to presence of flavonoids and/or saponins.

  17. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schaer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  18. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  19. Testes de vigor para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L. Vigor test for the evaluation of the physiology potencial of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de sementes de mamona tem sido avaliada rotineiramente pelo teste de germinação, cujos resultados, muitas vezes, não são confirmados em campo. Nesse contexto, os testes de vigor são essenciais, pois retratam o comportamento das sementes sob maior amplitude de ambiente. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de métodos para determinar o potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete lotes de sementes de mamona, cultivar AL-Guarany, apresentando teor de água de aproximadamente 7% , que foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, frio (a 10ºC/7 dias e a 25ºC/5 dias, porcentagem e velocidade de emergência de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado a 41ºC e 45ºC e 100% UR, por 48, 72 e 96 horas e condutividade elétrica (25 sementes embebidas em 75 e 100mL de água destilada, a 25ºC, por 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 e 72 horas. Os testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado (41ºC/72 horas e 100% UR foram eficientes para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona, permitindo classificação de lotes quanto ao vigor semelhante à emergência de plântulas em solo. O teste de condutividade elétrica não se mostrou adequado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes de mamona.This work had the objective to determine the efficiency of different tests for the evaluation of physiological potential of castor bean seeds. Seven seed lots of AL-Guarany cultivar were submitted to the following tests: seed moisture content, standard germination, first count, cold test (10ºC/7 days followed by germination at 25ºC/5 days, seedling emergence, speed emergence index, accelerated aging (at 41ºC and 45ºC and 100% RH, for 48, 72, and 96h and electrical conductivity (25 seeds soaked into 75 and 100mL of distilled water, at 25ºC, for 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h. The trial was conducted in randomized completely design, with four

  20. Development of a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds=Desenvolvimento de um bioensaio para quantificar o teor da toxina ricina em sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Auld

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean seeds. Existing quantification methods do not always reflect actual toxicity of the seeds analyzed, which may present lower ricin content even though they are more toxic than seeds presenting a higher content of ricin. This is because these methods actually measure the addition of ricin RCA, which is a compound less toxic than pure ricin. We decided to use in this study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry. We tested two strains of C. elegans using different methods in 8 experiments. We examined 4 methods of extracting the ricin complex and 3 methods of exposing the nematodes. Among the nematode strains and ricin extraction methods tested, we concluded that the best strain for testing ricin toxicity was the strain called N2 and that the best method for ricin extraction was a rotating bath followed by centrifugation and exposing the nematodes in 24 well plates with a solution of nematodes extracted from the media with destilated waterexposing the nematodes in 24-well plates This method is inexpensive, quick and adequate for the selection of offspring with lower RIP content.Foi desenvolvido um bioensaio para quantificar o teor de ricina nas sementes de mamona. Os métodos de quantificação existentes não refletem a toxidez real das sementes analizadas, que pode mostrar um resultado de menor teor de ricina e ainda assim ser mais toxico do que as sementes que apresentaram teores maiores. Isto ocorre por que estes métodos medem alem da ricina a RCA, que é um composto menos tóxico que a ricina pura. Foi decidido utilizar neste estudo o nematoide Caenorhabditis elegans, que tem sido amplamente utilizado na industria farmacêutica. Foram testadas duas estirpes de C.elegans usadas em diferentes métodos contando com 8 experimentos distintos. nós examinamos 4 métodos de extração de ricina e 3 m

  1. Concentrations of metals and potential metal-binding compounds and speciation of Cd, Zn and Cu in phloem and xylem saps from castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with four levels of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Kenji; Nagata, Shinji; Fujimori, Tamaki; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2015-06-01

    We examined the concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and potential metal-binding compounds [nicotianamine (NA), thiol compounds and citrate] in xylem and phloem saps from 4-week-old castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM Cd for 3 weeks. Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μM Cd produced no visible damage, while 10 μM Cd retarded growth. Cadmium concentrations in both saps were higher than those in the culture solution at 0.1 μM, similar at 1.0 μM and lower at 10 μM. Cd at 10 μM reduced Cu and Fe concentrations in both saps. NA concentrations measured by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) in xylem sap (20 μM) were higher than the Cu concentrations, and those in phloem sap (150 μM) were higher than those of Zn, Fe and Cu combined. Reduced glutathione concentrations differed in xylem and phloem saps (1-2 and 30-150 μM, respectively), but oxidized glutathione concentrations were similar. Phloem sap phytochelatin 2 concentration increased from 0.8 μM in controls to 8 μM in 10 μM Cd. Free citrate was 2-4 μM in xylem sap and 70-100 μM in phloem sap. Total bound forms of Cd in phloem and xylem saps from 1 μM Cd-treated plants were 54 and 8%, respectively. Treatment of phloem sap with proteinaseK reduced high-molecular compounds while increasing fractions of low-molecular Cd-thiol complexes. Zinc-NA, Fe-NA and Cu-NA were identified in the phloem sap fraction of control plants by electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS, and the xylem sap contained Cu-NA.

  2. Comparison of three methods for establishment of female lines from pistil late plants in castor (Ricinus communis L.)%利用雌性单株建立蓖麻雌性系的 三种方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁生; 杨建国; 张尧忠

    2000-01-01

    比较了三种由雌性单株建立蓖麻雌性系方法:(1)利用环境高温处理NES型雌性单株诱导雄花建立雌性系,是比较成熟的方法,但对日均温要求较高。(2)利用植物生长调节剂处理NES型雌性单株诱导雄花建立雌性系,该法成功的可能性较大,对环境条件要求也不高,如积极探索有望早日成为比较成熟的方法,目前已有一定的进展。(3)利用组织培养无性繁殖N型雌性单株建立雌性系,该法也有一定的可能性,值得进一步探索%Three methods for establishment of female lines from pistillate plants in castor(Ricinus communis L.)were compared in this report :(i)Staminate flowers are induced by high daily temperature in NES-pistillate p lant.It is a ideal but high daily temperature dependent method.(ii)Staminate flo wers might be induced by plant growth regulators in NES-pistillate plant.Some p rogresses have been made by us.(iii)vegetative propagation of N-pistillate plan ts through tissue culture might be a new method.

  3. 不同种植密度对蓖麻生长发育及产量的影响%Effects of Different Planting Density on Growth and Development and Yield of Castor Beans(Ricinus communis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁萍; 陈宓; 陈显国; 王浒; 黄俊

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨责州省安顺市蓖麻(Ricinus communis L.)基地建设中适宜的蓖麻栽培密度,为驯化抚育中实现蓖麻的规范化栽培提供指导.[方法]2011年引种成都蓖麻,5个种植密度,即5130(CK)、6825、8530、10254、11955株/hm2,随机区组设计,3次重复.行距均为150 cm,株距分别为130、98、78、65、56 cm.试验区总面积588.6 m2.[结果]一定范围内,随着种植密度增大,蓖麻营养生长后期和生殖生长有提前的趋势;种植密度为6 825和8 530株/hm2时蓖麻生物学性状和经济性状表现较好,并且产量均超过对照10%以上.[结论]贵州安顺市区中下等土壤肥力条件下蓖麻栽培较适宜的种植密度为6 825和8 530株/hm2,行距为150 cm.%[Objective] The purpose was to discuss the suitable planting density of castor beans during its base construction in Anshun City, Guizhou Province, and provide a guidance for realizing its standardized cultivation during its domestication and breeding. [Method] Castor beans introduced from Chendu. Five planting density, 5 130(choosing as CK), 6 825, 8 530, 10 254, 11 955 plants/hm3, were designed to carried out by randomized block design with 3 repeated, line spacing 150 cm, plant spacing 130, 98, 78, 65 and 56 cm respectively in 2011. The test region area was 588.6 m2. [Result] The later period of vegetative growth and reproductive growth of castor beans had a trend in advance along with planting density in a certain range. Castor beans's biological characteristics and economic indices showed better when planting density was 6 825 and 8 530 plants/hm2, and its yield were all more than CK by 10% . [Conclusion] The suitable planting density and line spacing of castor beans under medium and lower grade soil fertility is 6 825 and 8 530 plant/hm2, and 150 cm in Anshun City, Cuizhou Province.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of agronomic traits of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm resources%蓖麻种质资源主要农艺性状的综合评价与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡学礼; 王沛琦; 胡尊红; 张锡顺; 杨谨; 严洪斌; 刘旭云

    2016-01-01

    For better utilization of castor ( Ricinus communis L.) germplasm resources,the principal component a⁃nalysis and cluster analysis were employed to analyze ten agronomic traits of fifty castor germplasm resources. Five principal components were defined with cumulative contribution of 91. 02%, representing yield component, growth potential, the number of capsules, plant height and the 100⁃kernel weight, respectively. Fifty germplasm resources were clustered into three categories. With the lowest productivity per plant, the first category could be used as a resource to breed dwarf stem and compact planting variety. The 100⁃kernel weight of the second category was the highest, and the category could be ap⁃plied to breed large⁃grain type variety. The third category showed the greatest number of main spike capsules, number of ef⁃fective spikes per plant, number of capsules per plant, and the productivity per plant, which could be used to breed high yield and middle⁃grain type variety.%为了加强蓖麻种质资源开发和利用,在对筛选出的50份优异蓖麻种质材料的10个主要农艺性状进行相关性分析的基础上进行主成分分析和聚类分析。确定了5个主成分,其累计贡献率为91�018%。5个主成分分别反映产量构成、植物长势、蒴果数、株高和百粒质量。把50份蓖麻种质聚类并划分为3大类群,第I类资源的单株生产力表现最低,可用于选育矮秆密植型品种;第II类资源百粒质量在3类材料中最高,表现较好,可用于选育大粒型品种;第III类资源的主穗蒴果数、单株有效穗数、单株蒴果数等性状都最高,单株生产力表现最好,可用于选育高产、中粒型的品种。

  5. Use of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. as a source of dietary protein in goats during the mating period: impact on reproductive and metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the total substitution of soybean meal with castor meal, detoxified or non-detoxified, on the response to estrous synchronization, conception rate, early fetal development, presence of IgG, and metabolic-hormonal response. Sixty mixed goats were fed diets without castor meal (WCM, with detoxified castor meal (DCM, and with castor meal (CM during early pregnancy. The goats had their estrous synchronized and were then submitted to the mating season. The number of fetuses was determined by ultrasonography after 25 days of mating and their development was followed until 60 days of gestation. Plasma levels of progesterone (P4, liver enzymes, and urea were determined along with the evaluation of the immunological response. After 15 days of experimental feeding, immunoglobulin G (IgG was detected by western blotting only in goats that received non-detoxified castor meal. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of type of diet on response to estrous synchronization, plasma P4 levels, conception rate, or embryonic/fetal development. In pregnant goats, there was an effect of diet (p 0.05. In addition, plasma levels of LDH in WCM goats and of urea in all types of diet were higher in non-pregnant goats than pregnant goats. In conclusion, it can be inferred that the inclusion of 15% castor meal, whether or not it is detoxified, to the diet of goats does not affect the reproductive performance, embryonic and early fetal development, or blood metabolites.

  6. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  7. Effect of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) aqueous extracts on the performance of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased concern for environmental and health hazards have called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean's crude extract and its five lower concentrations with water as control. In the in vitro studies, crude castor bean aqueous extract and 10, 20, 30 and 40% different concentrations with 100 root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles in separate Petri dishes showed that all the different concentrations had toxic effects on eggs and juveniles of root-knot nematode. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality increased with increased concentration of the extracts. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. In potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% caused significant improvement in plant growth measures such as height and fresh shoot weight over the water blank control. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field studies. Further work needs to be done before a firm recommendation can be made. (au)

  8. Evaluation of dentin cleansing by a detergent derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) used as root canal irrigant: a scanning electron miscroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Molteni Aguiar; Lilian Eiko Maekawa; Adriana Chung; Maria Renata Giazzi Nassri

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: To evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the cleaning of root canal walls after biomechanical preparation and irrigation with castor oil (Endoquil®) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Material and methods: Fifteen maxillary incisors were subjected to standardized root canal instrumentation with different irrigants (n = 5): G1 – Endoquil; G2 – 0.5% NaOCl; G3 – saline solution (control). After instrumentation, the teeth were prepared for SEM analysis (...

  9. Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Daniela; Cruz, Fernanda P; Espindola, Kauê; Mangeon, Amanda; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Corrêa, Régis L; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress.

  10. Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Daniela; Cruz, Fernanda P; Espindola, Kauê; Mangeon, Amanda; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Corrêa, Régis L; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress. PMID:27156134

  11. Forensic applications of light-element stable isotope ratios of Ricinus communis seeds and ricin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Helen W; West, Jason B; Ehleringer, James R

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin preparations can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples worldwide and measured the C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of the whole seeds and oil. We prepared ricin by three different procedures, acetone extraction, salt precipitation, and affinity chromatography, and compared their isotope ratios to those of the source seeds. The N isotope ratios of the ricin samples and source seeds were virtually identical. Therefore, N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pairwise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  12. Effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (Ricinus communis) on the oocyte yolk components of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-01-31

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus are bloodsucking ectoparasites, whose main host is the domestic dog, thus being present in urban areas and closely located to people. Eventually, this tick species parasitize humans and can become a potential vector of infectious diseases. Methods to control this type of pest have been the focus of many research groups worldwide. The use of natural products is increasingly considered nowadays, due to the low toxicity levels to the host and low waste generation to the environment. This study tested the effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (as an potential acaricide) on the reproductive system of R. sanguineus females, more specifically on the vitellogenesis process. For this, two groups were established: the control group (CG) and the treatment group (TG) with five rabbits in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. NaCl and ester were added to rabbits' food and offered to the hosts. After full engorgement, the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. The ticks ovaries were submitted to histochemical techniques so the effects of esters could be observed over polysaccharides, proteins and lipids yolk. Changes in the deposition of yolk components were observed. This caused modifications on elements of polysaccharide origin and on glycoprotein compounds, interfering in the final yolk synthesis and compromising the development of the future embryo.

  13. The reactive surface of Castor leaf [Ricinus communis L.] powder as a green adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from natural river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Amanda E.; Pereira, Milene S.; Jorgetto, Alexandre O.; Martines, Marco A. U.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a green adsorbent was successfully applied to remove toxic metals from aqueous solutions. Dried minced castor leaves were fractionated into 63-μm particles to perform characterization and extraction experiments. Absorption bands in FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) spectra at 1544, 1232 and 1350 cm-1 were assigned to nitrogen-containing groups. Elemental analysis showed high nitrogen and sulfur content: 5.76 and 1.93%, respectively. The adsorption kinetics for Cd(II) and Pb(II) followed a pseudo-second-order model, and no difference between the experimental and calculated Nf values (0.094 and 0.05 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively) was observed. The Ns values calculated using the modified Langmuir equation, 0.340 and 0.327 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, were superior to the results obtained for several materials in the literature. The method proposed in this study was applied to pre-concentrate (45-fold enrichment factor) and used to measure Cd(II) and Pb(II) in freshwater samples from the Paraná River. The method was validated through a comparative analysis with a standard reference material (1643e).

  14. Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-05-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other forms of controlling these ectoparasites. R. sanguineus was artificially infested in host New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into four treatment groups: control (CG1 and CG2) and treatment (TG1 and TG2) groups. TG1 and TG2 hosts were provided with feed supplemented with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil at a concentration of 5 g/kg of feed for 7 and 15 days. Afterward, the ovaries of the female ticks were removed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed ultrastructural changes in the somatic and germ cells of ovaries from TG1 and TG2 females, particularly with respect to chorion deposition, a protective membrane of the oocyte, as well as in the transport process of vitellogenic materials via the hemolymph and pedicel cells. Moreover, the mitochondria were less electron-dense and had cristae that were more disorganized than the mitochondria from CG1 and CG2 individuals. Thus, this study demonstrated the action of esters on the ovaries of R. sanguineus, signaling the prospect of a way to control this ectoparasite without affecting nontarget organisms or the environment.

  15. Time-course proteome analysis of developing extrafloral nectaries of Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mohibullah; Teixeira, Fabiano M; Soares, Emanoella L; Soares, Arlete A; Carvalho, Paulo C; Domont, Gilberto B; Thornburg, Robert W; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Campos, Francisco A P

    2016-02-01

    Floral and extrafloral nectaries are unique organs that secrete energy rich chemical components, but their contribution for nectar production is largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative proteome dataset of four developmental stages of the extrafloral nectaries from castor plant (Ricinus communis), an important biofuel crop. Respectively, from stage I-IV, we identified 626, 613, 449 and 356 proteins, respectively, summing up 882 nonredundant proteins. Surprisingly, we identified two isoforms of the potent toxin ricin, indicating that ricin expression is not limited to seeds, but it may serve a general defense purpose for the castor plant. To date, this is the most complete dataset of proteins either from floral or extrafloral nectaries, thus contributing to lay the foundations for investigations on their ecological and evolutionary importance.

  16. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  17. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  18. Evaluation of automated and manual DNA purification methods for detecting Ricinus communis DNA during ricin investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Anne S; Astwood, Michael J; Saah, J Royden; Michel, Pierre A; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2014-03-01

    In April of 2013, letters addressed to the President of United States and other government officials were intercepted and found to be contaminated with ricin, heightening awareness about the need to evaluate laboratory methods for detecting ricin. This study evaluated commercial DNA purification methods for isolating Ricinus communis DNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four commercially available DNA purification methods (two automated, MagNA Pure compact and MagNA Pure LC, and two manual, MasterPure complete DNA and RNA purification kit and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit) were evaluated. We compared their ability to purify detectable levels of R. communis DNA from four different sample types, including crude preparations of ricin that could be used for biological crimes or acts of bioterrorism. Castor beans, spiked swabs, and spiked powders were included to simulate sample types typically tested during criminal and public health investigations. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the QIAamp kit resulted in the greatest sensitivity for ricin preparations; the MasterPure kit performed best with spiked powders. The four methods detected equivalent levels by real-time PCR when castor beans and spiked swabs were used. All four methods yielded DNA free of PCR inhibitors as determined by the use of a PCR inhibition control assay. This study demonstrated that DNA purification methods differ in their ability to purify R. communis DNA; therefore, the purification method used for a given sample type can influence the sensitivity of real-time PCR assays for R. communis.

  19. Influência da concentração de NaCl e pH na extração de ricina em torta de mamona (Ricinus communis L. e sua caracterização por eletroforese Influence of NaCl and pH concentration on the extraction of ricin in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and its characterization by electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Amorim Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é uma oleaginosa de alto valor econômico pelo fato de apresentar um mercado bem definido para o óleo extraído de suas sementes. A torta, que é um resíduo desta extração, se destaca pelo alto teor em proteínas. Dentre as proteínas encontradas na torta destaca-se a ricina, uma citotoxina, que inviabiliza sua utilização como fonte protéica alternativa para alimentação animal. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar um melhor tratamento experimental para a extração de ricina da torta de mamona, visando futuros estudos de perda de integridade da ricina, o que garantiria a inocuidade do produto. Para tanto, buscou-se identificar a solução de maior capacidade de extração de proteínas, empregando a metodologia de superfície de resposta. Um delineamento composto central rotacional foi elaborado a fim de verificar o melhor pH e concentração de NaCl para a extração. Dos cinco diferentes valores de pH (4,0; 4,6; 6,0; 7,4; 8,0 e concentração de NaCl (0,0M; 0,3M; 1,0M; 1,7M; 2,0M utilizados, o tratamento associando fosfato de potássio 0,2M/NaCl 1,7M pH 7,4 foi escolhido como o melhor. A concentração de proteína extraída neste tratamento chegou a valores quatro vezes maiores que o encontrado no de mínima extração de proteína. Pela evidenciação do gel de eletroforese não houve extração preferencial de ricina nos tratamentos testados, entretanto etapas de purificação usando diálise e precipitação com sulfato de amônio, permitiram uma evidenciação melhor das duas cadeias polipeptídicas de ricina.Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed crop of high economic value due to the fact of presenting a clearly defined market for the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor cake, which is a residue of oil extraction, is at the moment receiving special attention because of its high protein content. However, among the proteins found in this cake it is observed the presence of

  20. Studies on Ricinus Lipase Enzyme Isolated from Castor Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Srivastava; Rashmi Mohan Mathur; Rachna Prakash; Shashi Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Healthy and bold seeds of castor variety “Aruna“ were collected. The de-hulled castor kernels were separated from seed coat and finely grounded in an electric grinder. The powdered kernels were passed through 60 mesh sieve and defatted using n-hexane in a soxhlet extractor. After complete extraction of oil seed meal was made free from solvent at low temperature. The defatted seed meal was pulverized and again passed through 60-mesh sieve to get final product .The RICINUS LIPASE source thus, o...

  1. Ricinus communis L. A Value Added Crop for Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Kripal; Singh, Rana P

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a global environmental problem and therefore its remediation is of paramount importance. Cadmium (Cd) is a potential toxicant to living organisms and even at very low concentrations. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of Ricinus communis for remediation of Cd contaminated soils. For this, growth and biomass of R. communis and Cd accumulation, translocation and partitioning in different plant parts were investigated after 8 months of plant growth in Cd contaminated soil (17.50 mg Cd kg−1 soil). Eight months old plants stabilized 51 % Cd in its roots and rest of the metal was transferred to the stem and leaves. There were no significant differences in growth, biomass and yield between control and Cd treated plants, except fresh weight of shoots. The seed yield per plant was reduced only by 5 % of Cd contaminated plants than control. The amount of Cd translocated to the castor seeds was nominal i.e. 0.007 µg Cd g−1 seeds. The bioconcentration factor reduced significantly in shoots and seeds in comparison to roots. The data indicates that R. communis is highly tolerant to Cd contamination and can be used for remediation of heavy metal polluted sites.

  2. IMUNIDADE CRUZADA PELAS SEMENTES DE Abrus precatorius E Ricinus communis EM BOVINOS Crossimmunity by the seeds of Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-01-01

    ão imunizados, demonstrando que a imunidade conferida pela ricina não inibe a ação da ricinina, o principio tóxico das folhas e do pericarpo.Five bovines immunized against the toxicity of the seeds of Abrus precatorius L. (jequiriti bean did not get poisoned or only slightly so when the seeds of Ricinus communis L. (castor bean were given in amounts that in bovines, which never before ingested the seeds of A. precatorius or R. communis, caused moderate to severe poisoning or even death. A sixth bovine, which was not well immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of A. precatorius, was severely poisoned when given a high dose of the seeds of R. communis. On the other side, from five bovines immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of R. communis four were severely poisoned and the fifth one moderately when the seeds of A. precatorius were given in doses that in bovines, which never before ingested seeds of R. communis or A. precatorius, caused slight to severe poisoning. It is concluded that bovines immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of A. precatorius are resistant to the toxic action of the seeds of R. communis, but that the contrary is not the case; this is, bovines immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of R. communis were not protected against the poisoning by A. precatorius. Earlier studies by other authors had shown that the toxalbumins of the seeds of A. precatorius and R. communis, respectively abrin and ricin, are different as to their antigenic properties. A possible explanation for the difference in results can be.that in the present study polygastric animals were used which received the seeds orally, but in the earlier studies monogastric animals received the seeds or toxins by parenteral route. The administration of the fresh leaves or the pericarp of the fruits R. communis to bovines, which had been immunized against the action of the seeds of the plant, had the same toxic effect as to not immunized animals, showing that the

  3. Physicochemical characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and oil contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a rigorous study and characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and its respective extracted oil. Several physical–chemical properties were measured in order to know moisture, total lipid content, fiber content, starch presence, morphology, acidity, free fatty acid profile, ricinoleic acid content, viscosity and crude oil density. Three different methodologies were implemented for the oil extraction in each variety (extraction with chemical solvents and mechanical compression heated and non-heated). The yield percentage of the oil extraction was evaluated as well as the extraction method influence over the oil's nature. -- Highlights: ► We characterized seven different Castor seeds and oils from semi deserted region. ► We evaluate the performance of three different methods to obtain Castor Oils. ► It was found that the density and fatty acid profile depend on the method of extraction. ► According to x-ray diffraction experiments no crystalline compounds were found in the defatted mass. ► The viscosity of the Castor Oils was strongly influence by the extractive method

  4. Comparison of chelates for enhancing Ricinus communis L. phytoremediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Guangxin; Wang, Xin; Shao, Chunyan

    2016-11-01

    We studied chelate effects on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth. These effects included Cd and Pb accumulation in plant tissues and the chemical behavior of Cd and Pb in the plant rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Tests were conducted in a glasshouse using the rhizobag method. Two castor bean cultivars (Zibo-3 and Zibo-9) were grown in soil contaminated with 3.53mg/kg Cd and 274mg/kg Pb. The soil was treated with citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5mmol/kg). EDDS-treated soil produced 28.8% and 59.4% greater biomass for Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 respectively. In contrast, CA and EDTA inhibited the growth of the two cultivars. Zibo-9 had greater tolerance than Zibo-3 to chelate toxicity. Based on Cd and Pb plant uptake, EDDS could substitute for EDTA for phytoremediation of Cd in soil. EDTA was the most effective of the three chelates for Pb phytoremediation but it is less suitable for field use due to toxicology environmental persistence. Acid extractable Cd and Pb in the rhizosphere or reducible Cd and Pb in the non-rhizosphere of soil were the main influences on Cd and Pb accumulation in castor bean.

  5. [Control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Fei-Long; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2011-11-01

    Toxicity test and pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activity and control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita. The results showed that both the ricinine and the R. communis water extracts had high nematocidal activity. The ricinine at concentration 2 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, leading to 91.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita and with the LC50 being 0.6 g x L(-1), whereas the R. communis water extracts at concentration 100 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, which led to 83.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita, and the LC50 was 18.3 g x L(-1). With the inoculation of M. incognita treated with ricinine, R. communis water extracts, and R. communis leaf powder, respectively, on tomato seedlings, the mean number of plant root-knots was 17.6 +/- 1.7, 20.6 +/- 1.5 and 22.8 +/- 3.7, respectively, being significantly lower than the control (37.4 +/- 2.3), and the root length increased by 46.8%, 34.5% and 33.8%, and the plant height increased by 33.5%, 22.6% and 15.8%, and the fresh mass increased by 41.4%, 18.9% and 10.1%, respectively, compared with the control. All the results suggested that R. communis extracts could mitigate the harm of M. incognita, and had obvious effects on potted tomato against M. incognita.

  6. Quantification of ricin, RCA and comparison of enzymatic activity in 18 Ricinus communis cultivars by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, David M; McWilliams, Lisa G; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Prezioso, Samantha M; Carter, Andrew J; Williamson, Yulanda M; McGrath, Sara C; Morse, Stephen A; Barr, John R

    2015-03-01

    The seeds of the Ricinus communis (Castor bean) plant are the source of the economically important commodity castor oil. Castor seeds also contain the proteins ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA), two toxic lectins that are hazardous to human health. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two antibody-based methods commonly used to quantify ricin and RCA; however, antibodies currently used in these methods cannot distinguish between ricin and RCA due to the high sequence homology of the respective proteins. In this study, a technique combining antibody-based affinity capture with liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify the amounts of ricin and RCA independently in extracts prepared from the seeds of eighteen representative cultivars of R. communis which were propagated under identical conditions. Additionally, liquid chromatography and MRM-MS was used to determine rRNA N-glycosidase activity for each cultivar and the overall activity in these cultivars was compared to a purified ricin standard. Of the cultivars studied, the average ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g seed, and the enzymatic activity agreed with the activity of a purified ricin reference within 35% relative activity.

  7. Ricinus communis treatment of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, L A P; Montandon, A A B; Corbi, S C T; Moraes, T A; Fais, L M G

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Ricinus communis (RC) with Nystatin (NYS) and Miconazole (MIC) in the treatment of institutionalised elderly with denture stomatitis (DS). They (n = 30) were randomly distributed into three groups: MIC, NYS or RC. Clinical and mycological evaluations were performed prior to the use of the antifungal (baseline) and repeated after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The sample was clinically examined for oral mucosal conditions. Standard photographs were taken of the palate, and the oral candidiasis was classified (Newton's criteria). Mycological investigation was performed by swabbing the palatal mucosa, and Candida spp. were quantified by counting the number of colony-forming units (cfu mL⁻¹). The clinical and mycological data were analysed, respectively by Wilcoxon and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Significant improvement in the clinical appearance of DS in the MIC and RC groups was observed between the 1st and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011) as well as between the 2nd and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011). Neither groups showed a statistically significant reduction in cfu mL⁻¹ at any time. Although none of the treatments decreased the cfu mL⁻¹, it was concluded that Ricinus communis can improve the clinical condition of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly patients, showing similar results to Miconazole.

  8. Tolerance of Ricinus communis L. to Cd and screening of high Cd accumulation varieties for remediation of Cd contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Shen, Chuang; Yang, Zhongyi; Lin, Biyun; Yuan, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) to cadmium (Cd) was assessed by a seed-suspending seedbed approach. Length of total radicle was the most sensitive indicator of Cd tolerance among the tested germination and growth characters. The ED50 value for Cd was 11.87 mg L(-1), indicating high Cd tolerance in castor. A pot experiment was conducted by growing 46 varieties of castor under CK (without Cd) and Cd1 (10 mg kg(-1) of Cd) and Cd2 (50 mg kg(-1) of Cd) treatments to investigate genotype variations in growth response and Cd accumulation of castor under different Cd exposures. Castor possessed high Cd accumulation ability; average shoot and root Cd concentrations of the 46 tested varieties were 21.83 and 185.43 mg kg(-1), and 174.99 and 1181.96 mg kg(-1) under Cd1 and Cd2, respectively. Great variation in Cd accumulation was observed among varieties, and Cd concentration of castor was genotype dependent. The correlation between biomass and Cd accumulation was significantly positive, while no significant correlation was observed between Cd concentration and Cd accumulation, which indicated that biomass performance is the dominant factor in determining Cd accumulation ability.

  9. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ijaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

  10. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Loo, F.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Broun, P.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1995-07-18

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with {approx}67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Análise macroscópica e histológica do emprego da poliuretana derivada do óleo de mamona (Ricinus communis aplicada na tíbia de cães em fase de crescimento Macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations of the use of polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis applied in the tibia of the puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Popak Maria

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da poliuretana de mamona aplicada ao osso de cães em crescimento. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 12 cães subdivididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos, os quais receberam o implante de mamona na face medial proximal da tíbia, com análise macroscópica e histopatológica aos 30 (GIII, 60 (GII e 90 (GI dias. RESULTADOS: A poliuretana foi recoberta por uma cápsula conjuntiva fibrosa, não ocorrendo proliferação óssea ao seu redor. CONCLUSÃO: A poliuretana é biocompatível, comportando-se como espaçador biológico em cães. Nesta espécie não ocorre a osteointegração.PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of castor oil derived poliurethane, when applied to bones of puppies. METHODS: Twelve dogs, randomly divided in 3 groups, received a castor oil derived poliurethane at the medial side of the proximal tibia. Gross and histopathologic evaluations were performed at 30 (GIII, 60 (GII and 90 (GI days. RESULTS: The poliurethane was enclosed in a connective fibrous tissue capsule and there was no new bone formation around it. CONCLUSION: The castor oil derived poliurethane is biocompatible and behaves as a biological "stand off" in dogs. Osteointegration does not occur in this species.

  12. Standardization parameters and HPTLC fingerprinting of the roots of Ricinus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Mittal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae, known as castor plant, is widespread throughout tropical regions of India and grows as an annual or perennial soft wooded small tree. A decoction of the root is administered to relieve lumbago, and a root paste is applied to alleviate toothache. The roots contained glycosides, phenolic compounds, steroids and acidic components. The root bark of R. communis furnished 5.74% of the total ash, 2.03% of the acid insoluble ash and 2.98% of the water soluble ash. There was 9.46 % of water content. Successive extraction of the roots (50 g yielded 0.362 g, 0.482 g, 1.243 g and 2.643 g of the extracts in petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. Individual extractions of the roots (15 g with these solvents produced 0.235 g, 0.727 g, 7.425 g and 12.017 g of the extracts, respectively. Fluorescence behavior of powdered root bark of R. communis indicated that the light yellow powder of the bark powder changed to black at max 366 nm. Among the nine elements, calcium (350.45 ppm was present in the maximum amount followed by followed by potassium (330.50 ppm, magnesium (230.68 ppm and cadmium (198.57 ppm. Sodium (56.26 ppm and lead (8.18 ppm were detected in trace amounts. The HPTLC scanning of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of the roots exhibited 5, 4 and 4 major bands, respectively.

  13. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  14. Survey of the castor bean production (Ricinus communis L. in a collection of producers from five counties of Bahia State. = Levantamento da produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L. em uma amostra de produtores em cinco municípios do Estado da Bahia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paula Queiroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the situation of the culture of castor bean from a collection of producers located in five counties of Bahia state, highlighting the technical conditions of production and commercialization of the product, beyond its social aspects. Twenty-five castor bean producers were interviewed during the 2005 agricultural year by a team of researchers from the Embrapa Cotton. A present questionnaire with 15 variable questions pertaining to agro-economic and social-economic was applied to producers with the objective to diagnose the agricultural social-economic profiles of theproducers of castor bean that are used for the production of berries to be used within the energy market of the Program of Biodiesel and Ricin chemistry. Data analysis concluded that the family farmers of Bahia have the culture of castor oil as, a major source of income, but the cultivation techniques, promising cultivars, and oil content are underutilized. It was shown that a technology gap can be solved by a adopting a differential pricing policy that is based on a feasibility comprehensive recovery program that increases the ricin culture productivity throughout the production chain, reduce costs, and increase the oil content of cultivars.ResumoObjetivou-se com este estudo verificar a situação da cultura da mamona em uma amostra de produtores levantados em cinco municípios localizados no noroeste do estado da Bahia (São Gabriel, Irecê, Lapão, Ibititá e Cafarnaum, destacando-se as condições técnicas de produção e de comercialização do produto, além dos seus aspectos sociais. Um total de 25 produtores de mamona foi entrevistado no ano agrícola de 2005, por uma equipe de pesquisadores da Embrapa Algodão. Um questionário preestabelecido com 15 variáveis agronômicas e socioecononômicas foi aplicado junto aos produtores, visando o diagnóstico do perfil agrossocioeconômico dos produtores de mamona que estão destinando sua

  15. 蓖麻限制性酶解蛋白功能特性和抗氧化活性研究%Evaluation of physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of limited hydrolysis castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽娜; 许婷婷; 张玉凤; 孙杰; 毕洁; 张初署

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of limited hydrolysis castor bean proteins and provide a new way for the further development and utilization of castor bean protein. Methods Using castor seeds as the raw material, castor bean concentrated protein was obtained through steps of grinding, degreasing, ethanol extraction, boiling water detoxication and freeze-drying consistently. Five kinds of limited hydrolysis castor bean proteins were achieved by alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex, neutral protease and papain hydrolysis. And physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities were investigated. Result The results showed that castor bean protein was white and non-smell with its protein and fat content 73.08% and 1.13%, respectively. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of castor bean protein were increased after limited hydrolysis. The order of physicochemical properties of 5 kinds of limited hydrolysis castor bean protein was protamex, neutral protease, papain, alcalase and flavourzyme;the order of antioxidant activities was protamex, flavourzyme, neutral protease, alcalase and papain. Conclusion Therefore, the limited hydrolysis castor bean proteins with best physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities can be obtained from protamex limited hydrolysis process.%目的:研究蓖麻限制性酶解蛋白的功能特性和抗氧化活性,为进一步开发利用蓖麻蛋白提供一条新途径。方法以蓖麻子为原料,通过粉碎、脱脂、乙醇洗涤、沸水脱毒、冷冻干燥等操作步骤制备蓖麻浓缩蛋白,再分别用碱性蛋白酶(alcalase)、风味蛋白酶(flavourzyme)、复合蛋白酶(protamex)、中性蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶水解得到5种蓖麻限制性酶解蛋白,并进行功能性质和抗氧化活性研究。结果蓖麻浓缩蛋白色泽洁白、无异味,其蛋白含量为73.08%,脂肪含量为1.13%,是一种优质的植物蛋白;蓖

  16. Toxin content of commercial castor cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The castor plant Ricinus communis L. is the source of castor oil which has numerous uses and is a key chemical feedstock for an array of products from polymers to cosmetics. Although castor was once widely grown throughout the world, the presence of the toxic protein ricin has deterred the re-introd...

  17. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants.

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Fernandez, L.G.; Delmondez de Castro, R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing enviro

  19. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarai Zied

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50 were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  20. Molecular characterization of a lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase gene belonging to the MBOAT family in Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Caro, José María; Chileh, Tarik; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2013-07-01

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT, EC 2.3.1.23) catalyzes acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho) to produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), the main phospholipid in cellular membranes. This reaction is a key component of the acyl-editing process, involving recycling of the fatty acids (FA) mainly at the sn-2 position of PtdCho. Growing evidences indicate that the LPCAT reaction controls the direct entry of newly synthesized FA into PtdCho and, at least in some plant species, it has an important impact on the synthesis and composition of triacylglycerols. Here we describe the molecular characterization of the single LPCAT gene found in the genome of Ricinus communis (RcLPCAT) that is homologous to LPCAT genes of the MBOAT family previously described in Arabidopsis and Brassica. RcLPCAT is ubiquitously expressed in all organs of the castor plant. Biochemical properties have been studied by heterologous expression of RcLPCAT in the ale1 yeast mutant, defective in lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity. RcLPCAT preferentially acylates lysoPtdCho against other lysophospholipids (lysoPL) and does not discriminates the acyl chain in the acceptor, displaying a strong activity with alkyl lysoPL. Regarding the acyl-CoA donor, RcLPCAT uses monounsaturated fatty acid thioesters, such as oleoyl-CoA (18:1-CoA), as preferred donors, while it has a low activity with saturated fatty acids and shows a poor utilization of ricinoleoyl-CoA (18:1-OH-CoA). These characteristics are discussed in terms of a possible role of RcLPCAT in regulating the entry of FA into PtdCho and the exclusion from the membranes of the hydroxylated FA.

  1. 蓖麻的发展与栽培%Development and Cultivation of Ricinus communis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余艳琳; 朱恒; 于宏; 徐福华

    2014-01-01

    蓖麻的种植和利用历史已经有1400多年。如今蓖麻及其相关产品的发展也日新月异,蓖麻产业有着极大的发展前景。因而,蓖麻产业的发展特色及蓖麻的种植技术急需普及。%It has been more than 1 400 years for the cultivation and history of Ricinus communis. The development in R. communis and the related products have changed quickly. The industry of R. communis has tremendous development. The developing characters and cultivation technology of R. communis were introduced in this paper.

  2. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  3. [Terpenoids and sterols from Ricinus communis and their activities against diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shen-Hua; Deng, Qing; Zhu, Li; Lai, Chun-Hua; Wang, Heng-Shan; Tan, Qin-Gang

    2014-02-01

    Seven terpenoids and three sterols were isolated from the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Ricinus communis by chromatography methods and their structures were identified by spectra analysis as ficusic acid( 1), phytol(2), callyspinol(3) , lupeol(4), 30-norlupan-3beta-ol-20-one(5) , lup-20(29)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol(6) , acetylaleuritolic acid( 7), stigmast4-en-3-one(8) , stig-mast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one(9) , and stigmast4-en-3,6-dione(10). Compounds 1-3 and 5-10 were obtained from this species for the first time and 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitive activity and good selectivity against 11beta-HSD of mouse and human in vitro. [Key words] Ricinus communis; terpenoids; sterols; 11beta-HSD

  4. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rongfei Wei; Qingjun Guo; Hanjie Wen; Congqiang Liu; Junxing Yang; Marc Peters; Jian Hu; Guangxu Zhu; Hanzhi Zhang; Liyan Tian; Xiaokun Han; Jie Ma; Chuanwei Zhu; Yingxin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively cou...

  5. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  6. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabia Naz; Asghari Bano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods:Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results:Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions: The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  7. Synthesis of carboxylate complexes and evaluation of their catalytic activities for polyesterification of castor oil (Ricinum communis with terephthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ulisses Xavier Peres

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of castor oil (Ricinus communis has been pointed out as an interesting alternative to produce several polymers obtained from step-growth polymerization and are suitable to be used as resins and coatings. The ricinoleate metal complexes Ni[C17H34(OHCOO]2, Sn[C17H34(OHCOO]2, Co[C17H34(OHCOO]2 and Fe[C17H34(OHCOO]2 have been prepared and used as catalyst precursors for polyesterification of castor oil and terephthalic acid (TFA. The observed catalytic activity decreased in the order: Fe[C17H34(OHCOO]2 > Co[C17H34(OHCOO]2 > Sn[C17H34(OHCOO]2 > Ni[C17H34(OHCOO]2. The new polymeric materials did not show homogeneity in their chains, as indicated by their high polydispersity. Indeed, the polydispersity index value varied from 5.49 for the polymer produced in the presence of the nickel complex to 12.42 for these prepared with the cobalt compound. On the other hand, the final material presented high molecular weight, being the lower value (Mw = 13400 Da observed for the polymer prepared with the nickel complex and the highest (Mw = 36400 Da verified for the one obtained with the cobalt compound. It was observed only a glass transition temperature for all the materials, suggesting an amorphous structure of polymeric chains.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of an experimental dentifrice based on Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Pinheiro, Juliana Barchelli; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Watanabe, Evandro; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Lovato-Silva, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a Ricinus communis-based experimental dentifrice for denture hygiene against the following standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was performed with R. communis in pure oil at 2.5%. Only E. coli was not inhibited by R. communis, but the MIC (0.0781%) was effective against the other microorganisms. From these results it was determined the R. communis concentrations for experimental dentifrices, 1, 2, 5 and 10%, which were evaluated by the test-well diffusion in agar. The commercial dentifrices Colgate, Trihydral and Corega Brite were tested for comparative purposes. The diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a rule under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Neither the commercial nor the experimental dentifrices were effective against E. coli. The experimental dentifrices containing R. communis at 2, 5 and 10% presented action against S. mutans, S. aureaus and E. faecallis. The experimental dentifrices showed no antimicrobial activity against Candida spp. and E. coli in any of the tested concentrations. Trihydral was the most effective. Comparing the experimental dentifrices, the product with 10% R. communis produced the largest zones of bacterial growth inhibition and had similar antimicrobial activity to the commercial dentifrices, except against S. aureus.

  9. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Kristine M Jones; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae geno...

  10. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent.

  11. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  12. Ricinus communis-based biopolymer and epidermal growth factor regulations on bone defect repair: A rat tibia model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Altuzar, V.; Tomás, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of the addition of an epidermal growth factor to a Ricinus communis-based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model. Bone repair and osteointegration after a period of three weeks were evaluated employing photoacoustic spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. A parallel study was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that the use of an epidermal growth factor (group EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair in comparison with other groups, and that the employment of the Ricinus communis-based biopolymer as a bone substitute decreases bone production.

  13. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.

  14. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pooja; Jyotshna; Gupta, Namita; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of Ricinus communis root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of compounds. Purification of the n-hexane fraction led to the isolation and characterisation of two triterpenes: one known compound lupeol (1) and a new diketone pentacyclic triterpene named as erandone (urs-6-ene-3,16-dione) (2), from the plant. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic techniques. Crude methanolic, enriched n-hexane fraction and isolates at doses 100 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model.

  15. Exploration of larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activities of Ricinus communis seed extract against three potential mosquito vectors in Kolkata, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activities of castor (Ricinus communis) seed extract against three potential mosquito vectorsAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) andAedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) in India.Methods: TheR. communis seed extract was tested, employingWHO procedure, against fourth larval instars of the three mosquito species for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (2-64 μg/mL); the 24 hLC50 values of theR. communis seed extract were determined following Probit analysis. The larval killing, antipupation and adult emergence inhibition rates of the test extract, using a single concentration of2μLC50, were studied at different time periods (24-72 h); the extract toxicity was tested against a fish,Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus).Results: TheR. communis seed extract exhibited larvicidal effects with 100 % killing activities at concentrations32-64 μg/mL, and withLC50values 7.10, 11.64 and 16.84μg/mL forCx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensiand Ae. albopictuslarvae, respectively. When the larvae were treated with the extract at a single concentration of2×LC50, significant differences were observed, compared to control groups, in rate of pupation (P<0.001) as well as in adult formation (P<0.001).Conclusions: The present findings suggest that theR. communis seed extract provided an excellent potential for controllingAn. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. albopictus mosquito vectors.

  16. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharma, Gyan P

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the phenotypic variation among Ricinus communis L. populations in four urban habitat types (road verges, garbage dumps, construction debris, and natural area) in Delhi, India, by evaluating important traits such as plant height, basal circumference, seeds per plant, seed size, seed weight, specific leaf area, and reproductive index. An important biochemical marker, proline, considered as a good plant performance indicator under stress was also quantified in leaves of R. communis to evaluate its response in different habitats. Interestingly, the species showed significant variation in plant height, specific leaf area, seed size, seed weight, and leaf proline content in different habitat types. Leaf proline content was positively related to plant height, specific leaf area, and seed size while negatively related to the total number of seeds/plant. Interestingly, reproductive index, calculated as a ratio of the total number of seeds to the plant height also showed a negative relation with leaf proline content. Results indicated that R. communis exhibits adaptive modulation of growth, reproductive traits, and leaf proline content in various urban habitats which contributes to invasiveness, range expansion, and establishment of the species. The study also gives evidence of how morphological and physiological traits could directly affect invasiveness of R. communis.

  17. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  18. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  19. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  20. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  1. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Zanotti, R.F.; Deflers, C.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R.

  2. Metabolite profiling of Ricinus communis germination at different temperatures provides new insights into thermo-mediatedrequirements for successful seedling establishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Willems, L.A.J.; Mutimawurugo, M.C.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis seeds germinate to a high percentage and faster at 35¿C than at lower temperatures, butwith compromised seedling establishment. However, seedlings are able to cope with high temperaturesat later stages of seedling establishment if germination occurred at lower temperatures. Our obje

  3. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed analysis of physiological, bioc

  4. Effects of cold-girdling on flows in the transport phloem in Ricinus communis: is mass flow ihibited?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuke, A.D.; Windt, C.W.; As, van H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of cold girdling of the transport phloem at the hypocotyl of Ricinus communis on solute and water transport were investigated. Effects on the chemical composition of saps of phloem and xylem as well as of stem tissue were studied by conventional techniques and the water flow in the phloe

  5. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  6. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-04-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.

  7. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Bioactivity of the Stable Peptide RCB-1 from Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldbaatar, Delgerbat; Gunasekera, Sunithi; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-11-25

    The Ricinus communis biomarker peptides RCB-1 to -3 comprise homologous sequences of 19 (RCB-1) or 18 (RCB-2 and -3) amino acid residues. They all include four cysteine moieties, which form two disulfide bonds. However, neither the 3D structure nor the biological activity of any of these peptides is known. The synthesis of RCB-1, using microwave-assisted, Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, and a method for its oxidative folding are reported. The tertiary structure of RCB-1, subsequently established using solution-state NMR, reveals a twisted loop fold with antiparallel β-sheets reinforced by the two disulfide bonds. Moreover, RCB-1 was tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, as well as in a serum stability assay, in which it proved to be remarkably stable.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2015-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  9. Oil content among the diverse castor genetic resources in the U.S. collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains oil used for medicine, as an ingredient in shampoo, soap, hand lotion, high-speed lubricants, and as a coating material. Due to its high oil content, oil derived from castor seeds is currently proposed to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The USDA...

  10. An experimental evaluation of in vitro immunomodulatory activity of isolated compound of Ricinus communis on human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the in vitro immunomodulatory activity of Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae was determined on human neutrophils. The isolated compound (tannin of R. communis leaves was screened for its possible immunomodulatory activity by carrying out nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans, neutrophil locomotion and chemotaxis. The isolated compound was tested at concentrations, viz. 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml. The isolated compound of R. communis showed predominantly significant activity on human neutrophils in all the parameters tested, which was comparable to the standard and control at different concentrations, indicating the possible immunostimulating effect.

  11. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS ASOCIADOS A RESIDUOS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cabra Cendales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo fue aislar e identificar los microorganismos presentes en los residuos de fruto y torta de higuerilla (Ricinus communis. Se utilizaron medios de cultivo selectivos para la caracterización morfológica y bioquímica y para la identificación molecular se usó la técnica de PCR con oligonucleótidos universales RM y RB del gen 16S para bacterias y secuencias intergénicas ITS1 e ITS4 para hongos y levaduras. Las secuencias fueron analizadas identificándose nueve especies de hongos, siendo Penicillium brevicompactum predominante; 12 especies de bacterias, donde el género más recurrente fue Bacillus sp. y dos especies de levaduras, Rhodosporidium paludigenum y Pichia burtonni. La identificación de la microbiota nativa presente en los residuos de higuerilla es muy promisoria, aportando un amplio conocimiento sobre la versatilidad metabólica de cada una de las cepas aisladas. El mayor número de aislamientos se obtuvieron de la torta probablemente debido al alto contenido de nutrientes presentes en este residuo.

  12. acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and insecticidal activity of an endophytic Alternaria sp. from Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bahaderjeet; Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Chadha, B S; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2012-11-01

    Keeping in view the vast potential of endophytic fungi to produce bioactive molecules, this study aimed at isolating and screening endophytes for the production of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Fifty-four endophytic fungi were isolated from Ricinus communis and screened for their AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric assay method. Six isolates were found to possess AChE inhibitory activity with maximum inhibition of 78 % being evinced by culture Cas1 which was identified to be Alternaria sp. on the basis of molecular as well as microscopic methods. Optimization of inhibitor production was carried out using one factor at a time approach. Maximum production of inhibitor was obtained on potato dextrose broth after 10 days incubation. The IC(50) of the chloroform extract was observed to be 40 μg/ml. The extract was purified on silica gel and eluted stepwise with a gradient of chloroform/methanol. The insecticidal potential of the extract was evaluated by feeding the larvae of Spodoptera litura on diet containing varying concentrations of the extract. It was observed that with increase in the concentration of the extract, mortality of the larvae increased. The culture has the potential of being exploited in medicine as well as a biocontrol agent.

  13. The Effect of Experimental Denture Cleanser Solution Ricinus communis on Acrylic Resin Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Xavier Pisani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated heat-polymerized (HPR and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins (MPR, after immersion in water, 1% hypochlorite and Ricinus communis solution (RC. Knoop hardness, color alteration, roughness and flexural strength tests were performed after obtaining the specimens and after time intervals of 15 (T15 and 183 (T183 days. Variations in data (Δ were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (P = 0.05. For ΔT15 HPR there was greater variation in hardness when immersed in water (P = 0.00 and for MPR, after immersion in RC (P = 0.00. RC caused the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.015. Color alteration was not significant (P = 24.46. Hypochlorite caused a decrease in flexural strength (P = 0.37. After ΔT183, hypochlorite and RC caused a decrease in HPR hardness value (P = 0.00. MPR showed the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.01. HPR presented the most color alteration after immersion in RC (P = 0.214. Hypochlorite and RC caused the lowest flexural strength values for MPR (P = 0.89. RC caused alterations in resin properties, and was not shown to be superior to hypochlorite.

  14. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots. PMID:19968824

  15. Isolamento do alcalóide ricinina das folhas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae através de cromatografias em contracorrente Isolation of the alkaloid ricinine from the leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae through counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Leite

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet counter-current chromatography, rotation locular counter-current chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to the preparative separation of the alkaloid ricinine from the dichloromethane extracts of Ricinus communis leaves. The solvent system used was composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (93:35:72 v/v/v and all techniques led to the isolation of large amounts of the alkaloid. The best result was obtained through HSCCC, since the ricinine yield was respectively 50% and 30% higher than when using RLCCC or DCCC.

  16. A review on the challenges for increassed production of castor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil produced by castor (Ricinus communis) is an important raw material for chemical industry for its unique properties such as the only commercial source of a hydroxilated fatty acid that composes around 90% of the oil. This crop has a remarkable potential for increasing importance as a raw mate...

  17. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. PMID:24446756

  18. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  19. TOLERÂNCIA DE MAMONA (Ricinus communis A HERBICIDAS UTILIZADOS NA CULTURA DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR

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    Andrea Aparecida de Padua Mathias Azania

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ricinus communis is favored in sugarcane harvested without prior burning.However, management is not satisfactory in most sugar cane plantations, even when using the chemicalmanagement. The tolerance may be the plants origin, which can be derived from cultivated or wild plant. Thisexperiment aimed to evaluate the tolerance of Ricinus communis plants wild and farmed to the herbicidesrecommended for sugarcane management. The cultivars used in the experiment were IAC 80, IAC 2028, IACGuarani and wild and the herbicides sulfentrazone (800 g ha-1, imazapic (147 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (112 g ha-1,clomazone (1100 g ha-1 and ametryn (1460 g ha-1 trifloxysulfuron-sodium (37 g ha-1 and a control. Theexperimental design was a randomized block with 24 treatments arranged in split plots. Herbicides and control (6 were allocated to plots and the Ricinus communis cultivars (4 the subplots. The plots (36m2 consisted offour plots of six rows of 3 m long and spaced 0.5 m, a total of 9m2 each. In subplot was sown the seeds in eachrow, which provided an average of 5 plants per meter, and the four central lines considered useful for theevaluations. Herbicides were applied pre-emergence of species, after sowing the sub-plots. The symptoms ofintoxication were visually assessed in aerial part of plants at 15 and 30 DAA; height (cm, number and plant dryweight at 30 DAA. Ricinus communis cultivars were susceptible to sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and imazapic andtolerant to other herbicides, while wild material was more susceptible to sulfentrazone, due to the reduction inheight and dry weight.O desenvolvimento de Ricinus communis é favorecido em canaviais colhidos sem a préviadespalha a fogo. Porém, o manejo não é satisfatório na maioria dos canaviais, mesmo quando se utiliza domanejo químico. A tolerância pode estar na origem das plantas, que podem ser oriundas de plantas cultivadasou silvestres. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar a toler

  20. Toxicity of ricin present in castor bean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanna Brunna da Silva Fonseca; Benito Soto-Blanco

    2014-01-01

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a bush from Euphorbiacea family cultivated for obtaining oil from the seeds. This oil has broad industrial employment, particularly for biodiesel. However, castor bean seeds exhibit a potent toxin, ricin. It is a glycoprotein with highly toxic action of inactivating ribosomes. The toxic action of ricin is due to inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, causing cell death. Only one molecule of ricin that enters the cytosol is able to inactivate...

  1. Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Ahmed Kolade Oloyo; Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed (RCE) on male rats reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were gavaged with 0.2 mL of 2.5 % tween 80 (RCE vehicle; control) or 20 mg/(kg.d) and 40 mg/(kg.d) of RCE, respectively, for 30 days, and group 4 was also gavaged with 40 mg/(kg·d) of RCE, but was allowed a recovery periold of 30 days.Five untreated female rats were cohabited with male rats in each group from day 25 of RCE treatment for 5 days,except group 4, where cohabitation began on day 25 of the recovery period. All male rats were sacrificed 24 h after the experiments. The female rats were laparatomized on day 19 of pregnancy and the number and weight of litters were recorded. Results: There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of the reproductive organs,sperm functions and serum levels of testosterone in RCE treated rats. There was disorganization in the cytoarchitecture of the testes, disruption of the seminiferous tubules and erosion of the germinal epithelium. The number and weight of litters of rats in groups 2 and 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but no changes were observed in group 3. RCE caused no changes in liver, kidney, heart or body weights in male rats. Conclusion: RCE has a reversible negative impact on male reproductive functions, which appears to be mediated via gonadal disruption in testosterone secretion.

  2. Evaluation for yield and quality of oil from seven Ricinus communis varieties.

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    Paola Andrea Rivera-Brenes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield and quality of oil from seven Ricinus communis varieties. The morphological properties (height of plant, productive branches, length of clusters, yield of seed, and oil quality. The evaluation was conducted at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Experimental Station of the University of Costa Rica, Alajuela, Costa Rica, from September 2013 to April 2014. A randomized complete block design with a density of 5000 plants/ha was used for the evaluation. The varieties evaluated were ColBio RH 171,09, ColBio HR 205, ColBio HR 268, ColBioHR 157, 401, and NIC. The parameters evaluated showed significant difference (a<0.05. The seven varieties constituted all medium-sized plants. The average was four productive branches for all varieties. ColBio HR 268, ColBio HR 205, and ColBio HR 171 obtained the longer cluster. Stem diameter showed an average between 3 and 4 cm for the seven treatments. In relation toseed yield, variety NIC had the lowest value (860 kg/ha, while ColBio HR 171, 09, ColBio HR 205, and 268 had the highest yield with an average of 2377kg/ha. Oil content was higher for treatments 401 (88% and ColBio HR 171 (87%. The array 09 showed the highest content of ricinoleic acid (80%, followed by ColBio HR 268 (69% placing both also among the varieties with higer seed yield, but with lower oil content.

  3. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemudzivhadi, Vhutshilo; Masoko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS(+) assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS(+)) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS(+) free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS(+) radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines. PMID:25477994

  4. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhutshilo Nemudzivhadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid free radical molecules using ABTS+ assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS+ scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%. Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS+ free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS+ radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines.

  5. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemudzivhadi, Vhutshilo; Masoko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS(+) assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS(+)) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS(+) free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS(+) radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines.

  6. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in t

  7. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

  8. The multiple use plant:Ricinus communis%多种用途的植物--蓖麻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 祝丽香

    2000-01-01

    @@ 蓖麻(Ricinus communisL.)为大戟科1年生或多年生草本植物,株高2~3m,茎直立无毛,绿色或紫红色,具白粉.单叶互生,具长柄,盾状圆形,掌状7~9深裂.花单性,总状或圆锥花序顶生,下部雄花,上部雌花,蒴果球形,密生软刺,成熟时开裂.种子椭圆形或卵形,稍扁,具淡红棕色相间的斑纹.花期6~8月,果期7~10月.

  9. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL PELAS SEMENTES TRITURADAS DE Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae EM COELHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Marilene de Farias

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes trituradas de Ricinus communis, administradas em doses únicas por sonda intragástrica a coelhos causou graves sintomas de intoxicação com êxito letal nos três coelhos que receberam a dose de 2 g/kg e em um dos quatro que receberam 1 g/kg. Os outros três coelhos que receberam 1g/kg desenvolveram sintomas discretos a moderados e se recuperaram, e os três que receberam 0,5g/kg só mostraram sintomas discretos. O período entre a administração das sementes e a morte ou recuperação variou de 12h47min a 68h08min, e de 3 a 6 dias, respectivamente. Os primeiros sintomas após a administração das sementes, foram observados dentro de cerca 8 horas nos casos letais e nos animais que adoeceram moderadamente, e dentro de cerca 24 horas nos casos com sintomatogia discreta. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 4 a 56 horas nos casos letais e de 2 a 5 meio dias nos casos de recuperação. A sintomatologia consistiu principalmente de perturbações digestivas. Os animais apresentaram inapetência até anorexia. As fezes geralmente eram escassas, com forma e tamanho das síbalas alteradas, eram escuras, às vezes pastosas, com muco. Havia nítidas manifestações de cólica. Os achados de necropsia mais evidentes foram constatados no intestino delgado e ceco. O conteúdo destes segmentos do intestino era líquido. A parede do intestino delgado apresentou congestão e edema e havia fibrina recobrindo a mucosa sob forma de pseudomembranas, ou na luz intestinal sob forma de flocos e/ou filamentos. No ceco havia edema da mucosa como também congestão da parede e fibrina aderida à mucosa ou encontrada em flocos e/ou filamentos no conteúdo. As alterações histológicas mais importantes foram verificadas no intestino delgado e ceco. No intestino delgado observou-se necrose de coagulação associada a congestão/hemorragias na mucosa. Havia ainda congestão/hemorragias e edema na submucosa. Lesões semelhantes foram vistas no ceco onde

  10. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity.

  11. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  12. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Zanotti, Rafael F; Deflers, Carole; Fernandez, Luzimar G; Castro, Renato D de; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-08-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R. communis genotypes. Biomass allocation was assessed by measuring dry weight of roots, stems, and cotyledons of seedlings grown at three different temperatures. Root length of each seedling was measured. Biomass allocation was strongly affected by temperature. Seedlings grown at 25°C and 35°C showed greater biomass than seedlings grown at 20°C. Cotyledon and stem dry weight increased for both genotypes with increasing temperature, whereas root biomass allocation showed a genotype-dependent behavior. Genotype MPA11 showed a continuous increase in root dry weight with increasing temperature, while genotype IAC80 was not able to sustain further root growth at higher temperatures. Based on metabolite and gene expression profiles, genotype MPA11 increases its level of osmoprotectant molecules and transcripts of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins to a higher extent than genotype IAC80. This might be causal for the ability to maintain homeostasis and support root growth at elevated temperatures in genotype MPA11.

  13. Sintesis Surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat dari Sulfonasi Metil Ester Asam Lemak Minyak Kastor (Ricinus communis L)

    OpenAIRE

    Aritonang, Rianti E J

    2011-01-01

    Methyl ester sulfonate (MES) surfactant is an anionic surfactant which could be synthesized from oil. Surfactant have a capability to reduce surface tension, interface tension and elevate the stability of emulsion system. The material sources to produce surfactant was derived from petroleum oil, vegetables oil and animals fats. One of vegetables oil is polar castor oil, because it contained of ricinoleic acid as the major compound which has –OH group. Castor oil could be synthesize became ...

  14. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  15. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. Surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. The polyurethane derived from castor beans (Ricinus communis has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. Nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (Ricinus communis assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. AIM: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the Ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. STUDY DESING: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used four Cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. The animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. We also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. CONCLUSION: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.Lesões do tecido ósseo podem ser causadas por fatores congênitos e adquiridos e resultar em deformidade nasal com repercussão estética e funcional. O tratamento cirúrgico desses casos requer reconstruções complexas e frequentemente o uso de biomateriais. O poliuretano derivado do óleo da mamona apresenta uma fórmula com aspectos favoráveis de processabilidade, flexibilidade de formulação, ausência de emissão de vapores tóxicos e baixo custo. Entretanto, a despeito dos resultados favoráveis, estudos referentes ao uso do polímero de mamona, avaliando a reação tecidual no dorso nasal, ainda não foram

  16. Bis(β-lactosyl-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Dohi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120, the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate–protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family.

  17. Bis(β-lactosyl)-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Hirofumi; Kanazawa, Takeru; Saito, Akihiro; Sato, Keita; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl)-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A) caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate-protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family.

  18. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera a littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor ((Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar s

  19. Expression of castor LPAT2 enhances ricinoleic acid content at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols in lesquerella seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (Physaria fendelri) is a potential crop for hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) production. Its seed triacylglcerols (TAGs) contain 55–60% lesquerolic acid (20:1OH), mostly at the sn-1 and the sn-3 positions of TAG. Castor (Ricinus communis) TAGs contain 90% of ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) which is est...

  20. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar secre

  1. 蓖麻栽培品种的遗传多样性及蓖麻籽脂肪酸组分分析%Phylogenetic relationships of cultivars (hybrids) of Ricinus communis and analysis of fatty acid components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虢婷婷; 刘祥华; 邢超; 刘春林; 阮颖

    2012-01-01

    收集20份蓖麻栽培品种,以湖南永州野生种为对照,利用RAPD标记和GC-MS法分析亲缘关系,并测定蓖麻籽脂肪酸组分.结果显示:①21条有效引物RAPD-PCR扩增获得的总谱带数为75条,多态性谱带数为45条,多态性谱带比例为54.27%,利用UPGMA类平均法对扩增出的谱带进行遗传聚类分析,当遗传距离为0.1468时,21份材料能较好地聚类;②蓖麻籽油主要含蓖麻油酸、油酸、亚油酸和少量的棕榈酸、硬脂酸、亚麻酸;在蓖麻籽脂肪酸中,蓖麻油酸含量为72.82%~89.54%,油酸2.97% ~ 8.54%,亚油酸3.47%~10.55%,棕榈酸、硬脂酸含量约为1%,亚麻酸含量约为0.5%,品种间蓖麻油酸的含量差别较大.%Phylogenetic relationship and fatty acid components of 21 cultivars (hybrids) and 1 wild Yongzhou variety of Ricinus communis were investigated. The results showed that: (Dtwenty RAPD primers were picked out from 296 10-roer primers for RAPD analysis; and 73 bands were obtained by use of the 20 primers, among the bands, 42 had polymorphism, accounting for 57.7%; the result of cluster analysis by use of UPGMA method showed that 21 genotypes could be classified together with genetic distant value of 0.1468. ㏕he castor oil contained mainly ricinoleic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, the contents of which were 72.82% - 89.54%, 2.97% ~ 8.54%, 3.47% - 10.55%, respectively; there was little palmitinic acid, stearinic acid and linolenic acid in castor oil; the respective content of the palmitinic acid and stearinic acid was about 1%, and the content of the linolenic acid was around 0.5%. The content of ricinoleic acid among different cultivars of Ricinus communis showed big differences.

  2. Heterosis for seed yield and yield components over environments in castor (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Chaudhari, R.F. Chaudhary, D.K. Patel, Ashish Kanwal, H.N. Patel, H.C. Pathak and B.H. Prajapari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation with 10 diverse inbreds, their 45 hybrids (generated by diallel mating design excluding reciprocals along with two standard checks viz; GCH-4 and GCH-5 was taken up over four environments (two fertility levels and two sowing dates to determine the extent of heterosis of seed yield and eight component traits. The heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis over GCH-4 and GCH-5 for seed yield/plant across the environments ranged from -13.71% to 47.89%, -25.08% to 22.77% and -31.62% to 12.04% respectively. SKI-280 x SH-41, SKI-280 x SKI-288, SH-41 x SKI-285, SKI-280 x SKI-215, SKI-288 x SH-41, SKI-288 x SKI-232, SKI-218 x SKI-232, SKI-215 x SH-41, SKI-288 x SKI-285, SKI-215 x SKI-285, SKI-232 x DCS-9 and SKI-215 x SKI-232 had significantly out yielded their better parent while SKI-232 x DCS-9 was significantly superior over GCH-4. Across the locations, the cross SKI-232 x DCS-9 produced the highest 182.28g of seed/plant and registered 30.49%, 22.77% and 12.04% superiority over better parent, GCH-4 and GCH-5 respectively. Magnitudes of heterosis vary from character to character and cross to cross. In general, for seed yield/plant across the locations magnitude of desirable heterosis was high over batter parent but low over standard checks. For developing high yielding and earlier maturing genotypes, selection of crosses on the basis of per se performance with considerable per cent heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis would be more desirable.

  3. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

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    Ying eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS. Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50 and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1 for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were < 1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  4. Chemical constituents from roots ofRicinus communis%蓖麻根化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐祖年; 谢丽霞; 苏小建; 梁成钦; 秦少艳; 黄世好

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究蓖麻Ricinus communis根的化学成分.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱进行分离纯化,通过波谱方法鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从蓖麻根中分离并鉴定了14个化合物,分别为蓖麻三甘油酯(1)、3-乙酰氧基-油桐酸(2)、豆甾醇(3)、蓖麻碱(4)、3,4-二.羟基苯甲酸甲酯(5)、没食子酸(6)、油桐酸(7)、短叶苏木酚酸乙酯(8)、9-hydroxytridecyl docosanoate (9)、羽扇豆醇(10)、木犀草素(11)、棕榈酸(12)、二十八烷醇(13)、正十八烷(14).结论 化合物1为新化合物,命名为蓖麻三甘油酯,化合物2、3、5~12和14为首次从蓖麻属植物中分离得到.%Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Ricinus communis. Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by silica gel column, and spectroscopic methods were used for the structural elucidation. Results Fourteen compounds were isolated and identified as ricintriglyceride (1), 3-acetoxyl-acid (2), stigmasterol (3), ricinine (4), methyl-3-dihydroxy benzoate (5), gallic acid (6), aleuritic acid (7), ethyl brevifolincarboxylate (8), 9-hydroxytridecyl docosanoate (9), lupeol (10), luteolin (11), palmitic acid (12), octacosanol (13), and octadecane (14). Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound, named ricintriglyceride, and compounds 2,3,5-12, and 14 are isolated from the plants of Ricinus L. For the first time.

  5. Rat sperm immobilisation effects of a protein from Ricinus communis (Linn.): an in vitro comparative study with nonoxynol-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2012-12-01

    Previous study conducted in our department showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis possess reversible antifertility effect and a 62-kDa protein (Rp) from this extract is responsible for the antifertility effects. In this study, we compared the spermicidal effect of this Rp with nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in vitro. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 100 μg ml(-1) of Rp was able to immobilise the sperms completely within 30 s. Sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in Rp and N-9 treated groups in comparison with the control. In Rp and N-9 treated groups, the number of acrosome-reacted cells was found to be high and also caused agglutination of the spermatozoa, indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane, which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5'-nucleotidase, acrosomal acrosin. In short, the protein Rp possesses spermicidal activity in vitro and its effects are similar to that of nonoxynol 9. PMID:22486240

  6. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  7. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role.

  8. Phloem sugar flux and jasmonic acid-responsive cell wall invertase control extrafloral nectar secretion in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Cañongo, Cynthia; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) that attracts predators. The efficiency of the resulting anti-herbivore defense depends on the quantity and spatial distribution of EFN. Thus, according to the optimal defense hypothesis (ODH), plants should secrete EFN on the most valuable organs and when herbivore pressure is high. Ricinus communis plants secreted most EFN on the youngest (i.e., most valuable) leaves and after the simulation of herbivory via the application of jasmonic acid (JA). Here, we investigated the physiological mechanisms that might produce these seemingly adaptive spatiotemporal patterns. Cell wall invertase (CWIN; EC 3.2.1.26) was most active in the hours before peak EFN secretion, its decrease preceded the decrease in EFN secretion, and CWIN activity was inducible by JA. Thus, CWIN appears to be a central player in EFN secretion: its activation by JA is likely to cause the induction of EFN secretion after herbivory. Shading individual leaves decreased EFN secretion locally on these leaves with no effect on CWIN activity in the nectaries, which is likely to be because it decreased the content of sucrose, the substrate of CWIN, in the phloem. Our results demonstrate how the interplay of two physiological processes can cause ecologically relevant spatiotemporal patterns in a plant defense trait.

  9. Ricinine: a pyridone alkaloid from Ricinus communis that activates the Wnt signaling pathway through casein kinase 1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kensuke; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Itoh, Motoyuki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation, development of cells, and various diseases. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the Ricinus communis stem led to the isolation of four compounds (1-4). The TCF/β-catenin transcription activities of 1 and 3 were 2.2 and 2.5 fold higher at 20 and 30μM, respectively. Cells treated with ricinine (1) had higher β-catenin and lower of p-β-catenin (ser 33, 37, 45, Thr 41) protein levels, whereas glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) protein levels remained unchanged. Cells treated with pyrvinium, an activator of CK1α, had lower β-catenin levels. However, the combined treatment of pyrvinium and 1 led to higher β-catenin levels than those in cells treated with pyrvinium alone, which suggested that 1 inhibited CK1α activity. Furthermore, 1 increased β-catenin protein levels in zebrafish embryos. These results indicated that 1 activated the Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting CK1α.

  10. Light and electron microscopic observations in connection with the developing pistil and seed-appendix (caruncle of Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Liszt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the particularly organized stigma and obturator, their fine structure, their function as well as the histological differentiation and the role of the seed-appendix i.e. the caruncle of Ricinus communis L. have been investigated in several developmental phases from the so called "gynoecial primordium" state to the ripe state, 'using the terminology introduced by S a t t 1 e r (1974. The stigma cells are characterized by dens cytoplasm, numerous vesicles mostly of ER origin, ribosomes and negatively stained mitochondria. Dilatation of ER, the appearance of electron opaque substances in it and between the plasmamembran and cell wall are frequent. The degenerating process of some stigma cells will start before the pollination because of autolysis. In the cells of the obturator and young caruncle however dictyosomes can be found more frequently than in stigma cells and the starch content of the ;plastids is remarkable. The thickening of the cell wall is connected with the function of these tissues.

  11. Rat sperm immobilisation effects of a protein from Ricinus communis (Linn.): an in vitro comparative study with nonoxynol-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2012-12-01

    Previous study conducted in our department showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis possess reversible antifertility effect and a 62-kDa protein (Rp) from this extract is responsible for the antifertility effects. In this study, we compared the spermicidal effect of this Rp with nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in vitro. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 100 μg ml(-1) of Rp was able to immobilise the sperms completely within 30 s. Sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in Rp and N-9 treated groups in comparison with the control. In Rp and N-9 treated groups, the number of acrosome-reacted cells was found to be high and also caused agglutination of the spermatozoa, indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane, which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5'-nucleotidase, acrosomal acrosin. In short, the protein Rp possesses spermicidal activity in vitro and its effects are similar to that of nonoxynol 9.

  12. RESTORATIVE ASPECT OF CASTOR PLANT ON MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kádasi; Zuzana Baková; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Anupam Das Talukdar; Shubhadeep Roychoudhury; Manabendra Dutta Choudhury; Sushmita Nath; Nora Maruniaková; Adriana Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a robust perennial shrub of Euphorbiaceae family and different parts of the plant are widely used by various communities and forest dwellers in many regions of the world for treating a variety of ailments. About 80% of world population is still dependent on traditional herbal medicines. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as anti-oxidant, antifertility, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, central nervous system stimulant, anti diabetic...

  13. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks.

  14. Discovery of an extended bundle sheath in Ricinus communis L. and its role as a temporal storage compartment for the iron chelator nicotianamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, T; Krüger, C; Melzer, M; Stephan, U W; Hell, R

    2003-07-01

    The extended bundle sheath (EBS) is a specialized layer of cells that enhances the lateral transport of photoassimilates within the leaf. This little-known tissue is often considered to be legume-specific. We identified an EBS in cotyledons and leaves of the non-legume Ricinus communis L. By means of cytological and immunological studies and using the localization of the iron-chelator nicotianamine as an established indicator for mass transport, we confirmed its role as a transport tissue and a temporal sink. Observations on cotyledons of Ricinus seedlings further proved that the EBS carries out these tasks from a very early stage of development onwards. This is the first time that information has been obtained on the physiological role of an EBS in a non-legume. Our results support the idea of its widespread occurrence among higher plants. PMID:14520566

  15. 蓖麻——一种新的铜超积累植物%Ricinus communis ,a New Copper Hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康薇; 郑进

    2011-01-01

    研究了铜矿废弃地生长的蓖麻中Cu的分布和积累情况.结果表明,蓖麻对Cu具有较强的忍耐和较高的积累能力,是一种新发现的Cu超积累植物,可作为研究植物超积累Cu的机理和修复Cu污染土壤的植物材料.%The distribution and accumulation of Cu in Ricinus communis grown on the abandoned Cu mine in Tonglushan of Daye in Hubei Province were investigated. The results showed that R. communis had a remarkable tolerance to Cu and a potential capacity of Cu accumulation,and it was a new copper hyperaccumulator which could be used in the phytoremediation of Cu-polluted soils.

  16. EFICIÊNCIA DOS ÓLEOS DE NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. E MAMONA (Ricinus communis L. NA RESISTÊNCIA DA MADEIRA DE SUMAÚMA (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. A FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS EM SIMULADORES DE CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica and castor oil plant (Ricinus communis oils for the improvement of Ceiba pentandra wood resistance to xilophagous fungi in soil bed condition (field simulator. The neem and castor oil plant oils were extracted with absolute ethyl alcohol and employed in the preparation of oil solutions. Wood samples with dimensions of 1.5 x 0.5 x 15 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal were treated to reach a nominal retention of 10 to 16 kg of solution/m³ of wood. The samples were submitted to the action of natural micro-flora of three soils; forest, agricultural use and natural pasture soils, for 180 days. Among the tested soils, the agricultural presented greater biological activity, which damaged the samples even more. Among the tested solutions, the pure neem oil provided increased protection to samples. The prepared solutions using neem and castor oil plant oils did not protect the wood from the attack of xylophagous fungi existing in the ground.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF CASTOR OIL IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Rachhadiya Rakesh M.; Kabra Mahaveer Prasad; Shete Rajkumar V

    2011-01-01

    To study the antiulcer activity of oil of Ricinus communis seed using different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Antiulcer activity of castor oil was studied in rats by administration of ethanol or aspirin or by pyloric ligation. Castor oil was administered in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg orally 30 min prior to ulcer induction. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index in the test drug group with that of the ulcerated control group. Gastric ...

  18. Generational reproductive outcomes in Wistar rats maternally exposed to Ricinus communis oil at different stages of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-10-01

    Fetal programming hypothesis presupposes that stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of uterine growth and development may permanently alter tissue structure and function. Ricinus communis oil (RCO) has been reported to possess/used as laxative, labor-inducing and estrogenic properties. Generational reproductive effects of maternal exposure to RCO was investigated in rats. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five equal groups were treated with distilled water (control, group 1), RCO (950 mg/kg p.o.) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 7-14, 14-21 and 1-21, respectively. Birth weight, morphometric data, anogenital distance (AGD), pubertal age, sperm parameters, hormonal profile, organ weight and histopathology were determined in the first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations. Results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in birth weight/morphometric data in male pups from the GD 1-7 and 7-14 groups. AGD decreased significantly in RCO-treated F1 males. Pubertal age of F1 females decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with controls. At postnatal day 90, F1 males from the RCO-treated group showed significant decrease in testis weight, body weight, sperm count, motility and normal morphology. Testosterone levels were significantly decreased in RCO-treated F1 males, which also showed testicular interstitial edema and epididymal hypospermia. Only pubertal indexes were altered in F2 rats. Maternal exposure to RCO at early gestation periods impaired androgen-mediated reproductive end points in the first generation of rats. RCO exhibits endocrine disrupting capabilities.

  19. Experimental effect of feeding on Ricinus communis and Bougainvillea glabra on the development of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldas, Rania M; El Shafey, Azza S; Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2014-04-01

    Plants are promising sources of agents useful for the control of vectors of human diseases including leishmaniasis. The effect of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), on transmission of leishmaniasis was investigated using them as diets for Phlebotomus papatasi to monitor their effect on life-history traits. P. papatasi were allowed to feed separately on both plants then offered a blood-meal. Fed-females were observed daily for egg-laying and subsequent developmental stages. P. papatasi was able to feed on B. glabra (29.41% females and 46.30% males) and R. communis (5.80% females and 10.43% males). 34.28% of females died within 24-48 hours post-feeding on R. communis, whereas, it was 16.5% in females fed on B. glabra. Overall fecundity of surviving females was reduced compared to controls, reared on standard laboratory diet; however there was no effect on the sex ratio of progeny. Female P. papatasi in the control group had significantly longer life span compared to plant-fed group. Feeding on these plants not only decreased sand fly survival rates but incurred negative effects on fecundity. Findings indicate that planting high densities of R. communis and B. glabra in sand flies-endemic areas will reduce population sizes and reduce the risk of Leishmania major infections.

  20. Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of increasing level of cadmium in soil was investigated on biomass production, antioxidants, Cd bioaccumulation and translocation in Ricinus communis vis-à-vis a commonly studied oil crop Brassica juncea. The plants were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg Cd/Kg soil for up to 60 days. It was found that R. communis produced higher biomass at all the contamination levels than that of B. juncea. Proline and malondialdehyde in the leaves increased with increase in Cd level in both the species, whereas soluble protein decreased. The bioaccumulation of Cd was higher in B. juncea on the basis of the per unit biomass, total metal accumulation per plant was higher in R. communis. The translocation of Cdfrom roots to shoot was also higher in B. juncea at all Cd concentrations. R. communis appeared more tolerant and capable to clean Cd contaminated soil for longer period in one sowing than B. juncea and the former can grow in wasteland soil also in which later cannot be cultivated.

  1. Studi Alkoksilasi Dengan Gliserol Terhadap Hasil Epoksidasi Metil Risinoleat Yang Diperoleh Dari Minyak Jarak (Ricinus communis Linn).

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Dina Ocha

    2011-01-01

    Polyhidroxy compound (polyol) derivative from fatty acid is used as material of polymer compound such as polyurethane, polyesther and ubstituent material of petrochemical industry. Castor oil that isolated from castor seed reacted with methanol using sulfate acid catalys on benzene solvent in reflux condition produced fatty acid methyl ester castor oil. Methyl ricinoleic has been separated from mixture of fatty acid methyl ester castor oil using column chromatography with hexan...

  2. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Uk Kim; Su-Jin Jung; Kyeong-Ryeol Lee; Eun Ha Kim; Sang-Min Lee; Kyung Hee Roh; Jong-Bum Kim

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but dif...

  3. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional characterization of candidate AAT genes in future studies.

  4. Insight into the sialome of the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Jesus G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there have been several sialome projects revealing transcripts expressed in the salivary glands of ticks, which are important vectors of several human diseases. Here, we focused on the sialome of the European vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes ricinus. Results In the attempt to describe expressed genes and their dynamics throughout the feeding period, we constructed cDNA libraries from four different feeding stages of Ixodes ricinus females: unfed, 24 hours after attachment, four (partially fed and seven days (fully engorged after attachment. Approximately 600 randomly selected clones from each cDNA library were sequenced and analyzed. From a total 2304 sequenced clones, 1881 sequences forming 1274 clusters underwent subsequent functional analysis using customized bioinformatics software. Clusters were sorted according to their predicted function and quantitative comparison among the four libraries was made. We found several groups of over-expressed genes associated with feeding that posses a secretion signal and may be involved in tick attachment, feeding or evading the host immune system. Many transcripts clustered into families of related genes with stage-specific expression. Comparison to Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus transcripts was made. Conclusion In addition to a large number of homologues of the known transcripts, we obtained several novel predicted protein sequences. Our work contributes to the growing list of proteins associated with tick feeding and sheds more light on the dynamics of the gene expression during tick feeding. Additionally, our results corroborate previous evidence of gene duplication in the evolution of ticks.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to

  6. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. PMID:27247300

  7. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory.

  8. Metabolite profiling of Ricinus communis germination at different temperatures provides new insights into thermo-mediated requirements for successful seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Willems, Leo A J; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Fernandez, Luzimar G; de Castro, Renato D; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis seeds germinate to a high percentage and faster at 35 °C than at lower temperatures, but with compromised seedling establishment. However, seedlings are able to cope with high temperatures at later stages of seedling establishment if germination occurred at lower temperatures. Our objective was to assess the biochemical and molecular requirements of R. communis germination for successful seedling establishment at varying temperatures. For that, we performed metabolite profiling (GC-TOF-MS) and measured transcript levels of key genes involved in several energy-generating pathways, such as storage oil mobilization, β-oxidation and gluconeogenesis of seeds germinated at three different temperatures. We identified a thermo-sensitive window during seed germination in which high temperatures compromise seedling development, most likely by down-regulating some energy-generating pathways. Overexpression of malate synthase (MLS) and glycerol kinase (GK) genes resulted in higher starch levels in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which highlights the importance of these genes in energy-generating pathways for seedling establishment. Additionally, we showed that GABA, which is a stress-responsive metabolite, accumulated in response to the water content of the seeds during the initial phase of imbibition. Herewith, we provide new insights into the molecular requirements for vigorous seedling growth of R. communis under different environmental conditions.

  9. Estudio Químico, Micrográfico y Morfológico del Ricinus communis L., y su Aplicación en Pulpa Blanqueable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Escoto García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available México posee una gran gama de especies vegetales no maderables o arbustivos, de los cuales se sabe muy poco, y para el caso del Ricinus communis L., existen trabajos sobre el uso de la semilla en biocombustibles y en la obtención de celulosa a partir del tallo. Con estos antecedentes se recolectó un espécimen de Ricinus communis , se descortezó y astilló para llevar a cabo los análisis de composición química, micrográfico y morfológico del tejido leñoso; aplicando además un proceso químico a la sosa para la obtención de celulosa blanqueable mediante secuencia OD/OP/D, evaluando las propiedades de resistencia fisicomecánica y viscosidad, así como blancura y opacidad. La composición química indica que el contenido en holocelulosa (85.0 % y alfa celulosa (66.3 % se encuentra dentro de los parámetros para papel. El análisis micrográfico reportó la relación de Runkel con un grado II y el análisis morfológico reportó que las fibras tienen una longitud promedio de 1.057 mm y pared de 4.4 m de espesor; con gran posibilidad de producir papel de buena calidad. Las condiciones para la obtención de pulpa se dan en 25 % reactivo, 160 °C, 120 minutos de cocción y 26 minutos de refinación. El tratamiento de blanqueo reportó un grado de blancura de 86.8 % y una viscosidad de 10.7 cp. Concluyendo que de acuerdo a sus componentes químicos, características micrográficas y morfológicas el Ricinus communis L ., técnicamente es viable para su aplicación en pulpa blanqueable.

  10. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  11. Secondary seed dispersal of Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae) by ants in secondary growth vegetation in Minas Gerais Dispersão secundária de sementes de Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae) por formigas em vegetação secundária em Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, I tested the efficacy of ants as secondary seed dispersers of Ricinus communis in southeastern Brazil. In a natural population of 143 individuals, I determined the ballistic dispersal distance for 62 seeds and 100 additional seeds were experimentally offered to ants in groups of ten seeds along a transect of 50 m. Fifty-three seeds were removed by ants, mainly by the leafcutter Atta sexdens (90.4%). The dispersal distance by ants was high, compared to the global average (4.38 m...

  12. Synthesis of amides and sulfonamides of {beta}-D- galactopyranosylamine and {beta}-lactosylamine and evaluation of their interactions with the lectins from Erythrina cristagalli and Ricinus communis; Sintese de amidas e sulfonamidas de {beta}-D-galactopiranosilamina e {beta}-lactosilamina e avaliacao de suas interacoes com lectinas de Erythrina cristagalli e de Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, Anna Paola; Souza Filho, Jose Dias de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Faria, Luiz Carlos Alves de; Nunes, Maria Angelica; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: ricardodylan@farmacia.ufmg.br; Andrade, Milton Hercules Guerra de; Silva, Karina Taciana Santos [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Biologicas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2007-09-15

    We report herein the synthesis of some {beta}-D-galactopyranosylamine and {beta}-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides. The interactions of these compounds with lectins from the seeds of Erythrina cristagalli (LEC) and Ricinus communis (RCA120) were evaluated in a hemagglutination inhibitory activity assay. D-Galactose and lactose were used as reference compounds. The {beta}-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides were nearly as active as lactose in inhibiting LEC mediated hemagglutination and were less active against RCA120 agglutinin. The {beta}-D-galactopyranosylamine amides and sulfonamides were, with one exception, considerably less active than D-galactose in the assay with both lectins. (author)

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Zehneria scabra and Ricinus communis against Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bereket Abew; Samuel Sahile; Feleke Moges

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activities of the crude leaves extracts of Zehneria scabra (Z. scabra) and Ricinus communis (R. communis) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcusaureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistance S. aureus. Methods: The crude powdered leaves of Z. scabra and R. communis were extracted successively by organic solvents in increasing polarity [benzene, chloroform:acetone (1:1), 70% alcohol and distilled water]. The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude leaves extracts of were tested against standard strains of E. coli (ATCC 25922) and S. aureus (ATCC 2923) and clinical isolates of E. coli, S.aureus and methicillin resistance S. aureus using agar well diffusion method. Results: In Z. scabra and R. communis leaf extracts, the most sensitive standard strain was S. aureus with an inhibition zone of (14.00±1.20) mm and (15.90±2.13) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Z. scabra extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 3 in clinical and standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 and 4 in clinical and standard strains of E. coli. The MIC values of R. communis extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 2 and 3 standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 in clinical isolate of E. coli. Most of the minimum bactericidal concentration and MIC values of plant extracts were almost similar particularly in R. communis, or minimum bactericidal concentration equal to one dilution factor less than MIC value of the extracts mainly in Z. scabra. Conclusions: The potency of plant extracts against test organisms were depend on different organic solvents used. Clinical isolate of bacterial pathogens showed less zones of diameter compared to the standard strains. Gram-positive had wide inhibition zones than Gram-negative bacteria. Further studies should be carried out to isolate the pure compounds and standardization of the methods

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Zehneria scabra and Ricinus communis against Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bereket; Abew; Samuel; Sahile; Feleke; Moges

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activities of the crude leaves extracts of Zehneria scabra(Z.scabra) and Ricinus communis(R.communis) against Escherichia coli(E.coli).Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus) and methicillin resistance 5.aureus.Methods:The crude powdered leaves of Z.scabra and R.communis were extracted successively by organic solvents in increasing polarity[benzene,chloroform:acetone(1:1),70%alcohol and distilled water].The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude leaves extracts of were tested against standard strains of E.coli(ATCC 25922) and S.aureus(ATCC 2923) and clinical isolates of E.coli,S.aureus and methicillin resistance 5.aureus using agar well diffusion method.Results:In Z.scabra and R.communis leaf extracts,the most sensitive standard strain was S.aureus with an inhibition zone of(14.00±1.20) mm and(15.90±2.13) mm,respectively.The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) values of Z.scabra extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95mg/mL for extract 3 in clinical and standard strains of 5.aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 and 4in clinical and standard strains of E.coli.The MIC values of R.communis extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 2 and 3 standard strains of S.aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 in clinical isolate of E.coli.Most of the minimum bactericidal concentration and MIC values of plant extracts were almost similar particularly in R.communis,or minimum bactericidal concentration equal to one dilution factor less than MIC value of the extracts mainly in Z.scabra.Conclusions:The potency of plant extracts against test organisms were depend on different organic solvents used.Clinical isolate of bacterial pathogens showed less zones of diameter compared to the standard strains.Gram-positive had wide inhibition zones than Gram-negative bacteria.Further studies should be carried out to isolate the pure compounds and standardization of the methods of plant extracts for an in vitro testing.

  15. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...

  16. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    OpenAIRE

    K.V. Fernandes; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Z.A.S. Guimarães; V.V. Nascimento; de Melo, E.J.T.; Freire, D. M.G.; M. Dansa-Petretski; O.L.T. Machado

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) protein...

  17. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in transcript levels of genes related with carbohydrate biosynthesis and catabolism in response to temperature. For that, we measured transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis, starch catabolism, and gluconeogenesis in R. communis leaves, roots, and seeds grown at 20 °C and 35 °C. Transcript levels of genes involved in starch catabolism were higher in leaves grown at 20 °C than at 35 °C, but up-regulation of genes involved in starch biosynthesis seems to compensate for this and, therefore, are the likely explanation for higher levels of starch in leaves grown at 20 °C. Higher levels of soluble carbohydrates in leaves grown at 20 °C may be caused by a coordinated increase in transcript level of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis pathways. In roots, transcript levels of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis seem to be enhanced at elevated temperatures. Higher levels of starch in seeds germinated at low temperatures is associated with higher transcript levels of genes involved in starch biosynthesis. Similarly, higher transcript levels of RcPEPCK and RcFBPase are most likely causal for fructose and glucose accumulation in seeds germinated at 20 °C. This study provides important insights in the understanding of the plasticity of R. communis in response to temperature that may apply to other species as well.

  18. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  19. Implantes de resina de poliuretana vegetal (Ricinus communis na tração linear, fixação e fusão vertebral no cão: estudo experimental Implants of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin in distraction, fixation and vertebral fusion in dogs: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Laranjeira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Placa e espaçador de polímero derivado do óleo de mamona (PDOM (Ricinus communis foram avaliados clínica, radiográfica e histologicamente na tração linear, fixação e fusão vertebral cervical em 20 cães adultos, sem raça definida, pesando entre 17 e 22kg. Foram sacrificados quatro animais aos 10, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de pós-operatório. Após exposição da coluna cervical, por acesso ventral, o disco intervertebral de C4-C5 foi fenestrado e a abordagem ao canal medular foi feita por meio de fenda óssea. Um espaçador de PDOM foi colocado preenchendo o defeito ósseo. Os corpos vertebrais C4-C5 foram fixados com placa do mesmo material, utilizando-se dois parafusos corticais em cada corpo vertebral. Apenas um animal apresentou déficit neurológico no pós-operatório imediato. Radiograficamente as vértebras mostravam-se normais e alinhadas, sem colapso do espaço intervertebral, porém não houve neoformação óssea entre as vértebras. Ao exame mielográfico, não houve compressão da medula espinhal. Os implantes foram efetivos em manter a tração linear e fixação das vértebras cervicais e não ocorreu a fusão vertebral.Clinical, radiographic and histological evaluation of plate and biomechanical spacer of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin were performed in distraction, fixation and vertebral cervical fusion in 20 adult dogs, weighting between 17 and 22kg. Four animals were euthanized at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after surgery. After ventral exposition of cervical spine, cervical disk fenestration was performed on intervertebral spaces C4-C5 and a slot was created. A biomechanical spacer of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin was placed to fill bone defect. C4-C5 spinous processes were fixed with plate of the same material, utilizing two cortical screws in each spinal process. Only one animal had neurological signs immediately after surgery. Radiographic examination indicated that vertebrae were normal and aligned

  20. 蓖麻提取物对南方根结线虫的防治作用%Control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩圆; 胡飞龙; 祝红红; 刘满强; 李辉信; 胡锋

    2011-01-01

    通过毒力测定及盆栽试验,研究了蓖麻提取物对南方根结线虫的杀线活性及防治效果.结果表明:蓖麻碱及蓖麻水提液均具有较强毒杀线虫活性,蓖麻碱浓度为2g·L-1、处理48 h杀线虫活性最强,线虫校正死亡率达91.5%,LC50为0.6 g·L-1;蓖麻水提液浓度为100g·L-1、处理48 h杀线虫活性最强,线虫校正死亡率达83.5%,LC50为18.3 g·L-1;蓖麻碱、蓖麻水提液和蓖麻叶植物粉处理接种南方根结线虫的番茄苗后,植株平均根结数分别为(17.6±1.7)、(20.6±1.5)和(22.8±3.7),均显著低于对照(37.4±2.3),根长分别比对照提高46.8%、34.5%和33.8%,株高分别比对照提高33.5%、22.6%和15.8%,植株鲜质量分别比对照增加41.4%、18.9%和10.1%.蓖麻提取物能减轻线虫危害,对盆栽番茄南方根结线虫病控制效果明显.%Toxicity test and pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activity and control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita. The results showed that both the ricinine and the R. Communis water extracts had high nematocidal activity. The ricinine at concentration 2 g · L-1 and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, leading to 91. 5% of corrected mortality of M. Incognita and with the LC50 being 0.6 g · L-1, whereas the R. Communis water extracts at concentration 100 g · L-1 and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, which led to 83.5% of corrected mortality of M. Incognita, and the LC50 was 18.3 g · L-1. With the inoculation of M. Incognita treated with ricinine, R. Communis water extracts , and R. Communis leaf powder, respectively, on tomato seedlings, the mean number of plant root-knots was 17.6±1.7, 20.6±1.5 and 22.8±3.7, respectively, being significantly lower than the control (37.4±2.3), and the root length increased by 46.8% , 34.5% and 33. 8% , and the plant height increased by 33.5% , 22.6% and 15.8% , and the

  1. Effects of Cadmium on Ricinus communis L.Seed Germination%镉对蓖麻种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义富; 毛昆明

    2013-01-01

    以2种蓖麻KM1和KM2为材料,在镉浓度为0.0、0.1、0.3、0.5、1.0和2.0 mmol/L的溶液处理下研究了镉胁迫下蓖麻种子萌发的影响.结果表明,KM1在镉离子浓度为0.1 mmol/L时出芽率就降到10%,与对照(0.0 mmol/L)90%出芽率存在极显著差异.而KM2则表现出较强的耐性,在镉离子浓度为2.0 mmol/L时仍有30%以上的出芽率.通过对KM2幼苗的根、茎长度及侧根的数量进行测量,结果表明镉对蓖麻主根长、侧根数、茎长表现低浓度时促进,高浓度时抑制,且随着镉离子浓度的增加,抑制作用增强.%Under the stress of different cadmium concentration,the seed germination of two Ricinus communis L.was studied in this study.The results showed that after treated with 0.0,0.1,0.3,0.5,1.0 and 2.0 mmol/L of Cd2+, the seed germination rate,root growth and stem growth were restrained evidently.Different Ricinus communis L.varieties had different germination responaes to Cd2+.KM1 was impacted seriously with 10 % seed germination rate in 100μmol/L Cd2 +, while KM2 still had 31% germination rate in 2.0mmoL/L Cd2 +.The seedling roots,stem length and the numbers of lateral roots of KM2 were measured,and the results showed that the low concentration Cd2 +could promote,but the high concentration Cd2 + might suppress the growth of these indexes.With the increase of Cd2 + concentration,the suppressing function was enhanced.

  2. 喷施植物生长调节剂对蓖麻营养和生殖生长的影响%Effect of spraying plant growth regulators on vegetative and reproductive growth of Ricinus communis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 李培旺; 陈景震; 蒋丽娟

    2014-01-01

    According to field experiments,the effects of different plant growth regulators on vegetative growth and repro-ductive growth of Ricinus communis were observed and analyzed based on the experiments of treating castor with different kinds of hormone (IAA,6-BA,GA3 ,and KT),and take water treating as control.The results indicated that the stem diameter and plant height were increased by 100mg/L IAA,100~200mg/L 6-BA,200mg/L GA3 ,100~200mg/L KT. Then the flowering time was advanced by KT.Though the flowering time was longer by IAA,total inflorescence length and ratio of female inflorescence increased 26.38% and 56.17% respectively by 200mg/L IAA.The seed size and color were affected but there was no effect on seeds’oil content by four kinds of plant growth regulator.%对蓖麻幼苗喷施不同浓度的植物生长调节剂(IAA、6-BA、GA3、KT),并以清水处理为对照,观测分析植物生长调节剂对蓖麻营养生长及生殖生长的影响。结果表明:100 mg/L的IAA、100~200 mg/L的6-BA、200 mg/L的GA3和100~200 mg/L的KT对蓖麻的地径和株高均有促进作用,KT则提早了始花期;IAA延迟了蓖麻的始花期,但提高了蓖麻花序总长度和雌花序的长度。其中200 mg/L IAA分别使花序总长度和雌花序长度增长了26.38%和56.17%。植物生长调节剂影响种子的大小和色泽,对种子含油率无明显影响。

  3. 蓖麻叶挥发油化学成分分析%Analysis of chemical compositions of the essential oil in the leaf of Ricinus communis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月华; 陈利军; 石庆锋

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸汽蒸馏法从蓖麻叶中提取挥发油,利用CC—MS联用仪对蓖麻叶挥发油的化学成分进行研究,共分离到52个组分,鉴定了其中的31个,占挥发油总量的77.223%。蓖麻叶挥发油主要成分是壬醛(14.718%)、二环[3.2.0]庚-2-酮(7.773%)、2,4-癸二烯醛(6.237%)、(E)-4-(2,6,6-三甲基-1-环己烯-l-基)-3-丁烯-2-酮(6.056%)、(E)-2-癸醛(5.967%)、(E)-6,10-二甲基-5,9-十-碳二烯-2-酮(5.063%)等。%To analyze the chemical compositions of the essential oil in the leaf of Ricinus communis, the essential oil was extracted from the leaf of R. communis by steam distillation, and then an analysis was conducted by applying GC - MS. The result shows that 52 ingredients have been found, and 31 of them have been identified, accounting for 77.223% of the total essential oil. The main chemical components of the leaf of R. communis are: Nonanal( 14. 718% ) ,Bicyclo [ 3.2.0 ] heptan - 2 - one (7. 773 % ), 2,4 - Decadienal ( 6. 237 % ), 3 -Buten - 2 - one, 4 - ( 2,6,6 - trimethyl - 1 - cyclohexen - 1 - yl) - , (E) - (6. 056% ) ,2 - Decenal, (E) - (5. 967% ) ,5,9 - Undecadien - 2 - one, 6,10 - dime- thyl -, (E) - (5.063%)etc.

  4. Preliminary clinical investigation of the contraceptive efficacy and chemical pathological effects of RICOM-1013-J of Ricinus communis var minor on women volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isichei, C O; Das, S C; Ogunkeye, O O; Okwuasaba, F K; Uguru, V E; Onoruvwe, O; Olayinka, A O; Dafur, S J; Ekwere, E O; Parry, O

    2000-02-01

    The seeds of Ricinus communis Linn, RICOM-1013-J, administered as a single oral dose of 2.3-2.5 g once per 12 months protected against pregnancy in 50 women volunteers for a period of one year. The antifertility and contraceptive efficacy of the seed was demonstrated in this study. Clinical observation revealed very minimal side effects. Some of the side effects investigated included headache, nausea, vomiting, weight gain, loss of appetite, raised blood pressure and dysmenorrhoea. Furthermore, both the renal and liver functions were not affected as revealed by urea, electrolyte and creatinine values as well as total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, serum albumin, total protein and transaminases values when compared with control values. In addition cholesterol and phospholipids were not significantly altered. When all these results are considered together, it seems unlikely that the antifertility and contraceptive efficacy of RICOM-1013-J is due to hormonal mechanisms alone since side effects, renal and liver function, and cholesterol effects attributable to oestrogen and/or progesterone were minimal in the volunteers. PMID:10641046

  5. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN REACTOR DISCONTINUO PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE BIODIESEL A PARTIR DEL ACEITE DE Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se construyó un reactor discontinuo para obtener biodiesel a partir de 5 litros de extracto obtenido de la semilla de Ricinus communis. El reactor es de acero inoxidable, con longitud de 29 cm; diámetro interno de 15,24 cm y fondo cónico de 20cm de largo, espesor de la pared de 0,2cm, resistencia tubular de 1000 W y motor de 110 volt. Se extrajo y se comparó con las normas respectivas las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite crudo. Se realizaron pruebas preliminares de transesterificación del aceite catalizadas con NaOH para constatar la viabilidad de la reacción y definir las condiciones operacionales. El biodiesel obtenido fue caracterizado y comparado con referencias presentes en la literatura. Los resultaron mostraron que es posible obtener el biocombustible en el reactor discontinuo con un grado de conversión 88%; confirmando su aplicación en reacciones de transesterificación en medio básico.

  6. Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Female Plant of Ricinus communis%蓖麻单性雌株组织培养和快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆滢; 杨建国; 郑树松; 杜燕

    2001-01-01

    @@1 植物名称蓖麻(Ricinus communis)。 2 材料类别单性雌株的顶芽、腋芽、带节的茎段。 3 培养条件 (1)起始培养基:1/3MS+6-BA 0.5mg·L-1(单位下同)+IBA 0.01;(2)芽增殖培养基:MS(改良)+6-BA0.5~0.8+IBA0.01~0.03;(3)生根培养基:1/2MS+NAA 0.05+活性炭(适量)。培养基中添加3%蔗糖、0.7%琼脂,pH 5.8。培养温度24~27℃,光照12~14 h·d-1,光照度约为1 500 lx。

  7. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  8. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  9. Effect of Chemical Treatments on Sex Expression of Ricinus communis%化学药剂处理对蓖麻性别的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭美莲; 严明芳; 汪磊; 严兴初

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify the effects of chemicals at different concentration on Ricinus communis sex expression, androgynous gender lines(E09004、 E09009 and E09002) and pistillate lines (E09002) were used as the materials, and their percentages of female flowers were analyzed after spraying chemical(GA3, NAA, Eth,6-BA and AgNO3) at different concentration, results showed that: GA3 on 100 mg/L level could promote the formation of female flowers, and the female flower percentages were increased comparing to the control, while GA3 at 250 mg/L was beneficial to the differentiation of male flowers, and the rates of female flowers were decline; after spraying NAA, the female flower percentage was enhanced, and 6-BA exhibited the same effect,moreover, some pistillate plants were discovered after spraying a certain concentration of 6-BA or NAA;Ethylene could induce the differentiation of male flower bud, the androgynous gender lines could be masculinized when spraying Eth at an optimal concentration; AgNO3 had the obvious effect on promoting the male flower formation, after spraying AgNO3, the male flower percentage of androgynous gender lines was increased and a few male flowers appeared on some pistillate lines; furthermore, some special materials such as male plant, pistillate plant were obtained. The result and special materials in this study offer the reference for sex reversion induction, reproduction of pistillate lines and the research of sex differentiation in Ricinus communis.%为明确不同浓度的化学药剂对蓖麻性别的影响,本试验以蓖麻两性系(E09004、E09009和E09002)和E09002单雌系为材料,分析了喷施不同浓度的GA3、NAA、乙烯利、6-BA和AgNO3对蓖麻雌雄花率的影响.结果表明:100 mg/L GA3有利于蓖麻雌花的形成,250 mg/L GA3则有利于雄花的分化,前者表现为雌花率上升,后者表现为雌花率降低;NAA和6-BA使雌花率增加,出现了纯雌株;乙烯利有利于雄花的分化,一定浓度的

  10. Absorption and Distribution of Na+, K+ and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Castor under Salt Stress%盐胁迫对蓖麻Na+、K+吸收分布特点和叶绿素荧光的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张(丰 刀)(女); 姚舸; 钦佩

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to reveal the salt resistance of castor. [Method] Under salt stress, the growth, osmotic potential, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, Na+ and K+ uptakes and transports in the seedlings of two Ricinus communis varieties (cultivar saline-alkali land), were comparatively studied. [Result] Wild castor preformed better in halophilism than that of cultivar castor Zibi 6 under the NaCl treatment. One of the salt tolerant mechanisms of castor is to improve K+ uptake and transport to overground portion, thus to maintain K+/Na+ homeostasis in leaves; on the other hand, the high stability of Photoreaction System Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) plays a key role in maintaining the leaf photosynthetic rate under salt stress. [Conclusion] The results of this study provided theoretical basis for the extension and application of castor in saline beach.

  11. Chemical, pathological and toxicological studies of the effects of RICOM-1013-J of Ricinus communis var minor on women volunteers and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S C; Isichei, C O; Okwuasaba, F K; Uguru, V E; Onoruvwe, O; Olayinka, A O; Ekwere, E O; Dafur, S J; Parry, O

    2000-02-01

    RICOM-1013-J (Ricinus communis var minor) administered orally once to each of 12 women volunteers at a dose of 2.5-2.7 g per 8 months, protected against pregnancy over a period of 7-8 months of study. A study of the effect of a contraceptive dose (20 mg/kg) on metabolic parameters in rat (food and water in-take, urine and faecal output and body weight) over a period of 4 months showed a slight decrease in all the parameters in the first 1-8 weeks. This effect was reversible attaining pretreatment levels from week 16. The LD(50) in an acute toxicity test in mice was 63.1 +/- 16.0 g/kg s.c. Determination of blood urea, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO$_¿3¿ ¿-¿$)as a measure of renal function and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), transaminases (GPT and GOT) and transpeptidases (GGT) as a measure of liver function showed that liver function profiles in pretreated rats were not significantly different from control (p 0.05) compared with the control. There were no significant changes in renal function profiles in pretreated rats (p < 0.05) compared with the control. The results of the liver and renal function profiles in women volunteers showed that there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in renal functions on day 206 following RICOM-1013-J administration. However, serum levels of ALP and GGT showed a slight rise in about 70% of volunteers, whereas bilirubin and transaminases levels were normal. The present results indicate a very high efficacy and margin of safety of RICOM-1013-J in women volunteers. The increase in ALP and GGT in both animal and women volunteers suggest mild intrahepatic cholestatic changes which may be attributed to an oestrogenic effect of RICOM-1013-J. PMID:10641041

  12. Influence of elevated CO[sub 2] on canopy development and red to far-red ratios in 2-storied stands of Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnone, J.A.; Korner, C. (University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Botany)

    1993-07-01

    Vertical structure of plant stands and canopies may change under conditions of elevated CO[sub 2] due to differential responses of overstory and understory plants or plant parts. The authors compared canopy leaf area development, canopy light extinction and the quality of light beneath overstory leaves of two-storied monospecific stands of Ricinus communis exposed to ambient (340 mul[sup -1]) and elevated (610 mul[sup -1]) CO[sub 2]. Plants in each stand were grown in a common soil as closed 'artificial ecosystems' with a ground area of 6.7 m2. Leaf Area Index, LAI, of overstory plants in all ecosystems more than doubled during the experiment but was not different between CO[sub 2] treatments at the end. As a consequence, extinction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was also not altered. However, under elevated CO[sub 2] the red to far-red ratio (R:FR) measured beneath overstory leaves was 10% lower than in ecosystems treated with ambient CO[sub 2]. This reduction was associated with increased thickness of palisade layers of overstory leaves and appears to be a plausible explanation for the specific enhancement of stem elongation of understory plants (without a corresponding biomass response) under elevated CO[sub 2]. Col enrichment led to increased biomass of overstory plants (mainly stem biomass) but had no effect on understory biomass. It is suggested that, under elevated CO[sub 2], reductions in the R:FR ratio beneath overstory canopies may affect understory plant development independently of the effects of PAR extinction.

  13. The Cell Suspension Culture of Ricinus communis L.%蓖麻细胞悬浮培养技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康薇; 郑进

    2014-01-01

    生长在大冶市铜绿山矿区的野生蓖麻(Ricinus communisL.)是一种新发现的铜超富集植物.为了建立稳定、快速生长的蓖麻悬浮细胞系,以便筛选重金属抗性蓖麻细胞和培育超富集植株,以前期诱导的蓖麻胚性愈伤组织为材料,通过正交试验设计,优化悬浮细胞系的培养条件,建立蓖麻细胞悬浮系,并在优化条件下测定细胞的生长曲线和培养液pH变化.结果表明,蓖麻细胞悬浮系的最佳培养条件为接种量2.0 g/50 mL;基本培养基MS +0.5 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.2 mg/L NAA +50 mg/L蔗糖+350 mg/L水解酪蛋白;温度(26±2)℃,110 r/min暗培养.此时,细胞鲜重和干重增长量最高分别达到4.58 g/(50 mL· 14 d)和0.49 g/(50 mL· 16 d).蓖麻悬浮细胞系生长曲线基本呈“S”形,每16d为一个培养周期,其中6~14 d为快速增长期.在一个培养周期内,培养液pH表现为先降后升,然后趋于稳定.

  14. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  15. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  16. Secondary seed dispersal of Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae by ants in secondary growth vegetation in Minas Gerais Dispersão secundária de sementes de Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae por formigas em vegetação secundária em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I tested the efficacy of ants as secondary seed dispersers of Ricinus communis in southeastern Brazil. In a natural population of 143 individuals, I determined the ballistic dispersal distance for 62 seeds and 100 additional seeds were experimentally offered to ants in groups of ten seeds along a transect of 50 m. Fifty-three seeds were removed by ants, mainly by the leafcutter Atta sexdens (90.4%. The dispersal distance by ants was high, compared to the global average (4.38 m ± 0.74 m vs. 0.96 m, but was lower than the ballistic distance (7.27 m ± 0.13 m. Ants increased the total dispersal distance (8.66 m ± 0.60 m, but the main benefit for the plant was the directed dispersal, with seed deposition on the enriched soil of ant nests.Este estudo testou a eficiência de formigas como dispersores secundários de Ricinus communis no Brasil. Em uma população natural de 143 indivíduos, a distância de dispersão balística foi determinada para 62 sementes. Além disso, 100 sementes adicionais foram oferecidas a formigas em grupos de 10, ao longo de um transecto de 50 m. Cinqüenta e três sementes foram removidas por formigas, principalmente pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens (90,4%. A distância de dispersão por formigas foi alta se comparada à média global (4,38m ± 0,74 m vs. 0,96 m, porém menor que a distância de dispersão balística (7,27 m ± 0,13 m. As formigas aumentaram a distância de dispersão total (8,66 m ± 0,60 m, mas o principal benefício para a planta foi a dispersão direcionada, com a deposição das sementes no solo enriquecido encontrado nos ninhos das formigas.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF CASTOR OIL IN RATS

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    Rachhadiya Rakesh M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the antiulcer activity of oil of Ricinus communis seed using different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Antiulcer activity of castor oil was studied in rats by administration of ethanol or aspirin or by pyloric ligation. Castor oil was administered in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg orally 30 min prior to ulcer induction. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing the ulcer index in the test drug group with that of the ulcerated control group. Gastric total acid output and pepsin activity were estimated in the pylorus ligated rats. Ranitidine and Sucralfate were used as a reference drug. The ulcer index in the castor oil treated animals was found to be significantly less in all the models compared to ulcerated control animals. This antiulcer property was more prominent in animals in whom ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin and pyloric ligation. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg produced a significant gastric ulcer protection when compared with the control group. The anti-ulcer activity of castor oil was however, less than that of ranitidine. Our results suggest that castor oil possesses significant antiulcer property which could be either due to cytoprotective action of the drug or by strengthening of gastric mucosa and thus enhancing mucosal defence.

  18. Replacement of soybean meal by treated castor meal in supplements for grazing heifer during the dry-rainy season period Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de mamona tratado em suplementos para novilhas em pastejo no período de transição seca-águas

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, L. V.; Paulino, M. F.; Detmann, E.; S.C. Valadares Filho; Lopes, S. A.; A.A. Rocha; E.E.L. Valente; D.M. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplement with different levels of castor meal (Ricinus communis L.) treated with calcium oxide on intake, on the total apparent digestibility of dietary components, on the efficiency of microbial synthesis and on the performance of beef heifers grazing Brachiaria decumbens during the dry-rainy transition period. The experimental area was composed of five 2.5-ha paddocks with availability of potentially digestible dry matter o...

  19. Study on Cu Resistance of Ricinus communis L. Callus%蓖麻愈伤组织对铜的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康薇; 董化洋; 金裕华; 闵建华; 郑进

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The article studies the growth and Cu absorption of Ricinus communis L. cal us under Cu stress. [Method] CuSO4·5H2O solutions with different Cu concentrations were added to cal us subculture medium; cal us was inoculated and Cu resistance index of cal us was worked out. Cu content in cal us was deter-mined with the method of Varian AA240FS. [Result] With the Cu concentration at 60 mg/L, the growth of cal us was inhibited, its Cu resistance index was only 33.87%. With the Cu concentration at 40 mg/L, cal us was faint yel ow in color, and grew rapidly with its Cu resistance index at 61.29%. Such high level resistance could remain the same after six week after continuous subculture. In the 4th week of culture, Cu resistance index in treatments with Cu concentrations at 10, 20, 30, 40 mg/L was higher than that in the 3rd week, and the content of Cu in cal us of the treatments was 0.33, 0.54, 1.16, 1.40 mg/g respectively. [Conclusion] Cu con-centration at 40 mg/L in culture medium can be the threshold for selecting Cu re-sistance R. communis cal us.%[目的]研究铜胁迫下蓖麻愈伤组织的增殖及其铜吸收作用。[方法]将配制成不同浓度的 CuSO4·5H2O水溶液分别加入愈伤组织继代培养基,接种愈伤组织,计算出愈伤组织对铜的抗性指数。并通过火焰原子吸收光谱法测定愈伤组织铜含量。[结果]铜浓度60 mg/L条件下,愈伤组织的增长受到抑制,抗性指数仅为33.87%;铜浓度40 mg/L时,愈伤组织呈淡黄色,生长较快,抗性指数达到61.29%,并且这种抗性可以保持至连续继代培养6周之后。培养至第4周,铜浓度分别在10、20、30、40 mg/L各处理的抗性指数都高于第3周,各处理愈伤组织铜含量依次为0.33、0.54、1.16、1.40 mg/g。[结论]培养基铜含量40 mg/L可作为筛选铜抗性蓖麻愈伤组织的临界值。

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Water Extract and Alcohol Extract of Ricinus communis on Bradysia odoriphaga%蓖麻水提物和醇提物对韭菜迟眼蕈蚊的杀虫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 路文雅; 李正阳; 董建臻; 魏国树

    2016-01-01

    In order to clear the insecticidal activity of the water extract and alcohol extract of different parts of Ricinus communis on Bradysia odoriphaga, the toxicity of water extract and alcohol extract of stem,leaf,seed shell and caster cake of Ricinus communis against 3th instar larvae of Bradysia odoriphaga was tested with dipping-insect method in the laboratory,to provide a theoretical basis for controlling Bra-dysia odoriphaga using the extract of Ricinus communis. The result showed that both water extract and al-cohol extract of different parts of Ricinus communis had high toxicity against 3 th instar larvae of Bradysia odoriphaga. Meanwhile, the adjusted mortality rates rose with the increase of extract concentration and treatment time. The adjusted mortalities of 3th instar larvae were 59. 88%,52. 84%,88. 51%,68. 77%and 56. 67%,53. 33%,83. 33%,65. 56%,respectively after treatment of water and alcohol extracts of stem,leaf,seed shell and caster cake at 1 g/mL for 72 h. The order of toxicity was as follows: water ex-tract of seed shell>water extract of caster cake>alcohol extract of seed shell>water extract of stem>al-cohol extract of caster cake>alcohol extract of stem>water extract of leaf>alcohol extract of leaf.%为了明确蓖麻不同部位水提物和醇提物对韭菜迟眼蕈蚊的杀虫活性,采用浸虫法测定了蓖麻茎、叶、籽壳、籽粕水提物和醇提物对韭菜迟眼蕈蚊3龄幼虫的室内毒力,为采用蓖麻提取物防治韭菜迟眼蕈蚊提供理论依据.结果显示,蓖麻不同部位水提物和醇提物对韭菜迟眼蕈蚊3龄幼虫均有较高毒力,校正死亡率与提取物质量浓度和作用时间呈正相关;用质量浓度为1 g/mL的蓖麻茎、叶、籽壳、籽粕水提物和醇提物处理72 h,3龄幼虫的校正死亡率分别为59.88%、52.84%、88.51%、68.77%和56.67%、53.33%、83.33%、65.56%.提取物毒力大小顺序为籽壳水提物>籽粕水提物>籽壳醇提物>茎水提物>

  1. Castor and jatropha oils: production strategies – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lago Regina C.A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian bioenergy matrix is based on four platforms: ethanol, energy forests, residues and co-products and biodiesel. The food-energy dichotomy in the use of edible oils is one factor which has stimulated the search for non-edible oleaginous energy crops, such as many native palms. By the year 2000 Brazil had an annual deficit of 80 thousand tons of castor oil, making necessary to import oil from China and India. After a strong debate the National Program on Biodiesel Production (NPBP was launched by December 2004. After an initial excessive enthusiasm, small producers being focused in the program, a more mature and realistic planning is undertaken. Production in semi arid lands is being stimulated, mainly castor (Ricinus communis and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas. Apart from belonging to the same botanical family (Euphorbiaceae, both plants are well resistant to poor soils. Castor plant is well adapted to practically the whole country, except for some extreme areas (too low water availability or too much rain. Castor keeps being an alternative for the semi arid region but much more technology is requested to make it largely exploited. Following the petroleum crisis of 1980’s an ambitious research program on Jatropha curcas was initiated, later on discontinued and presently retaken by Embrapa and some Universities. Progress is slower than in the case of Ricinus communis. The first agronomical observations confirmed low productivity, problems with pests and diseases, high harvesting costs etc. Some strategic factors should be considered for the production of castor and Jatropha oils: 1. Production of raw materials; 2. Production of oils; 3. Detoxification and value aggregation to the extraction cakes and residues. Regarding raw material production, it is necessary a strong, long term research program on genetic breeding (short cycle varieties, with high productivity and allowing a sole harvesting, soil fertility, pest control, domestication

  2. 蓖麻GPAT基因SNPs及与油脂含量的关联分析%On Relationship between GPAT Gene SNP and Oil Content in Ricinus communis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宸敏; 邱旭; 刘小烛

    2012-01-01

    GPAT基因对蓖麻储存油脂(triacylglycerols,TAG)的合成调控具有重要作用。为了从分子进化角度研究蓖麻GPAT的多态性,参考GenBank中编码蓖麻GPAT的基因组序列设计一对特异性引物对来自32个不同地区种质的GPAT进行测序,获得32个长约741bp的基因组序列。多态分析表明:在741bp的区间内共发现1个SNP,频率为1/741bp,多样性指数Pi为0.00069。结果表明GPAT基因与种质油含量和种子大小的关系均无明显相关性。该研究分析了GPAT基因的遗传多样性,遗传变异与油脂数量和种子大小性状的相关性。%The GPAT gene of Ricinus communis L. is important to the synthesis of fatty acid (TAG). Use PCR sequencing and clone sequencing to detect SNP of GPAT gene in Ricinus communis L. from 32 different areas. The results showed: there are only 1 SNP 741bp, located at intron 2, and the SNP frequency is 1/741 bp, nucleotide diversity(Pi) is 0. 00069. The results show that the GPAT gene does not relate to the oil content and seed size. These findings are good method and theoretical foundation for the progressive research of relationship between genetic mutation in GPAT gene with fatty acid quantity and seed size traits.

  3. 铅锌尾矿重金属胁迫下秸秆对蓖麻生理特性和重金属积累的影响%Effects of straw addition on physiological parameters and uptake of heavy metals in Ricinus communis under the stress of Pb/Zn mine tailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳文; 邹冬生; 向言词; 王晖; 谭伟文

    2012-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of straw addition on biomass, contents of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxide enzyme (POD) and the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd) in Ricinus communis under the stress of Pb/Zn mine tailing. The results indicated that straw addition significantly increased fresh weight, height and root length of Ricinus communis. The contents of MDA and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT in the leaves of Ricinus communis under the straw treatments were 48.08%, 7.28%, 28.60% and 4.74% lower than the control, respectively. DTPA-extractable contents of Pb, Zn and Cd in the Pb/Zn mine tailing decreased significantly. The contents of Pb, Zn and Cd in plant organs of Ricinus communis decreased significantly with straw addition. An extremely significant positive correlation were observed between the activities of POD, SOD and the contents of Pb, Zn and Cd in the leaves of Ricinus communis, and significant or extremely significant positive correlation were observed between the contents of Pb, Zn and Cd in plant organs of Ricinus communis and DTPA-extractable contents of Pb, Zn and Cd in Pb/Zn mine tailing.%采用盆栽试验,研究在铅锌尾矿重金属胁迫下,秸秆对蓖麻幼苗生物量、叶片内丙二醛(MDA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性以及重金属积累的影响.结果表明:在铅锌尾矿砂中添加秸秆能显著增加蓖麻的株高、根长和生物量;使蓖麻叶片中MDA含量和SOD、CAT、POD活性分别比对照降低了48.08%、7.28%、28.60%和4.74%;铅锌尾矿砂中有效态Pb、Zn、Cd含量显著降低,且蓖麻对Pb、Zn、Cd的积累量也显著下降;蓖麻叶片POD、SOD活性与叶片中Pb、Zn、Cd含量呈极显著正相关,蓖麻积累的重金属含量与尾矿砂中有效态重金属含量呈显著或极显著正相关.

  4. 蓖麻LPAAT基因序列的SNPs及与油脂的相关性%Correlation Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of LPAAT Gene Sequence and Oil Content of Ricinus communis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宸敏; 刘小烛; 刘爱忠

    2012-01-01

    LPAAT对蓖麻储存油脂(triacylglycerols,TAG)的合成调控具有重要作用.为了研究蓖麻LPAAT的多态性,参考GenBank中编码蓖麻LPAAT的基因组序列设计引物,对来自32个不同地区蓖麻种质的LPAAT进行测序,获得长约804bp的基因组序列.多态分析表明:在804bp的区间内共发现2个SNP和3个InDel,SNP频率为1/161bp,多样性指数Pi为0.00067.在外显子区域,有1个SNP和2个InDel,其中2个为同义突变,1个为错意突变.结果表明,基因LPAAT的exon10与种子油脂含量有明显相关性.%The LPAAT gene of Ricinus communis plays an important role in synthesizing and regulating the fatty acid (triacylglycerols, TAG). In order to study the diversity of LPAAT gene in R. communis, the LPAAT sequencing of the R. communis germplasm collected from 32 different areas was conducted by referring the LPAAT gene sequencing primers of R. communis in the GenBank, and a genomic sequence with 804bp was obtained. The results from the diversity analyses showed that there were 2 SNPs and 3 InDels among the 804bp sequence, the SNP frequency was 1/161 bp, and the nucleotide diversity index ( Pi) was 0.000 67. There were 1 SNP and 2 InDels located at exon, two of them were nonsense mutations; the other one was missense mutalion. The results showed that the exon 10 of LPAAT gene was related to the oil content of R. communis.

  5. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

  6. Growth of castor bean BRS-149 nordestina fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Lima de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, with castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L., cv BRS Nordestina, in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth. A completely randomized design with three replications and 15 treatments originated from a baconian matrix was adopted. Reference doses were 40:90:60 kg ha-1 of N:P2O5:K2O, respectively. Plant height, stem diameter, number and length of leaves were measured at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 days after planting (DAP. The unbalanced fertilization affected the development and seed production of castor bean, and the best response of the plants was observed at levels of 200 kg ha-1 de N; 150 kg ha-1 de P2O5 and 150 kg ha-1 de K2O.

  7. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  8. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  9. Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ingrid Machado de; Andrade, Kelly Machado de; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Denture hygiene is essential because denture biofilm is involved in oral infections and systemic diseases. Although there are chemical agents available on the market, none of them have ideal properties and research on such products is still necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a castor bean (Ricinus communis)-based solution for removing denture biofilm, compared to two traditional products (sodium hypochlorite and alkaline peroxide). Fifty maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures after meals and to immerse their dentures once a day in the following solutions: Saline (20 min; control), Polident alkaline peroxide (3 min), NaOCl (20 min) and 2% castor oil solution (20 min). Participants used each solution for a period of 7 consecutive days, according to a random sequence. After each period, the internal surfaces of maxillary complete dentures were stained with a disclosing solution (1% neutral red), photographed and the disclosed biofilm was quantified with the aid of specific software. The influence of treatments on results was verified by the Friedman test (α=0.05). Tested solutions presented significant difference (Fr=51.67; poil presented intermediate results (median: 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively). It can be concluded that the castor oil solution tested in this study was comparable to alkaline peroxide in terms of efficiency in denture biofilm removal.

  10. 粘红酵母菌肥对蓖麻生长性状及其种子含油量的影响%Effect of Rhodotorula glutinis Fertilizer on Ricinus communis's Quantitative Characters and Oil Content in Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步泽; 薛飞燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of Rhodotorula glutinis fertilizer on the quantitative characters and seed oil content in seed,three treatments such as Rhodotorula glutinis microbial fertilizer,chemical fertilizer of compound elements and control were carried out both in pot and field experiments. Plant height and diameter during the growth period,seed size and its water content in fresh seed and oil content in dry seed after harvested were detected. The results demonstrated that Rhodotorula glutinis fertilizer promoted the Ricinus communis sprout growth and the seed oil content,and inhibited the mature plant,seed size and its fresh weight. The seed oil content of Ricinus communis treating with Rhodotorula glutinis microbial fertilizer was 40.33%,significantly higher than that in control treatment.%为了解粘红酵母菌肥的施用对蓖麻植株生长、种子性状及其含油量的影响,分别测定了菌肥施用组、化肥施用组和空白对照组的蓖麻植株株高和茎粗、收获期种子籽粒大小、鲜重、鲜籽粒含水量和干籽粒含油量。结果表明:粘红酵母菌肥对盆栽蓖麻苗期的株高增长有不显著的促进作用,而化肥则表现出显著的抑制作用;粘红酵母菌肥对田间蓖麻植株生长中后期的株高和茎粗均有显著抑制作用;粘红酵母菌肥对蓖麻种子大小和鲜重增加也有显著抑制作用,而对种子鲜籽粒含水量和干籽粒含油量的积累有显著促进作用;菌肥施用组所得蓖麻种子含油量可达40.33%,显著高于对照。

  11. EFEITO DA CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA NO CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO DA CULTURA DA MAMONA (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Tiritan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean is an oilseed crop of outstanding importance in Brazil and worldwide. Besides the wide application in chemical industry, is important due to its tolerance to drought, making it a viable crop for the semi-arid region of Brazil, where there are few agricultural alternatives. However, this culture is not unique to semi-arid region and is also planted with excellent results in various regions of the country. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of liming and potassium fertilization on the crop of castor bean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized complete block randomized in a factorial 3 x 2, where the first factor consisted of potassium (0, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 and in the presence or absence lime to raise the base saturation to 60%. It was found that liming in combination with an intermediate dose of K2O (30 kg ha-1 elevates the production of dry mass of the area, however not change the concentration nutrients in the castor bean.

  12. Accumulation of arsenic and nutrients by castor bean plants grown on an As-enriched nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, E E C; Costa, E T S; Guilherme, L R G; Faquin, V; Nascimento, C W A

    2009-08-30

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technique that consists in using plants to remove contaminants from soils and water. This study evaluated arsenic (As) accumulation in Castor bean (Ricinus communis cv. Guarany) grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its phytoextraction ability. Castor bean plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 5000 microg L(-1)) in a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot and roots dry matter production as well as arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused a decrease in shoot and root biomass but did not result in severe toxicity symptoms in castor bean growing under a range of As concentration from 0 to 5000 microg L(-1). The As doses tested did not affect the accumulation of nutrients by castor bean. Although castor bean did not pose characteristics of a plant suitable for commercial phytoextraction, it could be useful for revegetation of As-contaminated areas while providing an additional income by oil production.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture. PMID:27347937

  14. Energetic balance of castor oil methyl and ethyl esters; Balanco energetico de esteres metilicos e etilicos de oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Pires, Monica de Moura; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: jalmeida@uesc.br; Parente Junior, Expedito [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas Ltda. (TECBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fundacao Nucleo de Tecnologia Industrial (NUTEC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: expeditojr@tecbio.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the cultures chosen by the biodiesel federal and state programs to supply raw material for biodiesel production - a biofuel indicated as renewable and less pollutant than its fossil competitor. An energetic balance was performed based on LCA - Life Cycle Analysis principles and Input-Output Analysis, comparing the castor oil energy performance with others traditional cultures: colza (Brassica napus) in Europe and soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Energy balance (O-I) was positive in both production ways (methyl and ethyl) independent of coproduct use allocation alternative. The relation Output-Input (O-I) calculated for castor oil biodiesel [1.3-2.9] was higher than the colza (1.2-1.9) and lower than the soybean (3.2--3.4), independent of the way and allocation of the used byproduct. Both indicators suggest the energy and environmental viability of the castor oil biodiesel, provided that high agricultural productivity (higher than 1.500 kg/ha year) can be guaranteed. The potentialization of the positive energetic and environmental effects depends on the adequate utilization of the coproducts and process residues, the improvement of the energy efficiency in the the castor oil and biodiesel processing and the implementation of efficient management in the use of the chemical inputs (specially the N), responsible for up 5% of the total energy input.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  16. Diseño Factorial de un Proceso Alcalino para Obtener Celulosa de Higuerilla (Ricinus communis l. y su Aplicación en Cartón Ondulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Escoto García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la obtención de celulosa y su aplicación en papel corrugado a partir del tallo de higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.. Mediante un diseño factorial 23 se encontraron las mejores condiciones del proceso alcalino para obtener celulosa. A las pulpas se les determino; No. de Kappa, % rendimiento y sus propiedades físico-mecánicas. Los tratamientos seleccionados T4, T7 y T8 se refinaron durante 6, 12, 18 y 22 minutos, posteriormente se formaron hojas estándar para corrugar y evaluar sus propiedades funcionales; compresión en ondulado, en anillo y en lateral. Se determinó que las características fisicomecánicas fueron relativamente mejores en los niveles de refinación 18 y 22 minutos. El tratamiento T8 con 22 minutos fue el que obtuvo mejores resultados en el índice de tensión (76.3 N.m/g e índice de explosión (5.3 kPa.m2/g. En cuanto a las pruebas de compresión se observó que el tratamiento T8 con nivel de refinación de 18 minutos tuvo mejor resistencia de compresión (CMT 238.7 N. Se concluye que la pulpa de higuerilla al 100 %.

  17. Indoor Toxicity Measurement of Five Different Fungicides to Botryosphaeria dothidea against Ricinus communis%五种杀菌剂对蓖麻葡萄座腔菌的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓龙; 金磊磊; 喻镇东; 陈辉辉; 邵荣; 许伟; 陈集双

    2015-01-01

    通过对蓖麻(Ricinus communis)发病部位进行真菌分离、纯化、鉴定、致病性测定,确定侵染蓖麻的病原菌为葡萄座腔菌(Botryosphaeria dothidea),并采用菌丝生长速率法测定50%多菌灵WP、70%甲基托布津WP、75%百菌清WP、99%恶霉灵WP、80%代森锰锌WP 5种杀菌剂对菌丝生长的毒力.结果表明,毒力最强的杀菌剂是50%多菌灵,对病菌B.dothidea的EC50为0.173 5 μg/mL,抑菌效果明显优于其他4种杀菌剂.

  18. Effects of CA and EDTA on Physiological Characteristics and Cd Accumulation of Ricinus communis%柠檬酸和EDTA对蓖麻生理特性和镉累积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉芬; 刘景辉; 杨彦明; 张雷; 李卫红

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study effects of citric acid ( CA) and EDTA on physiological characteristics and Cd accumulation of R. communis. Results showed that the application of EDTA alone significantly reduced the biomass of shoots and the content of chlorophyll of R. communis, evidently affected the activity of antioxidant enzyme in leaves of the plant(P<0�05), and even inhibited the activities of SOD and POD, when the application rate reached 10 mmol· kg-1 . The application of EDTA and CA together reduced the toxicity of EDTA to R. communis to a certain extent, the effect of EDTA, at 1 or 5 mmol·kg-1 , lowering the biomass of shoots and the content of chlorophyll of R. communis and the effect of EDTA, at 1 mmol·kg-1 , increasing the content of MDA in the plant. The application of EDTA alone, at 5 mmol·kg-1 , brought Cd accumulation and transfer capacity of the plant to the peak. However, once 2 mmol·kg-1 CA was applied in combination, the effect of EDTA reached a new peak, 3 times as high as in CK. Therefore, combined application of EDTA with CA should be a practice of great potential in enhancing the effect of R. communis remedying Cd polluted soils.%采用盆栽试验研究了螯合剂EDTA和柠檬酸( CA)单施或配施对蓖麻( Ricinus communis)生理特性及修复Cd污染土壤能力的影响。结果表明:单施EDTA显著降低蓖麻地上生物量和叶绿素含量( P<0�05),显著影响蓖麻叶片抗氧化酶活性( P<0�05),10 mmol·kg-1 EDTA甚至抑制SOD和POD活性;CA与EDTA联用可在一定程度上缓解EDTA对蓖麻的毒害作用,CA可缓解1和5 mmol·kg-1 EDTA导致的蓖麻地上生物量和叶绿素含量降低,缓解1 mmol·kg-1 EDTA导致的MDA含量升高;单施5 mmol·kg-1 EDTA蓖麻对Cd的富集和转移能力最高,但单株Cd富集量未达最大值,而2 mmol·kg-1 CA与5 mmol·kg-1 EDTA配施却使蓖麻单株总Cd富集量和提取率达

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  20. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  1. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  2. Impact of castor meal on root-knot and free-living nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment may enhance soil quality as well as reduce plant-parasitic nematode. Despite the many applications already undertaken using castor meal, its efficiency in controlling root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita when applied to melon (Cucumis melo is still not clear. Three different amounts of castor meal (Ricinus communis applied were evaluated in microplots planted with melon either with or without RKN. The impact of castor meal on soil free-living nematode communities was also determined. Total nematode genera richness was estimated as 37 for the entire set of microplots sampled across both sampling dates. Rarefaction analysis resulted in 12 collector's curves out of the total of 30 that reached the horizontal asymptote. Univariate ANOVA with two factors yielded differences (p < 0.05 only with regard to the time factor. Simpson, Shannon, Evenness and Equitability indices showed a trend toward moderate increases by the end of the experiment, while the other indices were higher for tomato in pre-transplant sampling compared to harvest. Nematode community and diversity changed during the course of the experiment, although there was substantial confounding heterogeneity within and between the factorial combinations from the beginning. Root knot population was not reduced by the castor meal but increased throughout the period, regardless of treatment. RKN reduced melon yield, number and weight of melon.

  3. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  4. Evaluation of Dwarf Caster (Ricinus communis L.) Varieties Introduced from America%美洲矮秆蓖麻品种的引进鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小龙; 魏佳; 裘晓云; 姚陆松; 胡荣斌; 张红; 沈国新

    2013-01-01

    A field evaluation was conducted to 15 dwarf castor varieties introduced from America on their phenological periods, agronomic traits and major economic characters so as to obtain excellent varieties for production or materials for breeding. The results indicated that, the height of 15 introduced varieties was between 76. 1 cm and 89. 3 cm, in which 7 varieties were super-dwarf types with plant height below 80 cm. Among them, Zhe-intro 15, Zhe-intro 10, Zhe-intro 2, Zhe-intro 5, Zhe-intro 12, Zhe-intro 6 and Zhe-intro 14 produced 38 773 -42 647 kg/hm2 castor leaves, similar to those of domestic dwarf castor varieties as control. However, they produced 4 038. 0-4 657. 5 kg/hm2 castor beans, being significantly or extremely significantly higher than the control varieties. Among the 7 high yield varieties, 3 varieties had higher oil and ricinoleic acid contents than the domestic control varieties. A preliminary evaluation revealed that the above high yield dwarf castor varieties have good agronomic traits and adaptability, being excellent leaf- and bean-yielding castor varieties. After multi-point evaluation, it is promising to use them for production directly or as materials for breeding new varieties.%2011 ~2012年对从美洲引进的15个矮秆蓖麻品种进行物候期、农艺性状和主要经济性状的大田鉴定,选拔可直接应用于生产的优良品种或优异的育种材料.引进的15个品种株高在75.5 ~ 89.3 cm之间,其中有7个品种的株高在80 cm以下,为超矮秆蓖麻品种.浙引15号、浙引10号、浙引2号、浙引5号、浙引12号、浙引6号和浙引14号7个品种的蓖麻叶产量为38 773~42647 kg/hm2,与国内矮秆蓖麻对照品种相仿,而蓖麻籽产量为4 038.0 ~4 657.5 kg/hm2,均显著或极显著高于对照品种.7个高产品种中,有3个品种的含油率和蓖麻油酸含量高于国内对照矮秆品种.经初步鉴定,上述高产矮秆蓖麻品种的主要农艺性状及适应性优

  5. The discussion of planting technique of perennial castor (Ricinus communis)%宿生蓖麻的栽培技术措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江惠琼; 李文昌

    2004-01-01

    蓖麻在中国分布较广,从南到北均可栽培.由于栽培品种和气候的差异造成南、北方在栽培技术上的显著不同,在北方蓖麻为一年生作物,而在南方蓖麻则为多年生作物.从品种选择、打塘、施肥、种植密度、合理轮作及间套种、打顶、整枝、冬春管理等几个方面,全面论述了南方宿生蓖麻的栽培技术措施.

  6. Experimental evidence for diel δ15N-patterns in different tissues, xylem and phloem saps of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuke, A D; Gessler, A; Tcherkez, G

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen isotope signatures in plants might give insights in the metabolism and allocation of nitrogen. To obtain a deeper understanding of the modifications of the nitrogen isotope signatures, we determined δ(15)N in transport saps and in different fractions of leaves, axes and roots during a diel course along the plant axis. The most significant diel variations were observed in xylem and phloem saps where δ(15)N was significantly higher during the day compared with during the night. However in xylem saps, this was observed only in the canopy, but not at the hypocotyl positions. In the canopy, δ(15)N was correlated fairly well between phloem and xylem saps. These variations in δ(15)N in transport saps can be attributed to nitrate reduction in leaves during the photoperiod as well as to (15)N-enriched glutamine acting as transport form of N. δ(15)N of the water soluble fraction of roots and leaves partially affected δ(15)N of phloem and xylems saps. δ(15)N patterns are likely the result of a complex set of interactions and N-fluxes between plant organs. Furthermore, the natural nitrogen isotope abundance in plant tissue is not constant during the diel course - a fact that needs to be taken into account when sampling for isotopic studies.

  7. 单雌蓖麻的研究与应用%Review on the study and utilization of istillate castor(Ricinus communis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田清震; 郑洪源; 郭志强

    2001-01-01

    单雌蓖麻是珍贵的蓖麻资源。单雌蓖麻的研究与利用,对于蓖麻杂种优势研究具有重要的意义。本文综述了单雌蓖麻的遗传类型、研究及应用状况,提出进一步利用单雌蓖麻开发蓖麻杂种优势的策略。

  8. EFEITO DA CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA NO CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO DA CULTURA DA MAMONA (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sérgio Tiritan; Juliano Carlos Calonego; Diego Henriques Santos

    2010-01-01

    The castor bean is an oilseed crop of outstanding importance in Brazil and worldwide. Besides the wide application in chemical industry, is important due to its tolerance to drought, making it a viable crop for the semi-arid region of Brazil, where there are few agricultural alternatives. However, this culture is not unique to semi-arid region and is also planted with excellent results in various regions of the country. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of liming and potassium fertiliza...

  9. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar.

  10. Análise clínica, radiológica, macroscópica e histológica do úmero de codornas domésticas (Coturnix japonica, submetido ao implante da poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona (Ricinnus communis Clinical, radiological, macroscopical and histological analysis of domestic quail (Coturnix japonica humerus submitted to implant of polyurethane from castor oil polymer (Ricinnus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bolson

    2005-10-01

    ça de trabéculas e medula óssea no interior do implante. Concluiu-se que a poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona é biocompatível em aves, podendo ser utilizada na cirurgia ortopédica, ocorrendo osteointegração.In orthopedic surgery there are frequently situations in which the surgeon faces severe bone losses caused by high-energy trauma, tumors or infections. Repairing these losses require knowledge about filling materials. Those materials can be biological, synthetic or metallic, with emphasis in bony grafts and biomaterial implants. The increase of the use of birds as pets is leading to an increasing number of clinical and surgical cases related to this taxon, where fractures are the most commonly observed surgical problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, radiological, macroscopic and microscopic effects of the polyurethane derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis polymer, when implanted in the humerus of domestic quails (Coturnix japonica. Twenty male and female quails, were used randomly distributed in four groups of five individuals. The birds received the implants in the left humerus, being submitted to daily physical examination during the postoperative period, immediate and biweekly radiological examination, and macroscopic and microscopic evaluation at the 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days. Clinically, there were not observed local, regional or systemic changes. Radiologically, increase in local density was observed with no signs of changes in bone or adjacent tissue, as well as in the air sacs. Macroscopic analysis revealed that the polyurethane derived from castor oil polymer was not absorbed in none of the four groups, remaining implanted within the pneumatic bone. Its resistance, however, has changed. Microscopic examination evidenced minimum inflammatory reaction, slight fibrosis around the implants, and osteo-integration with presence of trabeculi and bone marrow inside the implants. Concluding, implants of polyurethane

  11. Controlling effects of Ricinus communis extracts and Paecilomyces lilacinus against Meloidogyne incognita%蓖麻提取物和淡紫拟青霉对南方根结线虫的防治作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩圆; 胡飞龙; 祝红红; 杜志敏; 刘满强; 李辉信; 胡锋

    2011-01-01

    A bioassay and a pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activities and the controlling effects of Ricinus communis extracts and Paecilomyces lilacinus against Meloid-ogyne incognita. It was observed that ricinine had no impact on the germination of P. Lilacinus spores, whereas both ricinine and P. Lilacinus had strong nematocidal activities. In treatment ricinine, the inhibition rate of egg-hatching and the mortality of the second stage juveniles of M. Incognita were 61. 7% and 59. 2% , respectively, being significantly higher than those in control treatment. In treatment ricinine plus P. Lilacinus, the mean number of the root-knots per plant of tomato seedlings inoculated with M. Incognita was 15 ±3, which was significantly lower than that (37±2) in the control, and the plant height, fresh mass, and root length of the seedlings were increased by 38. 5% , 44. 0% , and 57.0% , respectively, as compared to the control.-The results suggested that R. Communis extracts and P. Lilacinus could mitigate the harm of M. Incognita, and also, have obvious effects in controlling M. Incognita.%通过杀线活性测定及盆栽试验,研究了蓖麻提取物和淡紫拟青霉(Paecilomyces lilacinus)对南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)的杀线活性及防治效果.结果表明:蓖麻碱不影响淡紫拟青霉孢子的萌发.蓖麻碱和淡紫拟青霉均具有较强杀线活性,蓖麻碱处理对南方根结线虫的卵孵化抑制率和二龄幼虫死亡率分别达61.7%和59.2%,显著高于对照处理;蓖麻碱和孢子液复合处理接种南方根结线虫的番茄苗后,植株平均根结数为15±3,显著低于对照的平均根结数37±2,株高、鲜重和根长增长率分别比对照提高38.5%、44.0%和57.0%.说明蓖麻提取物和淡紫拟青霉能减轻线虫危害,对番茄南方根结线虫病控制效果明显.

  12. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.

  13. Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratios for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hart, Garret L.; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason B.; Gill, Gary A.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2012-08-15

    Recent years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 6 0 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % versus 5 5 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % and 4 0 . 2 {+-} 1 . 8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.

  14. The Mechanical Properties of Castor Seed Shell-polyester Matrix Composites

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    S.C. Nwigbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A composite with a polyester matrix reinforced with chemically modified shells of castor seed (Ricinus communis was produced. The effect of the shell (filler on the mechanical properties of the composite was experimentally quantified. A preliminary study was earlier carried out the shell in terms of their chemical constituents, functional group and mechanical strength. The shell was ground and chemically treated to enhance good bonding and adhesion to the matrix. Composites were fabricated using a hand lay-up or contact mould method for different percentage compositions of the filler. Tests, with respect to the mechanical properties (i.e., tensile, flexural and creep response were carried out. The result obtained was compared with the unreinforced polyester plate. It was observed that the inclusion of the filler (shell added strength to the composite. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was taken on the composite samples to study the morphology of the composites.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on the antioxidant activity of castor oil: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation in the antioxidant activity of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., has been studied by the DPPH method. The IC50 of the oil is 0,28 μL/mL, which indicates that this oil contain compounds with the ability to neutralize DPPH radicals. The antioxidant activity does not vary too much when the oil is irradiated up to 20 kGy, except for 15 kGy where it decreased 6%. If the oil was obtained from irradiated seeds, the activity does not vary too much up to 3 kGy. However, for 5 kGy it was observed a reduction of 20%. (orig.)

  16. Morphological, Physiological and Proteomic Analyses Provide Insights into the Improvement of Castor Bean Productivity of a Dwarf Variety in Comparing with a High-Stalk Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Lu, Hongling; Wei, Jia; Bai, Yueqing; He, Ningjia; Hu, Rongbin; Sun, Li; Zhang, Hong; Shen, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety) and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety) combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with Zhebi 100, we found that photosynthesis, energy, and protein biosynthesis related proteins decreased in abundance in Zhebi 26. The lower yield of the dwarf castor is likely related to its lower photosynthetic rate, therefore we hypothesize that the lower yield of the dwarf castor, in comparing to high stalk castor, could be increased by increasing planting density. Consequently, we demonstrated that at the higher planting density in Zhebi 26 (36,000 seedlings/hm2) can achieve a higher yield than that of Zhebi 100 (12,000 seedlings/hm2). Proteomic and physiological studies showed that for developing dwarf R. communis cultivar that is suitable for large scale-production (i.e., mechanical harvesting), it is imperative to identify the optimum planting density that will contribute to higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis, and eventually higher productivity.

  17. Distribution and chemical forms of copper in the root cells of castor seedlings and their tolerance to copper phytotoxicity in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hongqin; Du, Jiangkun

    2015-05-01

    The subcellular localization and chemical forms of copper in castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings grown in hydroponic nutrient solution were identified by chemical extraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wild castor seeds were harvested from an abandoned copper mine in Tonglu Mountain, Daye City of Hubei Province, China. The results revealed that (1) the seedlings grew naturally in MS liquid medium with 40.00 mg kg(-1) CuSO4, in which the seedling growth rate and biomass index were 0.14 and 1.23, respectively, which were the highest values among all the treatments. The copper content in castor seedlings increased along with elevated CuSO4 concentration in the medium, reaching a maximum value of 16 570.12 mg kg(-1)(DW) when exposed to 60.00 mg L(-1) CuSO4, where 91.31% of the copper was accumulated in roots. (2) The copper existed in various chemical forms in the roots of the castor seedlings. Copper of 67.66% was extracted from the components of cell walls, such as exchangeable acidic polar compounds, cellulose and lignin, protein and pectin, and less concentrated in cell cytoplasm and nuclei. (3) Furthermore, the root cell walls were thickened when the castor seedlings exposed to CuSO4, with a large amount of high-density electron bodies, attached to the thickened cell walls. In the cell walls, most copper was bound to the carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups of acidic polar compounds, cellulose, hemicellulose, and polysaccharides. The conclusion showed that castor exhibited a strong tolerance to copper, the copper were accumulated mainly in the root cell, the root cell walls of castor were the major location of patience and detoxification in copper stress.

  18. Energetic potential of the vegetable oil of Canton Tosagua ricinus comunnis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plantation of Higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) can be considered as an alternative of high energy, economic and social importance for the climatic conditions of the Ecuador's coastal area, due to its easy cultivation, the resistance to the drought is being considered as a plant generator for rent and work for small farmers in the geography of Tosagua, Rocafuerte and other towns in the vicinity to Manabi province. The castor oil is a xerofila and heliofila plantation in other words , adapted to arid atmospheres and sun loving. The paper shows a characterization carried out to higuerilla seeds in the biotechnology laboratory of to the Polytechnic High School of Calceta (ESPAM). The seeds collected in different villages near Tosagua, let us estimate the energy potential of the Higuerilla plantation like energy source for the Manabi province. The industrialization of the product obtained from Higuerilla plantation would have as advantage the pure vegetable oil (PVO) as main by-product, besides it can obtain a cake rich in protein. The castor oil cake can be used to restore out lands; also, it contains products that can be used for the control of nematodes of the ground, due to the high toxicity that confers it toxic protein denominated ricine. (author)

  19. Biochemical characterization of the castor bean ent-kaurene synthase(-like) family supports quantum chemical view of diterpene cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alana J; Hershey, David M; Chesnut, Taylor; Xu, Meimei; Peters, Reuben J

    2014-07-01

    It has become apparent that plants have extensively diversified their arsenal of labdane-related diterpenoids (LRDs), in part via gene duplication and neo-functionalization of the ancestral ent-kaurene synthase (KS) required for gibberellin metabolism. For example, castor bean (Ricinus communis) was previously shown to produce an interesting set of biosynthetically related diterpenes, specifically ent-sandracopimaradiene, ent-beyerene, and ent-trachylobane, in addition to ent-kaurene, using four separate diterpene synthases, albeit these remain unidentified. Notably, despite mechanistic similarity of the underlying reaction to that catalyzed by KSs, ent-beyerene and ent-trachylobane synthases have not yet been identified. Given our interest in LRD biosynthesis, and the recent availability of the castor bean genome sequence, a synthetic biology approach was applied to biochemically characterize the four KS(-like) enzymes [KS(L)s] found in Ricinus communis [i.e., the RcKS(L)s]. In particular, using bacteria engineered to produce the relevant ent-copalyl diphosphate precursor and synthetic genes based on the predicted RcKS(L)s, although this ultimately required correction of a "splicing" error in one of the predicted genes, highlighting the dependence of such a synthetic biology approach on accurate gene sequences. Nevertheless, it is possible to assign each of the four RcKS(L)s to one of the previously observed diterpene synthase activities, providing access to functionally enzymes. Intriguingly, the product distribution of the RcKS(L)s seems to support the distinct diterpene synthase reaction mechanism proposed by quantum chemical calculations, rather than the classically proposed pathway.

  20. Biochemical characterization of the castor bean ent-kaurene synthase(-like) family supports quantum chemical view of diterpene cyclization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alana J.; Hershey, David M.; Chesnut, Taylor; Xu, Meimei; Peters, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    It has become apparent that plants have extensively diversified their arsenal of labdane-related diterpenoids (LRDs), in part via gene duplication and neo-functionalization of the ancestral ent-kaurene synthase (KS) required for gibberellin metabolism. For example, castor bean (Ricinus communis) was previously shown to produce an interesting set of biosynthetically related diterpenes, specifically ent-sandracopimaradiene, ent-beyerene, and ent-trachylobane, in addition to ent-kaurene, using four separate diterpene synthases, albeit these remain unidentified. Notably, despite mechanistic similarity of the underlying reaction to that catalyzed by KSs, ent-beyerene and ent-trachylobane synthases have not yet been identified. Given our interest in LRD biosynthesis, and the recent availability of the castor bean genome sequence, we applied a synthetic biology approach to biochemically characterize the four KS(-like) enzymes [KS(L)s] found in Ricinus communis [i.e., the RcKS(L)s]. In particular, using bacteria engineered to produce the relevant ent-copalyl diphosphate precursor and synthetic genes based on the predicted RcKS(L)s, although this ultimately required correction of a “splicing” error in one of the predicted genes, highlighting the dependence of such a synthetic biology approach on accurate gene sequences. Nevertheless, we can assign each of the four RcKS(L)s to one of the previously observed diterpene synthase activities, providing access to functionally novel enzymes. Intriguingly, the product distribution of the RcKS(L)s seems to support the distinct diterpene synthase reaction mechanism proposed by quantum chemical calculations, rather than the classically proposed pathway. PMID:24810014

  1. Eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) e mamona (Ricinus communis L.) na resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaerth.) a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; Ademilson Daniel de Souza; Carlos Roberto de Lima; Pierre Farias de Souza

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986627A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica) e de mamona (Ricinus communis) na melhoria da resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra) a fungos xilófagos em simulador de campo. Os óleos de nim e de mamona foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo das soluções preservativas. Amostras de madeira com dimensões de 1,5 x 0,5 x 15 cm (radial x tangencial x longitudinal) foram tratadas para ati...

  2. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  3. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  4. SOIL EXCHANGEABLE ALUMINUM INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND LEAF TISSUE MACRONUTRIENTS CONTENT OF CASTOR PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSIANE DE LOURDES SILVA DE LIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three castor ( Ricinus communis genotypes were studied regarding tolerance to high exchange factorial distribution of five doses of exchangeable aluminum added to the soil (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 cmol c dm - 3 and three castor genotypes (BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, and Lyra. The plants were raised in pots in a greenhouse. At 53 days after emergence, data were taken on plant height, leaf area, dry mass of shoot and root, and leaf tissue content of macronutrients. The most sensitive genotype was the cv. BRS Nordestina, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the highest aluminum content were reduced to 12.9% and 16.2% of the control treatment, respectively. The most tolerant genotype was the hybrid Lyra, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the maximum content of aluminum were reduced to 43.5% and 42.7% of the control treatment, respectively.The increased exchangeable aluminum affected the leaf nutrient content, and the intensity of the response was different among cultivars. The aluminum toxicity increased N, Ca, and Mg contents and reduced on P, K, and S contents. The cv. BRS Nordestina had a drastic shoot dry weight reduction associated with an intense increment in the N leaf content. Thus, the N increment was caused by a concentration effect caused by the limited growth.

  5. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  6. Lipid composition of organelles from germinating castor bean endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.P.; Beevers, H.

    1977-02-01

    Glyoxysome, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and proplastid fractions were isolated from endosperm of castor beans (Ricinus communis) germinated for 5 days at 30 C. Samples from sucrose density gradients were diluted with 0.15 M KCl and the membranes pelleted. Lipid extracts of these membranes were analyzed for phosphoglyceride, acyl lipid, and sterol content. The endoplasmic reticulum contains 1.24 ..mu..mol of phosphoglyceride per mg of protein; the mitochondria, 0.65 ..mu..mol/mg; and the glyoxysome membranes, 0.55 ..mu..mol/mg. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine are the most abundant lipids in all membranes studied, accounting for 70% or more of the lipid phosphorus and 50% or more of the fatty acid. Glyoxysome membranes and endoplasmic reticulum also contain phosphatidyl inositol (respectively, 9 and 17% of the lipid phosphorus) and free fatty acids (13% of the total fatty acid in each). Compared with other organelles, mitochondrial membranes have more phosphatidyl ethanolamine relative to phosphatidyl choline and are characterized by the presence of cardiolipin, in which 80% of the fatty acid is linoleate. The relative amounts of linoleate, palmitate, oleate, stearate, and linolenate in each of the phosphotoglycerides are constant regardless of the membrane source. Stimasgasterol and ..beta..-sitosterol are present in the membranes (1 to 9 nmol each/mg protein). The data provide further evidence that glyoxysome membranes are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum but at the same time indicate some differentiation.

  7. Identification and functional expression of a type 2 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT2) in developing castor bean seeds which has high homology to the major triglyceride biosynthetic enzyme of fungi and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Johan T M; Wei, Wenxue; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2006-12-01

    Seed oil from castor bean (Ricinus communis) contains high amounts of hydroxy fatty acid rich triacylglycerols (TAGs) that can serve as raw material for production of bio-based products such as nylon, cosmetics, lubricants, foams, and surfactants. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the terminal reaction in the acyl-CoA dependent Kennedy pathway of triglyceride biosynthesis. There is still some debate whether there are three or four enzymes in yeast that have DGAT activity and catalyse the synthesis of TAG but of these the DGAT2 homologue Dga1 contributes in a major way to TAG biosynthesis. Here we report on the cloning of a cDNA for DGAT2 from castor bean and prove its biological activity following expression in yeast and enzymatic assays using diricinolein as the acceptor and ricinoleoyl-CoA as the donor. Previous reports of DGAT in castor have focussed on DGAT1 which has little amino acid sequence homology to DGAT2. Expressional studies demonstrate that DGAT2 is 18-fold more highly expressed in seeds than in leaves and shows temporal specific expression during seed development. In contrast, DGAT1 shows little difference in expression in seeds versus leaves. We conclude that in castor bean DGAT2 is more likely to play a major role in seed TAG biosynthesis than DGAT1.

  8. Crioconservação de sementes de mamona das variedades nordestina e pernambucana Cryoconservation of nordestina and pernambucana varieties of castor bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available É grande a importância da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. para a economia do semi-árido nordestino, que é responsável por 80% da produção nacional, no entanto durante 1970 e 2000, a produção líquida dessa oleaginosa foi reduzida na mesma percentagem. Registrou-se também a existência de aproximadamente 90 tipos diferentes de sementes empregadas no cultivo desta Euforbiaceae. Devido a este problema, o trabalho desenvolvido no Laboratório de Processamento e Armazenamento de Produtos Agrícolas do DEAg/UFPB, objetivou desenvolver técnicas de crioconservação para duas variedades de Ricinus communis, com vistas a uma armazenagem segura e por tempo indefinido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com os dados obtidos nos 7º e 14º dias depois da semeadura, dispostos em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 (duas variedades, três períodos de crioconservação, duas temperaturas de crioconservação e dois tipos de acondicionamento com oito repetições de vinte e cinco sementes cada uma. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos fatores qualitativos comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que: o nível máximo de umidade para a crioconservação das sementes das duas variedades de Ricinus communis (nordestina e pernambucana encontra-se entre 4 e 10% base úmida; os melhores resultados de qualidade fisiológica foram obtidos aos 30 dias da crioconservação, podendo essas sementes serem crioconservadas tanto no vapor (-176 ºC como na imersão (-196 ºC em nitrogênio líquido; o canister de alumínio utilizado para acondicionar as sementes mostrou-se superior ao de PVC.The castor bean (Ricinus communis L. has great importance for the economy of the semi-arid region of the northeast of Brazil, responsible for 80% of the national production, but during 1970 and 2000, the net production of this oil crop was reduced

  9. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  10. Comparação histológica entre o osso desmineralizado e polímero de mamona sobre a regeneração óssea Histological comparison of demineralized bone matrix and the Ricinus communis polymer on bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Laureano Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo analisar histologicamente o efeito de uma matriz óssea desmineralizada de origem humana e de uma resina poliuretana derivada do óleo da mamona sobre o processo de reparação óssea. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 coelhos e em cada calvária foram preparadas duas cavidades cirúrgicas, sendo uma do lado direito e a outra do lado esquerdo da sutura parietal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos. No grupo I, a cavidade experimental (lado direito foi preenchida com a matriz óssea desmineralizada de origem humana, enquanto no grupo II a cavidade experimental foi preenchida com a poliuretana derivada do óleo de mamona. As cavidades de controle foram preenchidas apenas com o sangue do animal. Os animais foram sacrificados nos períodos pós-operatórios de 4, 7 e 15 semanas. RESULTADOS: A análise histológica revelou que tanto o grupo controle quanto os grupos I e II apresentaram um aumento na neoformação óssea ao longo do tempo, sendo que esta reparação se deu mais rapidamente no grupo controle, mesmo mostrando diminuição importante na espessura. CONCLUSÕES: Ambos os materiais apresentaram-se biocompatíveis, sendo a poliuretana reabsorvida mais tardiamente e considerada de melhor resultado em relação ao outro material empregado.Aim the aim of the present study is to make a histologic analysis the effects of a human demineralized bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from the Ricinus communis, on bone regeneration process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this, 24 rabbits were submitted to two surgical calvaria bone defects, one on the right and another on the left side of the parietal suture. The animals were divided in two groups. In group I the experimental defect (right side was treated with a human demineralized bone matrix, while in group II the experimental cavity was treated with the polyurethane resin derived from Ricinus communis. The control defects were filled with the

  11. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  12. Building Supply Systems from Scratch: The Case of the Castor Bean for Biodiesel Chain in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassia Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study contributes to identifying obstacles to the development of a local biodiesel agro-industrial system (AGS in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research questions are: “How do local social characteristics influence the organizational effectiveness of agents involved in the joint production effort?”; and “How can the institutional arrangement of biodiesel production be described?” The method adopted is the case study, focused on family farmers served by the Family Farmers Rural Extension and Technical Assistance Company (EMATER. This state organization introduced castor beans (Ricinus communis L. to family farmers as an alternative crop to supply a processing plant (Darcy Ribeiro Biodiesel Plant—DRBP in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. These family farmers are not horizontally organized, and sign individual contracts with DRBP. The paper concludes that the primary obstacle to developing the biodiesel AGS with castor beans in Minas Gerais is the lack of horizontal organization among family farmers.

  13. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  14. Investigation of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Transport in Castor Bean Seedlings by Cyclic JCross Polarization Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, M.; Köckenberger, W.; Kimmich, R.; Chandrakumar, N.; Bowtell, R.

    1998-05-01

    NMR experiments using13C-labeled compounds offer the possibility of noninvasive monitoring of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in living plants, but are usually hampered by the low sensitivity of the13C nucleus. The problem of low sensitivity can be overcome by using the cyclicJcross polarization (CYCLCROP) technique, which allows the indirect detection of13C nuclei coupled to1H nuclei with the high NMR sensitivity of protons. We report here on methods for imaging and spectroscopy based on the CYCLCROP technique, and their use in the firstin vivoNMR study of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in castor bean seedlings (Ricinus communis L.). Comprehensive acquisition strategies for the various NMR methods are given, including the procedure for setting up the experiments. In addition, a full analysis of the effect of relaxation on the signals generated from smallJ-coupled spin systems by the CYCLCROP sequence is given, and the high sensitivity of the sequence is demonstrated. In thein vivostudy of six-day-old castor bean seedlings, we were able to measure the uptake of labeled hexoses, supplied in solution to the cotyledons, and their conversion to sucrose, as well as the transport of this sucrose in the vascular bundles. Images of the actual distribution of labeled sucrose in the hypocotyl of the seedling have also been obtained. The resulting data show some evidence for a preferential incorporation of labeled fructose in the process of sucrose synthesis, which decreases with the time of incubation.

  15. Cultivo de sequeiro da mamona adubada com casca de mamona e fertilizante nitrogenado Castor bean cultivated under rainfed conditions with the castor bean bark and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento e produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cv. BRS Energia cultivada em regime de sequeiro em função da adubação combinada de casca de mamona na forma moída e natural com doses crescentes de fertilizante nitrogenado. O experimento foi realizado entre setembro de 2009 a março de 2010, no Campus IV/UEPB. Realizou-se o plantio em vasos plásticos de 60 L preenchidos com 58 kg de solo. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, sendo aplicado 3 t ha-¹ de casca de mamona em duas formas de utilização (natural e moída e quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha-¹, com quatro repetições totalizando 32 parcelas. Verifica-se que a adubação com a casca moída foi superior a casca natural. Para a massa seca do cacho, área foliar por planta e número de folhas a dosagem 90 kg ha-¹ de N foi superior às demais. Já para o número de nós foi a dose de 60 kg ha-¹ de N. A casca de mamona usada de forma racional, como adubo, contribui para redução de custos ao produtor e incrementos na fertilidade do solo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and production of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. BRS Energia in rainfed cultivation under combined fertilization of castor bean bark in a natural and ground forms and with increasing levels of nitrogen. The experiment was conducted during September, 2009 to March, 2010, at Campus IV/UEPB. The planting was done in 60 L pots filled with 58 kg of soil. Using a randomized block design in a 2 x 4 factorial, with two kinds of bark of castor bean (natural and ground in the dose of 3 t ha-¹ and four rates of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha-¹ with four replications. It was verified that fertilization with the ground bark was superior than natural bark. For the dry mass of the bunch, leaf area per plant, and leaf number, dose of 90 kg ha-¹ of N was better than the others. While for the number of

  16. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  17. Evaluation of two pistillate lines of castor(Ricinus communis)established by plant growth regulator%利用植物生长调节剂建立的两个蓖麻纯雌系的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁生; 杨建国

    2003-01-01

    对利用植物生长调节剂建立的两个蓖麻纯雌系693和821进行了评价,它们的雌株率均为100%.821早熟,693晚熟,其产量潜力大,整齐度好,均可用于配制杂交种,配制的杂交种适宜不同的地区种植.这一试验结果表明利用植物生长调节剂从雌性单株建立蓖麻纯雌系是可行的.

  18. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar.

  19. Eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. e mamona (Ricinus communis L. na resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986627A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e de mamona (Ricinus communis na melhoria da resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra a fungos xilófagos em simulador de campo. Os óleos de nim e de mamona foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo das soluções preservativas. Amostras de madeira com dimensões de 1,5 x 0,5 x 15 cm (radial x tangencial x longitudinal foram tratadas para atingir uma retenção nominal de 10 a 16 kg de solução/m³ de madeira. As amostras permaneceram por 180 dias sob ação da microflora natural existente em três tipos de solos: de floresta, de uso agrícola e de pastagem natural. Entre os solos testados, o de uso agrícola apresentou maior atividade biológica, deteriorando mais as amostras. Dentre as soluções testadas, o óleo de nim puro proporcionou maior proteção à madeira. As soluções preparadas com os óleos de nim e mamona não protegeram bem a madeira do ataque de fungos xilófagos naturalmente existentes no solo de uso agrícola.

  20. Ricinine content in different parts of Ricinus communis and its insecticidal activity%蓖麻不同部位蓖麻碱的含量及其杀虫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进进; 袁慧慧; 王金威; 潘铁英; 蓝闽波

    2013-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)外标法测定并比较了蓖麻Ricinus communis不同部位和不同生长期蓖麻叶中蓖麻碱的含量,并研究了其对甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua的毒杀效果.结果表明,蓖麻不同部位中蓖麻碱的含量差异较大,由高到低依次为叶(1.005%)>籽壳(0.568%)>饼粕(0.451%)>茎(0.429%)>籽仁(0.235%);不同生长期蓖麻叶中蓖麻碱的含量也存在很大差别,其中鲜绿叶中的含量最高.提取的蓖麻碱对甜菜夜蛾具有良好的毒杀效果,施药72 h后对2龄幼虫的LC5o值为0.35 mg/mL.

  1. Stability analysis of internal reference gene of Ricinus communis treated by glucose-fipronil%葡萄糖基氟虫腈处理下蓖麻内参基因的稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛根林; 解云; 赵俊龙; 陈炎; 徐汉虹; 林菲

    2016-01-01

    [目的]筛选葡萄糖基氟虫腈(GTF)及溶剂二甲基亚砜(DMSO)处理下蓖麻Ricinus communis稳定的内参基因,为研究GTF的韧皮部装载机制提供参考.[方法]选取Actin,ARC,ef1a,SamDC,TUA6为内参基因,通过实时荧光定量PCR分析基因表达量并利用geNorm,NormFinder,BestKeeper,Delta CT软件及RefFinder在线分析工具综合比较不同时间和不同浓度的GTF与DMSO处理后,5个候选内参基因在蓖麻幼苗子叶中表达的稳定性.[结果]各软件分析得出的内参基因稳定性排名依次为geNorm:Actin=ef1a> SamDC> ARC> TUA6;NormFinder: SamDC> ARC> Actin> ef1a>TUA6;BestKeeper:Actin> ef1a>SamDC> ARC> TUA6;Delta CT:SamDC> Actin> ARC> ef1a>TUA6;RefFinder:Actin> SamDC> ef1a>ARC> TUA6,而单独分析DMSO处理时,稳定性排名则为:ef1a> SamDC> Actin>TUA6> ARC.[结论]综合分析GTF和DMSO处理,Actin的表达最稳定;在DMSO处理下,则ef1a最为稳定.

  2. Adding value to a toxic residue from the biodiesel industry: production of two distinct pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum in castor bean waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Mateus G; Gutarra, Melissa L E; Castro, Aline M; Machado, Olga L T; Freire, Denise M G

    2011-08-01

    In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology. PMID:20844923

  3. Inhibition of neutral lipase from castor bean lipid bodies by coenzyme A (CoA) and Oleoyl-CoA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) in lipid body membranes isolated from the endosperm of 4 day old castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings catalyzes the hydrolysis of [14C]trioleoylglycerol, releasing [14C]oleic acid for up to 4 hours. However, the addition of Mg-ATP and coenzyme A (CoA), which are present in the cytoplasm of plant cells, caused a progressive inhibition of the neutral lipase such that after 15 minutes, release of [14C]oleic acid was almost undetectable. A fatty acyl CoA synthetase was found in the lipid body membrane which converts [14C]oleic acid produced from the lipase reaction to [14C]oleoyl-CoA under these conditions. The concentration of free oleoyl-CoA in the reaction mixture when the lipase was inhibited by 50% was calculated to be about 21 micromolar. It was found that a mixture of exogenously added oleoyl-CoA and CoA was most effective in causing lipase inhibition. Little inhibition of lipase was detected in the presence of CoA alone. It is possible that this effect is important in vivo in coordinating lipase activity with fatty acid oxidation

  4. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  5. Effects of slag media with different lead-zinc contents on seed germination and seedling growth in Ricinus communis%不同铅锌含量的矿渣基质对蓖麻种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易心钰; 蒋丽娟; 刘强

    2014-01-01

    为给利用蓖麻及类似油料能源植物修复铅、锌等重金属污染的土壤提供理论与技术依据,采用盆栽方法,将蓖麻种子栽种在由铅锌尾矿渣、泥炭土、黄土和不同体积配比的有机菌肥混配而成的基质中,观测了不同栽培基质处理的蓖麻种子萌发与幼苗生长情况,同时测量并分析了铅、锌、铜、镉在其幼苗各组织中的分布情况,以了解蓖麻对铅锌等重金属的耐受力与转运潜力。试验结果表明:蓖麻种子在纯矿渣基质和不同铅锌含量矿渣混合基质中均能萌发与生长;处理Ⅴ(60%矿渣+20%泥炭土+20%黄土)的蓖麻种子的萌芽率、发芽势、幼苗成活率及幼苗植株的生长势均较好,而处理Ⅲ(80%矿渣+10%泥炭土+10%黄土+有机菌肥)的各项指标却显著低于其他处理(p<0.05);蓖麻种子和幼苗均表现出了对铅锌等重金属的较强的耐受性,蓖麻根系为重金属的主要累积部位,只有少量的重金属转移到地上部分,4种元素的转运能力由大到小依次为铜>锌>铅>镉,其转移系数均小于1。研究结果表明:蓖麻不属于铅、锌的超富集植物,但耐受性强,生物量大,可用于铅锌污染土壤植物修复及能源化利用。%In order to provide a theoretical and technological basis for remedying soil contaminated by heavy metal using energy oil plants, Ricinus communis seeds were planted in the mixed media of different volume ratio of lead-zinc tailings, peat soil, loess and organic bacterial manure, seed germination and seedling growth in R. communis were observed. Distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in tissues of seedling were determined and analyzed in order to learn heavy metal tolerance and transport potential of R. communis. The results demonstrate that seeds can germination and grow in both the pure slag media and the mixed media with different lead-zinc contents. In treatmentⅤ(60

  6. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils, in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10: control (CON, propolis (PRO, or essential oils (OIL. CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM. The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal-1 d-1 of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal-1 d-1 of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm, pH (5.9, Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm², marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9, lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg-1 meat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%, ashes (1.1%, protein (23.8%, and lipids (1.7%, fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/ SFA, 0.13, and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9 on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.

  7. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Asnake G. Ede; Abebe G. Demissie

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca) and castor (Ricinus communius L) seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus) and cockroach (Blattela germanica). The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The L...

  8. Produtividade da mamona irrigada com esgoto doméstico tratado Productivity of castor bean irrigated with treated domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyliane C. de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., oleaginosa de relevante importância econômica e social no Nordeste, apresenta-se como alternativa para a produção do biodiesel. O experimento objetivou avaliar, em escala real, os aspectos produtivos da cultura da mamona irrigada com esgoto doméstico tratado. Empregou-se o sistema de microaspersão; a delimitação experimental foi de quatro repetições e quatro tratamentos: T1: água do poço e adubação recomendada; T2: esgoto doméstico tratado e adubação recomendada; T3: somente esgoto doméstico tratado e T4: esgoto doméstico tratado e metade da adubação recomendada. Verificou-se que as unidades irrigadas com esgoto tratado superaram as irrigadas com água, em quase todas as variáveis analisadas. A produtividade foi maior nos tratamentos irrigados com esgoto e adubação (T2 e (T4, alcançando produtividade de 1.986 e 1.412 kg ha-1, respectivamente. O teor de óleo contido nas sementes foi analisado e não apresentou nenhuma diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com adubação (T1, T2 e T4, sendo que o tratamento com esgoto tratado (T3 forneceu baixíssimos teores de óleo na semente.The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., an oil crop of economic and social importance for the Northeast region of Brazil, can be used for biodiesel production. The experiment aimed to evaluate, at a realistic scale, the productive aspects of the castor bean irrigated with treated sewage. Microsprinkler irrigation method was selected, and the experimental set-up consisted of four repetitions and four different treatments: well water and recommended fertilization (T1; treated wastewater and recommended fertilization (T2; treated wastewater without external recommended fertilization (T3; and treated wastewater and half of recommended fertilization (T4. It was found that units irrigated with treated sewage exceeded the ones irrigated with well water in almost all variables. The highest productivities were in the

  9. Fitotoxicidade e seletividade do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium na mamona cultivar BRS Nordestina Toxicity and selectivity of trifloxysulfuron-sodium herbicide in castor bean cultivar BRS Nordestina

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    Uilma C. de Q. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. da família das Euforbiáceas, é uma planta rústica, heliófila e resistente à seca, caracteriza-se por sua sensibilidade a diversos herbicidas e à competição imposta pelas plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a influência de distintas doses do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium* em vários estádios de desenvolvimento da mamoneira, cultivar BRS Nordestina. O experimento foi conduzido em 2006, em condições de casa de vegetação da EMBRAPA - Algodão de Campina Grande, PB. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, constando de quatro dosagens 5,0; 7,5; 10,0 e 12,5 g ha-1 de trifloxysulfuron sodium e quatro estádios do desenvolvimento da planta (folhas cotiledonares, duas folhas verdadeiras, duas folhas expandidas e quatro folhas e uma testemunha absoluta. Foram testados, no total, dezessete tratamentos com quatro repetições. As variáveis mensuradas foram redução de crescimento e matéria seca da mamoneira, cultivar BRS Nordestina. Verificou-se, com base nos resultados obtidos para a variável redução de crescimento, refletida pela altura e tamanho das plantas, efeito significativo por doses e estádios do desenvolvimento e a interação entre eles, em que a planta mais nova foi mais sensível ao produto. O herbicida que atua nas folhas e raízes é fitotóxico para a mamoneira, cultivar BRS Nordestina, mesmo na menor dose testada.The castor been (Ricinus communis L. is a rustic plant, heliophile, resistant to drought, belonging to the family of Euforbiace. It is characterized by being sensitive to several herbicides and the competition imposed by harmful plants. This work had as objective to study the influence of different doses of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium in different states of development of the castor been, cultivar BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted during 2006, in a greenhouse of EMBRAPA - Cotton at Campina

  10. Effects of Ricinus communis Root Extract on proliferation and Apoptosis of HepG2,NCI-H460 and SGC-7901 cell%蓖麻根提取物对HepG2,NCI-H460和SGC-7901细胞增殖及凋亡作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐祖年; 韦京辰

    2011-01-01

    探讨蓖麻根不同提取物对肝癌HepG2细胞株、肺癌NCI-H460细胞株和胃癌SGC-7901细胞株增殖及其凋亡的影响.采用MTT法检测蓖麻根不同提取物处理48h、72h对HepG2细胞、NCI-H460细胞和SGC-7901细胞增殖的抑制率;Hoechst 33258荧光染料染色法观察HepG2细胞凋亡,流式细胞术检测HepG2细胞周期.结果表明:蓖麻根石油醚提取物对HepG2细胞、NCI-H460细胞和SGC-7901细胞增殖有较强抑制作用,48 h的IC50分别为88.6、134.3、138.1 μg/mL,72 h的IC50分别为65.6、133.3、136.6μg/mL;乙酸乙酯提取物对HepG2细胞、NCI-H460细胞和SGC-7901细胞增殖在72h有中等强度抑制作用,IC50分别为90.2、138.5、188.2,μg/mL;氯仿提取物对NCI-H460细胞和SGC-7901细胞增殖抑制作用弱,对HepG2细胞增殖基本无抑制作用;Hoechst 33258荧光染色显示石油醚提取物60 μg/mL可使HepG2细胞出现凋亡细胞,流式细胞术检测显示石油醚提取物60 μg/mL可将HepG2细胞阻滞于S期(与对照组比较P<0.05).%Effects of Ricinus communis root extracts on proliferation and apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines HepG2,lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460 and gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 were investigated. Cell proliferation rate of different root extracts on HepG2 cells, NCI-H460 cells and SGC-7901 cells was determined by MTT assay. The apoptosis of HepG2 cells was observed by fluorescent dye staining with Hoechst 33258. HepG2 cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The results showed that petroleum ether extract of R. Communis root had a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of HepG2 cells,NCI-H460 cells and SGC-7901 cells,the IC50 respectively were 88. 6, 134. 3 and 138. 1 g/mL in 48h,the IC50 were respectively 65. 6,133. 3 and 136. 6 μg/mL in 72h. Ethyl acetate extract also had a moderate inhibitory effect on proliferation of HepG2 cells,NCI-H46O cells and SGC-7901 cells in 72 h,the IC50 respectively were 90. 2,138. 5 and 188. 2

  11. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  12. Pb-phytoextraction potential by castor beans in soil contaminatedPotencial de fitoextração de Pb por mamoneiras em solo contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Henrique Novais Spósito

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed with the objective to evaluate the accumulation of Pb in plant tissue of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. in contaminated soil and investigate the potential for soil remediation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/UNOESTE – Presidente Prudente/SP. Plants were grown in pots with a capacity of 9 dm3 of soil. The treatments were in addition to the vessels of 18.8 mg kg-1, 37.5 mg kg-1, 75 mg kg-1, 150 mg kg-1, 300 mg kg-1, 600 mg kg-1 and 1200 mg kg-1 in the form of Pb (Pb(NO32. Treatments were arranged according to completely randomized design with three replications. Samples of soil and plant tissue were collected ninety days after sowing for the quantification of mass of dry matter of shoots and roots, and for determining the accumulation of lead in tissues of both species. The parameters were subjected to analysis of variance evaluating the effect of treatments by the Tukey test at 5% level of probability. The results presented by significant F-test were submitted to polynomial regression. The castor beans had a higher accumulation of Pb in roots, there was a decrease in plant growth due to a reduction of mass of dry matter of shoots and roots with the gradual increase of the concentration of Pb in soil and the addition of 1200 mg kg-1 Pb in soil was more effective in reducing the growth of castor bean. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o acúmulo de Pb no tecido vegetal da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. em solo contaminado e verificar o potencial de remediação do solo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em ambiente protegido da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias/UNOESTE – Presidente Prudente/SP. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade para 9 dm3 de solo. Os tratamentos consistiram em adição nos recipientes de 18,8 mg kg-1; 37,5 mg kg-1; 75 mg kg-1; 150 mg kg-1; 300 mg kg-1; 600 mg kg-1 e 1.200 mg kg-1 de Pb na forma de

  13. Substratos para produção de mudas de mamoneira compostos por misturas de cinco fontes de matéria orgânica Substrates for castor seedlings production composed by blends of five organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O plantio de mamona (Ricinus communis L. através de mudas pode ser uma alternativa para um melhor aproveitamento da curta estação chuvosa do semi-árido brasileiro, porém ainda não se dispõe de informações básicas para o emprego desta técnica. Na formulação de substratos para produção de mudas de mamona, as características físicas, principalmente a aeração, são fatores de grande importância. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a composição de substratos utilizando misturas de solo, esterco bovino, casca de amendoim, mucilagem de sisal, bagaço de cana e cama de frango. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com 12 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Sementes da cultivar BRS Nordestina foram semeadas em sacos plásticos de 17 x 28cm, contendo misturas dos materiais a serem testados. Valores de altura, área foliar, número de folhas e diâmetro caulinar foram registrados semanalmente entre 15 e 43 dias após a emergência. Na última coleta também se registraram a massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes. O substrato composto por solo + casca de amendoim + cama de frango + mucilagem de sisal propiciou o melhor crescimento das mudas. A cama de frango contribuiu para o enriquecimento químico do substrato, enquanto a casca de amendoim e a mucilagem de sisal contribuíram para adequar as características físicas de aeração e retenção de água.Planting castor (Ricinus communis L. by seedlings can be an alternative for a better use of the short rainy season at brazilian semi-arid region, however there has been a lack of information necessary for this technique adoption. Physics characteristics, mainly aeration, are very important in a substrate for castor seedlings production. A trial was run in a randomized block design with 12 treatments and 4 replications in order to evaluate substrates for castor seedlings production. Treatments were blends of sand, bovine manure, peanut hulls, agave mucilage, sugarcane bagasse

  14. Deficiências de macronutrientes no estado nutricional da mamoneira cultivar Iris Deficiencies of macronutrients on nutritional status of castor bean cultivar Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lavres Junior

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o efeito da deficiência dos macronutrientes no crescimento e estado nutricional da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e a obtenção do quadro sintomatológico das deficiências de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Cultivou-se Ricinus communis L. cultivar Iris em solução nutritiva, tendo como tratamentos soluções completa e deficientes em N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Foram determinadas a concentração indireta de clorofila, a atividade da redutase do nitrato, os teores solúveis de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ e realizados testes rápidos para N, P e K. As deficiências de N, Ca, S e Mg foram as que mais restringiram a produção de massa de matéria seca, na ordem decrescente: N>Ca>S>Mg>K>P. Os maiores acúmulos de macronutrientes, no tratamento completo, foram observados nas raízes e no limbo das folhas inferiores. As concentrações críticas para N e Ca, ambas no limbo das folhas superiores e, Mg, no pecíolo das inferiores foram, respectivamente, 46,7, 13,8 e 6,5 g kg-1. As deficiências influenciaram as leituras do clorofilômetro. A atividade da redutase do nitrato guardou relação direta com a determinação da clorofila. Os teores de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ foram menores nas folhas deficientes em N, P e K, respectivamente, o mesmo acontecendo quando avaliadas pela análise de toque.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of macronutrient deficiencies on growth and on nutritional status of castor beans (Ricinus communis L., and to obtain the symptoms of the lack of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Nutrient solutions containing all macronutrients and those from which one of these elements was omitted were the treatments used. The following determinations were made: chlorophyll (indirectly, nitrate reductase activity, NO3--N, H2PO4--P and K+, both on soluble fractions, and by spot tests. Deficiencies of N, Ca, S and Mg were the most limiting for dry matter production, followed in decreasing order by those of K and

  15. 蓖麻饼粕的饲用%The Utilization of Castor Bean Meal in Feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志英; 江青艳

    2003-01-01

    @@ 蓖麻(Ricinus communis L),别名大麻子,是大戟科的一年生灌木状草本,原产于非洲,现已分布于世界各地,以印度、巴西最多,我国大面积栽培的省(区)有吉林、内蒙、山西、辽宁、陕西等.

  16. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  17. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120, a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  18. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  19. Produtividade e crescimento da mamoneira em resposta à adubação orgânica e mineral Castor bean yield and growth responses to organic and mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Soares Severino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação orgânica e mineral sobre o crescimento e a produtividade da mamoneira (Ricinus communis. Avaliaram-se doses de esterco, P, K e micronutrientes, em solo de baixa fertilidade e baixa disponibilidade hídrica. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e distribuição fatorial 3x2+4 (três doses de matéria orgânica, presença ou ausência de adubação mineral, com quatro combinações de doses de fertilizantes orgânicos e minerais e micronutrientes. Foram obtidos os seguintes valores de produtividade média: 163,7 kg ha-1, no tratamento sem adubação, e 596,9, 988,1 e 1.172,5 kg ha-1 com adubações orgânica mineral e orgânica + mineral, respectivamente. O P é o nutriente de maior importância para o aumento de produtividade e teor de óleo. A baixa disponibilidade hídrica limita a mineralização e a liberação de nutrientes do material orgânico.The objective of this work was to assess organic and mineral fertilization effects on growth and yield of castor bean (Ricinus communis, applying doses of manure, P, K and micronutrients on a chemically poor soil, under low water supply, in a randomized block design with three replications, and factorial arrangement of 3x2+4 (three manure doses, absence or presence of mineral fertilizer, plus four manure, mineral fertilizer and micronutrients combinations. Values for mean yield were: 163.7 kg ha-1, for treatment without any fertilization, and 596.9, 988.1 and 1,172.5 kg ha-1, for treatments with organic, mineral and organic + mineral, respectively. P is the most important nutrient for increasing yield and oil content. Low water supply limits mineralization and nutrients releasing from organic amendments.

  20. Environ: E00049 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ystearic acid Ricinus communis L. [TAX:3988] Same as: D06462 Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Ricinus communis ...L. seed Essential oils [BR:br08321] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) E00049 Castor oil CAS: 8001-79-4 ...

  1. Pré-condicionamento das sementes de mamoneira para o teste de tetrazólio = Preconditioning of castor bean seeds for the tetrazolium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Gaspar-Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi padronizar a metodologia de pré-condicionamento das sementes de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. para a avaliação do potencial fisiológico pelo teste de tetrazólio. Testaram-se os seguintes métodos de pré-condicionamento: sementes com tegumento entre papel umedecido a 30, 35 e 40ºC por 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 e 18h; sementes sem tegumento entre papel umedecido e sementes com tegumento imersas em água a 25, 30, 35 e 40º C por 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6h. Após o pré-condicionamento, removeu-se o tegumento das sementes, que foram cortadas no sentido do comprimento e imersas na solução de tetrazólio a 0,2%, por 120 min., a 35ºC. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação das sementes, o teor de água, antes e após a embebição, e a uniformidade na coloração das sementes após o teste de tetrazólio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, e a comparação de médias realizada pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Concluiu-se que o pré-condicionamento para o teste detetrazólio deve ser realizado nas sementes de mamoneira com tegumento, entre papel toalha umedecido, a 35ºC por 12h para que os resultados desse teste assemelhem-se aos obtidos no teste de germinação.This research had the objective of standardizing the methodology for preconditioning of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds for the evaluation of their physiological potential by the tetrazolium test. The evaluated seed preconditioning methods were: seeds with coatbetween moist paper towel at 30, 35 and 40ºC for 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours; and seeds without coat between moist paper towel; and seeds with coat immersed in water, at 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours. After preconditioning, the seed coat was removed, the seeds were cut lengthwise, and immersed in tetrazolium solution at a concentration of 0.2% for 120 minutes at 35ºC. The seeds’ germination percentage, moisture content before and after

  2. Características agronômicas de cultivares de mamona em função do local de cultivo e da época de semeadura no Rio Grande do Sul Characteristics of castor bean cultivars according to the environmental crop and sowing season in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Zuchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A mamona (Ricinus communis L. é uma planta oleaginosa anual e, ocasionalmente, bienal em regiões tropicais, com ciclo médio de 150 dias para a maioria das cultivares anuais e de 120 a 130 dias para cultivares anuais precoces. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características agronômicas de cultivares das mamonas 'Al Guarany 2002', 'IAC 80', 'IAC 226' e 'BRS 188 Paraguaçu'em função do ambiente de cultivo e da época de semeadura. As cultivares foram semeadas entre o primeiro e o quinto dia dos meses de novembro e dezembro, na Embrapa Clima Temperado, em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Cada época teve 12 unidades experimentais em três blocos casualizados. A emergência, a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro cacho, o período de florescimento e colheita e o ataque de pragas e doenças foram avaliados e analisados com o programa WinStat Versão 2.0. O comportamento entre as cultivares diferiu entre locais de cultivo e época de semeadura. A inserção do cacho foi mais alta, e as florações e colheitas foram mais tardias em plantas da segunda época de semeadura. Danos por pragas e doenças e os descritores morfológicos da planta de mamona apresentaram diferenças entre os locais de cultivo.Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an oleaginous plant with annual cycle and occasionally biennial cycle in tropical areas, with mean cycle of 150 days for the majority of annual cultivars and 120 to 130 days for annual early cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of castor cultivars according to environmental crop and sowing season. The experiment was conduced at Embrapa Clima Temperado - Pelotas/RS, in two places. The castor cultivars used in this research were 'Al Guarany 2002', 'IAC 80', 'IAC 226' and 'BRS 188 Paraguaçu', which were sown in two sowing times: the first was in early November (between 1st and 5st and the second was in early December (between 1st and 5st. Each sowing season was

  3. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds (Crotalaria spp.), 2 or more castor beans (Ricinus communis L.), 4 or more particles of an unknown foreign substance(s)or a commonly recognized harmful...

  4. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC Simulation of soil organic carbon changes in crop systems with castor bean using the RothC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila González Molina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis: multiestratos (MUL, callejones (CALL y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG. Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema TMC. Las tasas de cambio de COS estimadas con el RothC, en ambas profundidades de suelo, estuvieron en 0,5-1,2, 0,4-0,8, 0,3-0,5 y 0,04-0,1 Mg ha-1 de C por año en los sistemas HIG, MUL, CALL y TMC, respectivamente, y fueron consistentes con las reportadas en la literatura. El desempeño del RothC tuvo 89% de eficiencia (EF, con R²=0,9, lo que muestra que este modelo puede usarse con información temporal del COS escasa, información de la historia de uso de suelo y mediciones de la entrada de residuos vegetales aéreos y subterráneos en el suelo.The objective of this work was to simulate, by the RothC model, the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC caused by changes of land use - from the traditional maize-squash (TMC association to systems with castor bean (Ricinus communis: multilayer (MUL, alleys (CALL and monoculture (HIG. SOC simulations were performed for 0-20 and 0-40 cm soil depths, for the period 1980-2040, considering the TMC system as the base line. SOC change rates estimated with RothC, for both soil depths, were 0.5-1.2, 0.4-0.8, 0.3-0.5 and 0.04-0.1 Mg ha-1 C per year in the HIG, MUL, CALL and TMC systems, respectively, and were consistent with those reported in the literature. RothC perfomance had 89% efficiency (EF and R² = 0.9, which shows that this model can be used with scarce SOC temporal information, information on the history of land use, and with input measurements of aerial and underground plant residues in the soil.

  5. The CASTOR initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thiez, Pierre [GEOGREEN (France)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken over the CASTOR project, which has 31 partners of 12 European countries. Also it is spoken on the strategy for the CO{sub 2} reduction in Europe; what on the capture and post-combustion has been done, and what as far as geologic CO{sub 2} storage has been accomplished. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla sobre el proyecto Castor, el cual cuenta con 31 socios de 12 paises europeos. Tambien se habla sobre la estrategia para la reduccion de CO{sub 2} en Europa; lo que se ha hecho en cuanto a captura post-combustion y lo que se ha hecho para el almacenamiento geologico de CO{sub 2}.

  6. Volume de recipientes e composição de substratos para produção de mudas de mamoneira Recipients volume and substrate composition for castor seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.é uma oleaginosa bem adaptada ao cultivo na região semi-árida por sua rusticidade e resistência ao estresse hídrico. Seu plantio é tradicionalmente feito por sementes, mas o uso de mudas pode se tornar atraente como estratégia para melhor aproveitamento da curta estação chuvosa. Para adoção desta tecnologia, a definição de aspectos técnicos como volume de recipientes, composição do substrato e período de permanência da muda no viveiro são fundamentais para o êxito da técnica. Conduziu-se experimento em casa-de-vegetação da Embrapa Algodão em Campina Grande, com sementes da cultivar de mamona de porte médio BRS Nordestina, em delineamento de blocos casualizados com 4 repetições e 25 tratamentos em distribuição fatorial 5², sendo os fatores cinco volumes de recipientes e cinco composições de substratos. Entre 15 e 43 dias após a emergência (DAE foram feitas cinco coletas destrutivas semanais para obtenção de dados de altura, diâmetro caulinar, área foliar, número de folhas e matéria seca da parte aérea e radicular. Com os dados obtidos calculou-se o tamanho da folha. Detectaram-se efeitos significativos dos tratamentos em todas as variáveis estudadas. O crescimento das mudas estabilizou-se aproximadamente aos 36 DAE, independente do volume do recipiente. Os substratos compostos por mistura de areia com esterco bovino ou casca de amendoim propiciaram o melhor crescimento das mudas, enquanto aqueles contendo bagaço de cana ou mucilagem de sisal foram os piores. Recipientes de 2 L de volume foram os mais adequados para a produção de mudas de mamoneira.Castor (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed crop well adapted for growing at semi-arid region for its rusticity and resistance to water deficit. It is usually planted by seeds, but planting by seedling can become attractive as a strategy for better use of the short rainy season. Before the adoption of this technology some aspects

  7. Biotechnology for Castor oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a series of seed development studies in castor and L. fendleri, including seed morphogenesis, oil and storage protein accumulation and lipid gene expression. In castor, the entire course of seed development can be divided into eight stages and each stage can be distinguished by seed co...

  8. Desenvolvimento e produção de duas cultivares de mamoneira sob estresse salino Growth and production of two cultivars of castor bean under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérvulo M. S. Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o comportamento de duas cultivares BRS Paraguaçu e BRS Energia de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., irrigadas com quatro níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa: 0,7; 2,7; 4,7 e 6,7 dS m-1, a 25 °C, conduziu-se um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2. As variáveis avaliadas foram altura de planta, diâmetro de caule, número de folhas, área foliar e consumo diário de água pela planta aos 80 e 100 dias após semeadura, número de dias para 1ª inflorescência, altura do 1º racemo aos 100 dias após semeadura, dias para colheita, número de frutos no 1º cacho, peso dos frutos, das sementes e de 10 sementes aos 150 DAS. A salinidade da água de irrigação interferiu na altura de planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar e consumo de água, a partir de 4,7 dS m-1 aos 80 e 100 DAS, nas duas cultivares. Verificou-se, na cultivar BRS Energia maior precocidade na emissão da 1ª inflorescência e maior altura do racemo, enquanto na cultivar BRS Paraguaçu se obteve menor produção de frutos e de sementes e maior peso de 10 sementes.With the objective of studying the behavior of two cultivars BRS Paraguaçu and BRS Energy of castor bean (Ricinus communis L., irrigated with four levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7; 2.7; 4.7 and 6.7 dS m-1, at 25 °C, an experiment was conducted in a randomized design with 3 replications, in a factorial scheme of 4 x 2. The variables measured were: plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, number of leaves and water consumption by plant at 80 and 100 days after sowing (DAS, number of days for emission of first inflorence and height of first cluster at 100 DAS, days to harvest, number of fruits in the 1st cluster, weight of fruits, and 10 seeds at 150 DAS. The salinity of the irrigation water significantly affected the plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf

  9. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from castor oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get closet to the future, being the prospective the one that conceives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human beign future actions. For all this, the human being takes knowledge, the yearings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the oleochemical castor oil sector, because Colombia has resources to develop Ricinus comunnis cultivation and industrial uses of castor oil and its derivates. The study establishes the keys that define the current and future behaviour of the system, the position and the power of each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations with more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  10. DNA ANALYSIS OF RICIN USING RAPD TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Vivodík; Želmíra Balážová; Zdenka Gálová

    2014-01-01

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important plant for production of industrial oil. The systematic evaluation of the molecular diversity encompassed in castor inbreds or parental lines offers an efficient means of exploiting the heterosis in castor as well as for management of biodiversity. The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 30 castor genotypes using 5 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 30 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded 35 fragments, w...

  11. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  12. Replacement of soybean meal by treated castor meal in supplements for grazing heifer during the dry-rainy season period Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de mamona tratado em suplementos para novilhas em pastejo no período de transição seca-águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplement with different levels of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. treated with calcium oxide on intake, on the total apparent digestibility of dietary components, on the efficiency of microbial synthesis and on the performance of beef heifers grazing Brachiaria decumbens during the dry-rainy transition period. The experimental area was composed of five 2.5-ha paddocks with availability of potentially digestible dry matter of 2,858.4 kg/ha. It was used 25 Nellore heifers and 10 crossbred with predominance of Zebu breed heifers at 13 months of age and body weight of 210 ± 0.8 kg in a completely randomized experimental design. Supplements contained approximately 25% of crude protein (CP and they were formulated with 0; 33; 67 and 100% of castor meal replacing soybean meal. Daily weight gain was 366.1 g for animals in the control group and 439.7; 478.9; 556.3; and 493.9, respectively for those fed supplements with 100% of soybean meal and 33, 67 and 100% castor meal. There was no effect of treated castor meal levels on daily weight gain of the animals, which was higher in those animals fed supplements. Levels of castor meal had decreasing linear effect on intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, digested dry matter and digestible neutral detergent fiver and on the intake of total digestible nutrients. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE and non-fibrous carbohydrates were greater for animals under supplementation. Microbial efficiency, expressed in g of crude protein per kg of consumed TDN, did not differ among groups. Replacement of soybean meal by castor meal treated with calcium oxide does not harm animal performance.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de suplementos múltiplos com diferentes níveis de farelo de mamona (Ricinus communis L. tratado com óxido de cálcio sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total de componentes da

  13. LHCD experiments on tokamak CASTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey is given of the experimental activities at the small Prague tokamak CASTOR. They concern primarily the LH current drive using multijunction waveguide grills as launching antennae. During two last years the, efforts were focused on a study of the electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations under conditions of combined inductive/LHCD regimes and of the relation of the level of these fluctuations to the anomalous particles transport in tokamak CASTOR. Results of the study are discussed in some detail. (author). 24 figs., 51 refs

  14. Divergência genética entre acessos e cultivares de mamoneira por meio de estatística multivariada Genetic divergence on castor bean accesses and cultivars through multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nóbrega da Costa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a divergência genética entre acessos e cultivares de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e utilizá-la como critério na escolha de genitores que viabilizem, a partir de hibridações, a formação de populações segregantes. Os tratamentos foram representados pelos acessos BRA 4871, BRA 2968, BRA 5550 e BRA 7722 Papo-de-gia, e as cultivares BRS 188 Paraguaçu, BRS 149 Nordestina, IAC-80, Mirante-10 e Pernambucana Melhorada. As características analisadas foram: início do florescimento (FR, número de racemos por planta (NRP, comprimento efetivo do racemo primário (CR, altura de planta (AP, potencial produtivo (PP e teor de óleo nas sementes (TO. A divergência genética foi estimada por meio de estatística multivariada, com base em variáveis canônicas e análise de agrupamento, tendo-se empregado a distância euclidiana média. Houve a formação de dois grupos: o grupo I formado por oito genótipos e o grupo II por apenas um genótipo, a cultivar Mirante-10. Apesar de a cultivar Mirante-10 ter sido a mais divergente, não deve ser recomendada para hibridação, por sua baixa média de desempenho. As demais cultivares também apresentam restrições para hibridação, por serem bastante similares. As variáveis que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética foram FR, AP, TO e CR.This work aimed to evaluate genetic divergence among castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivars, in order to enable the choice of parents which make the formation of segregating populations possible. Accesses BRA 4871, BRA 2968, BRA 5550 and BRA 7722 Papo-de-gia, and cultivars BRS 188 Paraguaçu, BRS 149 Nordestina, IAC-80, Mirante-10 and Pernambucana Melhorada were evaluated. Characteristics analyzed were: days to flowering, number of racemes per plant, length of pistillate region of main raceme, plant height, potential yield, and seed oil content. The genetic divergence among accesses and cultivars was studied by

  15. Castor oil: Biosynthesis and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil is unique among commodity oils in its fatty acid composition, which consists of 90% ricinoleate, (12-hydroxy-octadec-cis 9-enoate). The mid-chain hydroxyl group imparts physical and chemical properties that make it useful in many industrial applications. Among its uses are lithium grease,...

  16. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  17. SELEÇÃO AGRONÔMICA DE ACESSOS E CULTIVARES DE MAMONEIRA (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cristina de Arruda Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate agronomic and to characterize morfologic, 23 genetic materials collected with agricultural producers of diverse and regions two to cultivate, for comparative effect, ` Guarani ' and ` IAC 80 '. The experiment was established in the Department of Agriculture of the Federal University of Lavras, Lavras - MG where 23 accesses had been characterized morphologic and agronomic in accordance with the describers considered for the Agronomic Institute of Campinas. The identification of the adapted accesses more was made by means of evaluations, during one year, of the agronomic characteristics: evolution cycle, height of plant; diameter of main connecting rod; height until the insertion of first racimo; number of stem until first racimo; relation weight of first racimo and all up weight; weight of first racimo and total weight, in a competition assay. In accordance with the analysis of variance, did not have significant difference between the treatments.

  18. Production of Highly Sialylated Recombinant Glycoproteins Using Ricinus communis Agglutinin-I-Resistant CHO Glycosylation Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, John S Y; Chan, Kah Fai; Song, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The degree of sialylation of therapeutic glycoproteins affects its circulatory half-life and efficacy because incompletely sialylated glycoproteins are cleared from circulation by asialoglycoprotein receptors present in the liver cells. Mammalian expression systems, often employed in the production of these glycoprotein drugs, produce heterogeneously sialylated products. Here, we describe how to produce highly sialylated glycoproteins using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell glycosylation mutant called CHO-gmt4 with human erythropoietin (EPO) as a model glycoprotein. The protocol describes how to isolate and characterize the CHO glycosylation mutants and how to assess the sialylation of the recombinant protein using isoelectric focusing (IEF). It further describes how to inactivate the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene in these cells using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to enable gene amplification and the generation of stable cell lines producing highly sialylated EPO.

  19. CASTOR Calorimeter Installation Review at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2011-01-01

    This test is a part of CASTOR EDR process. The CASTOR phys-tech review held on 14 Jan 2011 and the subsequent EDR held on 17 Jun 2011, the CMS Management Board has endorsed a strategy in which CASTOR is removed during the 2011 Year-End Technical Stop, but is then refurbished, replacing a substantial fraction of the phototubes, so that it is ready for re-installation in the Technical Stop just before 2012 heavy-ion operation.

  20. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  1. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  2. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible. PMID:26301922

  3. Nível tecnológico e balanço econômico de produção de mamona para obtenção do biodiesel no estado do Ceará

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahmad Saeed; Braga, Francisco Laercio Pereira; Mayorga, Ruben Dario

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine technological level and economic balance of castor seed prodution (Ricinus communis) in the State of Ceará, one of the main producers of oil seed of Northeast of Brazil, the present research was coducted to verify economic feasibility and technological level of castor seed production for obtaining biodiesel. The data were collected in Boa Viagem, Tauá and Pedra Branca municipalities. For profit analysis, income and production cost per hectare of castor seed production in...

  4. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  5. Synthesis of novel castor oil phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has served as a versatile hydroxy fatty acid (HFA); its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor oil and has been modified extensively for a number of applications. Additionally, phosphonates and their corresponding phosphonic acids are a functional moiety that ha...

  6. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  7. Growth and production of castor bean under different levels of irrigation water salinity and nitrogen dosesCrescimento e produção da mamoneira cultivada sob diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gomes Nobre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is a plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, and stands for the rusticity and adaptation to adverse conditions of climate and soil, for the fast growth, high production and considerable oil content in its seeds. In this context, this study we conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation water of salinity and nitrogen on the growth and yield of castor bean cv. BRS Energia. The experiment was conducted in lysimeters under field conditions, at the Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar, of Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. A complete randomized block design in a 5 x 5 factorial design with three replications. Treatments included a combination of five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4 and 4.4 dS m-1 and five doses of nitrogen (50, 75; 100, 125 and 150% of the recommended dose. The number of leaves, stem diameter, plant height, dry mass of stems and leaves, and fruit number in primary raceme of castor bean cv. BRS Energia were linearly and negatively affected by irrigation water salinity from 0.4 dS m-1, the dry mass of leaves and production of primary cluster are variables more sensitive to salt stress, increasing doses of nitrogen fertilization promoted at harvest, increase in dry weight of stem and leaves and number of fruit in primary cluster; applying increasing doses of nitrogen reduced the effect of salinity on stem diameter of castor bean cv. BRS Energia.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é uma planta pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae que se destaca pela rusticidade e boa adaptação a condições adversas de clima e solo, apresentando rápido crescimento, elevada produção e considerável teor de óleo em suas sementes. Neste contexto, conduziuse esta pesquisa objetivando avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de diferentes concentrações salinas e doses de nitrogênio sobre o crescimento e a produção de

  8. Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus

    OpenAIRE

    Cotté, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Chauvin, Alain; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Lecuelle, Benoit; Lilin, Thomas; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals. B. henselae causes cat-scratch disease and is increasingly associated with several other syndromes, particularly ocular infections and endocarditis. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae and the bacteria are transmitted to cats by cat fleas. However, new potential vectors are suspected of transmitting B. henselae, in particular, Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant ixodid...

  9. CASTOR end-to-end monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Rekatsinas, T; Pokorski, W; Ponce, S; Rabaçal, B; Waldron, D; Wojcieszuk, J

    2010-01-01

    With the start of Large Hadron Collider approaching, storage and management of raw event data, as well as reconstruction and analysis data, is of crucial importance for the researchers. The CERN Advanced STORage system (CASTOR) is a hierarchical system developed at CERN, used to store physics production files and user files. CASTOR, as one of the essential software tools used by the LHC experiments, has to provide reliable services for storing and managing data. Monitoring of this complicated system is mandatory in order to assure its stable operation and improve its future performance. This paper presents the new monitoring system of CASTOR which provides operation and user request specific metrics. This system is build around a dedicated, optimized database schema. The schema is populated by PL/SQL procedures, which process a stream of incoming raw metadata from different CASTOR components, initially collected by the Distributed Logging Facility (DLF). A web interface has been developed for the visualizatio...

  10. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa; Valdinei Sofiatti; Cleber Daniel de Góes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; João Igor de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide s...

  11. Exotic Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus: fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Reimerink, J.H.J.; Sprong, H.

    2010-01-01

    Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult an

  12. Cadmium and Mineral Nutrients Accumulation in Various Genotypes of Castor under Cadmium Stress%镉胁迫下蓖麻对镉及矿质元素的富集特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晗芝; 郭庆军; 杨俊兴; 陈同斌; 陈辉; 申建秀; 朱光旭; 王鑫; 孙野

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution of farmland is an increasing problem in agriculture worldwide. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a valuable and renewable resource, which can be used as an energy source and for bioremediation of Cd contaminated soil. The absorption and accumulation of Cd and specific mineral elements (Al, Mo, Cu, Ca, Zn, S, P, Mg, Mn and Fe) in the stem, leaf and fruit of 30 castor cultivars with different genotypes under Cd stress (2.396 mg·kg-1 and 5.396 mg·kg-1) were investigated with pot experiments in a greenhouse (5~32 ℃). The accumulation of Cd in different tissues follows the order:stem>leaf>fruit, whereas the accumulation of Al, Mo, S, Mn and Fe follows the order: leaf > fruit > stem. Moreover, the accumulation of Ca and Mg in different tissues follows the order:leaf>stem>fruit, whereas the accumulation of Cu, Zn and P follows the order:fruit>leaf>stem. Under low-Cd conditions (2.396 mg·kg-1), the range of Cd contents was 0.600~1.670 mg·kg-1 in the stems, 0.310~1.970 mg·kg-1 in the leaves, and 0.130~0.909 mg·kg-1 in the fruit. The average Cd contents in stems, leaves, and fruit were 1.030, 0.831, and 0.362 mg·kg-1, respectively. Under high-Cd conditions (5.396 mg·kg-1), the range of Cd contents was 1.012~4.032 mg·kg-1 in the stems, 0.698~3.514 mg·kg-1 in the leaves, and 0.227~1.525 mg·kg-1 in the fruit. The average Cd contents in stems, leaves, and fruit were 1.964, 1.583, and 0.694 mg·kg-1, respectively. The results showed that Cd and mineral element contents in the stem, leaf and fruit of castor were significantly affected by the Cd contents in the soil and cultivars. Significant positive correlations could be found between Cd and Ca, S, Mg as well as Fe. Negative correlations could be detected between Cd and Mn, Cu, Zn as well as P. No correlations were found between Cd and Al as well as Mo. Therefore, the Cd phytoremediation efficiency of castor could be improved by regulating the contents of mineral elements in the contaminated

  13. 不同品种蓖麻对镉的响应及修复能力评价%Evaluation of Cadmium Tolerance and Cadmium-phytoextraction Ability of 30 Castor Bean Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晗芝; 郭庆军; 杨俊兴; 陈同斌; 王坚; 王鑫; 陈刚; 邵春岩

    2016-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a valuable renewable resource, is cultivated as a resource for bioenergy production, and also for bioremediation. In this study, we compare the growth of 30 castor bean cultivars under 2 mg·kg-1 Cd and 5 mg·kg-1 Cd conditions in a pot experiment in the greenhouse (5~32℃). We evaluate Cd accumulation in different parts of the plants, and compare the abilities of the cultivars to extract Cd from the soil. The 30 cultivars show different degrees of Cd tolerance, as indicated by the aboveground biomass response to Cd stress index (> 0 with 10 cultivars, < 0 with 20 cultivars). Under 2 mg·kg-1 Cd conditions, the range of Cd concentrations is 0.600~1.670 mg·kg-1 in the stems, 0.310~1.970 mg·kg-1 in the leaves and 0.130~0.909 mg·kg-1 in the fruit. The average Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and fruit is 1.030, 0.831 and 0.362 mg·kg-1, respectively. Under 5 mg·kg-1 Cd conditions, the range of Cd concentrations is 1.012~4.032 mg·kg-1 in the stems, 0.698~3.514 mg·kg-1 in the leaves and 0.227~1.525 mg·kg-1 in the fruit. The average Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and fruit is 1.964, 1.583 and 0.694 mg·kg-1, respectively. Four cultivars are high-Cd accumulators, and 25 cultivars are low-Cd accumulators. The cultivars also show a range of abilities to extract Cd from soil (26.3~65.7μg·pot-1 under 2 mg·kg-1 Cd and 37.0~121.6μg·pot-1 under 5 mg·kg-1 Cd). Cd concentrations and extraction capability (EA) in aboveground organs are cultivar-dependent, and less affected by the Cd concentration in the soil. On the basis of the Cd concentrations and enrichment factors of the aerial part, castor is not a Cd hyperaccumulator. Therefore, the relative high tolerance cultivars of castor can address the Cd contaminated farmland for phytostabilization and high seed-oil production with a healthy pattern.%蓖麻(Ricinus communis L.)是一种有价值的能源作物,可用于修复镉污染农田同时生产生物能源。

  14. Modified Castor Oil as an Epoxy Resin Curing Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, B. P.; H. S. Patel; Patel, S R

    2004-01-01

    A castor oil, an agricultural product, is an unsaturated material. Hence the castor oil is brominated by bromine liquid. The brominated castor oil (BCO) was then reacted with excess of aliphatic diamines viz; ethylene diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and 1,6-hexane diamine. The resultant amino functionalized castor oil (ACO) samples were then characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral study and number of amino groups. All the three ACO samples were then employed for the curing of commercial...

  15. 75 FR 44917 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Dioleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Dioleate; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, dioleate; when used as an inert ingredient... permissible level for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, dioleate on food or feed commodities. DATES:...

  16. Reducing the toxicity of castor seed meal through processing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The castor plant produces a seed that is high in oil content and composed of approximately 90% ricinoleate. Due to the numerous uses of castor oil and ricinoleate, the oil is in high demand. However, the presence of a protein toxin in the seed meal is a key concern about processing the castor seed t...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil, hydrogenated. 178.3280 Section 178.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3280 Castor oil, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated castor oil may...

  18. 75 FR 40751 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate (CAS Reg. No. 220037-02-5) with a... residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, oleate on food or feed commodities. DATES: This regulation...

  19. Drug: D06462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : 2356 ATC code: A06AB05 Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) Ricinus communis L. seed Therapeutic category of drug...P16/USP) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) D06462 Castor oil CAS: 8001-79-4 PubChem: 47208118 NIKKAJI: J203.720C ...

  20. MRI in soils: determination of water concent changes due to root water uptake by means of a multi-slice-multi-echo sequence (MSME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlmeier, A.; Vergeldt, F.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.; Dusschoten, van D.; Vereecken, H.

    2010-01-01

    Root water uptake by ricinus communis (castor bean) in fine sand was investigated using MRI with multiecho sampling. Before starting the experiments the plants germinated and grew for 3 weeks in a cylindrical container with a diameter of 9 cm. Immediately before the MRI experiments started, the cont

  1. Electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay of ricin in ground beef: Biotinylated capture antibodies and matrix effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of castor (Ricinus communis), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because of the past use of ricin for intentional poisoning, there is a need for analytical methodology to detect ricin in food m...

  2. Detection of ricin contamination in ground beef by electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need for ana...

  3. Ricin toxicokinetics and its sensitive detection in mouse sera or feces using immuno-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin (also called RCA-II or RCA60), one of the most potent toxins and documented bioweapons, is derived from castor beans of Ricinus communis. Several in vitro methods have been designed for ricin detection in complex food matrices in the event of intentional contamination. Recently, a novel Immuno...

  4. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  5. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  6. Detection of ricin contamination in liquid egg by electrochemiluminescence immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monoclonal antibody-based electrochemical luminescence (ECL) method was developed for detecting and quantifying ricin in liquid egg, with a limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL. Because this highly toxic protein, present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor), has been used for intentional poisoning...

  7. Tape write-efficiency improvements in CASTOR

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, S; Cancio, G; Cano, E; Kotlyar, V; Lo Presti, G; Lo Re, G; Ponce, S

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Advanced STORage manager (CASTOR) is used to archive to tape the physics data of past and present physics experiments. For reasons of physical storage space, all of the tape resident data in CASTOR are repacked onto higher density tapes approximately every two years. Improving the performance of writing files smaller than 2GB to tape is essential in order to keep the time needed to repack all of the tape resident data within a period of no more than 1 year. This paper reports on the solution to writing efficiently to tape that is currently in its early deployment phases at CERN.

  8. Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai

    2014-01-01

    Myrtus communis (MC) L. is a well-known Mediterranean plant with important cultural significance in this region. In ancient times, MC was accepted as a symbol of immortality. Maybe due to this belief, it is used during cemetery visits in some regions. Although it is a well-known plant in cosmetics, and there is a lot of studies about its different medical properties, anticancer studies performed using its different extracts or oils are not so much, but increasing. We collected these anticancer property-related studies in this review. PMID:26401362

  9. Antiviral activity of constituents of Tamus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, R; Conti, C; De Simone, F; Orsi, N; Pizza, C; Stein, M L

    1991-10-01

    The antiviral activity of the phenanthrene derivatives 1-6, of the spyrostane triglycosides dioscin (7) and gracillin (8), of the furostanol tetraglycosides methylprotodioscin (9), its (25S) epimer methylprotoneodioscin (10), and methylprotogracillin 11, have been tested towards two RNA viruses: vesicular stomatitis virus and human rhinovirus type 1B. All these products were extracted from the rizomes of Tamus communis L; compound 11 was isolated also from Asparagus cochinchinesis, together with pseudoprotodioscin (12), a 20 (22)-unsaturated furostanoside, which was also investigated for antiviral activity. The results were of some interest mainly for the phenanthrene derivatives. PMID:1667189

  10. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  11. Phenylpropanoid esters of lesquerella and castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella (LO) and castor oil (CO) were esterified at the secondary hydroxyl groups of their 14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic fatty acids and 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic fatty acids, respectively, with 4-acetoxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (acetoxyferulic acid). The unconventional esterifications were co...

  12. Tough blends of polylactide and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan L; Paxton, Jessica M; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2011-09-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized-an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  13. The Castor Plant: Technology and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of hydroxy fatty acids in plants is of current interest principally due to the novel properties, physical and chemical, that are characteristic of hydroxy fatty acids. Castor oil is currently the only major source of hydroxy fatty acids. It has a long history in medicinal applications, se...

  14. O hodowli in vitro wycinków z łodygi rącznika (Ricinus communis L. i wilczomlecza tyrlicza (Euphorbia lathyris L. [In vitro culture of segment from shoots of Ricinus communis L. and Euphorbia lathyris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wojciechowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on the growth and differentiation of the material investigated was analysed. Histo- and organogenesis are discussed together with the anatomy of the coalescence of the segments.

  15. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ricin in the form of Ricinus Communis AgglutininII (RCAII), which is also known as ricin D or Ricinus Communis LectinIII (RCLIII), and Ricinus Communis LectinIV (RCLIV), which is also known as ricin E....

  16. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran, Suchandra; Xiang, Yu; Schobert, Christian; Thompson, Gary A.; Lucas, William J.

    1997-01-01

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injec...

  17. Identification of reference genes for gene expression studies during seed germination and seedling establishment Ricinus communis L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Dekkers, S.J.W.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is an important technology to analyse gene expression levels during plant development or in response to different treatments. An important requirement to measure gene expression levels accurately is a properly validated set of re

  18. Descriptores botánicos para caracterizar germoplasmas de Ricinus communis de diferentes zonas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Solera-Steller

    2015-03-01

    Los resultados mostraron valores significativos para la longitud del racimo y el número de frutos por racimo, la razón largo/ancho del fruto, peso del fruto, la razón del largo/ancho de la semilla y el peso de la semilla, con correlaciones superiores a un 45%. Sin embargo, el ACP mostró que existe una alta variabilidad entre los datos, algo muy común entre individuos silvestres, debido principalmente a su forma de dispersión y a la gran cantidad de zonas de vida muestreadas. Para la CJA, se pudieron observar tres grupos ordenados principalmente por las correlaciones entre el tamaño del racimo y el número de frutos, la razón largo/ancho y el peso del fruto y la razón largo/ancho y peso de la semilla, los cuales pueden usarse como indicadores para la caracterización morfológica de la higuerilla proveniente de todo el país.

  19. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  20. Research Progress on Ricinus Communis Agglutinin%蓖麻凝集素研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华东; 袁伟华; 欧阳雪君

    2009-01-01

    本文介绍蓖麻凝集素的性质、生理功能及用途等方面的研究成果,通过前人在蓖麻凝集素应用领域的工作,阐述其科学研究与应用价值,并对其进一步应用的研究趋势进行探讨.

  1. Phloem flow and sugar transport in Ricinus communis L. is inhibited under anoxic conditions of shoot or roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuke, A.D.; Gessler, A.; Trumbore, S.; Windt, C.W.; Homan, N.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2015-01-01

    Anoxic conditions should hamper the transport of sugar in the phloem, as this is an active process. The canopy is a carbohydrate source and the roots are carbohydrate sinks.By fumigating the shoot with N2 or flooding the rhizosphere, anoxic conditions in the source or sink, respectively, were induce

  2. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akaberi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally.

  3. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and for...

  4. PHYSIOLOGIC AND SANITARY QUALITY OF CASTOR BEAN SEEDS UNDER DIFFERENT CHEMICAL TREATMENTS QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA E SANITÁRIA DE SEMENTES DE MAMONA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMENTOS QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Murilo Macedo Barbosa

    2009-12-01

    ="en-US" align="JUSTIFY">KEY-WORDS: Ricinus communis L.; seeds pathogens; carbendazim; carboxim; thiram.

    O tratamento de sementes com fungicidas tornou-se medida indispensável no controle de patógenos. Entretanto, a eficácia de muitos produtos ainda não é bem conhecida para algumas culturas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses dos fungicidas carbendazim e carboxim + thiram no controle de patógenos e sua interferência sobre a qualidade fisiológica em sementes de mamona. O ensaio foi constituído dos seguintes tratamentos (gramas do ingrediente ativo por 100 kg de sementes: carbendazim (15, 30 e 60, carboxim + thiram (25 + 25, 50 + 50, 100 + 100, formoldeído 0,15% (v/v e testemunha (água destilada. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela germinação, primeira contagem, emergência a campo, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, número de folhas, comprimento, massa verde e seca da parte aérea e condutividade elétrica. Não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos, nas avaliações de germinação, IVE, número de folhas, comprimento, massa verde e seca da parte aérea. O tratamento com formoldeído, se comparado aos demais, proporcionou menores médias (p < 0,05 para a primeira contagem e emergência a campo. Sementes tratadas com fungicidas apresentaram maior condutividade elétrica. Os fungos identificados foram Cladosporium spp.; Bipolaris spp.;

  5. Polydimethylsiloxane and Castor Oil Comodified Waterborne Polyurethane

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan Ji; Yanming Zhou; Baoling Zhang; Caiying Hou; Guozhang Ma

    2013-01-01

    In view of both improving properties of waterborne polyurethane (WPU) and sufficient utilization of renewable resources, a series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and castor oil (C.O.) comodified anionic WPUs with internal cross-linking was prepared through a prepolymer mixing process. The chemical structure of synthesized polymers was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In comparison with traditional linear WPU synthesized from petroleum-based polyols, these nove...

  6. Compression tests of castor oil biopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Bravo Ferneda; Romeu Rony Cavalcante da Costa; Volnei Tita; Sérgio Persival Baroncini Proença; Jonas de Carvalho; Benedito de Moraes Purquerio

    2006-01-01

    Many methods have been developed to test and evaluate the mechanical properties of the biopolymer from castor oil employed in implants and osteo-repositions, among other things. Most of the methods are performed under quasi-static and cyclic loads (creep and relaxation tests) and under high strain rate, uniaxial compression conditions. This paper presents and discusses the development and applicability of a simple load-application apparatus, devised to reduce shear and barrelling effects on s...

  7. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  8. LHCb: CASTORFS - A Filesystem to Access CASTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    Mazurov, A

    2009-01-01

    CASTOR provides a powerful and rich interface for managing files and pools of files backed by tape-storage. The API is modelled very closely on that of a POSIX filesystem, where part of the actual I/O part is handled by the rfio library. While the API is very close to POSIX it is still separated, which unfortunately makes it impossible to use standard tools and scripts straight away. This is particularly inconvenient when applications are written in languages other than C/C++ such as is frequently the case in web-apps. Here up to now the only the recourse was to use command-line utilities and parse their output, which is clearly a kludge. We have implemented a complete POSIX filesystem to access CASTOR using FUSE (Filesystem in Userspace) and have successfully tested and used this on SLC4 and SLC5 (both in 32 and 64 bit). We call it CastorFS. In this paper we will present its architecture and implementation, with emphasis on performance and caching aspects.

  9. Exotic Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus: fact or artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan HJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult and presenting these findings as new or potentially pathogenic Rickettsiae should be done with caution: a recent report suggested presence of a known human pathogen, R. australis, in questing I. ricinus ticks in Europe. A refined analysis of these results revealed that R. helvetica was most likely to be misinterpreted as R. australis. Evidence in the literature is accumulating that rickettsial DNA sequences found in tick lysates can also be derived from other sources than viable, pathogenic Rickettsiae. For example, from endosymbionts, environmental contamination or even horizontal gene transfer.

  10. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC Simulation of soil organic carbon changes in crop systems with castor bean using the RothC model

    OpenAIRE

    Lucila González Molina; Esaú del C. Moreno Pérez; Laksmi Reddiar Krishnamurty; Aurelio Baéz Pérez; Acosta Mireles Miguel

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS), por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC) - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis): multiestratos (MUL), callejones (CALL) y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG). Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema ...

  11. The extensible alloscutal cuticle of the tick, Ixodes ricinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The proteins in the distensible alloscutal cuticle of the blood-feeding tick, Ixodes ricinus, have been characterized by electrophoresis and chromatography, two of the proteins were purified and their total amino acid sequence determined. They show sequence similarity to cuticular proteins from...

  12. Castor transport and storage casks for VVER and RBMK fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartz, R.; Gobler, A.; John, R.; Diersch, R. [GNB Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Behalter mbH, Essen (Germany); Nemec, P. [Skoda Nuclear Machinery Plzen (Czech Republic)

    1998-12-31

    CASTOR casks have been successfully developed, manufactured and delivered for Russian type reactor fuel assemblies. These casks fulfill both the requirements for type B packages according to IAEA regulations and the requirements covering different accident situations to be assumed at the storage site. In the following, the CASTOR casks CASTOR 440/84, CASTOR RBMK and CASTOR VVER 1000 are described, the nuclear content is characterized and an overview about the status of licensing, manufacturing and delivery is given. (authors) 3 refs.

  13. Optimization and Characterization of Castor Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bagali S. SHRIDHAR; K. V. BEENA; M. V. ANITA; K. B. PARAMJEET

    2010-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the dilution level and agitation time for castor oil extraction. The % recovery of oil was investigated with respect to two variable including dilution level (X1) and agitation time (X2). As a result, a polynomial regression model equation was fitted as follows: Y1 = 47.50 + 7.41 x1 + 2.08 x2 + 0.63 x1 x2 -16.62 x12 - 2.87 x2. The optimal dilution level and agitation time were found to be 7.3 and 2.38 hr respectively. The maximum...

  14. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-01-01

    This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic ...

  15. Role of tachykinins in castor oil diarrhoea in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Croci, Tiziano; Landi, Marco; Emonds-Alt, Xavier; Le Fur, Gérard; Maffrand, Jean-Pierre; Manara, Luciano

    1997-01-01

    We set out to ascertain the role of tachykinins, neurokinin A and substance P, in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats as disclosed by the inhibitory effect of the non-peptide NK1- and NK2-receptor antagonists, SR 140333 and SR 48968, respectively.SR 48968 (0.02 to 20 μg kg−1, s.c. or p.o.), and the opioid receptor agonist loperamide (1–10 mg kg−1, p.o.), dose-dependently prevented castor oil effects: % inhibition vs castor oil, diarrhoea 0 to 100, increase in faecal mass 7 to 90 and water co...

  16. Extraction and Characterization of Drilling Fluid from Castor Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Manase Auta

    2013-01-01

    Drilling fluid is an essential component in drilling operations. It is used to prevent blowouts by creating adequate hydrostatic pressure, lubricating the walls of a well and the drill string, flushing to the surface of cuttings, and keeping the drill bit clean and cool. Extraction, characterization and formation of drilling fluid from castor seed oil were investigated. The castor seeds used were obtained from a local market and the extraction of the oil was done mechanically. The extracted o...

  17. Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd. Adzir

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, an...

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255577163 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :6554 3988:6554 hypothetical protein RCOM_0753050 Ricinus communis MQLGNAFIAILLILILFCISIDFSVASAGLKQNFTIVISQSPWLKNVTENLPHP...VSPFNCGSCGNKCPWGVLCVYGMCGYAEPWPPWPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPPPKPPKPWPHRPPQSPPKPIKPWPHHPPKADHEPSQSAMGPSY ...

  19. Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R

    2011-09-01

    An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated.

  20. Production of Detergent from Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out with the objective of extraction of oil from castor seeds and its utilization to produce a synthetic detergent. Solvent extraction method was employed in extracting the oil and the total percent oil yield was found to be 23.8%. The experimentally determined saponification value of the oil was 183.7275mgKOH/g of oil. The detergent efficiency, determined as a measure of the foamability of the detergent was found to be 2.6cm. The pH tests revealed mildly basic properties. The color, scent and efficiency of the detergent were improved with the addition of bleaching agent, perfume and foaming agents respectively.

  1. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  2. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  3. A systems level analysis reveals transcriptomic and proteomic complexity in Ixodes ricinus midgut and salivary glands during early attachment and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Tenzer, Stefan; Hackenberg, Michael; Erhart, Jan; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Mazur, Johanna; Kuharev, Jörg; Ribeiro, José M C; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2014-10-01

    Although pathogens are usually transmitted within the first 24-48 h of attachment of the castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus, little is known about the tick's biological responses at these earliest phases of attachment. Tick midgut and salivary glands are the main tissues involved in tick blood feeding and pathogen transmission but the limited genomic information for I. ricinus delays the application of high-throughput methods to study their physiology. We took advantage of the latest advances in the fields of Next Generation RNA-Sequencing and Label-free Quantitative Proteomics to deliver an unprecedented, quantitative description of the gene expression dynamics in the midgut and salivary glands of this disease vector upon attachment to the vertebrate host. A total of 373 of 1510 identified proteins had higher expression in the salivary glands, but only 110 had correspondingly high transcript levels in the same tissue. Furthermore, there was midgut-specific expression of 217 genes at both the transcriptome and proteome level. Tissue-dependent transcript, but not protein, accumulation was revealed for 552 of 885 genes. Moreover, we discovered the enrichment of tick salivary glands in proteins involved in gene transcription and translation, which agrees with the secretory role of this tissue; this finding also agrees with our finding of lower tick t-RNA representation in the salivary glands when compared with the midgut. The midgut, in turn, is enriched in metabolic components and proteins that support its mechanical integrity in order to accommodate and metabolize the ingested blood. Beyond understanding the physiological events that support hematophagy by arthropod ectoparasites, we discovered more than 1500 proteins located at the interface between ticks, the vertebrate host, and the tick-borne pathogens. Thus, our work significantly improves the knowledge of the genetics underlying the transmission lifecycle of this tick species, which is an essential step for

  4. High Prevalence of Granulocytic Ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Christova, Iva; Schouls, Leo; van de Pol, Ingrid; Park, Jinho; Panayotov, Stefan; Lefterova, Viktoria; Kantardjiev, Todor; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Bulgarian Ixodes ricinus ticks were examined for Ehrlichia and Borrelia coinfection: 34 and 32% of adult ticks and at least 2 and 10% of nymphs were positive for these infections, respectively. Coinfections and dual or triple Borrelia infections were frequent, although Ehrlichia phagocytophila heterogeneity was minimal. Multiple tick-borne bacteria coexist in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Europe.

  5. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Benning, M.E.; Jacobs, F.; Leidekker, J.; Sprong, H.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are

  6. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R.; Dumancas, Gerard G.; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C.; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J.

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production. PMID:27656091

  7. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.

  8. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production. PMID:27656091

  9. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and...

  10. Regiospecific Quantification of Triacylglycerols Containing Ricinoleate and Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  11. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications..., and 788.0 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 051079 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (b)(1... balsam, and 800 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  12. Genetic and chemical evaluation of the U.S. castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor has multiple industrial applications including potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. The entire U.S. castor germp...

  13. Analysis of acylglycerols containing mono- and dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by HPLC and MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  14. 蓖麻质膜水通道蛋白PIP1.3在仓鼠卵巢细胞中的转运功能%Castor Plasma Membrane Aquaporin (PIP1.3) in Vitro Transprot in Chinese Hamster Ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董乐; 戴聪杰; 王芳; 王云; 朱国立; 谢小宾; 许珊珊; 刘灿阳; 林婷

    2014-01-01

    为研究蓖麻质膜水通道蛋白PIP1.3的转运功能,采用RT-PCR技术扩增基因PIP1.3的全长编码区cDNA序列(861 bp),将该序列亚克隆至真核表达载体pcDNA3.1/Myc-His A,酶切、测序分析表明,重组质粒pcDNA3.1PIP1.3-Myc-His阅读框架正确。将pcDNA3.1PIP1.3-Myc-His和连接氯离子敏感性绿色荧光蛋白突变体(EYFP-H148Q-V163S)的pcDNA3.1Hygro-EY-FP-H148Q-V163S重组质粒稳定共转染至中国仓鼠卵巢(Chinese hamster ovary, CHO)细胞中, RT-PCR和Western blot分析表明, PIP1.3的mRNA和蛋白质在选定CHO细胞克隆中高表达。分别通过荧光法和同位素标记的14C-甘油摄入实验测定该CHO细胞对水分和甘油的通透性,结果表明,该CHO细胞表达的PIP1.3对水分子的转运能力很低,但能选择性转运甘油。%The encoding sequence of plasma membrane aquaporin gene (PIP1.3) in castor (Ricinus communis L.) was ampliifed with RT-PCR and inserted into pcDNA3.1/Myc-His A vector, double enzyme digestion analy-sis and DNA sequencing confirmed that recombination plasmid was successfully constructed. pcD-NA3.1PIP1.3-Myc-His and pcDNA3.1Hygro-EYFP-H148Q-V163S plasmids linking Cl--sensitive EYFP mutant (EYFP-H148Q-V163S) were transfected in CHO cells. The stable transfection of CHO cells was analysis with RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that PIP1.3 mRNA and protein were overexpressed in cell line screened. Permeabilities of PIP1.3 expressing CHO cells for water and glycerol were measured respectively by lfuorescence method and carbon labeling experiment. The results showed that permeability of PIP1.3 express-ing CHO cells for water was low, but high for glycerol.

  15. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO2 emissions practically remain constants

  16. Ethnomedicinal and Phytochemical Prospectives of Pyrus Communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Arya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinal implies the usage of medicinal plants used by a group of people on account of their traditional knowledge and phytochemical means the individual chemical that plant contains. This review involves the ethnomedicinal and phytochemical prospectives of Pyrus communis Linn. In the “The Indian Materia Medica”, the common pear or gabbu gosha is considered as ‘Amritphala’ because of its immense potenial in human health care system.Various phenolic glucoside compounds have been isolated and identified from Pyrus communis Linn. e.g. arbutin, quercitin, kaempferol, fredielin, sterols, isoquercitrin, ursolic acid,sorbitol,astragalin, phloridzin and various tannins responsible for different activities viz. in urinary therapeutics,as skin whitenining agent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, astringent, spasmolytic. Also used in diabetes because of low sucrose content.

  17. Antihepatoma Activity of Artocarpus communis Is Higher in Fractions with High Artocarpin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Tzeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  18. Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Ixodes ricinus Haemocytome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Kotsyfakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ixodes ricinus is the main tick vector of the microbes that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. Pathogens transmitted by ticks have to overcome innate immunity barriers present in tick tissues, including midgut, salivary glands epithelia and the hemocoel. Molecularly, invertebrate immunity is initiated when pathogen recognition molecules trigger serum or cellular signalling cascades leading to the production of antimicrobials, pathogen opsonization and phagocytosis. We presently aimed at identifying hemocyte transcripts from semi-engorged female I. ricinus ticks by mass sequencing a hemocyte cDNA library and annotating immune-related transcripts based on their hemocyte abundance as well as their ubiquitous distribution.De novo assembly of 926,596 pyrosequence reads plus 49,328,982 Illumina reads (148 nt length from a hemocyte library, together with over 189 million Illumina reads from salivary gland and midgut libraries, generated 15,716 extracted coding sequences (CDS; these are displayed in an annotated hyperlinked spreadsheet format. Read mapping allowed the identification and annotation of tissue-enriched transcripts. A total of 327 transcripts were found significantly over expressed in the hemocyte libraries, including those coding for scavenger receptors, antimicrobial peptides, pathogen recognition proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors. Vitellogenin and lipid metabolism transcription enrichment suggests fat body components. We additionally annotated ubiquitously distributed transcripts associated with immune function, including immune-associated signal transduction proteins and transcription factors, including the STAT transcription factor.This is the first systems biology approach to describe the genes expressed in the haemocytes of this neglected disease vector. A total of 2,860 coding sequences were deposited to GenBank, increasing to 27,547 the number so far deposited by our previous transcriptome studies

  19. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  20. Determination of Novel Borrelia Genospecies in Swedish Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A total of 301 adult questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at 15 different locations along the south and east coasts of Sweden to determine the Borrelia genospecies diversity. Thirty-two ticks (11%) were found to be positive by nested PCR with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific primers. Species determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the flagellin gene. Five different Borrelia species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the Borrelia DNA found in ...

  1. Large animal hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, L A; Case, A A

    1979-10-01

    The hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants of large domestic animals have been reviewed. The most important ones are those widely distributed as weeds over pastures, negelcted forests and grasslands, those used as ornamentals, the nitrate concentrating forage crops, and the cyanophoric plants. Crotolaria spp, the ragwort (Senecia jacobaea), the lantana spp. and heliotopum are common hepatoxic plants. Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Solanum rostratum, and the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) are nephrotoxic plants.

  2. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F1 sterility technique. (author)

  3. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO3 + SrO + Sr (OH)2) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  4. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the available commercial servo gear oil. Experimentation has been performed on four ball tester set up.Material used is carbon steel balls. Refined castor and mahua oils are blended in fixed ratios and subjected to friction and wear tests. Experimentation reveals that castor mahua oil blend possess immense potential in contrast to servo gear oil due to good wear reducing traits apart from environmental benefits.

  5. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra

  6. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  7. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de, E-mail: mmoura@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/IQ/CEMPEQC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Centro de Monitoramento e Pesquisa da Qualidade de Combustiveis, Biocombustiveis, Petroleo e Derivados

    2013-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO{sub 3} + SrO + Sr (OH){sub 2}) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  8. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  9. Morphological features of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids: nymphs and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Karganova, Galina G

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to reveal morphological features of first-generation Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids (nymphs and adults) obtained under laboratory conditions for further study of natural populations of these species in sympatry foci. In 65 nymphs of three groups I. ricinus (23 specimens), I. persulcatus (21 specimens), and hybrids (21 specimens), 16 parameters were evaluated (length/width of the scutum and capitulum, length of the hypostome, palp, tarsus I, coxa I, sternal setae, and various scutal and alloscutal setae) and discrimination analysis was performed allowing differentiation of hybrid nymphs from original species. General effectiveness of classification of I. ricinus, I. persulcatus, and hybrids was >95 %. Discriminant functions are presented allowing classification of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrid nymphs. For description of morphology, 27 adult hybrids (13 males and 14 females) were examined under a stereo microscope at 14-28× (without preparation of permanent mounts). The following morphological distinctions of hybrids from original species were described: posterior marginal groove is not clear (as in I. ricinus) and absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I persulcatus). In hybrid males, simultaneous absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I. persulcatus) and a long internal spur on coxa I (as in I. ricinus) can be used as a diagnostic feature. Based on the detected characteristics, 10 of 157 ticks collected in Karelia in I. ricinus and I. persulcatus sympatry area were classified as hybrids. PMID:26984610

  10. Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time.

  11. Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2009-09-01

    The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.

  12. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes using natural carbon precursor: Castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziah, A. Z.; Junizah, A. R.; Saifuddin, N.

    2012-09-01

    Castor oil has long been an article of commerce due to its versatility as it is widely used as a starting material for many industrial chemical products because of its unique structure. In this study, carbon nanotubes has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of castor oil in nitrogen atmosphere at 300-400δC using custom-made microwave processing unit. The precursor material was catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene. The morphology and characterization of the CNTs were studied and discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  13. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  14. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh;

    2015-01-01

    the seeds. Mean intensity for each single seed was extracted from the images, and a significant difference between the three colour classes was observed, with the best separation in the near-infrared wavelengths. A specified feature (RegionMSI mean) based on normalized canonical discriminant analysis, were......-germinated seeds. This validation of the model resulted in 96% correct classification of the seeds. The results illustrate how multispectral imaging technology can be employed for prediction of viable castor seeds, based on seed coat colour....

  15. GNS Castor V/21 Headspace Gas Sampling 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prior to performing an internal visual inspection, samples of the headspace gas of the GNS Castor V/21 cask were taken on June 12, 2014. These samples were taken in support of the CREIPI/Japanese nuclear industry effort to validate fuel integrity without visual inspection by measuring the 85Kr content of the cask headspace

  16. Evaluation of castor oil samples for potential toxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil and its derivatives are widely used as a chemical feedstock for production of lubricants and greases, and for engineering plastics, plasticizers and surfactants. They also have wide application in consumer goods such as lipstick, deodorants and medicinal products. Due to concerns about th...

  17. GNS Castor V/21 Headspace Gas Sampling 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prior to performing an internal visual inspection, samples of the headspace gas of the GNS Castor V/21 cask were taken on June 12, 2014. These samples were taken in support of the CREIPI/Japanese nuclear industry effort to validate fuel integrity without visual inspection by measuring the 85Kr content of the cask headspace

  18. Detoxification of castor meal through reactive seed crushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-edible oil crops, such as castor or jatropha, contain several toxic components. Post-harvest treatments should be used to reduce the risks associated with the possible dispersion of toxic compounds in the environment. A new processing technology named Reactive Seed Crushing was developed, which ...

  19. Develop a New Lesquerella fendleri Crop for Castor Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil of Lesquerella fendleri contains a valuable hydroxy fatty acid (HFA), lesquerolic acid (20:1OH). The conventional source of HFA is ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) from castor seeds. Ricinoleic acid and its derivatives are used as raw materials for numerous industrial products, such as lubricants, ...

  20. Molecular characterization of COI gene of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758 from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćakić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ixodes ricinus tick is common in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It is a vector of pathogenic agents causing diseases in humans and animals. Little is known about the genetic structure of I. ricinus in this region. We have investigated intraspecific variability of the COI gene among I. ricinus ticks collected from different regions of Serbia, and the correlation between the various types of habitat and genetic variability of ticks. The obtained COI gene sequences are the first barcoding sequences of I. ricinus ticks collected at localities in Serbia. Intraspecific variability of these COI gene sequences was very low, and there was no correlation between the various types of habitat and genetic variability of ticks. Samples from isolated localities (canyon/gorge showed no genetic differentiations from the majority of samples from open areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173006

  1. Seasonal distribution of Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green areas at four localities in the Belgrade region (Ada Ciganlija, Košutnjak, Miljakovac forest, and Mt. Avala were investigated in 2004. The aim of the research was to clarify the faunistic composition, relative abundance, and population dynamics of ticks, as well as the seasonal distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl in Ixodes ricinus. Two species of ticks were detected: Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulates. Relative abundance analysis revealed that the species Ixodes ricinus was predominant (97.41 %. Out of 942 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 188 (19.96 % were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sl. The infection rate of adults by localities ranged from 19.16% to 30.99% (Mt. Avala and Ada Ciganlija, respectively.

  2. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Coumou

    Full Text Available Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus.

  3. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Øines Øivind; Radzijevskaja Jana; Paulauskas Algimantas; Rosef Olav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR...

  4. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J; Nijhof, Ard M; Hovius, Joppe W

    2014-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus. PMID:25919587

  5. Eficiência dos óleos de nim e mamona contra cupins xilófagos em ensaio de alimentação forçada

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; Ademilson Daniel de Souza; Carlos Roberto de Lima; Pedro Nicó de Medeiros Neto

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica) and castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) oils to improvement of Ceiba pentandra wood resistance to Nasutitermes corniger xilophogous termite und forced food assay. The neem and castor oil plant oils were extracted with absolute ethyl alcohol and employees in the preparation of oil solutions. Wood samples with dimensions of 2.0 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x longitudinal x tangential) were treated to reach a nominal retentio...

  6. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  7. COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis) PARA BIOCOMBUSTIBLE EN RELACIÓN A LOS CULTIVOS ACTUALES EN EL EDO. DE OAXACA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Rafael; Zamarripa Colmenero, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Ante el problema actual del calentamiento global por las altas emisiones de CO a la atmósfera, 2 así como la escasez y encarecimiento de los energéticos fósiles como el petróleo, carbón y gas, ha cobrado importancia la búsqueda y aprovechamiento de fuentes alternas de combustibles. Las principales especies vegetales que pueden proveer de biocarburantes son la caña de azúcar, sorgo, maíz, entre otros para etanol; soya girasol y cacahuate, entre otros para biodiesel; sin embargo la utilizació...

  8. Potencial do uso da torta de mamona (Ricinus communis L.) como matriz para produção de compósitos e nanocompósitos

    OpenAIRE

    Kumode, Marina Mieko Nishidate

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Durante as últimas décadas, tem aumentado os problemas ambientais causados pelo grande consumo de petróleo, um produto não-renovável, base de materiais plásticos e isso têm despertado interesse na comunidade científica na busca de novos materiais. Esses materiais devem ter as características de renovabilidade, fácil biodegradabilidade, com propriedades específicas comparáveis e, claro, de baixo custo e que causem menor impacto ambiental. O desenvolvimento destes novos materiais é poss...

  9. Qualitative histologic evaluation of the tissue reaction to the polyurethane resin (ricinus communis - based biopolymer implantation assessed by light and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Campos Belmonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue reaction of bone tissue accessed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM images after polyurethane resin implantation is presented in this study. Twenty four male rabbits were used, divided into two groups of 12 animals each (experimental group and control group in which full-thickness cranial defect was surgically created. At 30 and 90 days post operation 6 animals of each group were euthanized and bone samples were removed for analysis. The microscopic results indicated no inflammatory foreign body reaction, a perfect union between the polymer and surgical bone bed surface, lack of bone resorption and presence of a thin layer of osteogenic material covering the polymer surface in contact with the surgical bone bed. The SEM images demonstrate the porosity of the resin, with diameters from 120 to 500 µm. This important feature of this polymer is associated with its osteoconductivity, allowing the bone growth inside it, improving the integration between the material and bone tissue. These results confirm that polyurethane resin derived from Ricinuscommunis is an excellent bone substitute for use in repair surgery for great bone losses.

  10. Application of Radiation on Ricinus communis Breeding%辐射诱变在蓖麻育种上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖霞; 赵桂荣; 于金刚

    2007-01-01

    辐射诱变已经成为改良种质性状,创新新种质的有效手段。目前,在蓖麻育种上应用最多、效果较好的诱变技术是物理电离辐射的60Coγ射线。在选育早熟、抗病、矮秆、高产、优质及改良种性上效果显著。国内外育种专家通过辐射诱变已选育出一大批优良的雌性系,并由此培育出杂交种应用于生产。

  11. 蓖麻及其对重金属的积累特性%Advance on Accumulation of Heavy Mental by Ricinus Communis L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑进; 康薇

    2008-01-01

    蓖麻不仅具有重要的环保功能和较高的经济价值,在修复重金属污染水体和土壤方面也表现出较大的潜力.阐述了蓖麻的生物学特性,探讨了蓖麻对重金属的吸收和积累作用,提出了利用蓖麻修复重金属污染土壤的应用前景.

  12. 蓖麻对重金属锌的耐性与吸收积累研究%Environmental behavior of zinc in Ricinus communis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓怡; 何池全

    2005-01-01

    采用60 d温室盆栽试验研究蓖麻对土壤中重金属Zn污染的耐性和积累效应.通过不同Zn浓度下蓖麻植株生长状况和叶绿素变化及蓖麻根、茎、叶各部分对Zn的积累量的研究,发现蓖麻对土壤Zn污染有较高的耐性,分别在叶、茎、根中对Zn有不同程度的积累,随着土壤Zn浓度的增加积累量也增大.说明蓖麻适合较高程度Zn污染土壤的修复.

  13. Influence of metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis in soil contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains PsM6 and PjM15 isolated from a serpentine soil were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas jessenii, respectively, on the basis of their morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. Assessment of plant growth-promoting parameters revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole N source, solubilization of insol...

  14. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Di Venere

    Full Text Available Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT and of salivary glands (SG of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii.

  15. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. MOHAMMED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. In fact the iodine value obtained (84.8 for the refined oil indicates that the oil could certainly be used as lubricant, hydraulic break fluid and protecting coatings. The oil was modified via sulphation method to produce Turkey – red oil that was tested on wooden material, paper and cloth. The test revealed that the Turkey – red oil produced is suitable to be used as a good dying agent and polish.

  16. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Salmiah Ibrahim; Azizan Ahmad; Nor Sabirin Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurem...

  17. Results on CASTOR Performance during LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The intercalibration of the gains of the fine mesh PMT's using beam-halo muons is discussed, this in combination with results of a study on the noise and baseline. Two methods on obtaining gain correction factors for reweighing the gains between different high voltage settings are compared. Results on the efficiency of a CASTOR jet trigger are compared for LHC Run 2 collision data and Monte Carlo event generator predictions.

  18. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Suhane; R.M.Sarviya

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the ava...

  19. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. MOHAMMED; A. JIMOH; U. G. AKPAN

    2006-01-01

    This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay). The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined...

  20. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil

    OpenAIRE

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young’s moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young’s modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temper...

  1. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  2. Measurement of quadratic electrogyration effect in castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Marek; Ledzion, Rafał; Górski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of electrogyration measurement in liquids with the usage of an optical polarimetric technique. Theoretical analysis of the optical response to an applied electric field is illustrated by experimental data for castor oil which exhibits natural optical activity, quadratic electro-optic effect and quadratic electrogyration effect. Moreover, the experimental data show that interaction of the oil with a pair of flat electrodes induces a significant dichroism and natural linear birefringence. The combination of these effects occurring at the same time complicates the procedure of measurements. It has been found that a single measurement is insufficient to separate the contribution of the electrogyration effect, but it is possible on the basis of several measurements performed with various orientations of the polarizer and the analyser. The obtained average values of the quadratic electrogyration coefficient β13 in castor oil at room temperature are from - 0.92 ×10-22 to - 1.44 ×10-22m2V-2 depending on the origin of the oil. Although this study is focused on measurements in castor oil, the presented analysis is much more general.

  3. Extraction and Characterization of Drilling Fluid from Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manase Auta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drilling fluid is an essential component in drilling operations. It is used to prevent blowouts by creating adequate hydrostatic pressure, lubricating the walls of a well and the drill string, flushing to the surface of cuttings, and keeping the drill bit clean and cool. Extraction, characterization and formation of drilling fluid from castor seed oil were investigated. The castor seeds used were obtained from a local market and the extraction of the oil was done mechanically. The extracted oil characteristics such as specific gravity, pH, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index and viscosity were within the standard range before before formulating it to drilling fluid by the addition of additives. The result of the formulation obtained showed that the formulated drilling fluid had an electrical stability of 222 V, High Pressure/High Temperature of 8.8, mass funnel viscosity at 30 and 50 oC were 26.5 and 25 s, respectively; chemical alkalinity was 0.3 and excess lime of 0.39 Ib/bbI. The findings in this research have shown that formulated drilling fluid from castor seed oil is safe as drilling fluid and has characteristics close to that of the standard drilling mud equivalent circulating density 99. The formulated drilling fluid can adequately serve as an alternative to the commercial products.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polymeric surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujuan HUANG,He LIU,Shibin SHANG,Zhaosheng CAI,Jie SONG,Zhanqian SONG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated castor oil was epoxidized using phosphoric acid as a catalyst and acetic acid peroxide as an oxidant to produce epoxidized castor oil (ECO. Ring-opening polymerization with stannic chloride was used to produce polymerized ECO (PECO, and sodium hydroxide used to give hydrolyzed PECO (HPECO. The HPECO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The weight-average molecular weight of soluble PECO and HPECO were 5026 and 2274 g·mol-1, respectively. PECO and HPECO exhibited glass transition. Through neutralizing the carboxylic acid of HPECO with different counterions, castor oil-based polymeric surfactants (HPECO-M, where M= Na+, K+ or triethanolamine ion exhibited high efficiency to reduce the surface tension of water. The critical micelle concentration (CMC values of HPECO-M ranged from 0.042 to 0.098 g·L-1 and the minimum equilibrium surface tensions at CMC (gcmc of HPECO-M ranged from 25.6 to 30.0 mN·m-1. The water-hexadecane interfacial energy was calculated from measured surface tension using harmonic and geometric mean methods. Measured values of water-hexadecane interfacial tension agreed well with those calculated using the harmonic and geometric mean methods.

  5. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp. PMID:26865230

  6. Surface Coating Studies of Polyurethane Derived from [(Alkyd)-(Epoxy Resin Treated Castor Oil)] Using Isophorene Diisocynate - II

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh. P. Patel; Kiran Nimavat; Kartik Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil (C) was reacted with profitable epoxy resin (E) (diglycidylether of bisphenol-A, DGEBF) at a range of mole ratios. The consequential products (Castor oil- Epoxy resin) were nominated as CEs. Isocyanate terminated castor oil Polyurethane (ICOPU) was prepared by reaction of castor oil and various proportion of Isophoren diisocyanate. A commercial alkyd resin was blended with various proportions of CEs and ICOPU. A unique solvent system, which shows a one – phase clear solution and a ...

  7. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  8. Study of the Castor Oil Plant Pie in the Planting of the Castor Beans with Different Global Density of the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Xavier Costa; Edivan Silva Nunes Júnior; José Sebastião de Melo Filho

    2010-01-01

    It was aimed at with this work to evaluate the chlorophyll tenor in the leaves, of potassium in the pecíolos of the castor beans, the physical analysis of the soil and the tenors of the present macronutrientes in the leaves of the castor beans cultivated with growing doses of castor oil plant pie and degrees different from density of the soil. The experiment had beginning in the period of May 02, 2006 and he/she extended to September 02, 2006, in house-of-vegetation, without atmosphere contro...

  9. EMISSÕES DE GASES DE EFEITO ESTUFA NA PRODUÇÃO DE MAMONA E DE SEUS SUBPRODUTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE JOSÉ CURY FRACETTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest production of castor bean ( Ricinus communis L . focuses on Bahia savanna, where the change of land use to their cultivation has been considered a strategy of degraded areas recovery. However, changes in the native soil can arise environmental impacts as greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. We have assumed that higher GHG emissions come from a change of land use for castor bean cultivation and their sub - products contribute to GHG emissions. The objective of this study was to make the inventory of the emission of GHG resulting from the castor bean cultivation and their sub - products. It was done a study in the municipality of Irecê - BA and were evaluated: changes in carbon (C soil stocks in cultivated areas with castor bean and Lo- cal native forest; a number of senescent leaves and the biomass produced epigeal; GHG emissions from the sub - products of castor bean. The results showed that the sum of senescent leaves and epigeal biomass obtained by castor bean pruning is more than 1.6 Mg ha - 1 ano - 1 and the castor bean residues used in this soil presented N 2 O emissions close to 600 μg m - 2 . The emissions from the use of castor oil biodiesel represented less than 10% of the emissions. The change in land use handled high emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for 87% of the total in CO 2 eq. Compared to emissions estimated for sugarcane ethanol, castor biodiesel showed emissions 32% lower.

  10. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  11. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  12. Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid composition in the USDA castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 4...

  13. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9-14-octadecadienoic acids in castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fa...

  14. Analysis of germination of castor and peanuts seeds by 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germination of castor and peanut seeds was followed by 13C NMR. Results are comparable to those observed for soybean seeds and reveal that this technique is generally applicable in cases in which a reasonable amount of soluble material is present during germination. Different pathways for oil degradation by castor and peanut seeds may be distinguished. (Author)

  15. An innovative European integrated project: Castor-CO2 from capture to storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiez, P.L.; Mosditchian, G.; Torp, T.; Feron, P.; Ritsema, I.; Zweigel, P.; Lindeberg, E.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the CASTOR (CO2, from Capture to Storage) R and D project, funded by the European Union (EU) under the 6th Framework Program. With a partnership involving Industry and Research organizations, CASTOR aims at developing new technologies for post-combustion capture and

  16. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  17. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  18. Leaf mineral concentrations of Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis growing in the proximity of a natural CO2 spring

    OpenAIRE

    Peñuelas, Josep

    2001-01-01

    Leaf mineral concentrations of co-occurring Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis were measured at bimonthly intervals throughout a year in a natural CO2 spring and in a nearby control site with similar soil chemistry in a Mediterranean environment. There were different responses to the elevated [CO2] (c. 700 μL L−1) of the spring site plants depending on the element and the species. In the CO2 spring site K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Fe, and Ti leaf concentrations and the ratio C/N sho...

  19. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY THE CASTOR BEAN FUNCTION OF DOSES AND FERTILIZER IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Xavier Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at with this work to investigate the physiology and biochemistry of the castor bean, after use of compost and organic castor bean. The trial began on October 3, 2005 ending on March 20, 2006, in green-house, controlled environment of the National Center of Cotton Research (CNPA / EMBRAPA, in Campina Grande , State of Paraiba. Was used to cultivate castor BRS Paraguaçu. We used a randomized block design with four replications, totaling 11 treatments, since they are derived from doses of castor-oil and organic compost (four doses of each and three witnesses, with further study of orthogonal contrasts . The castor bean showed effective results in the variables chlorophyll content (ppm in leaves and number of days to flowering of the first cluster (DIAFI. Compost organic waste not produced any significant result for both variables.

  20. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.

  1. Molecular evidence for bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting Shetland ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, Bogumiła; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Adamska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus has the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and domestic animals. The feeding I. ricinus (n = 1737) collected from 49 Shetland ponies and questing ones from vegetation (n = 371) were tested for the presence and differentiation of the bacterial species. DNA of I. ricinus ticks was examined with PCR and sequencing analysis to identify species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Altogether, 24.3 % I. ricinus of the infested horses and 12.4 % ticks from vegetation carried at least one pathogen species. Horse-feeding ticks (19.2 %) were significantly more frequently infected with Borrelia spp. than questing ticks (4.8 %). Among Bbsl species, in I. ricinus infesting ponies, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana and B. lusitanie and one species, B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group, were detected. The 73 flaB gene sequences of Borrelia obtained from feeding I. ricinus have been deposited in GenBank. Among Rickettsia species, two were identified: R. helvetica which was dominant and R. monacensis. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Bbsl and R. helvetica were detected in 6.3 % of infected ticks collected from horses. Shetland ponies may play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of Bbsl and probably could contribute to the natural cycle of A. phagocytophilum and R. helvetica as host for infected ticks. The awareness about these infectious agents in ticks from ponies might be an important criterion for the risk assessment of human diseases, especially as these animals are maintained for recreational purposes. PMID:26920921

  2. The toxic effect of permethrin and cypermethrin on engorged Ixodes ricinus females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Buczek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] tick is of great medical and veterinary importance and has a wide range of geographical distribution. The study presents the effect of permethrin (Per and cypermethrin (CM on engorged[i] I. ricinus[/i] females. materials and method. The effect of perythroids studied on engorged I. ricinus females was assessed on the basis of the pre-oviposition and oviposition period. Remote effects of Per and CM application were assessed by investigation of the length and course of embryonic development and larval hatching from eggs laid by pyrethroid-treated females. Per (Copex WP was used at doses of 0.78125–25.0 µg/1 specimen, and CM (Kordon 10WP was applied at 0.3125–10.0 µg/1 specimen. Immediately after the feeding period, I. ricinus females were sprayed with 20 µl of a pyrethroid solution and kept at 28 °C and 75%RH. results. The experiments demonstrated that CM exerted a stronger toxic effect on [i]I. ricinus[/i] females than Per. The lowest doses of CM doubled the length of the pre-oviposition period while its highest doses prolonged the period nearly three times compared with the control. The pyrethroids applied reduced the number and weight of eggs and changed the parameters of the oviposition process. Application of the tested pyrethroid doses led to disturbances in the embryonic development of[i] I. ricinus[/i], i.e. the development was prolonged, few normal larvae hatched, numerous eggs and embryos at various developmental stages died, and larval hatch was inhibited. conclusions. Knowledge about the sensitivity of engorged females to different doses of the tested pyrethroids and the remote effects of their action can be used in practice for tick control among livestock animals, and the reduction of tick population abundance in the environment.

  3. Mitogenomes reveal diversity of the European Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Giovanna; Kitchen, Andrew; Kim, Hie Lim; Ratan, Aakrosh; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; McGraw, John J; Kazimirova, Maria; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, the Ixodes ricinus tick is the most important vector of the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis and several other emerging tick-borne diseases. Because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, understanding the vector population structure is crucial to inform public health research of pathogen dynamics and spread. However, the population structure and dynamics of this important vector species are not well understood as most genetic studies utilize short mitochondrial and nuclear sequences with little diversity. Herein we obtained and analyzed complete mitochondrial genome (hereafter "mitogenome") sequences to better understand the genetic diversity and the population structure of I. ricinus from two long-standing tick-borne disease foci in northern Italy. Complete mitogenomes of 23 I. ricinus ticks were sequenced at high coverage. Out of 23 mitogenome sequences we identified 17 unique haplotypes composed of 244 segregating sites. Phylogenetic reconstruction using 18 complete mitogenome sequences revealed the coexistence of four highly divergent I. ricinus maternal lineages despite the narrow spatial scale over which these samples were obtained (100km). Notably, the estimated coalescence time of the 18 mitogenome haplotypes is ∼427 thousand years ago (95% HPD 330, 540). This divergence between I. ricinus lineages is consistent with the mitochondrial diversity of other arthropod vector species and indicates that long-term I. ricinus populations may have been less structured and larger than previously thought. Thus, this study suggests that a rapid and accurate retrieval of full mitochondrial genomes from this disease vector enables fine-resolution studies of tick intraspecies genetic relationships, population differentiation, and demographic history. PMID:27165938

  4. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  5. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen Coumou; Alex Wagemakers; Trentelman, Jos J.; Nijhof, Ard M; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2015-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccin...

  6. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor.

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) Castor GSF cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASTOR GSF packaging was designed and fabricated to be a certified Type B(U) packaging and comply with the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for transport of up to five sealed canisters of vitrified radioactive materials. This onsite Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analysis and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the casks, with the canister payload, meet the intent of the Type B packaging regulations set forth in 10 CFR 71 and therefore meet the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping

  8. Global energy balance and density limit on CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total radiative power losses were measured with a pyroelectric detector on the CASTOR tokamak in a broad range of plasma parameters. It was shown that while the most important channel of energy losses for the low density operation (average ne19 m-3) is thermal conductivity, the high density regimes are radiative dominant. Using a simple analytic energy balance model, the connection is discussed between such a high level of radiation and the shrinking of the current channel resulting in an enhanced MHD activity. (author)

  9. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values castor oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This

  10. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  11. Early Stage Design of a Bio refinery from Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Daniela; Quaglia, Alberto; Pessoa, Fernando;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method fo r synthesis and analysis of bio mass based biorefinery pathways (process networks) in terms of current and future market conditions. The systematic method has been implemented into a computer aided tool that is able to quickly evaluate alternatives...... and network scenarios. The tool integrates d ata collection, modelling and superstructure optimization to determine the optimal network for a biorefinery. The application of the synthesis - analysis method and its corresponding computer aided tool is highlighte d for a case study where castor oil...

  12. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of ricinine: A concise report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricinine (3-cyano-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone is an alkaloid present in leaves and seeds of castor plant i.e. Ricinus communis. It can cause vomiting, convulsions, hypotension, liver and kidney damage and several other complications in human. Ricinine presents mainly in young plant and it is the only cyano-substituted pyridine compounds occurred naturally. Ricinine also found in some other plants such as Piper nigrum, Discocleidion rufescens, Aparisthmium cordatum and Nicotiana tabacum. Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries. In the present review, we summarize the information regarding its medicinal uses, pharmacological activities, analytical techniques and intended and unintended poisoning cases in humans and animals. This review will be beneficial for the researcher in the field of herbal medicine and other allied sciences.

  13. ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of Myrtus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F. M.; Dettori, M. F.; Magnani, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest of researchers for the application of sophisticated analytical techniques in conjunction with statistical data analysis methods to the characterization of natural products to assure their authenticity and quality, and for the possibility of direct analysis of food to obtain maximum information. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA) are applied to study the chemical composition and variability of Sardinian myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) through the analysis of both berries alcoholic extracts and berries epicarp. ToF-SIMS spectra of berries epicarp show that the epicuticular waxes consist mainly of carboxylic acids with chain length ranging from C20 to C30, or identical species formed from fragmentation of long-chain esters. PCA of ToF-SIMS data from myrtle berries epicarp distinguishes two groups characterized by a different surface concentration of triacontanoic acid. Variability in antocyanins, flavonols, α-tocopherol, and myrtucommulone contents is showed by ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts.

  14. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were loca

  15. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medlock, Jolyon M.; Hansford, Kayleigh M.; Bormane, Antra;

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opini...

  16. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Socolovschi, Cristina; Revelli, Paul; Gibert, Philippe; Marié, Jean-Lou; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Seventy-one Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the French Pyrenees were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella. Four ticks (6%) were positive for R. helvetica. The chamois carries infected ticks, and this enables the dissemination throughout the environment with this bacterium, a potential human pathogen.

  17. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  18. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øines Øivind

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR, and sequence analysis. Results From a total of 1908 questing l. ricinus ticks, 17 (0.9% indicated the presence of Babesia spp. after realtime-PCR screening. Ixodes ricinus harbouring Babesia spp. was detected in 9 out of 22 localities. Further molecular analyses of DNA from these positive ticks indicate the presence of Babesia venatorum, B. divergens, B. capreoli and a currently undescribed Babesia in Norwegian ticks. The most prevalent was B. venatorum found in 71% of the positive ticks. Conclusions A total of 17 out of 1908 (0.9% ticks were positive for Babesia. Our data confirm that there are several Babesia species in ticks in Norway. Babesia venatorum was the most prevalent. This species has a zoonotic potential and may cause human babesiosis following a tick bite.

  19. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia. PMID:27584086

  20. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurement. The highest conductivity of 1.42 × 10−6 S cm−1 was achieved with the addition of 30 wt% LiI and 4.28 × 10−7 S·cm−1 upon addition of 30 wt% NaI at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot indicated that both systems obeyed Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the PU-LiI and PU-NaI systems were 0.13 and 0.22 eV. Glass transition temperature of the synthesized polyurethane decreased from −15.8 °C to ~ −26 to −28 °C upon salts addition. These characterizations exhibited the castor oil-based polyurethane polymer electrolytes have potential to be used as alternative membrane for electrochemical devices.