WorldWideScience

Sample records for casting molds

  1. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  2. Computer simulation for centrifugal mold filling of precision titanium castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Computer simulation codes were developed based on a proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings (CASM-3D for Windows). Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings under a centrifugal force field than that only under the gravity. A "return back" mold filling manner is showed to be a reasonable technique for centrifugal casting processes, especially for thin section precision castings.

  3. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  4. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. Other studies have been conducted using water flow and behavior of liquid aluminum in sand mold using real time photography. This investigation utilizes graphite molds transparent to X-Rays making it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented grating systems. These have included systems that are choked at the base of a rounded vertical sprue and vertical gating systems with a variety of different ingates into the bottom of a mold cavity. These systems have also been changed to include gating systems with vertical and horizontal gate configurations. Several conclusions can be derived from this study. A sprue-well, as designed in these experiments, does not eliminate the vena contracta. Because of the swirling at the sprue-base, the circulating metal begins to push the entering metal stream toward the open runner mitigating the intended effect of the sprue-well. Improved designs of

  5. Relationship Between Casting Distortion, Mold Filling, and Interfacial Heat Transfer in Sand Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Parker; K. A. Woodbury; T. S. Piwonka; Y. Owusu

    1999-09-30

    This project sought to determine the relationship between casting dimensions and interfacial heat transfer in aluminum alloy sand castings. The program had four parts; measurement of interfacial heat transfer coefficients in resin bonded and green sand molds, the measurement of gap formation in these molds, the analysis of castings made in varying gatings, orientations and thicknesses, and the measurement of residual stresses in castings in the as-cast and gate removed condition. New values for interfacial heat transfer coefficients were measured, a novel method for gap formation was developed, and the variation of casting dimensions with casting method, gating, and casting orientation in the mold was documented.

  6. Computer precision simulation for titanium casting centrifugal mold filling of prescision titanium castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming XU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation codes were developed based on proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings. Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings unde a centrifugal force field than that only under the gravity. A "return back" mold filling manner is showed to be a reasonable technique for centrifugal casting processes, especially for thin section prcision castings.

  7. Virtual Mold Technique in Thermal Stress Analysis during Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Young Kwak; Jae-Wook Baek; Jeong-Ho Nam; Jeong-Kil Choi

    2008-01-01

    It is important to analyse the casting product and the mold at the same time considering thermal contraction of the casting and thermal expansion of the mold. The analysis considering contact of the casting and the mold induces the precise prediction of stress distribution and the defect such as hot tearing. But it is difficult to generate FEM mesh for the interface of the casting and the mold. Moreover the mesh for the mold domain spends lots of computational time and memory for the analysis due to a number of meshes. Consequently we proposed the virtual mold technique which only uses mesh of the casting part for thermal stress analysis in casting process. The spring bar element in virtual mold technique is used to consider the contact of the casting and the mold. In general, a volume of the mold is much bigger than that of casting part, so the proposed technique decreases the number of mesh and saves the computational memory and time greatly. In this study, the proposed technique was verified by the comparison with the traditional contact technique on a specimen. And the proposed technique gave satisfactory results.

  8. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  9. Diagnosis parameters of mold filling pattern for optimization of a casting system

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    For optimal design of a gating system, the setting of diagnosis parameters is very important. In this study, the permanent mold casting process was selected because most of the other casting processes have more complicated factors that influence the mold filling pattern compared to the permanent mold casting process, such as the surface roughness of mold, gas generation from the mold wash and binder of sand mold, and the gas permeability through a sand mold, etc. Two diagnosis parameters (fl...

  10. Modeling of Mold Filling and Solidification in Lost Foam Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjun LI; Houfa SHEN; Baicheng LIU

    2003-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the lost foam casting (LFC) and the artificial neural network technique, a mathematicalmodel for the simulation of the melt-pattern interface movement during the mold filling of LFC has been proposed andexperimentally verified. The simulation results are consistent with the experiments in both the shapes of melt frontand filling sequences. According to the calculated interface locations, the fluid flow and the temperature distributionsduring the mold filling and solidification processes were calculated, and the shrinkage defect of a lost foam ductileiron casting was predicted by considering the mold wall movement in LFC. The simulation method was applied tooptimize the casting design of lost foam ductile iron castings. It is shown that the model can be used for the defectsprediction and for casting design optimization in the practical LFC production.

  11. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  12. Optimization of Mold Yield in MultiCavity Sand Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vasudev D.; Joshi, Durgesh; Ravi, B.; Narasimhan, K.

    2013-06-01

    The productivity of ductile iron foundries engaging in mass production of castings for the automobile and other engineering sectors depends on the number of cavities per mold. A denser packing of cavities, however, results in slower heat transfer from adjacent cavities, leading to delayed solidification, possible shrinkage defects, and lower mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a methodology to optimize mold yield by selecting the correct combination of the mold box size and the number of cavities based on solidification time and mold temperature. Simulation studies were carried out by modeling solid and hollow cube castings with different values of cavity-wall gap and finding the minimum value of the gap beyond which there is no change in casting solidification time. Then double-cavity molds were modeled with different values of cavity-cavity gap, and simulated to find the minimum value of gap. The simulation results were verified by melting and pouring ductile iron in green sand molds instrumented with thermocouples, and recording the temperature in mold at predetermined locations. The proposed approach can be employed to generate a technological database of minimum gaps for various combinations of part geometry, metal and process, which will be very useful to optimize the mold cavity layouts.

  13. Water modeling of mold powder entrapment in slab continuous casting mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The optimal parameters were determined by the water modeling of slab casting. It was found that there are mainly three types of mold powder entrapment in slab continuous casting, i.e., the entrapment caused by the shearing flow near the narrow face of mold, the entrapment caused by vortexes around the submerged entry nozzle (SEN), and the entrapment caused by the Ar bubbling.Both the velocity of the surface flow and the level fluctuation of the liquids are enlarged with increasing the casting speed, reducing the submersion depth of SEN, decreasing the downward angles of the nozzle outlets, and increasing the Ar flowrate, all of which increase the tendency of mold powder entrapment. Among the four above-mentioned factors, casting speed has the largest effect.

  14. Solidification process and infrared image characteristics of permanent mold castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, Roman; Breuer, Markus; Haferkamp, Heinz; Kruessel, Thomas; Niemeyer, Matthias

    1999-03-01

    Interdependence between the development of temperature gradients at the solid-liquid interface during solidification of metals and the formation of local defects demands for thermal investigation. In foundry practice thermocouples are used to control the die's overall cooling-rate, but fluctuations in product quality still occur. Capturing FIR- thermograms after opening the die visualizes the state, when most thermal throughput has already flattened the temperature gradients in the mold. Rapid dissipation of heat from liquid metal to the mold during solidification forces further approach of the process investigation by slowing down the heat flux or the use of transparent mold material. Aluminum gravity casting experiments under technical vacuum conditions lead to decelerated solidification by suppression of convection and image sequences containing explicit characteristics that could be assigned to local shrinkage of the casting. Hence relevant clusters are extracted and thermal profiles are drawn from image series, pointing out correlations between feeding performance from the sink heads and the appearance of local defects. Tracing thermal processes in vacuum casting can scarcely be transferred to image data in foundry practice, since only little analogies exist between atmospheric and vacuum casting. The diagnosis of the casting process requires detection of the still closed mold using a transparent silica- aerogel sheet as part of the die. Hereby thermograms of the initial heat input are recorded by adapting a NIR-camera in addition to the FIR-unit. Thus the entire thermal compensation at the joint face for each casting is visualized. This experimental set-up is used for image sequence analysis related to the intermediate casting phases of mold filling, body formation and solidification shrinkage.

  15. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  16. Thermomechanical Behavior in Continuous Bloom Casting with Different Mold Tapers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xin; CHEN Yong; SHEN Houfa

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model was used to analyze the thermal and mechanical behavior dunng solidification of the strand in a continuous bloom casting mold.The coupled heat transfer and defermation were analyzed to simulate the formation of the air gap between the mold and the strand.The model was used to investigate the influence of mold taper on the temperature and stress distributions in the strand.The results show that the air gap mainly forms around the strand corner,causing a hoRer and thinner solidifying shell in this region.The mold taper partially compensates for the strand shell shnnkage and reduces the infiuence of the air gap on the heat transfer.The mold taper compresses the shell and changes the stress state around the stmnd comer region.As the strand moves down into the mold,the mold constraint causes compressive stress beneath the comer surface.which reduces the hot tear that forms on the strand.

  17. Diagnosis parameters of mold filling pattern for optimization of a casting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Hong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For optimal design of a gating system, the setting of diagnosis parameters is very important. In this study, the permanent mold casting process was selected because most of the other casting processes have more complicated factors that influence the mold filling pattern compared to the permanent mold casting process, such as the surface roughness of mold, gas generation from the mold wash and binder of sand mold, and the gas permeability through a sand mold, etc. Two diagnosis parameters (flow rate difference and arrival time difference of molten metal flow pattern in the numerical simulation are suggested for design of an optimum casting system with a permanent mold. The results show that the arrival time difference can be used as one important diagnosis parameter of the complexity of the runner system and its usefulness has been verified via making aluminum parts using permanent mold casting (Fig. 9.

  18. The thermal distortion of continuous-casting billet molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasekera, I. V.; Anderson, D. L.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1982-03-01

    Preliminary mathematical analyses involving plate bending theory and two-dimensional elastic calculations have revealed that the dominant component contributing to the distortion of continuous-casting billet molds is thermal expansion in the transverse directions. A three-dimensional, elasto-plastic, finite-element analysis of the mold wall has then shown that localized yielding initiates in a region close to the meniscus. The plastic flow is a result of the high thermal stresses induced by the geometric restraint to bending coupled with the locally high temperatures. The resultant distortion profile of the mold down the centerline of a face exhibits a maximum outward bulge of 0.1 to 0.3 mm, which is bounded above by a region of negative taper (1˜2 pct/m) and below by a region of positive taper (˜0.4 pct/m). Measurements of mold wall movement in an operating billet caster using linear displacement transducers compare favorably with model predictions, except in the meniscus region. Case studies of several industrial billet molds have shown that lowering the meniscus level with respect to the location of constraints, or modifying the method of support of the mold tube within its housing so as to reduce the restraint to thermal expansion in the meniscus region, may minimize the extent of permanent distortion. Also, wall thickness can have a significant effect on thermal distortion. Increasing wall thickness results in an increase in both peak wall temperatures and thermal gradients. The former increases the local distortion while the latter causes higher thermal stress levels and possibly permanent distortion. Of the casting variables that can be manipulated to major advantage, cooling water flow rate is the most important. Increasing the water velocity reduces mold wall temperatures, as well as both the total and permanent distortion of the wall.

  19. Application of statistical methods for analyzing the relationship between casting distortion, mold filling, and interfacial heat transfer in sand molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. A. Owusu

    1999-03-31

    This report presents a statistical method of evaluating geometric tolerances of casting products using point cloud data generated by coordinate measuring machine (CMM) process. The focus of this report is to present a statistical-based approach to evaluate the differences in dimensional and form variations or tolerances of casting products as affected by casting gating system, molding material, casting thickness, and casting orientation at the mold-metal interface. Form parameters such as flatness, parallelism, and other geometric profiles such as angularity, casting length, and height of casting products were obtained and analyzed from CMM point cloud data. In order to relate the dimensional and form errors to the factors under consideration such as flatness and parallelism, a factorial analysis of variance and statistical test means methods were performed to identify the factors that contributed to the casting distortion at the mold-metal interface.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC Manufacturing Operations Where the Standards Are..., Table 5 Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC... casting—CR/HS 3,4 A vent system that moves heated air through the mold 27 lb/ton. 8. Centrifugal...

  1. Surface Graphite Degeneration in Ductile Iron Castings for Resin Molds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iulian Riposan; Mihai Chisamera; Stelian Stan; Torbjorn Skaland

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the factors influencing the formation of degenerated graph-ite layers on the surfaces of ductile iron castings for chemical rosins-acid molding and coro-making systems and how to reduce this defect. In the rosin mold technique the sulphur in the P-toluol sulphonic acid (PTSA),usually used as the hardener, has been identified as one factor causing graphite degeneration at the metal-mold interface. Less than 0.15% S in the mold (or even less than 0.07% S) can reduce the surface layer depth. Oxygen may also have an effect, especially for sulphur containing systems with turbulent flows in the mold, water-bearing no-bake binder systems, Mg-Silica reactions, or dross formation conditions. Despite the lower level of nitrogen in the iron melt after magnesium treatment (less than 90 ppm), nitrogen bearing res-ins have a profound effect on the frequency and severity of surface pinholes, but a limited influence on sur-face graphite degeneration.

  2. Flow of Steel in Mold Region During Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing-guo; ZHANG Wen-xiao; JIN Jun-ze; J. W. Evans

    2007-01-01

    The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to study the fluid flow phenomena that occurred during continuous casting, using a water model with dimensions of 1 840 mm×280 mm. Two types of solidified shells, i.e., the smooth type and the coarse type, were used to characterize the dendrite in order to simulate different liquid-solid interfacial conditions. The influence of the nozzle angle and the immersion depth of nozzle, as well as the casting speed on the flow behavior was investigated quantitatively. The results were as follows: (1) There are two large recirculations above and below the fluid jet in the mold, respectively, under the smooth interface condition. However, in the case of the dendrite solidified shell, it was found that the flow velocity of the fluid decreased and more smaller vortices appeared in the upper region of the mold. (2) The angle and the immersion depth of nozzle are two important factors affecting the flow pattern, and they are also capable of bringing about the change in the flow direction. (3) The higher the casting speed, the higher are the jet stream and the impacting point on the narrow face. However, the high casting speed causes serious fluctuation of the meniscus, and correspondingly leads to various defects.

  3. Triple Plate Mold Final Report: Optimization of the Mold Design and Casting Parameters for a Thin U-10mo Fuel Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikin, Jr., Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-04

    This work describes the experiments and modeling that have been performed to improve and try to optimize the simultaneous casting of three plates of U-10wt%Mo in a single coil vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace. The plates of interest are 280 mm wide by 203 mm tall by 5 mm thick (11" x 8" x 0.2"). The initial mold design and processing parameters were supplied by Y-12. The mold and casting cavity were instrumented with a number of thermocouples, and the casting performed to determine the thermal history of the mold and casting. The resulting cast plates were radiographed and numerous defects identified. Metallography was performed to help identify the nature of the radiographically observed defects. This information was then used to validate a mold filling and solidification model of that casting. Based on the initial casting, good casting design practice, and process simulation of several design alternatives, a revised design was developed with the goal of minimizing casting defects such as porosity. The redesigned mold had a larger hot-top and had its long axis along the horizontal direction. These changes were to try to develop a strong thermal gradient conducive to good feeding and minimization of micro- and macroporosity in the cast plates. An instrumented casting was then performed with the revised mold design and a linear distributor. This design yielded cast plates with significantly less radiographically identified defects. Unfortunately, there was significant variation in plate weight and metal content in their hot-tops. Fluid flow simulations were then performed on this mold/distributor design. This helped identify the issue with this linear distributor design. Additional simulations were then performed on candidate distributor redesigns and a preferred distributor annular design was identified. This improved annular design was used to produce a third instrumented casting with favorable results. These refined designs and their radiographic

  4. Measurement of casting parameters in ZnAlCu3 molds created by additive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Medić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the parameters of casting ZnAl4Cu3 alloy (volume, castability, density and occupancy of the mold in mold made additive technology. Molds made by additive technology are: cheaper in production of a small number of castings, geometrically more accurate and faster made. From obtained results of this paper it is clearly seen that printed mold must be protected with thermal coating because liquid adhesive of powder otherwise evaporates during casting and creates additional moisture in the mold, as it was noted.

  5. Temperature and Thermal Stress Distribution for Metal Mold in Squeeze Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.H.Chang; G.C.Jang; C.H.Lee; S.H.Lee

    2008-01-01

    In the squeeze casting process, loaded high pressure (over approximately 100 MPa) and high temperature influence the thermo-mechanical behavior and performance of the used metal mold. Therefore, to safely maintain the metal molds, the thermo-mechanical characteristics (temperature and thermal stress) of metal mold in the squeeze casting must be investigated. In this paper, temperature and thermal stress distribution of steel mold in squeeze casting process were investigated by using a three-dimensional non-steady heat conduction analysis and a three-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic analysis considering temperature-dependent thermo- physical and mechanical properties of the steel mold.

  6. Characteristics of shell thickness in a slab continuous casting mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di-feng Wu; Shu-sen Cheng; Zi-jian Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The key to reduce shell breakout in the continuous casting process is to control shell thickness in the mold.A numerical simulation on the turbulent flow and heat transfer coupled with solidification in the slab mold using the volume of fluid (VOF) model and the enthalpy-porosity scheme was conducted and the emphasis was put upon the flow effect on the shell thickness profiles in longitudinal and transverse directions.The results show that the jet acts a stronger impingement on the shell of narrow face,which causes a zero-increase of shell thickness in a certain range near the impingement point.The thinnest shell on the slab cross-section locates primarily in the center of the narrow face,and secondly near the comer of the wide face.Nozzle optimization can obviously increase the shell thickness and make it more uniform.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MOLD TEMPERATURE FIELD IN CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.S. Zheng; M.H. Sha; J.Z. Jin

    2006-01-01

    Mold is the heart of the continuous casting machine. Heat transfer and solidification in a watercooled mold are the most important factors during the continuous casting of steel. For studying the temperature distribution of a mold wall, a simulated apparatus of mold was designed and experiments were performed by it. The measured results indicated that the mold wall temperature approaches the temperature of cooling-water. An equivalent thermal-conductivity coefficient was proposed and deduced on the basis of the conclusion of the experiments. This coefficient was applied to solve the heat transfer between the melt and cooling water, and to characterize the heat transfer capacity of the mold. By this equivalent thermal-conductivity coefficient, it is very easy and convenient to numerically simulate the solidification process of continuous casting. And the calculation results are in agreement with the experiments. The effects of casting speed and water flow rate on the mold temperature field were also discussed.

  8. Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting Mold with a Configured Nozzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王镭; 沈厚发; 柳百成

    2004-01-01

    The influence of a configured nozzle on the turbulent fluid flow in a continuous casting mold was investigated using the simulation program Visual Cast, which used the finite difference method and the SIMPLER algorithm. CAD software was used to construct the complicated nozzle in the calculational region. The simulation accuracy was validated by comparison with the classic driven cavity flow problem. The simulation results agree well with water modeling experiments. The simulations show that the velocity distribution at the nozzle port is uneven and the jet faces downward more than the nozzle outlet. Simulations with a configured nozzle and the inlet velocity at the nozzle entrance give precise results and overcome the traditional difficulty in determining the nozzle outlet velocity.

  9. Mold Simulator Study of the Initial Solidification of Molten Steel in Continuous Casting Mold: Part II. Effects of Mold Oscillation and Mold Level Fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihui; Wang, Wanlin

    2016-04-01

    The surface quality of the continuous casting strands is closely related to the initial solidification of liquid steel in the vicinity of the mold meniscus, and thus the clear understanding of the behavior of molten steel initial solidification would be of great importance for the control of the quality of final slab. With the development of the mold simulator techniques, the complex interrelationship between the solidified shell surface profile, heat flux, shell thickness, mold level fluctuation, and the infiltrated slag film was well illustrated in our previous study. As the second part, this article investigated the effect of the mold oscillation frequency, stroke, and mold level fluctuation on the initial solidification of the molten steel through the conduction of five different experiments. Results suggested that in the case of the stable mold level, the oscillation marks (OMs) exhibit equally spaced horizon depressions on the shell surface, where the heat flux at the meniscus area raises rapidly during negative strip time (NST) period and the presence of each OMs on the shell surface is corresponding to a peak value of the heat flux variation rate. Otherwise, the shell surface is poorly defined by the existence of wave-type defects, such as ripples or deep depressions, and the heat flux variation is irregular during NST period. The rising of the mold level leads to the longer-pitch and deeper OMs formation; conversely, the falling of mold level introduces shorter-pitch and shallower OMs. With the increase of the mold oscillation frequency, the average value of the low-frequency heat flux at the meniscus increases; however, it decreases when the mold oscillation stroke increases. Additionally, the variation amplitude of the high-frequency temperature and the high-frequency heat flux decreases with the increase of the oscillation frequency and the reduction of the oscillation stroke.

  10. Casting defects of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in vertical centrifugal casting processes with graphite molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Limin; Xu, Daming; Li, Min; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2012-02-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental investigation are utilized to analyze the casting defects of Ti-6Al-4V alloy formed under different vertical centrifugal casting conditions in graphite molds. Mold rotating rates of 0, 110 and 210 rpm are considered in experimental process. Results show that centrifugal forces have significant effects on the quantity of both macropores and microdefects (micropores, microcracks and inclusions). The relative amount of all macro- and micro-scopic casting defects decreases from 62.4 % to 24.8 % with the increasing of the centrifugal force, and the macropore quantity in stepped casting decreases exponentially with the increase of the gravitation coefficient. The relative proportions of both micropores and microcracks decrease with the mold-rotating rate increase, but the relative proportion of inclusions increases significantly. Besides this, the mold-filling sequence is proved to be an important factor in casting quality control.

  11. Investigation of the beryllia ceramics molding process by the hot casting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhapbasbaev, U. K.; Ramazanova, G. I.; Sattinova, Z. K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of mathematical simulation of the ceramics molding process by the hot casting method are presented. The mathematical model describes the motion of beryllia liquid thermoplastic slurry in a form-building cavity subject to solidification. Velocity and temperature profiles providing homogeneous properties of the beryllia ceramics in the process of molding by the hot casting method are obtained.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF MOLD ROTATIONAL SPEED ON THE CAST WALL THICKNESS IN THE ROTATIONAL MOLDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jachowicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the rotational molding process. The general principles of this polymer processing technology have been described. The main applications have been introduced and leading advantages and typical disadvantages of rotational molding process have been discussed. Based on the conducted experimental tests, the influence of changing one selected technological parameter, which characterized rotational molding process, on selected geometrical features of the polymer cast has been determined. Rotational mold’s speed around axes was changed and a thickness of cast walls has been measured. Laboratory test stand, processing properties of polymer, also test program and experimental test methodology have been described.

  13. A Review of Mold Flux Development for the Casting of High-Al Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanlin; Lu, Boxun; Xiao, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Mold flux plays key roles during the continuous casting process of molten steel, which accounts for the quality of final slabs. With the development of advanced high strength steels (AHSS), certain amounts of Al have been added into steels that would introduce severe slag/metal interaction problems during process of continuous casting. The reaction is between Al and SiO2 that is the major component in the mold flux system. Intensive efforts have been conducted to optimize the mold flux and a CaO-Al2O3-based mold flux system has been proposed, which shows the potential to be applied for the casting process of AHSS. The latest developments for this new mold flux system were summarized with the aim to offer technical guidance for the design of new generation mold flux system for the casting of AHSS.

  14. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  15. Characterization of Ni–Cr alloys using different casting techniques and molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Teng, Fu-Yuan [Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chun-Cheng [School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-01

    This study differentiated the mechanical properties of nickel–chromium (Ni–Cr) alloys under various casting techniques (different casting molds and casting atmospheres). These techniques were sampled by a sand mold using a centrifugal machine in ambient air (group I) and electromagnetic induction in an automatic argon castimatic casting machine (group II). The specimen casting used a graphite mold by a castimatic casting machine (group III). The characteristics of the Ni–Cr alloys, yield and ultimate tensile strength, bending modulus, microhardness, diffraction phase, grindability, ability to spring back, as well as ground microstructure and pattern under different casting conditions were evaluated. The group III specimens exhibited the highest values in terms of strength, modulus, hardness, and grindability at a grind rate of 500 rpm. Moreover, group III alloys exhibited smaller grain sizes, higher ability to spring back, and greater ductility than those casted by sand investment (groups I and II). The main factor, “casting mold,” significantly influenced all mechanical properties. The graphite mold casting of the Ni–Cr dental alloys in a controlled atmosphere argon casting system provided an excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good ability to spring back, and preserved the ductile properties for application in Ni–Cr porcelain-fused system. The results can offer recommendations to assist a prosthetic technician in selecting the appropriate casting techniques to obtain the desired alloy properties. - Highlights: • Properties of Ni–Cr alloys using various casting techniques are characterized. • Alloys cast by graphite mold exhibited higher recovery angle and more ductility. • Alloys cast by graphite mold exhibited higher strength and grinding rate. • Alloys in this study increase operative room to adjust the precision for prosthesis.

  16. Characterization of Ni-Cr alloys using different casting techniques and molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Teng, Fu-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2014-02-01

    This study differentiated the mechanical properties of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys under various casting techniques (different casting molds and casting atmospheres). These techniques were sampled by a sand mold using a centrifugal machine in ambient air (group I) and electromagnetic induction in an automatic argon castimatic casting machine (group II). The specimen casting used a graphite mold by a castimatic casting machine (group III). The characteristics of the Ni-Cr alloys, yield and ultimate tensile strength, bending modulus, microhardness, diffraction phase, grindability, ability to spring back, as well as ground microstructure and pattern under different casting conditions were evaluated. The group III specimens exhibited the highest values in terms of strength, modulus, hardness, and grindability at a grind rate of 500 rpm. Moreover, group III alloys exhibited smaller grain sizes, higher ability to spring back, and greater ductility than those casted by sand investment (groups I and II). The main factor, "casting mold," significantly influenced all mechanical properties. The graphite mold casting of the Ni-Cr dental alloys in a controlled atmosphere argon casting system provided an excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good ability to spring back, and preserved the ductile properties for application in Ni-Cr porcelain-fused system. The results can offer recommendations to assist a prosthetic technician in selecting the appropriate casting techniques to obtain the desired alloy properties.

  17. Permanent Mold Casting of JIS-AC4C Aluminum Alloy Using a Low-Temperature Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Hiroshi; Nikawa, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Permanent mold casting using mold temperatures below 200° C was conducted to obtain a high-strength, thin-walled casting. Al-7.36 mass% Si -0.18 Cu- 0.27Mg-0.34Fe alloy JIS-AC4C was cast using a bottom pouring cast plan. The product had a rectangular tube shape (70 mm W x 68 mm D x 180 mm H) with wall thicknesses of 1, 3 and 5 mm. The effect of heat insulation at the melt path was compared when using a sand runner insert and when using a steel runner insert as well as a powder mold release agent. Fine microstructures were observed in the casting. The smaller the thickness, the higher the hardness with smaller secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). However, the hardness and the SDAS were unaffected by the mold temperature. It was proposed that the avoidance of the formation of primary α dendrite at the melt path generates a higher strength casting with adequate mold filling.

  18. 40 CFR 63.5810 - What are my options for meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations at new and existing sources? 63.5810 Section... § 63.5810 What are my options for meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting... (d) of this section to meet the standards for open molding or centrifugal casting operations in...

  19. Effect of Carbon Properties on Melting Behavior of Mold Fluxes for Continuous Casting of Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During continuous casting of steel, the properties of mold fluxes strongly affect the casting performance,steel quality and environment of casting operation. The high temperature microscopy technique was used to investigate the melting behaviour of mold fluxes, and drip test method was used to determine their melting rate. The results showed that free carbon is a dominant factor in governing the melting behaviour of fluxes, and the melting rate is increased with increasing carbon reactivity and decreasing carbon content.

  20. Effect of superheat, mold, and casting materials on the metal/mold interfacial heat transfer during solidification in graphite-lined permanent molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Suresha, K. M.

    2004-10-01

    Heat transfer during the solidification of an Al-Cu-Si alloy (LM4) and commercial pure tin in single steel, graphite, and graphite-lined metallic (composite) molds was investigated. Experiments were carried out at three different superheats. In the case of composite molds, the effect of the thickness of the graphite lining and the outer wall on heat transfer was studied. Temperatures at known locations inside the mold and casting were used to solve the Fourier heat conduction equation inversely to yield the casting/mold interfacial heat flux transients. Increased melt superheats and higher thermal conductivity of the mold material led to an increase in the peak heat flux at the metal/mold interface. Factorial experiments indicated that the mold material had a significant effect on the peak heat flux at the 5% level of significance. The ratio of graphite lining to outer steel wall and superheat had a significant effect on the peak heat flux in significance range varying between 5 and 25%. A heat flux model was proposed to estimate the maximum heat flux transients at different superheat levels of 25 to 75 °C for any metal/mold combinations having a thermal diffusivity ratio (α R) varying between 0.25 and 6.96. The heat flow models could be used to estimate interfacial heat flux transients from the thermophysical properties of the mold and cast materials and the melt superheat. Metallographic analysis indicated finer microstructures for castings poured at increased melt superheats and cast in high-thermal diffusivity molds.

  1. ''Heat Transfer at the Mold-Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys'' Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor R. D. Pehlke, Principal Investigator, Dr. John M. Cookson, Dr. Shouwei Hao, Dr. Prasad Krishna, Kevin T. Bilkey

    2001-12-14

    This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting has been conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigation of squeeze casting at CMI-Tech Center (Now Hayes-Lemmerz Technical Center) and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive.

  2. Investigation of Heat Transfer at the Mold/Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Light Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Pehlke; John T. Berry

    2005-12-16

    Accurate modeling of the metal casting process prior to creating a mold design demands reliable knowledge of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the mold metal interface as a function of both time and location. The phenomena concerned with the gap forming between the mold and the solidifying metal are complex but need to be understood before any modeling is attempted. The presence of mold coatings further complicates the situation. A commercial casting was chosen and studied in a gravity permanent mold casting process. The metal/mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) was the focus of the research. A simple, direct method has been used to evaluate the IHTC. Both the simulation and experiments have shown that a reasonably good estimate of the heat transfer coefficient could be made in the case studied. It has been found that there is a good agreement between experiments and simulations in the temperature profiles during the solidification process, given that the primary mechanism of heat transfer across the gap in permanent mold casting of light alloys is by conduction across the gap. The procedure utilized to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient can be applied to other casting processes. A recently completed project involving The University of Michigan and Mississippi State University, together with several industrial partners, which was supported by the USDOE through the Cast Metals Coalition, examined a number of cases of thermal contact. In an investigation which gave special consideration to the techniques of measurement, several mold coatings were employed and results presented as a function of time. Realistic conditions of coating thickness and type together with an appropriate combination of mold preheat and metal pouring temperature were strictly maintained throughout the investigation. Temperature sensors, in particular thermocouples, play an important part in validating the predictions of solidification models. Cooling

  3. Analysis of the origin of periodic oscillatory flow in the continuous casting mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-young; Kim, Yong-tae; Yi, Kyung-woo

    2015-03-01

    It is very important to understand flow patterns within the continuous casting mold because they have a significant impact on product quality. Water model experiment and particle image velocimetry were conducted to identify the fluid flow pattern in the steel slab continuous casting mold. The fluid flow pattern in the mold is not steady but instead an oscillatory flow with a specific oscillation frequencies. Many studies have been reported about oscillatory flow within the mold. However, these studies do not provide a clear explanation of physical origin of oscillatory flow. We identified the physical origins of various specific oscillation frequencies, and confirmed through experimentation and simulation that each frequency is related to the cross flow and injection stream oscillation. Moreover, the degree of oscillation at each frequency appears differently depending on the location within the mold, and is shown to have a effect near the mold wall. These results provide a better understanding of complex oscillatory flow patterns within the mold.

  4. Increasing the life of molds for casting copper and its alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. N.; Spiridonov, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    The work of the molds intended for casting copper and copper alloys in semicontinuous casters for producing flat billets is considered. It is shown that, to increase the resistance of mold plates, the inner space of the mold should have a taper shape toward the casting direction and take into account the shrinkage of the linear dimensions of the ingot during its motion in the mold. The taper shape increases the intensity and uniformity of heat removal due to close contact between the ingot and the mold inner surface. Testing of new design molds under industrial conditions demonstrates that their resistance increases by a factor of 4.0-4.5. The taper effect of the mold plates is much more pronounced in their narrow faces.

  5. Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Dale T. Peters; Stephen P. Midson; Darryl J. Van Son

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.

  6. A study of interfacial heat transfer and process parameters in squeeze casting and low pressure permanent mold casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Prasad

    2001-08-01

    With the emerging demand for energy efficient and environment-friendly automobiles, cast aluminum alloys are increasingly being used in their manufacture. In this context, two permanent mold casting processes, namely, Squeeze Cast Permanent Mold and Low Pressure Permanent Mold (LPPM) have become very popular in the production of high integrity shape-cast aluminum components. However, many industries are yet to benefit from the full potential of these processes due to limited understanding of the effect of process parameters on casting quality and the necessary boundary conditions for computer modeling and simulation so as to minimize costly field trials. This dissertation attempts to address some of these concerns facing today's foundry industry. An experimental investigation of the Indirect Squeeze Casting Process was conducted by pouring molten Al-7Si-0.3Mg (A356) alloy into a specially designed and instrumented mold, mounted on a horizontal clamped-vertical shot squeeze caster (HVSC). Temperature measurements close to the metal/mold interface were made and compared with the results of the numerical simulation of heat flow during solidification and cooling of castings. The Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC), a critical parameter essential for any solidification simulation, was estimated based on the simulation that gave the best fit to the experimental temperature data. During the solidification process, the HTC is relatively uniform over the entire casting and on reaching a critical solidification pressure, the HTC is close to 4500 W/m2 K. The work has also provided a correlation of Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) with cooling rate for a modified A356 alloy. Low Pressure Permanent Mold Casting experiments were conducted by pouring a nearly identical aluminum alloy into an instrumented, coated mold mounted on a low pressure casting machine. The pressure levels, along with the time required to achieve complete filling, were microprocessor controlled in the

  7. 3D scanning based mold correction for planar and cylindrical parts in aluminum die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Seno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum die casting is an important manufacturing process for mechanical components. Die casting is known to be more accurate than other types of casting; however, post-machining is usually necessary to achieve the required accuracy. The goal of this investigation is to develop machining- free aluminum die casting. Improvement of the accuracy of planar and cylindrical parts is expected by correcting metal molds. In the proposed method, the shape of cast aluminum made with the initial metal molds is measured by 3D scanning. The 3D scan data includes information about deformations that occur during casting. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the deformation and correction amounts by comparing 3D scan data with product computer-aided design (CAD data. We corrected planar and cylindrical parts of the CAD data for the mold. In addition, we corrected the planar part of the metal mold using the corrected mold data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by evaluating the accuracy improvement of the cast aluminum made with the corrected mold.

  8. Evaluation of the mold-filling ability of alloy melt in squeeze casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mold-filling ability of alloy melt in squeeze casting process was evaluated by means of the maximum length of Archimedes spiral line. A theoretical evaluating model to predict the maximum filling length was built based on the flowing theory of the incompressible viscous fluid. It was proved by experiments and calculations that the mold-filling pressure and velocity are prominent influencing factors on the mold-filling ability of alloy melt. The mold-filling ability increases with the increase of the mold-filling pressure and the decrease of the proper mold-filling velocity. Moreover, the pouring temperature relatively has less effect on the mold-filling ability under the experimental conditions. The maximum deviation of theoretical calculating values with experimental results is less than 15%. The model can quantitatively estimate the effect of every factor on the mold-filling ability.

  9. Research on the Forming Mechanism of Micro/Nano Features during the Cast Molding Pro cess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangdong Ye; Yugang Duan; Yucheng Ding

    2011-01-01

    Cast molding process has provided a reliable, simple and cost-effective way to fabricate micro structures since decades ago. In order to obtain structures with fine, dense and deep nano-size features by cast molding, it is necessary to study the forming mechanism in the process. In this paper, based on major steps of cast molding, filling models of liquid are established and solved; and the forming mechanism of liquid is revealed. Moreover, the scale effect between the liquid and the cavity on the filling velocity of liquid is studied. It is also interesting to find out that the wettability of liquid on the cavity may be changed from wetting to dewetting depends on the pressure difference. Finally, we experimentally verify some of our modeling results on the flowing and filling state of the liquid during the cast molding process.

  10. Turbulent Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Calculation in Mold Filling and Solidification Processes of Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the time-averaging equations and a modified engineering turbulence model, the mold filling and solidification processes of castings are approximately described. The algorithm for the control equations is briefly introduced, and some problems and improvement methods for the traditional method are also presented. Both calculation and tests proved that, comparing with the laminar fluid flow and heat transfer, the simulation results by using the turbulence model are closer to the real mold filling and solidification processes of castings.

  11. Properties of High Basicity Mold Fluxes for Peritectic Steel Slab Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xiao; HE Sheng-ping; XU Jian-fei; HUO Xu-ling; WANG Qian

    2012-01-01

    In high speed continuous casting of peritectic steel slabs, mold fluxes with high basicity are required for less surface defect product. However, the basicity of remaining liquid slag film tends to decrease in casting process because of the crystallization of 3CaO ·2SiO2 · CaF2. Thus, a way is put forward to improve mold fluxesr properties by raising the original basicity. In order to confirm the possibility of this method, the effect of rising original basicity on the properties of mold fluxes is discussed. Properties of high fluorine based mold fluxes with different basicities and contents of CaF2 , Na2 O, and MgO were measured, respectively. Then, properties of higher basicity mold fluxes were discussed and compared with traditional ones. The results show that increasing the basicity index can improve the melting and flow property of mold fluxes. With the increasing basicity, crystallization rate of mold fluxes increases obviously and crystallization temperature tends to decrease when the basicity exceeds 1.35. The method presen- ted before is proved as a potential way to resolve the contradiction between horizontal heat transfer controlling and solidified shell lubricating for peritectic steel slab casting. But further study on improving the flow property of liquid slag is needed. This work can be used to guide mold fluxes design for high speed continuous casting of peritectic steel slabs.

  12. Mold Simulator Study on the Initial Solidification of Molten Steel Near the Corner of Continuous Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Peisheng; Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Haihui

    2016-11-01

    Corner cracks are one of the most widespread surface defects of continuous casting slabs, and they are especially severe for peritectic steels and low-alloy steels. Therefore, a clear understanding of molten steel initial solidification around mold corner would be of great importance for the inhibition of corner cracks. This paper has been conducted with the aim to elucidate this understanding, by using a novel mold simulator equipped with a right-angle copper mold. The responding temperatures and heat fluxes across the mold hot-face and corner were firstly calculated through a 2D-inverse heat conduction program mathematical model, and the results suggested that the cooling ability and the fluctuation of heat fluxes around the mold corner are stronger than those for mold hot-face. With the help of power spectral density analysis and fast Fourier transformation, the four characteristic signals of heat fluxes were discussed in this paper. Next, the relation between the thickness of solidified shell and solidification time was fitted with the solidification square root law; as a result, the average solidification factor bar{K} for the hot-face shell is 2.32 mm/s1/2, and it is 2.77 mm/s1/2 for the shell near-corner. For the same oscillation marks (OMs), it appeared that the OMs positions on the shell corner are lower than those on the shell hot-face along the casting direction, because the stronger shrinkage of shell at the corner allows the overflowing steel to penetrate deeper into the larger gap between the shell corner and mold, which is demonstrated through the heat transfer analysis and metallographic examination. Finally, the interrelation between shell profile, mold oscillation, variation rate of heat flux, high-frequency heat flux and high-frequency temperature was discussed for above two cases, and the results suggested that meniscus conditions (heat transfer and melt flow) around the mold corner are more unsteady.

  13. Mold Simulator Study on the Initial Solidification of Molten Steel Near the Corner of Continuous Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Peisheng; Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Haihui

    2017-02-01

    Corner cracks are one of the most widespread surface defects of continuous casting slabs, and they are especially severe for peritectic steels and low-alloy steels. Therefore, a clear understanding of molten steel initial solidification around mold corner would be of great importance for the inhibition of corner cracks. This paper has been conducted with the aim to elucidate this understanding, by using a novel mold simulator equipped with a right-angle copper mold. The responding temperatures and heat fluxes across the mold hot-face and corner were firstly calculated through a 2D-inverse heat conduction program mathematical model, and the results suggested that the cooling ability and the fluctuation of heat fluxes around the mold corner are stronger than those for mold hot-face. With the help of power spectral density analysis and fast Fourier transformation, the four characteristic signals of heat fluxes were discussed in this paper. Next, the relation between the thickness of solidified shell and solidification time was fitted with the solidification square root law; as a result, the average solidification factor bar{K} for the hot-face shell is 2.32 mm/s1/2, and it is 2.77 mm/s1/2 for the shell near-corner. For the same oscillation marks (OMs), it appeared that the OMs positions on the shell corner are lower than those on the shell hot-face along the casting direction, because the stronger shrinkage of shell at the corner allows the overflowing steel to penetrate deeper into the larger gap between the shell corner and mold, which is demonstrated through the heat transfer analysis and metallographic examination. Finally, the interrelation between shell profile, mold oscillation, variation rate of heat flux, high-frequency heat flux and high-frequency temperature was discussed for above two cases, and the results suggested that meniscus conditions (heat transfer and melt flow) around the mold corner are more unsteady.

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  15. Optimization design of wide face water slots for medium-thick slab casting mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-lin Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite-element model has been established to investigate the thermal behavior of the medium-thick slab copper casting mold with different cooling water slot designs. The mold wall temperatures measured using thermocouples buried in different positions of the mold with the original designed cooling system were analyzed to determine the corresponding heat flux profile. This profile was then used for simulation to predict the temperature distribution and the thermal stress distribution of the molds. The predicted temperatures during operation matched the plant measurements. The results showed that the maximum temperature, about 635 K in the wide hot surface, was found about 60 mm below the meniscus and 226 mm from the center of the mold. For the mold with the type I modified design, there was an insignificant decrease in temperature of about 5 K, and for the mold with the type II modified design, the maximum temperature was decreased by about 15 K and the temperature of the hot surface was distributed more uniformly along the length of the mold. The corresponding maximum thermal stress at the hot surface of the mold was reduced from 408 MPa to 386 MPa with the type II modified design. The results indicated that the modified design II is beneficial to the increase of mold life and the quality of casting slabs.

  16. STUDY ON NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MOLD-FILLING AND SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES OF SHAPED CASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The latest progress on the study of numerical simulation of mold-filling and solidification process of shaped casting is reviewed. In mold-filling process simulation of castings, the SOLA-VOF algorithmis is improved in efficient free surface treatment and turbulence consideration, and parallel computational techniques are implemented to accelerate the fluid flow calculation time as well. Methods for predication of shrinkage defects of steel castings and S.G. iron castings are developed based on the solidification simulation. In order to reduce the residual stress and deformation of castings, a combined FDM/FEM method is implemented for the modelling of stresses. Numerical models for the simulation of micro-structure and prediction of mechanical properties of S.G. iron are developed. The verifications and applications of the simulation software show that the models and techniques adopted in current research work are efficient and appropriate for the numerical simulation of shaped castings.

  17. Surface Crystallization in Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass during Copper Mold Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The localized crystallization of Mg54Cu28Ag7Y11 bulk metallic glass (BMG in the injection casting process using a copper mold was investigated. It has been found that several crystalline phases were formed close to the as-cast surface but did not exist in the internal part of the BMG plate. It is abnormal that the as-cast surface is partially crystallized with higher cooling rate than that of inside. Overheating of the melt and nucleation induced by the surface of copper mold play key roles in the abnormal crystallization. It is suggested that the function of copper mold to trigger heterogeneous nucleation cannot be totally ignored, although it provides the high cooling rate for the glass formation during casting.

  18. Improvement of Castability and Surface Quality of Continuously Cast TWIP Slabs by Molten Mold Flux Feeding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wook; Yoo, Shin; Park, Min-Seok; Park, Joong-Kil; Moon, Ki-Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    An innovative continuous casting process named POCAST (POSCO's advanced CASting Technology) was developed based on molten mold flux feeding technology to improve both the productivity and the surface quality of cast slabs. In this process, molten mold flux is fed into the casting mold to enhance the thermal insulation of the meniscus and, hence, the lubrication between the solidifying steel shell and the copper mold. Enhancement of both the castability and the surface quality of high-aluminum advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) slabs is one of the most important advantages when the new process has been applied into the commercial continuous casting process. A trial cast of TWIP steel has been carried out using a 10-ton scale pilot caster and 100-ton scale and 250-ton scale commercial casters. The amount of mold flux consumption was more than 0.2 kg/m2 in the new process, which is much larger than that in the conventional powder casting. Trial TWIP castings at both the pilot and the plant caster showed stable mold performances such as mold heat transfer. Also, cast slabs showed periodic/sound oscillation marks and little defects. The successful casting of TWIP steel has been attributed to the following characteristics of POCAST: dilution of the reactant by increasing the slag pool depth, enlargement of channel for slag film infiltration at meniscus by elimination of the slag bear, and decrease of apparent viscosity of the mold slag at meniscus by increasing the slag temperature.

  19. Improvement of Castability and Surface Quality of Continuously Cast TWIP Slabs by Molten Mold Flux Feeding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wook; Yoo, Shin; Park, Min-Seok; Park, Joong-Kil; Moon, Ki-Hyeon

    2017-02-01

    An innovative continuous casting process named POCAST (POSCO's advanced CASting Technology) was developed based on molten mold flux feeding technology to improve both the productivity and the surface quality of cast slabs. In this process, molten mold flux is fed into the casting mold to enhance the thermal insulation of the meniscus and, hence, the lubrication between the solidifying steel shell and the copper mold. Enhancement of both the castability and the surface quality of high-aluminum advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) slabs is one of the most important advantages when the new process has been applied into the commercial continuous casting process. A trial cast of TWIP steel has been carried out using a 10-ton scale pilot caster and 100-ton scale and 250-ton scale commercial casters. The amount of mold flux consumption was more than 0.2 kg/m2 in the new process, which is much larger than that in the conventional powder casting. Trial TWIP castings at both the pilot and the plant caster showed stable mold performances such as mold heat transfer. Also, cast slabs showed periodic/sound oscillation marks and little defects. The successful casting of TWIP steel has been attributed to the following characteristics of POCAST: dilution of the reactant by increasing the slag pool depth, enlargement of channel for slag film infiltration at meniscus by elimination of the slag bear, and decrease of apparent viscosity of the mold slag at meniscus by increasing the slag temperature.

  20. Analysis of emissions collected from four types of iron casting molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W G; James, R H; Moorman, W J

    1985-12-01

    The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related compounds, phenols and particulates were determined in emissions collected from iron casting molds composed of four different types of chemical binders: furan, urethane, green sand with sea coal and phenol-formaldehyde resins in shell molds. The shell sample, with 50% particulates, contained the most water-soluble material; green sand, 25% particulates; furan, 10% particulates; and urethane, less than 2% particulate material. The portion of the particulate fraction soluble in cyclohexane varies from 16 to 36% between mold types; emissions from urethane and furan molds contained the lowest quantities of cyclohexane-soluble components and of PAH and related compounds. Phenol, which was found in all four foundry samples, was present in the highest concentration in emissions from urethane molds. Shell mold emissions contained the highest levels of 2- and 4-nitrophenol.

  1. The Effect of Dewaxing and Burnout Temperature in Block Mold Process for Copper Alloy Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Mohd Nor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of dewaxing and burnout temperature on the quality of copper alloy casting produced by a low cost block mold that has been developed. In the molding process, two types of silica sand which contains 97.9% silica (SiO2 and 97.2% silica have been used as a refractory material with POP served as a binder. Several mold formulations contained 15-40% plaster of paris (POP, 60-85% silica sand and 35% water had been developed and each formulation had been tested in the process of copper alloy casting. In the dewaxing process, the temperature of 170oC was found appropriate to be used as an initial mold heating temperature and complete wax burnout was effectively achieved with the temperature of 750oC for 5 hours. The insufficient burnout process has produced a defect casting with carbon residue, appeared as a black stain on the surface of the casting. Meanwhile, rapid initial heating had prevented the wax from flowing out smoothly thus, eroded the surface of the mold cavities. This has resulted in deteriorated cavity surface, hence a rough surface of the casting.

  2. Application of digital pattern-less molding technology to produce art casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li1

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the conventional casting process, digital pattern-less casting technology has many advantages such as good machining accuracy, a short processing cycle, and low production cost. It is a new rapid manufacturing technology for castings, integrated with CAD/CAM, casting, CNC machining and many other advanced technologies. With this digital casting technology, no pattern is needed for making molds; it is precise, flexible, and green. Usually, art castings have complex structures and are made in small batches or even made in a single-piece, especially for large-sized art castings. So it has the shortcomings of high cost, low efficiency and long time for making a pattern to produce art castings with the conventional casting processes. However, the digital pattern-less casting technology can be applied to fabricate art castings, since it can greatly shorten the manufacturing cycle and lower the production cost, thus having a very good prospect. In this study, based on the digital pattern-less casting technology, a plaque casting with artistic Chinese characters (a Chinese poem was designed and manufactured, and the production process was demonstrated in detail.

  3. Study on Numerical Simulation of Mold Filling and HeatTransfer in Die Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A 3-D mathematical model considering turbulence phenomena has been established basedon a computational fluid dynamics technique, so called 3-D SOLA-VOF (Solution Algorithm-Volume of Fluid), to simulate the fluid flow of mold filling process of die casting. In addition, the mathematical model for simulating the heat transfer in die casting process has also been established.The computation program has been developed by the authors with the finite difference method (FDM) recently. As verification, the mold filling process of a S-shaped die casting has been simulated and the simulation results coincide with that of the benchmark test. Finally, as a practical application, the gating design of a motorcycle component was modified by the mold filling simulation and the dies design of another motorcycle component was optimized by theheat transfer simulation. All the optimized designs were verified by the production practice.

  4. Effect of Mold Coating Materials and Thickness on Heat Transfer in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaiid, A.; Dargusch, M. S.; Davidson, C. J.; Tovar, S.; Loulou, T.; Rezaï-Aria, F.; Dour, G.

    2007-06-01

    In permanent mold casting or gravity die casting (GDC) of aluminum alloys, die coating at the casting-mold interface is the most important single factor controlling heat transfer and, hence, it has the greatest influence on the solidification rate and development of microstructure. This investigation studies the influence of coating thickness, coating composition, and alloy composition on the heat transfer at the casting-mold interface. Both graphite and TiO2-based coatings have been investigated. Two aluminum alloys have been investigated: Al-7Si-0.3Mg and Al-9Si-3Cu. Thermal histories throughout the die wall have been recorded by fine type-K thermocouples. From these measurements, die surface temperatures and heat flux density have been evaluated using an inverse method. Casting surface temperature was measured by infrared pyrometry, and the interfacial heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) has been determined using these combined pieces of information. While the alloy is liquid, the coating material has only a weak influence over heat flow and the thermal contact resistance seems to be governed more by coating porosity and thickness. The HTC decreases as the coating thickness increases. However, as solidification takes place and the HTC decreases, the HTC of graphite coating remains higher than that of ceramic coatings of similar thickness. After the formation of an air gap at the interface, the effect of coating material vanishes. The peak values of HTC and the heat flux density are larger for Al-7Si-0.3Mg than for Al-9Si-3Cu. Consequently, the apparent solidification time of Al-9Si-3Cu is larger than that of Al-7Si-0.3Mg and it increases with coating thickness.

  5. Novel Approach for Modeling of Nonuniform Slag Layers and Air Gap in Continuous Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Kong, Lingwei; Yao, Man; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-02-01

    Various kinds of surface defects on the continuous casting slab usually originate from nonuniform heat transfer and mechanical behavior, especially during the initial solidification inside the mold. In this article, a model-coupled inverse heat transfer problem incorporating the effect of slag layers and air gap is developed to study the nonuniform distribution of liquid slag, solid slag, and air gap layers. The model considers not only the formation and evolution of slag layers and air gap but also the temperatures in the mold copper as measured by thermocouples. The simulation results from the model and the measured temperatures from experiments are shown to be in good agreement with each other. At the casting speed of 0.65 m/min, the liquid slag film disappears and transforms into solid slag entirely at about 400 mm away from meniscus, and an air gap begins to form. Until the mold exit, the maximum thickness of the solid slag layer and air gap gradually increases to 1.34 and 0.056 mm, respectively. The results illustrate that the magnitude and nonuniform distribution of the slag layers and air gap along the cross direction, correlating with heat flux between the shell and mold, eventually determine the temperature profiles of the mold hot face and slab surface. The proposed model may provide a convenient approach for analyzing nonuniform heat transfer and mechanical behaviors between the mold and slab in the real casting process.

  6. LATTICE BGK MODEL SIMULATION OF ASYMMETRIC FLOW INSIDE A CONTINUOUS SLAB CASTING MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-jun; SHEN Hou-fa

    2006-01-01

    The incompressible lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of computational fluid dynamics, from which the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations can be exactly derived with the limit of small Mach number, was established in continuous casting mold. An asymmetric flow pattern in the two-dimensional central plane of continuous slab casting mold was simulated, and the flow pattern is not stationary but changes over frequently if the Reynolds number is larger than 3000 or so. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with previous experimental results.

  7. Simulation of the aluminum alloy A356 solidification cast in cylindrical permanent molds

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model based on the control volume method with fixed mesh was selected in order to simulate the solidification of cylindrical castings poured in permanent steel mold. The latent heat was incorporated using the effective specific heat. The application of the model allowed us to obtain the solidification front and the temperature fields at any time from the pouring. The mold was made of the SAE 1010 steel. Two mold temperatures were evaluated: 25°C and 300°C. The mathematical mode...

  8. Mold Simulator Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon During the Initial Solidification in Continuous Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihui; Wang, Wanlin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, mold simulator trials were firstly carried out to study the phenomena of the initial shell solidification of molten steel and the heat transfer across the initial shell to the infiltrated mold/shell slag film and mold. Second, a one-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem for solidification (1DITPS) was built to determine the temperature distribution and the heat transfer behavior through the solidifying shell from the measured shell thickness. Third, the mold wall temperature field was recovered by a 2DIHCP mathematical model from the measured in-mold wall temperatures. Finally, coupled with the measured slag film thickness and the calculations of 1DITPS and 2DIHCP, the thermal resistance and the thickness of liquid slag film in the vicinity of the meniscus were evaluated. The experiment results show that: the total mold/shell thermal resistance, the mold/slag interfacial thermal resistance, the liquid film thermal resistance, and the solid film thermal resistance is 8.0 to 14.9 × 10-4, 2.7 to 4.8 × 10-4, 1.5 to 4.6 × 10-4, and 3.9 to 6.8 × 10-4 m2 K/W, respectively. The percentage of mold/slag interfacial thermal resistance, liquid film thermal resistance, and solid film thermal resistance over the total mold/shell thermal resistance is 27.5 to 34.4, 17.2 to 34.0, and 38.5 to 48.8 pct, respectively. The ratio of radiation heat flux is around 14.1 to 51.9 pct in the liquid slag film.

  9. Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient at the Metal-Mold Interface During Centrifugal Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Santiago; Martorano, Marcelo A.; Heringer, Romulo; Boccalini, Mário

    2015-05-01

    The heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface ( h MM) has been determined for the first time during the centrifugal casting of a Fe-C alloy tube using the inverse solution method. To apply this method, a centrifugal casting experiment was carried out to measure cooling curves within the tube wall under a mold rotation speed of 900 rpm, imposing a centrifugal force 106 times as large as the gravity force (106 G). As part of the solution method, a comprehensive heat transfer model of the centrifugal casting was also developed and coupled to an optimization algorithm. Finally, the evolution of h MM with time that gives the minimum squared error between measured and calculated cooling curves was obtained. The determined h MM is approximately 870 W m-2 K-1 immediately after melt pouring, decreasing to about 50 W m-2 K-1 when the average temperature of the tube is ~973 K (700 °C), after the end of solidification. Despite the existence of a centrifugal force that could enhance the metal-mold contact, these values are lower than those generally reported for static molds with or without an insulating coating at the mold inner surface. The implemented model shows that the heat loss by radiation is dominant over that by convection at the tube inner surface, causing the formation of a solidification front that meets another front coming from the outer surface of the tube.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF DIE-CASTING MOLDING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuzmich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main details of foundry equipment are developed. Analysis of the process of filling and hardening of casting “Transducer case” is carried out on the basis of methods of mathematic modeling of foundry processes.

  11. Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

    2005-08-30

    In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

  12. Foundry technology and its applications of ductile iron castings produced by water-cooled copper alloy mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The high efficiency mechanized foundry technology of castings produced by using water-cooled copper alloy permanent mold has been systematically studied. Through the researching a Cu-Cr-Mg alloy with high conductivity and good combined mechanical properties used for making permanent mold was developed, and the basic design principles of the water-cooled permanent mold along with the control-range of relevant foundry processing parameters were also established.A cast production line equipped with water-cooled copper alloy mold was designed and fabricated for production of ductile iron automobile gear castings. This production line can consistently make automobile gear castings in QT500-15 and QT600-5 (Chinese Standard) grades of ductile iron with up to 95 % casting success rate.

  13. Control of Crystal Morphology for Mold Flux During High-Aluminum AHSS Continuous Casting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUO, Jing; SEO, Myung-Duk; SHI, Cheng-Bin; CHO, Jung-Wook; KIM, Seon-Hyo

    2016-08-01

    In the present manuscript, the efforts to control the crystal morphology are carried out aiming at improving the lubrication of lime-alumina-based mold flux for casting advanced high-strength steel with high aluminum. Jackson α factors for crystals of melt crystallization in multi-component mold fluxes are established and reasonably evaluated by applying thermodynamic databases to understand the crystal morphology control both in lime-alumina-based and lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The results show that Jackson α factor and supercooling are the most critical factors to determine the crystal morphology in a mold flux. Crystals precipitating in mold fluxes appear with different morphologies due to their different Jackson α factors and are likely to be more faceted with higher Jackson α factor. In addition, there is a critical supercooling degree for crystal morphology dendritic transition. When the supercooling over the critical value, the crystals transform from faceted shape to dendritic ones in morphology as the kinetic roughening occurs. Typically, the critical supercooling degrees for cuspidine dendritic transition in the lime-silica-based mold fluxes are evaluated to be between 0.05 and 0.06. Finally, addition of a small amount of Li2O in the mold flux can increase the Jackson α factor and decrease the supercooling for cuspidine precipitation; thus, it is favorable to enhance a faceted cuspidine crystal.

  14. Monitoring of solidification in the continuous casting mold by temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszko, René; Příhoda, Miroslav; Čarnogurská, Mária

    2016-06-01

    Defects of continuously cast strand, such as unevenness of shell thickness or cracks as well as unstable casting parameters result in changes of strand surface temperature which affect heat flux and temperature field in the mold wall. Methods based on the principle of measurement and mathematical processing of temperatures in the mold wall are used for the purposes of diagnostics of the shell formation process, prediction of surface and subsurface quality and breakout danger, adjustment of the casting axis or condition monitoring of the oscillating mechanism. Measured values of temperatures in the wall depend on the exact position of the sensor in the wall, especially in the normal direction to the mold working surface. Ensuring the accurate and constant distance between the sensor and the mold surface is technically demanding; therefore it is necessary to correct the measured temperatures mathematically. The article describes two methods for correcting the measured temperatures, based on physical and statistical principles that have been developed and used in a real diagnostics system. Practical applications of the methods for diagnostics of strand surface quality and breakout prediction are presented.

  15. Effect of Different Molding Materials on the Thin-Walled Compacted Graphite Iron Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górny, Marcin; Dańko, Rafał; Lelito, Janusz; Kawalec, Magdalena; Sikora, Gabriela

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses the effects of six mold materials used for obtaining thin-walled compacted graphite iron castings with a wall thickness of 3 mm. During this research, the following materials were analyzed: fine silica sand, coarse silica sand, cerabeads, molohite and also insulated materials in the shape of microspheres, including low-density alumina/silica ceramic sand. Granulometric and SEM observations indicate that the sand matrix used in these studies differs in terms of size, homogeneity and shape. This study shows that molds made with insulating sands (microspheres) possess both: thermal conductivity and material mold ability to absorb heat, on average to be more than five times lower compared to those of silica sand. In addition to that, the resultant peak of heat transfer coefficient at the mold/metal interface for microspheres is more than four times lower in comparison with fine silica sand. This is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cooling rate of metal in the mold cavity which promotes the development of compacted graphite in thin-walled castings as well as ferrite fractions in their microstructure.

  16. Application of heat pipe technology in permanent mold casting of nonferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalem, Kaled

    The issue of mold cooling is one, which presents a foundry with a dilemma. On the one hand; the use of air for cooling is safe and practical, however, it is not very effective and high cost. On the other hand, water-cooling can be very effective but it raises serious concerns about safety, especially with a metal such as magnesium. An alternative option that is being developed at McGill University uses heat pipe technology to carry out the cooling. The experimental program consisted of designing a permanent mold to produce AZ91E magnesium alloy and A356 aluminum alloy castings with shrinkage defects. Heat pipes were then used to reduce these defects. The heat pipes used in this work are novel and are patent pending. They are referred to as McGill Heat Pipes. Computer modeling was used extensively in designing the mold and the heat pipes. Final designs for the mold and the heat pipes were chosen based on the modeling results. Laboratory tests of the heat pipe were performed before conducting the actual experimental plan. The laboratory testing results verified the excellent performance of the heat pipes as anticipated by the model. An industrial mold made of H13 tool steel was constructed to cast nonferrous alloys. The heat pipes were installed and initial testing and actual industrial trials were conducted. This is the first time where a McGill heat pipe was used in an industrial permanent mold casting process for nonferrous alloys. The effects of cooling using heat pipes on AZ91E and A356 were evaluated using computer modeling and experimental trials. Microstructural analyses were conducted to measure the secondary dendrite arm spacing, SDAS, and the grain size to evaluate the cooling effects on the castings. The modeling and the experimental results agreed quite well. The metallurgical differences between AZ91E and A356 were investigated using modeling and experimental results. Selected results from modeling, laboratory and industrial trials are presented. The

  17. Self-supported ceramic substrates with directional porosity by mold freeze casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurauskis, Jonas; Graves, Christopher R.; Moreno, R.

    2016-01-01

    Manufacture of thin-film ceramic substrates with high permeability and robustness is of high technological interest. In this work thin (green state thickness ∼500 μm) porous yttria-stabilized zirconia self-supported substrates were fabricated by pouring stable colloidal aqueous suspensions...... in a mold and applying directional freeze casting. Use of optimized suspension, cryoprotector additive and mold proved to deliver defect free ceramic films with high dimensional control. Microstructure analysis demonstrated the formation of desirable aligned porosity at macro-structural scale and resulted...

  18. The effect of interface heat transfer on solidification, microstructure evolution, and mold wear in permanent mold casting of titanium-aluminum-vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobryn, Pamela Astra

    Recently, a permanent mold casting approach for titanium alloys (Ti PMC) was developed. This process generated a lot of interest in the titanium casting industry due to its potential to decrease cost and improve mechanical properties. However, little research has been conducted in this area. Hence, the research described in this dissertation was performed to augment and complement prior work on Ti PMC. The current research dealt with the development of computer simulation capabilities for predicting characteristics of solidification, microstructure evolution, and mold wear for Ti PMC. It focused on the effect of interface heat transfer on ProCASTTM simulation results. A combination of physical and numerical experiments were used to determine interface heat transfer coefficients for Ti PMC, the sensitivity of FEM results to input parameters, and the validity of using the chosen modeling approach and input parameters to simulate various casting geometries. Laboratory and in-plant casting trials were conducted to obtain casting data. Thermocouple data were compared to simulation results to determine interface heat transfer coefficients for "shrink off" and "shrink on" geometries. Both a conventional thermocouple technique and a novel microstructure-based mold temperature signature analysis technique were used to determine mold temperatures for model validation. The validated models were used as a starting point for the application of two microstructure prediction techniques (solidification mapping and the parabolic grain growth law) and the study of mold wear causes and mechanisms. The importance of properly accounting for the casting-mold interface contact condition was stressed throughout. The results demonstrated the importance of considering the casting-mold interface geometry when selecting interface heat transfer coefficients for casting simulations, as the coefficient varied from an initial value of 2000 W/m2-K to less than 50 W/m2-K in the "shrink off" case

  19. Numerical simulation on inclusion transport in continuous casting mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifeng Zhang; Brian G. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent flow, the transport of inclusions and bubbles, and inclusion removal by fluid flow transport and by bubble flotation in the strand of the continuous slab caster are investigated using computational models, and validated through comparison with plant measurements of inclusions. Steady 3-D flow of steel in the liquid pool in the mold and upper strand is simulated with a finitedifference computational model using the standard k-ε turbulence model. Trajectories of inclusions and bubbles are calculated by integrating each local velocity, considering its drag and buoyancy forces. A "random walk" model is used to incorporate the effect of turbulent fluctuations on the particle motion. The attachment probability of inclusions on a bubble surface is investigated based on fundamental fluid flow simulations, incorporating the turbulent inclusion trajectory and sliding time of each individual inclusion along the bubble surface as a function of particle and bubble size. The change in inclusion distribution due to removal by bubble transport in the mold is calculated based on the computed attachment probability of inclusions on each bubble and the computed path length of the bubbles. The results indicate that 6%-10% inclusions are removed by fluid flow transport, 10% by bubble flotation, and 4% by entrapment to the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) walls. Smaller bubbles and larger inclusions have larger attachment probabilities. Smaller bubbles are more efficient for inclusion removal by bubble flotation, so long as they are not entrapped in the solidifying shell. A larger gas flow rate favors inclusion removal by bubble flotation. The optimum bubble size should be 2-4 mm.

  20. Mathematical Model of Fluid Flow and Solidification in Mold Region of Continuous Slab Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭利坚; 沈厚发; 柳百成

    2003-01-01

    To simulate the phenomena in the mold region of continuous casting by coupling fluid flow and solidification, a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developedbased on the K-ε turbulence equations and the SIMPLER algorithm. A pseudo source term was introduced into the energy equation to account for the latent heat and kinetic energy. The fluid flow in the mushy zone was calculated by defining the fluid viscosity as a function of the solid fraction in the mushy zone. Fine meshes in the solid region improve convergence and reduce iteration time. Comparison of the fluid flow and temperature distribution with and without solidification shows that although the solid shell in the mold is thin, it still greatly affects the flow pattern. The numerical results obtained provide details of the fluid flow and solidification phenomena which can be used to optimize the nozzle structure and other process parameters in continuous casting.

  1. Numerical simulation for permanent mold centrifugal cast TiAl exhaust valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Wen-bin; LI Dong

    2005-01-01

    The filling and solidification in centrifugal field, as well as the forming mechanism of off-center porosities were summarized, based on the mathematical model established for the centrifugal cast TiAl exhaust valves.The calculated results show that the centrifugal field results in the phenomenon that the flow in the valve cavity consists of forward flow and backward flow. The unsymmetrical initial temperature field causes continuous unsymmetrical variation in the following solidification, which makes the final solidified region depart from the cavity axis and then leads to the occurrence of off-center porosity. A series of optimized parameters, including the entrance velocity of 0.6 - 1.3 m/s, the rotation speed higher than 300 r/min, 80 mm or longer entrance length and 400 ℃ or higher preheated temperature of the mold, are suggested for the manufacture of permanent mold centrifugal cast TiAl exhaust valves.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of 3-D Electromagnetic Field in Bloom Continuous Casting Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu-dong; YANG Xiao-dong; ZHU Miao-yong; CHEN Yong; YANG Su-bo

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element model of electromagnetic stirrer was built to predict magnetic field in a bloom continuous casting mold for steel during operation. The effects of current intensity, current frequency, and mold copper plate thickness on the magnetic field distribution in the mold were investigated. The results show that the magnetic induction intensity increases linearly with the increase in current intensity and decreases with the increase in current frequency. Increasing current intensity and frequency is available in increasing the electromagnetic force. The Joule heat decreases gradually from surface to center of bloom, and a maximum Joule heat can be found on corner of bloom. The prediction of magnetic induction intensity is in good agreement with the measured values.

  3. Investigating on casting mold (or core making with coated sand by the selected laser sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitian FAN

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a special coated sand as the material of the selected laser sintering (SLS, the authors test and nvestigate the strength change of the test samples in terms of different sintering parameters (scanning speed, laser power, sintering thickness, and so on. The characteristics of coate sand hardening by laser beam are analyzed. The sitered mold (or core for given casting is poured with molten metal.

  4. Solidification Structure of Continuous Casting Large Round Billets under Mold Electromagnetic Stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao SUN; Feng YUE; Hua-jie WU; Chun GUO; Ying LI; Zhong-cun MA

    2016-01-01

    The solidification structure of a continuous casting large round billet was analyzed by a cellular-automaton-finite-element coupling model using the ProCAST software.The actual and simulated solidification structures were compared under mold electromagnetic stirring (MEMS)conditions (current of 300 A and frequency of 3 Hz).There-after,the solidification structures of the large round billet were investigated under different superheats,casting speeds,and secondary cooling intensities.Finally,the effect of the MEMS current on the solidification structures was obtained under fixed superheat,casting speed,secondary cooling intensity,and MEMS frequency.The model accurately simulated the actual solidification structures of any steel,regardless of its size and the parameters used in the continuous casting process.The ratio of the central equiaxed grain zone was found to increase with decreasing su-perheat,increasing casting speed,decreasing secondary cooling intensity,and increasing MEMS current.The grain size obviously decreased with decreasing superheat and increasing MEMS current but was less sensitive to the casting speed and secondary cooling intensity.

  5. Transient Asymmetric Flow and Bubble Transport Inside a Slab Continuous-Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa

    2014-04-01

    A one third scale water model experiment was conducted to observe the asymmetric flow and vortexing flow inside a slab continuous-casting mold. Dye-injection experiment was used to show the evolution of the transient flow pattern in the liquid pool without and with gas injection. The spread of the dye was not symmetric about the central plane. The flow pattern inside the mold was not stationary. The black sesames were injected into water to visualize the vortexing flow pattern on the top surface. The changes of shape and location of single vortex and two vortices with time had been observed during experiments. Plant ultrasonic testing (UT) of slabs was used to analyze the slab defects distribution, which indicated that the defects are intermittent and asymmetric. A mathematical model has been developed to analyze the time-dependent flow using the realistic geometries, which includes the submerged entry nozzle (SEN), actual mold, and part of the secondary cooling zone. The transient turbulent flow of molten steel inside the mold has been simulated using the large eddy simulation computational approach. Simulation results agree acceptably well with the water model experimentally observed and plant UT results. The oscillating motions of jet and the turbulence naturally promote the asymmetric flow even without the effects of slide gate nozzle or the existence of clogs inside the SEN. The periodic behavior of transient fluid flow in the mold is identified and characterized. The vortexing flow is resulted from asymmetric flow in the liquid pool. The vortices are located at the low-velocity side adjacent to the SEN, and the positions and sizes are different. Finally, the model is applied to investigate the influence of bubble size and casting speed on the time-dependent bubble distribution and removal fraction from the top surface inside the mold.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INGOT MOLD COOLING ON THE STRUCTURE OF SILUMINA CASTINGS AK15M3 AT VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stecenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of ways of the mold cooling on structure of castings with diameter of 135 mm from AK15M3 silumin at vertical centrifugal casting is investigated. It is established that for production of castings with diameter 135 mm from AK15M3 silumin with high mechanical and tribotechnical properties it is necessary to apply a shaped mould with water-spray cooling at expense of cooler of 0,42 m3/h.

  7. Development of Aerogel Molds for Metal Casting Using Lunar and Martian Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years NASA has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable long-term presence on the Moon and Mars. Among these key technologies is what is known as in situ resource utilization, which defines all conceivable usage of mineral, liquid, gaseous, or biological resources on a visited planet. In response to this challenge, we have been focusing on developing and demonstrating the manufacturing of a specific product using Lunar and Martian soil simulants (i.e., a mold for the casting of metal and alloy parts) which will be an indispensable tool for the survival of outposts on the Moon and Mars. In addition, our purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of using mesoporous materials such as aerogels to serve as efficient casting molds for high quality components in propulsion and other aerospace applications. The first part of the project consists of producing aerogels from the in situ resources available in Martian and Lunar soil. The approach we are investigating is to use chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents at low temperatures and then use these as precursors in the formation of aerogels for the fabrication of metal casting molds. One set of experiments consists of dissolving silica sources in basic ethylene glycol solution to form silicon glycolates. When ground silica aerogel was used as source material, a clear solution of silicon glycolate was obtained and reacted to form a gel thus proving the feasibility of this approach. The application of this process to Lunar and Martian simulants did not result in the formation of a gel; further study is in progress. In the second method acidified alcohol is reacted with the simulants to form silicate esters. Preliminary results indicate the presence of silicon alkoxide in the product distillation. However, no gel has been obtained so further characterization is ongoing. In the second part of the project, the focus has been on developing a

  8. Solidification in Soft-Contact Continuous Casting Mold with Alternating Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional coupled mathematical model for steel flow and solidification in a soft-contact EMC (Electro-Magnetic Casting) mold was developed. Non-staggered grid system with BFC (Body Fitted Coordinate) for the steel flow and solidification considering the complex geometry of the electromagnetic mold and the irregular meniscus shape of the melt were used. This mathematical model was applied to investigate the steel flow and solidification, and the effect of electromagnetic parameters on steel solidification in a 100 mm×100 mm square billet soft-contact mold. Numerical results showed that the electromagnetic induction heat mainly affects the distribution of steel temperature at upper part of EMC mold especially in the vicinity of meniscus. Consequently the steel temperature near the free surface is increased distinctly, and the hot-top condition is formed at the top of mold. It was clearly seen that the solidification start point shifts downward under the three-phase point by applying alternative electromagnetic field. As a result, the initial shell thickness gets thinner and the shell length shorter.

  9. Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

    2006-05-01

    The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions.

  10. Preparation and characterization of porous Si3N4 ceramics prepared by compression molding and slip casting methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Fangli; Wang Huanrui; Bai Yu; Yang Jianfeng

    2010-10-01

    Porous silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics were fabricated by compression molding and slip casting methods using petroleum coke as pore forming agent, and Y2O3–Al2O3 as sintering additives. Microstructure, mechanical properties and gas permeability of porous Si3N4 ceramics were investigated. The mechanical properties and microstructure of porous Si3N4 ceramics prepared by compression molding were better than those which were prepared by slip casting method, whereas slip casting method is suitable for the preparation of porous Si3N4 ceramics with higher porosity and excellent gas permeability.

  11. Casting dimensional control and fatigue life prediction for permanent mold casting dies. Technical progress report, September 29, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    First year efforts as part of a three year program to address metal casting dimensional control and fatigue life prediction for permanent mold casting dies are described. Procedures have been developed and implemented to collect dimensional variability data from production steel castings. The influence of process variation and casting geometry variables on dimensional tolerances have been investigated. Preliminary results have shown that these factors have a significant influence on dimensional variability, although this variability is considerably less than the variability indicated in current tolerance standards. Gage repeatability and reproducibility testing must precede dimensional studies to insure that measurement system errors are acceptably small. Also initial efforts leading to the development and validation of a CAD/CAE model to predict the thermal fatigue life of permanent molds for aluminum castings are described. An appropriate thermomechanical property database for metal, mold and coating materials has been constructed. A finite element model has been developed to simulate the mold temperature distribution during repeated casting cycles. Initial validation trials have indicated the validity of the temperature distribution model developed.

  12. Numerical simulation of mold-filling capability for a thin- walled aluminum die casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Subasic, E.; Jakumeit, J.

    2015-06-01

    Mold-filling capability is an important property of casting materials. Especially in thin-walled die casting, fast cooling of the melt by contact to the die makes complete filling difficult to ensure. Simulation is an important tool enabling investigation of filling problems, even before the die is manufactured. However, the prediction of misruns is challenging. Flow and solidification have to be computed as closely coupled. The effects of surface tension, the wetting angle and reduced melt flow due to solidification must be modeled with high precision. To meet these requirements, a finite-volume method using arbitrary polyhedral control volumes is used to solve flow and solidification as closely coupled. The Volume-of-Fluid approach is used to capture the phase separation between gas, melt and solid in connection with a High-Resolution Interface-Capturing scheme to obtain sharp interfaces between phases. To model the resistance of the dendrite network to the melt flow, an additional source term in the momentum equation was implemented. The Bolt test was performed for A356 alloys at a range of different casting temperatures. Numerical prediction of incomplete filling in the bottleneck regions agreed well with experimental findings using 3D camera scanning. The simulation enables derivation of the dependence of critical wall-thickness, i.e. the thickness which is fillable, on casting temperature and metallostatic pressure. This could prove useful in predicting filling problems ahead of casting.

  13. Simulation of fluid flow induced by opposing ac magnetic fields in a continuous casting mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.C.; Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Beitelman, L. [J. Mulcahy Enterprises, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    A numerical simulation was performed for a novel electromagnetic stirring system employing two rotating magnetic fields. The system controls stirring flow in the meniscus region of a continuous casting mold independently from the stirring induced within the remaining volume of the mold by a main electromagnetic stirrer (M-EMS). This control is achieved by applying to the meniscus region an auxiliary electromagnetic field whose direction of rotation is opposite to that of the main magnetic field produced by the M-EMS. The model computes values and spatial distributions of electromagnetic parameters and fluid flow in the stirred pools of mercury in cylindrical and square geometries. Also predicted are the relationships between electromagnetics and fluid flows pertinent to a dynamic equilibrium of the opposing stirring swirls in the meniscus region. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from experiments with mercury pools.

  14. Effects of Mold Temperature and Pouring Temperature on the Hot Tearing of Cast Al-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shimin; Sadayappan, Kumar; Apelian, Diran

    2016-10-01

    The effects of mold temperature and pouring temperature on hot tearing formation and contraction behavior of a modified Al-Cu alloy 206 (M206) have been studied. The experiments were conducted using a newly developed Constrained Rod Mold, which simultaneously measures the contraction force/time/temperature during solidification for the restrained casting or linear contraction/time/temperature for a relaxed casting. Three mold temperatures [473 K, 573 K, and 643 K (200 °C, 300 °C, and 370 °C)] and three pouring temperatures [superheat of 50 K, 100 K, and 150 K (50 °C, 100 °C, and 150 °C)] were studied, and alloy A356 was used as reference for comparison. The results confirm that alloy A356 has high resistance to hot tearing. Hot tearing did not occur for the three mold temperatures evaluated, whereas alloy M206 exhibited significant hot tearing for the same casting and mold temperature conditions. Hot tearing severity and linear contraction in alloy 206 decreased significantly with increasing mold temperature. Increasing pouring temperature increases hot tearing in alloy M206, but the effect is not as significant as that of mold temperature. The results and underlying mechanism of these effects are discussed in correlation with the thermomechanical properties and microstructures.

  15. Modeling and verification of the nonlinear system of oscillation platform of continuous casting mold driven by servo motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The driving mode by servo motor is a new driving mode and can realize oscillations of continuous casting mold as expected. The oscillation system of continuous casting mold driven by servo motor is a complicated nonlinear system. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an accurate model for the system before performing simulation experiments. Based on the oscillation platform system of continuous casting mold driven by servo motor in the laboratory, the nonlinear models of servo motor speed system and mechanical transmission parts were respectively established and the viscous friction coefficient, moment of inertia, and load torque were identified. Then, the nonlinear mathematical model of the whole oscillation platform of continuous casting mold driven by servo motor was obtained. The comparison results between the simulated output curves of established model and the measured output curves of actual system under the same input signals indicated that the simulated curves were almost in accord with the measured curves. Therefore, the proposed model can reflect the capabilities of practical system and lay a good foundation for subsequent research on simulation experiments and accurate control of continuous casting mold oscillation driven by servo motor.

  16. Evaluation of the Inertness of Investment Casting Molds Using Both Sessile Drop and Centrifugal Casting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu; Yuan, Chen; Green, Nick; Withey, Paul

    2013-02-01

    The investment casting process is an economic production method for engineering components in TiAl-based alloys and offers the benefits of a near net-shaped component with a good surface finish. An investigation was undertaken to develop three new face coat systems based on yttria, but with better sintering properties. These face coat systems were mainly based on an yttria-alumina-zirconia system (Y2O3-0.5 wt pct Al2O3-0.5 wt pct ZrO2), an yttria-fluoride system (Y2O3-0.15 wt pct YF3), and an yttria-boride system (Y2O3-0.15 wt pct B2O3). After sintering, the chemical inertness of the face coat was first tested and analyzed using a sessile drop test through the metal wetting behavioral change for each face coat surface. Then, the interactions between the shell and metal were studied by centrifugal investment casting TiAl bars. Although the sintering aids in yttria can decrease the chemical inertness of the face coat, the thickness of the interaction layer in the casting was less than 10 μm; therefore, these face coats still can be possible face coat materials for investment casting TiAl alloys.

  17. Hot-tearing of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys based on casting load measurements in a constrained permanent mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Mirmiran, Seyed [Fiat Chrysler Automobiles North America; Glaspie, Christopher [Fiat Chrysler Automobiles North America; Li, Shimin [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), MA; Apelian, Diran [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), MA; Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Rodriguez, Andres [Nemak, Garza Garcia, N.L., Mexico

    2017-01-01

    Hot-tearing is a major casting defect that is often difficult to characterize, especially for multicomponent Al alloys used for cylinder head castings. The susceptibility of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys to hot-tearing during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and displacement was measured. The experimental results for hot tearing susceptibility are compared with those obtained from a hot-tearing criterion based temperature range evaluated at fraction solids of 0.87 and 0.94. The Cu composition was varied from approximately 5 to 8 pct. (weight). Casting experiments were conducted without grain refining. The measured load during casting can be used to indicate the severity of hot tearing. However, when small hot-tears are present, the load variation cannot be used to detect and assess hot-tearing susceptibility.

  18. Intelligent design of investment casting mold based on a hybrid reasoning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Ruisong; Zhang Dinghua; Wang Wenhu; Bu Kun

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid reasoning model was proposed in which CBR (case-based reasoning) was applied to the conceptual design and RBR (rule-based reasoning) was applied to the detailed design after research of the design process and domain knowledge of the acre-engine turbine blade investment casting mold design field. In the conceptual design stage, the representation and retrieval technologies were researched which improve the retrieval efficiency. Meanwhile, RBR was used to modify the retrieval result. The experimentation shows that the approach in this study can be used to obtain a more satisfactory design result.

  19. A Combined Experimental and Computational Approach for the Design of Mold Topography that Leads to Desired Ingot Surface and Microstructure in Aluminum Casting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Zabaras, N.J.; Samanta, D.; Tan, L.

    2005-10-30

    A design methodology will be developed with which casting mold surface topographies can be tuned to produce required surface features and micro-structural properties of Aluminum ingots. Both static and continuous casting processes will be examined with instrumented molds. Mold surface topographies, which consist of unidirectional and bi-directional groove textures, will be generated using contact and non-contact techniques to elicit a radiator-like effect at the mold-casting interface. The rate of heat extraction, the evolution of near-surface cast microstructure, and shell macro-morphology can be controlled once the proper balance between mold surface area extension and the degree of imperfect wetting at the instant solidification starts is determined. Once this control is achieved, it will be possible to minimize or even eliminate costly post-casting surface milling or scalping which is currently a major barrier to the development of new Aluminum casting processes.

  20. Designing a combined casting mold for manufacture of a gasoline centrifugal pump body using CAD/CAM-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galin, N. E.; Ogol, I. I.; Chervach, Yu B.; Dammer, V. Kh; Ru, Jia Hong

    2017-02-01

    The present paper examines designing of a combined casting mold for manufacture of a gasoline centrifugal pump body. The paper offers technological solutions for obtaining high quality castings at the testing stage of the finished mold. The paper is intended for practical use and prepared by order of JSC ‘Tomsk Electrical Engineering Plant’ using software and equipment of the department ‘Technologies of Computer-Aided Machinery Manufacturing’ of the Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) under the economic contract within state import substitution program. In preparing the paper, CAD/CAM-systems KOMPAS-3D and PowerMILL were used. In 2015, the designed casting mold was introduced into the production process at JSC ‘Tomsk Electrical Engineering Plant’.

  1. Preparation of helicopter rotor counterbalance component by means of permanent-mold casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-jing; ZUO Feng; REN Shan-zhi; LI Feng-zhen

    2007-01-01

    Copper alloy was adopted to prepare helicopter rotor counterbalance component by means of permanent-mold casting. Process parameters were determined on the basis of theory calculation and computer numerical simulation. Through controlling mould temperature, pouring temperature and speed, the defects, such as gas cavity, shrinkage porosity, cold shut, can be effectively avoided. The results show that the best process parameters for smelting are as follows: pouring temperature is 1 100 ℃, pouring time is 14 s and opened mould time is 6 min. Mixture of 90% charcoal powder and 10% fluorite were selected as covering agent and 0.01% phosphorus copper acts as oxidizer. The density of rotor counterbalance component after casting in permanent-mold is 99.91% of its theory density. Mechanical properties are as follows: σb=315 MPa, σ0.2=143 MPa, δ=25%, HB=950. The mass deviation is between -5 g and +5 g, the curved surface distortion is less than 0.20 mm, and the largest tolerance of sectional thickness can be controlled between -0.10 mm and +0.10 mm.

  2. Characteristics of mold filling and entrainment of oxide film in low pressure casting of A356 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Jia, Yan-Dong; Ning, Zhi-Liang; Sun, Jian-Fei, E-mail: jfsun_hit@263.net

    2015-02-25

    The effect of pressurizing speed of low pressure casting on mold filling and mechanical properties of A356 alloy was studied. The mold filling behavior was calculated by two phase flow model using VOF (Volume of Fluid) method. In order to evaluate the accuracy of simulated results, the real mold filling process observed by X-ray radiography was compared. The results show that during mold filling the gate velocity first increased dramatically, then kept unchanged under relatively low pressurizing speed, or increased slowly under relatively high pressurizing speed. High gate velocity causes melt falling back under gravity with high speed. The falling velocity and the resultant relative rotating vortex are the main causes of oxide film entrainment in low pressure casting. The mechanical properties of the as-cast A356 alloy were measured by four-point bend test. Weibull probability plots were used to assess the fracture mechanisms under different pressurizing speeds. The results obtained in this paper illuminate on designing suitable pressurizing speed for mold filling in low pressure casting.

  3. Shrinkage Behaviour of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron in Green and Dry Sand Molds for the Benchmarking of Solidification Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of metallurgical and processing parameters on the formation of shrinkage cavities and porosities in spheroidal graphite cast iron have been studied, considering the parameters of carbon equivalent, inoculation, casting modulus, mold type (green or dry) and pouring temperature within specific ranges of these variables. Based on the orthogonal experiments, the metallurgical and processing parameters of the minimum casting shrinkage and the maximum casting shrinkage were obtained, and the effects of metallurgical and processing parameters on the formation of shrinkage cavities and porosities in spheroidal graphite cast iron castings were discussed. Finally,two regression equations relating these variables to the formation of shrinkage porosity were derived based upon the orthogonal experiments conducted.

  4. Mensuration and simulation of mold filling process in semi-solid die-cast of aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yi-tao; WANG Jian-fu; ZHANG Heng-hua; SHAO Guang-jie

    2006-01-01

    To understand the flow trace of semi-solid slurry in mold cavity, some thermocouples were inserted in mold cavity, and the reaction timing of thermocouples showed the arrival of fluid. The filling time and rate were estimated by comparison between the experiment and calculation. The introduction of computer simulation technique based on ADSTEFAN was to predict injectionforming process and to prevent defects during trial manufacture of various parts. By comparing the formed appearance of parts in experiment and in simulation, and observing the relationship between internal defects inspected by X-ray or microscope and the flow field obtained in simulation, it was indicated that both have quite good agreement in simulation and experiment. Right predictions for cast defects resulted from mold filling can be carried out and proper direction was also proposed. The realization of numerical visualization for filling process during semi-solid die-cast process will play an important role in optimizing technology plan.

  5. Flow and thermal behavior of the top surface flux/powder layers in continuous casting molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, R. M.; Thomas, B. G.

    1996-08-01

    Steady-state finite-element models have been formulated to investigate the coupled fluid flow and thermal behavior of the top-surface flux layers in continuous casting of steel slabs. The three-dimensional (3-D) FIDAP model includes the shear stresses imposed on the flux/steel interface by flow velocities calculated in the molten steel pool. It also includes different temperature-dependent powder properties for solidification and melting. Good agreement between the 3-D model and experimental measurements was obtained. The shear forces, imposed by the steel surface motion toward the submerged entry nozzle (SEN), create a large recirculation zone in the liquid flux pool. Its depth increases with increasing casting speed, increasing liquid flux conductivity, and decreasing flux viscosity. For typical conditions, this zone contains almost 4 kg of flux, which contributes to an average residence time of about 2 minutes. Additionally, because the shear forces produced by the narrowface consumption and the steel flow oppose each other, the flow in the liquid flux layer separates at a location centered 200 mm from the narrowface wall. This flow separation depletes the liquid flux pool at this location and may contribute to generically poor feeding of the mold-strand gap there. As a further consequence, a relatively cold spot develops at the wideface mold wall near the separation point. This nonuniformity in the temperature distribution may result in nonuniform heat removal, and possibly nonuniform initial shell growth in the meniscus region along the wideface off-corner region. In this way, potential steel quality problems may be linked to flow in the liquid flux pool.

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of Transient Flow, Solidification, and Particle Transport Processes in Continuous-Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa

    2014-07-01

    The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.

  7. Effect of a Magnetic Field on Turbulent Flow in Continuous Casting Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik; Vanka, Pratap; Thomas, Brian G.

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic Braking (EMBr) fields are applied to control the turbulent mold flow for defect reduction in continuous steel casting. The effect of EMBr depends on the path of induced electric current which is modified by presence of the highly conducting solidifying shell. The mold geometry is complex involving flow in a high-aspect ratio closed channel with bifurcated jet impinging obliquely on the side walls. The extremely transient nature and the anisotropic behavior of turbulence under the EMBr field make numerical studies challenging. We use large eddy simulations to study effects of EMBr with electrically insulating and conducting boundary conditions. Magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved using a fractional step method with second order spatial and temporal accuracy. The electric potential method is used as magnetic Reynolds number is low for liquid metal flows. The solver was first validated with measurements from scaled GaInSn model and simulations were then performed to study real casters at industrial conditions. Time averaged and transient behaviors of the flow were studied by collecting distributions of mean velocities, turbulent fluctuations and vorticity. The simulations reveal that the electrical boundary conditions have a major effect on the flow structure. National Science Foundation Grant CMMI 11-30882.

  8. Optimization of a Permanent Step Mold Design for Mg Alloy Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timelli, Giulio; Capuzzi, Stefano; Bonollo, Franco

    2015-02-01

    The design of a permanent Step mold for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of light alloys has been reviewed. An optimized Step die with a different runner and gating systems is proposed to minimize the amount of casting defects. Numerical simulations have been performed to study the filling and solidification behavior of an AM60B alloy to predict the turbulence of the melt and the microshrinkage formation. The results reveal how a correct design of the trap in the runners prevents the backwave of molten metal, which could eventually reverse out and enter the die cavity. The tapered runner in the optimized die configuration gently leads the molten metal to the ingate, avoiding turbulence and producing a balanced die cavity filling. The connection between the runner system and the die cavity by means of a fan ingate produces a laminar filling in contrast with a finger-type ingate. Solidification defects such as shrinkage-induced microporosity, numerically predicted through a dimensionless version of the Niyama criterion, are considerably reduced in the optimized permanent Step mold.

  9. Transient Simulation of Mold Heat Transfer and Solidification Phenomena of Continuous Casting of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive model of heat transfer and solidification phenomena has been developed including microstructure evolution and fluctuation macrosegregation in continuously cast steel slabs with an objective of evaluation of various mold cooling conditions. The study contains plant trials, metallographic examinations, and formulation of mathematical modeling. The plant trials involved sample collection from three slab casters in use at two different steel plants. The metallographic study combined measurements of dendrite arm spacings and macrosegregation analysis of collected samples. A one-dimensional mathematical model has been developed to characterize the thermal, solidification phases, microstructure evolution, interdendritic strain, and therefore, the macrosegregation distributions. Two cooling approaches were proposed in this study to evaluate the Newtonian heat transfer coefficient in various mold regions. The first approach is a direct estimation approach (DEA), whereas the second one is a coupled approach of the interfacial resistor model and direct estimation approach (CIR/DEA). The model predictions and standard analytical models as well as the previous measurements were compared to verify and to calibrate the model where good agreements were obtained. The comparison between the model predictions and the measurements of dendrite arm spacings and fluctuated carbon concentration profiles were performed to determine the model accuracy level with different cooling approaches. Good agreements were obtained by different accuracy levels with different cooling approaches. The model predictions of thermal parameters and isotherms were analyzed and discussed.

  10. O on the Crystallization Behavior of Lime-Alumina-Based Mold Flux for Casting High-Al Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Boxun; Chen, Kun; Wang, Wanlin; Jiang, Binbin

    2014-08-01

    With the development of advanced high strength steel (AHSS), a large amount of aluminum was added into steels. The reaction between aluminum in the molten steel and silica based mold flux in the continuous-casting process would tend to cause a series of problems and influence the quality of slabs. To solve the above problems caused by the slag-steel reaction, nonreactive lime-alumina-based mold flux system has been proposed. In this article, the effect of Li2O and Na2O on the crystallization behavior of the lime-alumina-silica-based mold flux has been studied by using the single hot thermocouple technology (SHTT) and double hot thermocouple technology (DHTT). The results indicated that Li2O and Na2O in the above mold flux system play different roles as they behaved in traditional lime-silica based mold flux, which would tend to inhibit general mold flux crystallization by lowering the initial crystallization temperature and increasing incubation time, especially in the high-temperature region. However, when their content exceeds a critical value, the crystallization process of mold fluxes in low temperature zone would be greatly accelerated by the new phase formation of LiAlO2 and Na x Al y Si z O4 crystals, respectively. The crystalline phases precipitated in all samples during the experiments are discussed in the article.

  11. Mold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-02

    This podcast answers a listener's question about the risks associated with mold after a natural disaster or severe weather.  Created: 5/2/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  12. Determination of interface heat-transfer coefficients for permanent-mold casting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobryn, P. A.; Semiatin, S. L.

    2001-08-01

    Interface heat-transfer coefficients ( h 0) for permanent-mold casting (PMC) of Ti-6Al-4V were established as a function of casting surface temperature using a calibration-curve technique. Because mold geometry has a strong effect on h 0, values were determined for both of the two limiting interface types, “shrink-off” and “shrink-on.” For this purpose, casting experiments with instrumented molds were performed for cylinder- and pipe-shaped castings. The measured temperature transients were used in conjunction with two-dimensional (2-D) axisymmetric finite-element method (FEM) simulations to determine h 0( T). For the shrink-off interface type, h 0 was found to decrease linearly from 2000 to 1500 W/m2 K between the liquidus and the solidus, from 1500 to 325 W/m2 K between the solidus and the gap-formation temperature, and at a rate of 0.3 W/m2 K/K thereafter. For the shrink-on interface type, h 0 was found to increase linearly from 2000 to 2500 W/m2 K between the liquidus and the solidus temperatures, from 2500 to 5000 W/m2 K between the solidus and the gap-formation temperature, and to remain constant thereafter. The shrink-on values were up to 100 times the shrink-off values, indicating the importance of accounting for the interface geometry in FEM simulations of this process. The FEM-predicted casting and mold temperatures were found to be insensitive to certain changes in the h 0 values and sensitive to others. A comparison to published h 0 values for PMC of aluminum alloys showed some similarities and some differences.

  13. Comparison of different Methods to model Transient Turbulent Magnetohydrodynamic Flow in Continuous Casting Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, C.; Asad, A.; Schwarze, R.

    2016-07-01

    Modeling of the processes in the continuous casting mold engaged many scientists once the computer-technology was able to accomplish that task. Despite that, CFD modeling of the fluid flow is still challenging. The methods allow deeper and deeper inside views into transient flow processes. Mostly two kinds of methods are applied for this purpose. URANS simulations are used for a coarse overview of the transient behavior on scales determined by the big rollers inside the mold. Besides, LES were done to study the processes on smaller scales. Unfortunately, the effort to set up a LES is orders of magnitude higher in time and space compared to URANS. Often, the flow determining processes take place in small areas inside the flow domain. Hence, scale resolving methods (SRS) came up, which resolve the turbulence in some amount in these regions, whereas they go back to URANS in the regions of less importance. It becomes more complex when dealing with magnetic fields in terms of EMBr devices. The impact of electro magnetically forces changes the flow structure remarkably. Many important effects occur, e.g. MHD turbulence, which are attributable to processes on large turbulent scales. To understand the underlying phenomena in detail, SRS allows a good inside view by resolving these processes partially. This study compares two of these methods, namely the Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS) and the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES), with respect to rendition of the results known from experiments and URANS simulation. The results show, that the SAS as well as the DDES are able to deliver good results with higher mesh resolutions in important regions in the flow domain

  14. CASTING OF DETAILS OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROME CAST IRONS FOR CHROMIC MILLS IN COMBINED MOLDS AND CHILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Baranovskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative wear resistance of chrome cast irons of eutectic composition is determined in laboratory and industry conditions. Complex alloyed eutectic cast iron with increased wear resistance and mechanical characteristics is developed.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Shell Formation in Thin Slab Casting of Funnel-Type Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, A.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.; Tang, Y.; Hackl, G.; Nitzl, G.

    2014-06-01

    The key issue for modeling thin slab casting (TSC) process is to consider the evolution of the solid shell including fully solidified strand and partially solidified dendritic mushy zone, which strongly interacts with the turbulent flow and in the meantime is subject to continuous deformation due to the funnel-type mold. Here an enthalpy-based mixture solidification model that considers turbulent flow [Prescott and Incropera, ASME HTD, 1994, vol. 280, pp. 59-69] is employed and further enhanced by including the motion of the solidifying and deforming solid shell. The motion of the solid phase is calculated with an incompressible rigid viscoplastic model on the basis of an assumed moving boundary velocity condition. In the first part, a 2D benchmark is simulated to mimic the solidification and motion of the solid shell. The importance of numerical treatment of the advection of latent heat in the deforming solid shell (mushy zone) is specially addressed, and some interesting phenomena of interaction between the turbulent flow and the growing mushy zone are presented. In the second part, an example of 3D TSC is presented to demonstrate the model suitability. Finally, techniques for the improvement of calculation accuracy and computation efficiency as well as experimental evaluations are also discussed.

  16. Characterization of Microstructure of Permanent Mold Cast Zinc Alloy ZA27

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ti-jun; LI Yuan-dong; HAO Yuan

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure of permanent mold cast zinc alloy ZA27 was examined by SEM and TEM after natural aging for 18 months. It was found that the primary α' phase, peritectic and eutectic β phases all decomposed into the equilibrium well-formed α+η lamellae or irregular α+η structure through cellular reaction. The cell colonies nucleated on the interdendritic eutectic η layer and grew into the primary dendrites, thus first making the β phase in the dendrite edges decompose, and then the α' phase in the dendrite cores. The products from the α' phase appeared in regular lamellae rather than irregular particles. In addition, a fine, dense transitional phase α'm containing 27.8 mass% Al, with a fcc crystal structure and lattice parameter of about 0.4013nm, formed in α lamellae. Copper was preferentially concentrated in Zn-rich η phase and existed in the form of Cu-rich ε phase (CuZr4) particles, with hcp crystal structure and parameters a=0.274nm,c=0.429nm and c/a=1.567.

  17. Based on database and asp.net technologies, a web platform of scientific data in the casting forces on the mold-fi lling behavior of titanium melts in vertically rotating molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Daming

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vertical centrifugal-casting technique is widely used in the manufacture of various irregularlyshaped castings of advanced structural alloys with thin walls, complex shapes and/or large sizes. These castings are used in the increasing applications in aero-space/aviation industries, human teeth/bone repairs with nearnet shaped components, etc. In a vertically rotating casting system, the mold-filling processes of alloy melts, coupled with solidifi cation-heat transfer, may be much more complicated, because they are driven simultaneously by gravity, centrifugal and Coriolis forces. In the present work, an N-S/VOF-equations-based model, solved using a SOLA-VOF algorithm, under a rotating coordinate system was applied to numerically investigate the impacts of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on metallic melt mold-fi lling processes in different vertical centrifugal-casting configurations with different mold-rotation rates using an authors’ computer-codes system. The computational results show that the Coriolis force may cause remarkable variations in the fl ow patterns in the casting-part-cavities of a large horizontal-section area and directly connected to the sprue via a short ingate in a vertical centrifugalcasting process. A “turn-back” mold-filling technique, which only takes advantage of the centrifugal force in a transient rotating melt system, has been confi rmed to be a rational centrifugal-casting process in order to achieve smooth and layer-by-layer casting-cavities-fi lling control. The simulated mold-fi lling processes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy melt, in a vertical centrifugal-casting system with horizontally-connected plate-casting cavities, show reasonable agreement with experimental results from the literature.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of Transient Flow and Inclusions Transport in Continuous Casting Mold under Different Electromagnetic Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan

    2016-08-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to analyze transient fluid flow and inclusions transport in a slab continuous casting mold, considering the effects of electromagnetic brake (EMBr) arrangement and magnetic field strength. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated by using the large eddy simulation. The electromagnetic force is incorporated into the Navier-Stokes equation. The transport of inclusion inside the mold is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern and inclusion transport inside the mold exhibits satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. With electromagnetic brake effect, the velocities around the braking region are significantly suppressed, and the recirculating flow in the lower part drops and tends to develop a plug-like flow. The EMBr arrangement has an insignificant effect on the overall removal fraction of inclusions, especially for larger inclusions. The inclusion removal rate for the flow-control mold (FCM arrangement) reduces instead compared with no EMBr, especially for smaller inclusions.

  19. A Combined Experimental and Computational Approach for the Design of Mold Topography that Leads to Desired Ingot Surface and Microstructure in Aluminum Casting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Zabaras, N.; Tan, L.

    2005-07-12

    A thermomechanical study of the effects of mold topography on the solidification of Aluminum alloys at early times is provided. The various coupling mechanisms between the solid-shell and mold deformation and heat transfer at the mold/solid-shell interface during the early stages of Aluminum solidification on molds with uneven topographies are investigated. The air-gap nucleation time, the stress evolution and the solid-shell growth pattern are examined for different mold topographies to illustrate the potential control of Aluminum cast surface morphologies during the early stages of solidification using proper design of mold topographies. The unstable shell growth pattern in the early solidification stages results mainly from the unevenness of the heat flux between the solid-shell and the mold surface. This heat flux is determined by the size of the air-gaps formed between the solidifying shell and mold surface or from the value of the contact pressure. Simulation results show that a sinusoidal mold surface with a smaller wavelength leads to nucleation of air-gaps at earlier times. In addition, the unevenness in the solid-shell growth pattern decreases faster for a smaller wavelength. Such studies can be used to tune mold surfaces for the control of cast surface morphologies.

  20. Rapid prototyping of a complex model for the manufacture of plaster molds for slip casting ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. C. Velazco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer assisted designing (CAD is well known for several decades and employed for ceramic manufacturing almost since the beginning, but usually employed in the first part of the projectual ideation processes, neither in the prototyping nor in the manufacturing stages. The rapid prototyping machines, also known as 3D printers, have the capacity to produce in a few hours real pieces using plastic materials of high resistance, with great precision and similarity with respect to the original, based on unprecedented digital models produced by means of modeling with specific design software or from the digitalization of existing parts using the so-called 3D scanners. The main objective of the work is to develop the methodology used in the entire process of building a part in ceramics from the interrelationship between traditional techniques and new technologies for the manufacture of prototypes. And to take advantage of the benefits that allow us this new reproduction technology. The experience was based on the generation of a complex piece, in digital format, which served as the model. A regular 15 cm icosahedron presented features complex enough not to advise the production of the model by means of the traditional techniques of ceramics (manual or mechanical. From this digital model, a plaster mold was made in the traditional way in order to slip cast clay based slurries, freely dried in air and fired and glazed in the traditional way. This experience has shown the working hypothesis and opens up the possibility of new lines of work to academic and technological levels that will be explored in the near future. This technology provides a wide range of options to address the formal aspect of a part to be performed for the field of design, architecture, industrial design, the traditional pottery, ceramic art, etc., which allow you to amplify the formal possibilities, save time and therefore costs when drafting the necessary and appropriate matrixes

  1. A New Direct-Pour In-Mold (DPI) Technology for Producing Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron Castings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Hitchings; Jay R. Hitchings

    2007-07-20

    A new "Direct Pour In-Mold" (DPI) Magnesium treatment technology has been developed that can produce both Nodular and Compacted Graphite iron. The DPI technology converts the standard horizontal runner system into a vertical one, by placing a Magnesium Ferrosilicon treatment alloy and molten metal filter into a specially designed container. The DPI container is easily placed into either vertically or horizontally parted molds, and then a base metal can be poured directly into it. The metal is treated and filtered as it passes through, and then proceeds directly into a runner or casting cavity. Various sizes of containers provide all of the necessary components required to deliver a range of weights of treated and filtered metal at accurate and consistent flow rates. The DPI containers provide energy savings over competing techniques, increased mold yields, very high Magnesium recovery, zero Magnesium fume, and no post inoculation is required. By treating the metal just prior to it entering a casting cavity many other benefits and advantages are also realized.

  2. 铸造合型用封箱条的研制%Research of Sealing Strip Used for Cast Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新杰; 张东梅; 张冰冰; 曹晨

    2012-01-01

    通过对粘结剂、耐火粉料、纤维物及生产工艺的筛选及研究,研制出一种铸造合型用封箱条.实际使用表明,所研制的产品适用于铸型合型时分型面的粘合密封,起到阻止铁液从合型面的缝隙中流出的作用,避免铸件飞边或是造成安全隐患.产品具有高粘性、高耐火度、良好可塑性及存放稳定性,且无污染,具有其他同类产品无可比拟的优点,能满足实际生产的要求.%Studying binder,fire-resistant powder,fibers and production technology, a kind of sealing strip for cast mold was developed. According to the factual application results, this product is suitable for sealing of dividing plane when casting mold combined, preventing outflow of molten iron from the gap of combining plane, avoiding the edge fin of castings. It has remarkable characteristics such as high viscosity, high refractoriness, good plasticity and stability, non-pollution. Compared with other sealing strip, the product has an unparalleled advantage and distinct characteristics, can meet the requirement of practical production.

  3. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Annual project status report for the period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, S.W.

    1998-09-30

    In the first year of this three-year project, substantial progress has been achieved. This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting is being conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigations of squeeze casting and semi-solid casting at CMI-Tech Center, and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive. U-M did an initial geometry which was defined for ProCAST to solve, and then a geometry half the size was defined and solved using the same boundary conditions. A conceptual mold geometry was examined and is represented as an axisymmetric element.Furthermore, the influences of the localized heat transfer coefficients on the casting process were carefully studied. The HTC Evaluator has been proposed and initially developed by the U-M team. The Reference and the Database Modules of the HTC Evaluator have been developed, and extensively tested. A series of technical barriers have been cited and potential solutions have been surveyed. At the CMI-Tech Center, the Kistler direct cavity pressure measurement system has been purchased and tested. The calibrations has been evaluated. The probe is capable of sensing a light finger pressure. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The first experiment is scheduled for October 14, 1998. The geometry of the experimental hockey-puck casting has been given to the U-M team for numerical analysis.

  4. Influence of submerged entry nozzle clogging on the behavior of molten steel in continuously cast slab molds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The influence of submerged entry nozzle clogging on the behavior of molten steel in continuously cast slab molds was studied using commercial code CFX4.3. The results indicate that clogging at the top part of the nozzle port not only increases the velocity of molten steel, but also enhances the wall shear stress, F number and heat flux. This clogging has the greatest effect on the behavior of molten steel. However, clogging at the top 1/3 of the nozzle only increases the velocity of molten steel and has little influence. Clogging at the bottom of the nozzle almost has no influence.

  5. Effect of Al2O3 on the Crystallization of Mold Flux for Casting High Al Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-06-01

    In order to lower the weight of automotive bodies for better fuel-efficiency and occupant safety, the demand for high Al-containing advanced high strength steel, such as transformation-induced plasticity and twinning-induced plasticity steel, is increasing. However, high aluminum content in steels would tend to significantly affect the properties of mold flux during the continuous casting process. In this paper, a kinetic study of the effect of Al2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of mold flux was conducted by using the single hot thermocouple technique and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model combined with the Arrhenius Equation. The results suggested that Al2O3 behaves as an amphoteric oxide in the crystallization process of mold flux. The precipitated phases of mold flux change from cuspidine (Ca4Si2O7F2) into nepheline (NaAlSiO4) and CaF2, and then into gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) with the increase of Al2O3 content. The kinetics study of the isothermal crystallization process indicated that the effective crystallization rate ( k) and Avrami exponent ( n) also first increased and then decreased with the increase of Al2O3 content. The values for the crystallization activation energy of mold flux with different Al2O3 contents were E R0.8A7 = 150.76 ± 17.89 kJ/mol, E R0.8A20 = 136.43 ± 6.48 kJ/mol, E R0.8A30 = 108.63 ± 12.25 kJ/mol and E R0.8A40 = 116.15 ± 8.17 kJ/mol.

  6. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hochanadel, P.W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  7. [Flow of molten metal in denture base in horizontal centrifugal casting procedure. (Part 2) Flow, inflow volume and casting time of molten metal passing through several sprues into model denture plate mold (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, H

    1978-10-01

    Two types of spruing methods were used in the casting of the denture type model pattern (thickness, 0.43 mm). Flow of molten metal in the mold was filmed by the improved system of Part 1. When three sprues were attached to the pattern vertically, molten metal passed through each sprue gate flowed being affected by the direction of gravity and revolution of casting machine, and gathered at the lower part of the mold. Next molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part. In this spruing type, molten metal turned its direction of flow several times. At the middle stage of casting, the inflow volume per unit time (inflow rate), v (mm3/10-2)s)was evaluated as v = 12.36 + 5.16A-0.16 A2 (A: total cross-sectional areas of sprues). The inflow rate increased with increase of the area of the sprues, but it saturated. When the main sprue and the subsprues were attached at the posterior border, the molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part quietly. In this spruing type, the casting mold was set facing its sprue gates downwards. The inflow rate at the middle stage of casting was evaluated as v = 21.05 + 1.79 C (C: the cross-sectional area of the main sprue). The inflow rate increased linearly with increase of the area of the main sprue.

  8. Study of the effect of solidification on graphite flakes microstructure and mechanical properties of an ASTM a-48 gray cast iron using steel molds

    OpenAIRE

    Ganwarich Pluphrach

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of heat conduction is a widely used technique for control of metallurgical process and solidified eutecticalloy investigation. The objectives of this research are studies about the effect of solidification on graphite flakes microstructureand mechanical properties of an ASTM A-48 gray cast iron using SKD 11 tool steel, S45C medium carbon steel andSS400 hot-rolled steel molds. These three steel molds are important for heat conduction and different from other works. Thisanalysis in...

  9. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HOMOGENIZATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD IN SOFT-CONTACT CONTINUOUS CASTING MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Y. Deng; G.L. Jia; J.C. He

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional electromagnetic characteristics and non-uniform distribution of electromagnetic field in soft-contact mold have been analyzed by numerical simulation. The results show that the maximum electromagnetic flux density is found in front of slit; the electromagnetic flux density becomes large as coil current and slit number increase. In a certain frequency range, the electromagnetic flux density increases with increasing frequency; and the frequency range is different with changing of azimuthal position along inner wall of mold. The uniformity of electromagnetic field is effected mainly by frequency and mold structure parameters. Increasing slit number and adjusting slit arrangement position can improve the electromagnetic flux density and the uniformity of electromagnetic field. For a soft-contact mold with 16 slits, when frequency is 20kHz, the optimal slit arrangement parameter is a: b = 1: 2.c=0.

  10. Copper Alloy Mold process for Production Irons Casting in Japan%日本铜合金金属型生产铸铁件状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子安; 齐笑冰; 唐骥; 申泽骥

    2001-01-01

    The technique of permanent mold casting for producing iron castings has been applied in advanced countries, the copper alloy mold processes for producing the iron castings are rapidly developing in Japan. The characteristics of copper alloy Mold process and its effect on the properties of ductile iron and gray iron castings are presented in this paper. The situation of production of iron castings by using copper alloy mold processes in Japan is also presented.%铸铁件金属型铸造技术已在工业发达国家得到应用,铜合金金属型生产铸铁件在日本得到很快发展。本文介绍了铜合金金属型的特点及其对所生产的球墨铸铁件、灰铸铁件性能的影响;比较详细地介绍了日本铜合金金属型生产铸铁件的状况。

  11. Mold-casted non-degradable, islet macro-encapsulating hydrogel devices for restoration of normoglycemia in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Peter Daniel; Zhang, Xiaomin; Luo, Xunrong; Shea, Lonnie D

    2016-11-01

    Islet transplantation is a potential cure for diabetic patients, however this procedure is not widely adopted due to the high rate of graft failure. Islet encapsulation within hydrogels is employed to provide a three-dimensional microenvironment conducive to survival of transplanted islets to extend graft function. Herein, we present a novel macroencapsulation device, composed of PEG hydrogel, that combines encapsulation with lithography techniques to generate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds. PEG solutions are mixed with islets, which are then cast into PDMS molds for subsequent crosslinking. The molds can also be employed to provide complex architectures, such as microchannels that may allow vascular ingrowth through pre-defined regions of the hydrogel. PDMS molds allowed for the formation of stable gels with encapsulation of islets, and in complex architectures. Hydrogel devices with a thickness of 600 μm containing 500 islets promoted normoglycemia within 12 days following transplantation into the epididymal fat pad, which was sustained over the two-month period of study until removal of the device. The inclusion of microchannels, which had a similar minimum distance between islets and the hydrogel surface, similarly promoted normoglycemia. A glucose challenge test indicated hydrogel devices achieved normoglycemia 90 min post-dextrose injections, similar to control mice with native pancreata. Histochemical staining revealed that transplanted islets, identified as insulin positive, were viable and isolated from host tissue at 8 weeks post-transplantation, yet devices with microchannels had tissue and vascular ingrowth within the channels. Taken together, these results demonstrate a system for creating non-degradable hydrogels with complex geometries for encapsulating islets capable of restoring normoglycemia, which may expand islet transplantation as a treatment option for diabetic patients. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2485-2495. © 2016 Wiley

  12. Die Casting Mold Design of the Thin-walled Aluminum Case by Computational Solidification Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Chan Kim; Chang-Seog Kang; Jae-Ik Cho; Chang-Yeol Jeong; Se-Weon Choi; Sung-Kil Hong

    2008-01-01

    Recently, demand for the lightweight alloy in electric/electronic housings has been greatly increased. However, among the lightweight alloys, aluminum alloy thin-walled die casting is problematic because it is quite difficult to achieve sufficient fluidity and feedability to fill the thin cavity as the wall thickness becomes less than 1 mm. Therefore, in this study, thin-walled die casting of aluminum (Al-Si-Cu alloy: ALDC 12) in size of notebook computer housing and thickness of 0.8 mm was investigated by solidification simulation (MAGMA soft) and actual casting experiment (Buhler Evolution B 53D). Three different types of gating design, finger, tangential and split type with 6 vertical runners, were simulated and the results showed that sound thin-walled die casting was possible with tangential and split type gating design because those gates allowed aluminum melt to flow into the thin cavity uniformly and split type gating system was preferable gating design comparing to tangential type gating system at the point of view of soundness of casting and distortion generated after solidification. Also, the solidification simulation agreed well with the actual die-casting and the casting showed no casting defects and distortion.

  13. Full Mold Casting Process of 83 Tons Oversize Heterotypic Gray Iron Crossbeam Casting%83t异形特大灰铁横梁的实型铸造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建; 李增民; 王培华; 肖占德

    2012-01-01

    83 ton oversize heterotypic gray iron crossbeam was manufactured by full mold casting. Aiming at the structure characteristics of the crossbeam, pattern was made. Meanwhile, process parameters were presented. Sand and coating were taken into acount, and pitmoulding was performed. Finally, qualified crossbeam was produced sucesssfully.%介绍了对83 t异形特大灰铁横梁的实型铸造过程.针对横梁的结构特点,进行了模样制作.并对铸件的工艺参数进行了选取,合理选用了型砂和涂料,并用地坑造型,最终成功生产出合格的铸件.

  14. Spray-formed tooling for injection molding and die casting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. M. McHugh; B. R. Wickham

    2000-06-26

    Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling{trademark} is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The ability of the sprayed deposit to capture features of the tool pattern eliminates costly machining operations in conventional mold making and reduces turnaround time. Moreover, rapid solidification suppresses carbide precipitation and growth, allowing many ferritic tool steels to be artificially aged, an alternative to conventional heat treatment that offers unique benefits. Material properties and microstructure transformation during heat treatment of spray-formed H13 tool steel are described.

  15. Spray-formed Tooling for Injection Molding and Die Casting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Hugh, Kevin Matthew

    2000-06-01

    Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) ToolingTM is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The ability of the sprayed deposit to capture features of the tool pattern eliminates costly machining operations in conventional mold making and reduces turnaround time. Moreover, rapid solidification suppresses carbide precipitation and growth, allowing many ferritic tool steels to be artificially aged, an alternative to conventional heat treatment that offers unique benefits. Material properties and microstructure transformation during heat treatment of spray-formed H13 tool steel are described.

  16. Thermal stress analysis method considering geometric effect of risers in sand mold casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Y Kwak; HY Hwang; C Cho

    2014-01-01

    Solidification and fluid flow analysis using computer simulation is a current common practice. There is also a high demand for thermal stress analysis in the casting process because casting engineers want to control the defects related to thermal stresses, such as large deformation and crack generation during casting. The riser system is an essential part of preventing the shrinkage defects in the casting process, and it has a great influence on thermal phenomena. The analysis domain is dramatical y expanded by attaching the riser system to a casting product due to its large volume, and it makes FEM mesh generation difficult. However, it is difficult to study and solve the above proposed problem caused by riser system using traditional analysis methods which use single numerical method such as FEM or FDM. In this paper, some research information is presented on the effects of the riser system on thermal stress analysis using a FDM/FEM hybrid method in the casting process simulation. The results show the optimal conditions for stress analysis of the riser model in order to save computation time and memory resources.

  17. Study on the Fluid Flow in a Semi-Open-Stream-Poured Beam Blank Continuous Casting Mold with Submerged Refractory Funnels by Multiphase Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The flow transport of a 420 × 320 × 90 mm beam blank continuous casting mold that used open-stream pouring combined with submerged refractory funnels was studied. By considering the dynamic similarity, geometric similarity, and air entrapment quantity similarity, a full-size water model was established. Meanwhile, the 3D mathematical models that included three phases were applied. Through the combination of the water model and the mathematical model, the distribution and morphology of the phases in the mold were investigated. The results indicate that bubbles existed in the molten steel due to entrapment and the flow pattern was different from that of the full protection-poured mold. Furthermore, the effects of funnel immersion depth and funnel diameter on the bubbles’ impact depth, funnel’s inside wall shear stress, and overall area of the air/steel interface were discussed. The results provide useful information for the industrial continuous casting process.

  18. An improved mathematical model to simulate mold filling process in high pressure die casting using CLSVOF method and CSF model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Bi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 3D mathematical model was proposed to simulate the mold filling process in high-pressure die casting (HPDC to improve accuracy considering the surface tension. Piecewise liner interface calculation (PLIC and volume of fluid (VOF methods were used to construct the pattern of the liquid interface. A coupled level-set and VOF method (CLSVOF was proposed to capture the interface pattern and obtain its normal vector. A continuum surface force (CSF model was used to consider the surface tension. Two water analogy experiments were carried out using the proposed model. Simulation and experimental results were analyzed and compared; and the effects of surface tension were also discussed. The simulation results agreed well with the experiments and the simulation accuracy was an improvement on interface geometries, liquid flows, and gas entrapments.

  19. Comparison of two methods to study the gas-liquid flows in a continuous slab casting mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiguo; Liu, Chonglin; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Junjie; Zou, Zongshu; Shen, Yansong

    2013-06-01

    An Eulerian-Lagrangian computational model for simulations of gas-liquid flows in a continuous casting mold is developed. The flow of the fluid phase is solved in an Eulerian frame of reference together with the motion of every individually injected gas bubble, solved in its own Lagrangian frame of reference. It is assumed that the gas bubbles remain spherical and their shape variations are neglected. In order to consider the bidirectional interactions between the bubbles and the melt flow two different methods (the one-way coupling and the two-way coupling) are studied and compared. The simulations show that the two-way coupling is essential to get realistic results.

  20. Modeling of Quasi-Four-Phase Flow in Continuous Casting Mold Using Hybrid Eulerian and Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Sun, Zhenbang; Li, Baokuan

    2016-12-01

    Lagrangian tracking model combined with Eulerian multi-phase model is employed to predict the time-dependent argon-steel-slag-air quasi-four-phase flow inside a slab continuous casting mold. The Eulerian approach is used for the description of three phases (molten steel, liquid slag, and air at the top of liquid slag layer). The dispersed argon bubble injected from the SEN is treated in the Lagrangian way. The complex interfacial momentum transfers between various phases are considered. Validation is supported by the measurement data of cold model experiments and industrial practice. Close agreements were achieved for the gas volume fraction, liquid flow pattern, level fluctuation, and exposed slag eye phenomena. Many known phenomena and new predictions were successfully reproduced using this model. The vortex slag entrapment phenomenon at the slag-steel interface was obtained using this model, some small slag drops are sucked deep into the liquid pool of molten steel. Varying gas flow rates have a large effect on the steel flow pattern in the upper recirculation zone. Three typical flow patterns inside the mold with different argon gas flow rates have been obtained: double roll, three roll, and single roll. Effects of argon gas flow rate, casting speed, and slag layer thickness on the exposed slag eye and level fluctuation at the slag-steel interface were studied. A dimensionless value of H ave/h was proposed to describe the time-averaged level fluctuation of slag-steel interface. The exposed slag eye near the SEN would be formed when the value of H ave/h is larger than 0.4.

  1. Application of Hydrogen Technologies for Increasing the Operating Characteristic of Stem of Hip Implant Made of Titanium Alloy, Procured By Mold Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsova SV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the possibility of using the thermo hydrogen technology in the process of manufacturing the stem of hip implant made of titanium alloy, procured by mold castings. The influence of modes of thermo hydrogen processing on the transformation of the cast structure and mechanical properties of mold castings is analyzed in this work. It is shown that the use of thermo hydrogen processing ensures good physical and chemical contact and lets substantially increase the adhesion strength of Osseo integrating porous coating made of unalloyed titanium with titanium alloy VT6 (Ti-6-4 surface of the stem of hip implant. It identifies the elements of the processing technology of the implant elements, allowing to obtain products correspond to the international standard is identified in the work.

  2. Meniscus Behavior in Electromagnetic Soft-Contact Continuous Casting Round Billet Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG An-yuan; WANG En-gang; HE Ji-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Using molten Pb-Sn-Bi alloy, the meniscus shape under high frequency magnetic field of φ100 mm round billet caster was investigated. The effect of some parameters on meniscus shape was studied. The results show that for a mold with 12 segments, the meniscus shape is relatively stable. With increasing power input, the meniscus height increases with intensification of fluctuation. For the given caster, the reasonable power input is about 70 kW. The coil should be near to the top of mold and/or the initial meniscus should be near to the center of the coil. The lower the frequency, the higher is the meniscus height. With increasing frequency, the free surface is more flattened and meniscus becomes more stable. In practice, the power input should be increased simultaneously with frequency. The optimal frequency is about 20 kHz.

  3. 立式离心铸造顶头模具设计及充型凝固模拟%Design of Vertical Centrifugal Casting Mold of Piercing Plug and It's Numerical Simulation of Mold-filling and Solidification Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章小峰; 凌兵; 黄贞益; 王萍

    2012-01-01

    Based on the shape of φ136 mm piercing plug, a vertical centrifugal casting mold of plug was designed. The process of mold filling and process of solidification were simulated by numerical simulation.The centrifugal casting process is centrifugal revolution 300 r/min ,casting temperature 1530℃ .casting velocity 0.25m/s. The simulation results show that the whole process of mold filling is stable and fast. The whole cavity is finished filling within 10.7 s.The temperature field of solidification accords with the sequence solidification principles. The casting is solidified within 1237 s. The solid fraction also proves that the solidification process of the casting is reasonable.%根据φ136mm的穿孔顶头外形,设计一种立式离心铸造顶头的模具.通过数值模拟软件模拟其充型过程及凝固过程,离心铸造工艺参数为离心转数300 r/min、浇注温度1530℃和充型速度0.25 m/s.模拟结果表明:铸件的充型过程基本平稳、快速,大概10.7s充型完毕;凝固过程中铸件温度场分布符合顺序凝固的要求,需1237s完全凝固.另外,固相分数也证实了铸件凝固过程是合理的.

  4. An Allosteric Receptor by Simultaneous "Casting" and "Molding" in a Dynamic Combinatorial Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jianwei; Nowak, Piotr; Otto, Sijbren

    2015-01-01

    Allosteric synthetic receptors are difficult to access by design. Herein we report a dynamic combinatorial strategy towards such systems based on the simultaneous use of two different templates. Through a process of simultaneous casting (the assembly of a library member around a template) and moldin

  5. Study on the Mechanical Properties of Cast 6063 Al Alloy Using a Mixture of Aluminum Dross and Green Sand as Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Sekunowo, O. I.; Balogun, S. A.; Obembe, O. O.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical characteristics of 6063 aluminum alloy cast in a mixture of aluminum dross and silica sand as mold have been examined. The amount of dross in the green silica sand was varied in the range of 0-80% with bentonite as binder. In all, 40 samples were cast, and 8 of these were left in the as-cast condition for control while 32 were first homogenized at 470°C for 6 h and then rolled in a two-high mill at ambient temperature to 10% reduction in one pass. The rolled samples were solution heat treated at 515°C for 8 h followed by normalizing, annealing, and quench tempering, respectively. The samples were then simulated and tensile behavior coupled with the evaluation of microhardness and microstructures developed. The results obtained demonstrate significant improvement in mechanical properties from 50% to 80% dross in the mold. Tensile strength increased to 177 MPa and 15% elongation compared with conventional 6063-T5 aluminum alloy with 145 MPa tensile strength and 8% elongation. The improvement in mechanical properties by the quench-tempered samples can be attributed to the inducement of fine and coherent Mg2Si crystals within the matrix. Furthermore, the overall analysis of the proportion of dross to the size of cast show that about 64% of dross generated can be utilized as mold material.

  6. 无模精密砂型快速铸造技术研究进展%Progress of Rapid Technology without Mold in Precision Sand Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佩兰; 徐志锋; 余欢; 王振军

    2013-01-01

    无模精密砂型快速铸造技术具有制造周期短、成本低、砂型/砂芯一体化制造及制造任意形状复杂铸件等特点.采用该方法制备的砂型(芯)尺寸精度高、表面质量好,可实现复杂铸件的整体近净成形.特别适合于复杂铸件的单件、小批量生产及新产品的试制.综述了基于激光烧结、三维打印、数控加工原理的无模精密砂型快速铸造技术的工艺特点、适用范围,并指出了各自存在的问题及其发展前景.%With short manufacturing cycle, low manufacturing costs, sand mold and core integrated manufacturing and the development of any complex shaped castings, precision sand casting rapid technology without mold was used to fabricate sand molds or cores with high dimensional accuracy and good surface quality to realize near-net shape of the complex castings, especially suitable for the complex castings of single or small batch production as well as trial of new products. Precision sand casting rapid technology without mold based on laser sintering, 3D printing and CNC machining principles was reviewed, focusing on the characteristics of the process, the scope of application, and existing problems as well as development prospects.

  7. [Flow of molten metal in denture base in horizontal centrifugal casting procedure. (Part 1) Flow, inflow volume and casting time of molten metal passing through single aprue into disk type mold (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, H

    1976-01-01

    A pyrex glass plate was fitted at the bottom of casting ring, and disk type wax pattern (thickness. 0.43 mm) was put on the plate. Five types of sprueing were applied. Pure tin was casted using holizontal centrifugal casting machine. Flow of molten metal was filmed by the motor drive camera with the method of stroboscope. The results were summarized as follows. 1) When the sprue was attached at the center of the disk type mold vertically, moten metal flowed like a concentric circle at the early stage of casting. It was affected gradually by the direction of gravity and revolution, and it filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part. 2) When the sprue gate was attached to the side edge of the mold, and the sprue gate was placed to the forward and backward direction against the revolution direction, molten metal filled from lower part to the upper part. 3) When the sprue gate was placed against upper edge, molten metal flow was affected by the direction of gravity and revolution. When the sprue gate was placed against lower edge, molten metal filled quietry from the lower part to the upper part. 4) Inflow volume per unit time (inflow rate) was small at the early stage of casting. Inflow rate increased and became constant at the next stage. At the latter stage it became small again. 5) Inflow rate increased with the increase of area of sprue. 6) The time which was necessary to fill the volume of 1 cm (about 80% of the mold volume) became short with the increase of area of sprue. It was also influenced by the type of sprueing.

  8. CAE模拟分析在水龙头手柄压铸模设计中的应用%Application of CAE Simulation Analysis to the Design of Die Casting Mold for Faucet Handle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀民

    2012-01-01

    针对传统压铸模具浇注系统设计采用试错法存在的缺陷,本文通过水龙头手柄压铸模设计,提出利用ProCAST铸造模拟分析功能,先确定内浇道合理位置,再进行浇注系统详细设计及模具设计,避免浇注系统对铸件成形过程不利影响,提高铸件质量,缩短模具制造周期.可为类似铸件浇注系统及压铸模具设计提供参考.%Aimed at the existing defects of traditional die casting mold gating system design by trial-and-error method, first the reasonable location of the ingate was determined and then the gating system and mold were designed in detail through designing the faucet handle die-casting mold, utilizing ProCAST casting simulation analysis capabilities, which avoid the adverse effects of the gating system for casting formation process, improve casting quality, and reduce mold manufacturing period. It can provide a reference for similar casting gating system and die casting mold design.

  9. Casting Process Control of Permanent Mold with Sand Lining for Traction Sheave%曳引轮铁模覆砂铸造过程控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树成; 俞水铭; 章舟

    2012-01-01

    介绍了曳引轮铁模覆砂的生产工艺,在试生产过程中通过采取针对性措施,消除了铸件夹砂、夹渣、变形等缺陷,产品合格率大幅度提高。%The casting process of permanent mold with sand lining for traction sheave was presented. The casting defects, such as scab, slag inclusion and warping were eliminated by special measures in pilot production, and the products percent of pass were increased substantially.

  10. Process Parameters of Manufacturing Single Crystal Copper by Heated Mold Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guangji; DING Zongfu; DING Yutian; KOU Shengzhong; LIU Guanglin; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    The effect of process parameters on the surface quality of single crystal copper ingot was studied through experiment with a self-designed horizontal heated mould continuous casting apparatus, and the mechanism was analyzed. The results show that the process parameters affect the surface quality of pure copper ingot by affecting the position of the liquid-solid interface in the mould. The position of the liquid-solid interface in the mould must be controlled carefully in an appropriate range determined through experiments in order to gain a single crystal copper ingot with a high surface quality.

  11. The Development of CaO-SiO2-B2O3-based Fluorine-Free Mold Flux for a Continuous Casting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin

    2016-09-01

    Designing and developing high-performance fluorine-free (F-free) mold flux has become a hot topic in steel continuous casting processes, with concerns of environment protection and energy saving. In conventional commercial mold flux, fluorine plays important roles on the properties as it works as a fluxing agent; however, it tends to cause serious environmental and health problems. In this paper, a new F-free mold flux based on the CaO-SiO2-B2O3 slag system has been introduced through summarizing previous works. The melting temperature range of F-free mold flux decreases with the addition of Na2O/Li2O and B2O3; the viscosity and heat flux decrease with the increase of basicity and Na2O/Li2O, as well as the decrease of B2O3 contents. Also, the crystallization temperatures of F-free mold fluxes increase with the increase of basicity and Na2O/Li2O content. The analyses of EDS and XRD show that Ca11Si4B2O22 and Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8 are the two main precipitated crystalline phases in F-free mold fluxes, and that the Ca11Si4B2O22 is a common and stable crystalline phase in the designed F-free mold fluxes system that shows the potential to replace Ca4Si2O7F2 in conventional flourine-containing mold fluxes.

  12. 精密铸造型壳缺陷分析%Origination of Defects in Investment Casting Mold Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁蕊; 包玉秋; 张大伟; 秦磊

    2012-01-01

    分析了精密铸造型壳的两种缺陷——“浆片”夹杂物、“型壳面层脱落”形成的原因.浆片夹杂物是因为蜡模之间配合处或浇注系统与蜡模之间存在缝隙形成的.型壳面层脱落是因为热膨胀导致结合面的结合不紧或组树不当造成的.这两种缺陷通过改变蜡模结构、组树方式、改变浇注方式等措施避免.%Origination of slurry-plate inclusion and surface-layer exfoliation in investment casting mold shell was analyzed. Slurry-plate inclusion is closely related to the gap existed in the matching face, and surface-layer exfoliation is attributed to the un-fastened bonding of matching face resulted from the thermal expansion. Two defects can be eliminated by altering wax pattern structure, assembling ways and pouring ways.

  13. COMPUTER RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY CHANGE OF THE VACUUM-FILM MOLD OF ON CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CASTING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of changes in the thermal conductivity of vacuum-film mold at production of cast iron castings «body» was studied. Three variants of the gating system with different thermal conductivity l, 0,6 l and 0,4 l are considered. The dependencies of speed change and its projections on the time of filling in the allocated form points were established. Statistical distributions of temperatures in the casting for various moments of times are calculated. The technique of the formalization of statistical distributions characterizing the quantification of different groups of grid elements on the average temperature of the object was offered.

  14. Study on Permanent Mold Casting Process for Wheel Shaft%某车轮轴金属型铸造工艺的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王狂飞; 王有超; 历长云; 米国发

    2012-01-01

    Through permanent mold casting, the casting process for a wheel shaft was studied. As ingate affectinng the casting shrinkage in the original process, a hot crack of casting appeared. The hot crack defect was eliminated by using the riser improved process. Using the self-made metal coating, qualified castings were trial-produced. A reasonable and practical casting technology is provided.%利用金属型铸造,研究了某车轮轴铸造工艺.发现原工艺中内浇道影响到铸件的收缩,出现了热裂等铸造缺陷.采用浇冒口改进工艺,侧面开出气孔,消除了热裂缺陷.采用自制的金属型涂料,成功试制出合格铸件,获得实用有效的车轮轴金属型铸造工艺.

  15. Effects of Pouring Temperature on Interfacial Reaction between Ti-47.5Al-2.5V-1Cr Alloy and Mold during Centrifugal Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yanwei; FENG Kun; CHENG Cheng; CHEN Xiao; QI Jiqiu; HE Yezeng; MENG Qingkun; WEI Fuxiang; SUN Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Pouring temperature and time are the most important influencing factors on interfacial reaction during the centrifugal casting. When cast at high temperatures, the crucible becomes brittle and prone to cracking, and shows a low stability. In this paper, we studied the centrifugal casting of Ti-47.5-Al-2.5V-1Cr alloy, and explored the effects of pouring temperature on the interfacial reaction. Castings at 1 600, 1 650, and 1 700℃ were obtained by controlling the other parameters constant in the experiments. The microstructure, elemental distribution, thickness of the reaction layer and phase composition of the castings at the interface were studied. The results show that the thickness at the interfacial reaction layer is increased by raising the pouring temperature. The elements in the mold and the matrix were double-diffused and reacted at the interface during the casting process, and formed solid solutions with the precipitation of many new phases such as Al2O3 and TiO2. The roughness of interface structure and layer thickness of reaction increase with the rise of temperature, and the interfacial reaction is more intense. There is a minimum layer thickness of the reaction layer that is 80μm when the temperature is 1 600℃.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of cast Mg-15Al-xNd alloy by permanent mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kangkang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of Mg-15Al magnesium alloy, different amounts (from 0 to 4.0wt.% of Nd were added to the alloy and six Mg-15Al-xNd alloys were prepared by metal mould casting. The effect of Nd content on microstructure of the alloys was investigated by means of OM, SEM, EDS, TEM, and XRD. The tensile properties were tested at room temperature (RT and high temperature (473 K. The results indicate that the primary α-Mg dendrite is significantly refined with the addition of Nd. The best refinement is reached at 1.0wt.% Nd content and the average dendrite arm spacing decreases from 80-100 μm (without Nd addition to ~20 μm. A further increase in Nd content leads to the coarsening of the primary α-Mg dendrite. The addition of Nd improves the tensile properties of Mg-15Al both at RT and 473 K. The Mg-15Al alloy containing 1.0wt.% Nd exhibits the best tensile properties. Compared with the alloy without Nd, the yield and ultimate tensile strength of the Mg-15Al-1.0Nd alloy at RT increase from 132.3 to 148.6 MPa and 152.3 to 189.6 MPa, increase by 12.3% and 24.5%, respectively; and the elongation at RT increases from 0.05 % to 1.24%. The yield and tensile strength of the alloy at 473 K increase from 97.9 to 115.3 MPa and 121.6 to 140.1 MPa, increase by 15.2% and 20%, respectively. Further increment of Nd content to 1.5wt.% degrades the tensile properties, which is ascribed to grain coarsening and growth of the Al-Nd phase.

  17. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  18. Improvement in Mechanical Properties of A356 Tensile Test Bars Cast in a Permanent Mold by Application of a Knife Ingate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaou; Schwam, David; Neff, David V.; Chen, Chai-Jung; Zhu, Xuejun

    2012-03-01

    As a standard test-bar permanent mold, the "Stahl" Mold has been widely used in foundries to assess the properties of cast alloys. However, inferior mechanical properties are often obtained with this mold due to shrinkage-induced microporosity in the gage section. In order to improve the mechanical properties, a design modification comprising a thin knife ingate between the feeder and test-bar cavity was evaluated in this work. The new design was studied by computer-aided simulation. Simulations predicted that the knife ingate improved the metal feeding capability and reduced the shrinkage microporosity at the gage section from 3 to 1 pct. Experimental verification work has been undertaken with aluminum alloy A356, and the results were analyzed by a statistics theory-based factorial analysis method. The new design resulted in main effects with ultimate tensile strength (UTS) improvement of 20 MPa (relative 12 pct) and elongation increment of 2 pct (relative 45 pct) for the as-cast test bars.

  19. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  20. Transient Two-Phase Flow in Slide-Gate Nozzle and Mold of Continuous Steel Slab Casting with and without Double-Ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Mook; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-10-01

    Transient mold flow could produce undesirable surface instabilities and slag entrainments, leading to the formation of defects during continuous slab casting of steel. In this work, two Large Eddy Simulations coupled with Discrete Phase Model are run, with and without MagnetoHydroDynamic model, to gain new insights into the surface variations of molten steel-argon gas flow with anisotropic turbulence in the slide-gate nozzle and the mold, with and without double-ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking (EMBr). The model calculations are validated with plant measurements, and applied to investigate the flow variations related to the slide gate on nozzle swirl, jet wobbling, and surface flow variations by quantifying the variations of velocity, horizontal angle, and vertical angle of the transient flow. Transient flow in the slide-gate nozzle bottom is almost always swirling, alternating chaotically between clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation. The clockwise swirl, caused by stronger flow down the same side of the nozzle as the open area near the Outside Radius side of the slide-gate middle plate, produces faster jet flow and higher velocity flow across the top surface of the mold. Counter-clockwise swirl produces slower jet and surface flow, but with more variations. The double-ruler EMBr decreases the asymmetry and duration of velocity variations during nozzle swirl flipping, resulting in less flow variations in the jet and across the surface in the mold.

  1. The Structure and Properties of Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline NbN Coatings in Corrosion Protective Die Casting Molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sung-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Niobium nitride coatings for the surface modified die casting molds with various ICP powers have been prepared using ICP assisted magnetron sputtering. The applied ICP power was varied from 0 to 200 W. The deposited coatings were characterized post-deposition using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Single NbN phased coatings with nano-grain sized (hardness of each coating were evaluated from potentiostat and nanoindentator. Superior corrosion protective coatings in excess of 13.9 GPa were deposited with assistance of ICP plasma during sputtering.

  2. A comparison between the dimensions of positive transtibial residual limb molds prepared by air pressure casting and weight-bearing casting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaei, Behnam; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Creating a socket with proper fit is an important factor to ensure the comfort and control of prosthetic devices. Several techniques are commonly used to cast transtibial stumps but their effect on stump shape deformation is not well understood. This study compares the dimensions, circumferences and volumes of the positive casts and also the socket comfort between two casting methods. Our hypothesis was that the casts prepared by air pressure method have less volume and are more comfortable than those prepared by weight bearing method. Methods: Fifteen transtibial unilateral amputees participated in the study. Two weight bearing and air pressure casting methods were utilized for their residual limbs. The diameters and circumferences of various areas of the residual limbs and positive casts were compared. The volumes of two types of casts were measured by a volumeter and compared. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the sockets fit comfort. Results: Circumferences at 10 and 15 cm below the patella on the casts were significantly smaller in air pressure casting method compared to the weight bearing method (p=0.00 and 0.01 respectively). The volume of the cast in air pressure method was lower than that of the weight bearing method (p=0.006). The amputees found the fit of the sockets prepared by air pressure method more comfortable than the weight bearing sockets (p=0.015). Conclusion: The air pressure casting reduced the circumferences of the distal portion of residual limbs which has more soft tissue and because of its snug fit it provided more comfort for amputees, according to the VAS measurements. PMID:27390711

  3. A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dense Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low Carbon Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Campoy, María M.; Morales, R. D.; Nájera-Bastida, A.; Cedillo-Hernández, Valentín; Delgado-Pureco, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Momentum transfer of argon-steel flows in a slab mold were studied through an air-water physical model and particle image velocimetry measurements under the effects of nozzle design (nozzles with square ports S, square ports with bottom design U and circular ports C) and gas flow rate. The ratio of drag momentum of the gas phase over the liquid phase defines the conditions for coupled (existence of momentum transfer between the phases) and channeled flows (defined as those conditions where there is not further momentum transfer between both phases). When the ratio of superficial velocities of the gas phase over the liquid phase in the nozzle bore is less than 0.14, the flow pattern in the mold is dependent on the nozzle design and flow rate of gas (2 to 10 L/minute). Above this magnitude, the flow pattern becomes uncoupled and independent from the nozzle design and from the flow rate of gas. The ratios of drag velocities of the gas phase on the liquid phase and their superficial velocities in the nozzle bore are strongly dependent on the volume fraction of the gas phase. Nozzle U delivers the smallest sizes of bubbles and the smaller amount of bubble swarms per unit time impacting on the narrow face of the mold. It is, therefore, the most recommendable to cast ultra-low carbon steels. Practical implications derived from these results are written down in the text.

  4. 硬型铸造Ti-Al合金的组织与拉伸性能%Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Ti-Al Based Alloys by Permanent Mold Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜; 骆晨; 朱春雷; 张继

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了石墨和铸钢两种硬型铸造Ti-Al合金板片状试样的缺陷、层片间距和室温拉伸性能,并与用陶瓷型壳铸造的Ti-Al合金进行对比.结果表明,采用硬型铸造Ti-Al合金在比较高的冷却速度下凝固的板片状试样无宏观和微观裂纹;与陶瓷型壳铸造的组织相比,硬型铸造Ti-Al合金的板片状试样铸态组织平均层片间距大幅度减小,其中石墨型铸造的减小了近一半;由于硬型铸造Ti-Al合金的板片状试样的层片间距的减小使得其室温拉伸强度有较大幅度的提高,其中石墨型铸造板片试样的层片问距减小了0.35 μm,屈服强度提高了40 MPa.%The properties the casting plate were studied in this paper, such as, the casting defect, lamellar spacing and room temperature tensile properties of Ti-AI based plate by graphite mold and cast-steel mold, and were compared with the Ti-AI based plate by ceramics mold. The experimental results show that there was no macro and micro crack in these permanent mold casting plates at the higher cooling rate during the solidification; the lamellar spacing of permanent mold casting plate was greatly reduced, compared with that of ceramics mold casting plate, and the lamellar spacing of the graphite mold casting plate was reduced approximately one half; the lamellar spacing was decreased so that the tensile properties clearly increased, for example, the lamellar spacing of the graphite mold casting plate was reduced 0.35 \\im, but the yield strength was increased 40 Mpa.

  5. Relationship between casting distortion, mold filling, and interfacial heat transfer. Annual technical report, September 1997 - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, K.A.; Parker, J.K.; Piwonka, T.S.; Owusu, Y.

    1998-10-22

    In the third year of this program, the final castings necessary to evaluate the effect of casting orientation and gating in silica sand lost foam were poured and measured using a CMM machine. Interfacial heat transfer and gap formation measurements continued. However, significant problems were encountered in making accurate measurements. No consistent evidence of gap formation was found in aluminum sand casting. Initial analysis yields heat transfer values below those previously reported in the literature. The program in continuing.

  6. 国内外钛合金精密铸造型壳材料的发展概况%Development of Shell Mold Materials for Ti Alloy Investment Casting in Domestic and Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新英; 谢成木

    2001-01-01

    The development and application status of rammed graphite mold, refractory metal powder,face coated mold shell and oxide face coated ceramic mold shell for cast Ti alloy in domestic and foreign countries were introduced. The technological gap between home and abroad was compared. The suggestion on developing new and non-pollution molding materials for mold shell was proposed.%介绍了国内外铸造钛合金用石墨型、难熔金属面层及氧化物陶瓷型面层型壳材料的发展与应用状况,比较了国内外在这一领域的技术差距,提出应开发、研究新型的无污染制壳材料。

  7. Influence of Forced Convection on the Solidification of Metal in Cast-Iron and Ceramic Ingot Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, O. A.; Dremov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    A nonstationary problem of solidification of an ingot in molds with walls of varying thermal conductivity has been solved by the variational method with account taken of forced convection in the liquid phase of the metal. A formula for the temperature distribution in the liquid phase and the dependence of the time of advance of the solidification front on its coordinates have been obtained. Numerical calculations of the time of solidification of the ingot in castiron and ceramic molds have been done at different convection rates.

  8. Briefing Construction Technologies and Application of CBM Internal Mold Cast-in-Situ Concrete Hollow Floor%浅谈CBM内模现浇混凝土空心楼盖施工技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新革

    2015-01-01

    文章结合工程实例,介绍CBM内模现浇混凝土空心楼盖的构造、施工方法及应用效果,提出现浇混凝土空心楼盖中内模抗浮装置及其施工方法,可有效解决因内模带动楼板钢筋上浮而影响结构质量安全的难题。%Combining engineering cases, this paper introduces structure, construction method and application results of CBM internal mold cast-in-situ concrete hollow floor, proposes internal mold anti-floating devices in cast-in-situ concrete hollow floor and its construction method that can effectively solve the problem that internal mold drives lfoor bars to rise so as to inlfuence the structure quality.

  9. Study on the behaviour of fluxes to steel continuous casting mold; Estudio del comportamiento de los fundentes para molde de colada continua de acero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, J.F.; Celaya, Arturo; Morales, Rodolfo D. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica; Barron, Miguel A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical heat transfer model has been developed, which calculates both the field flow and the temperature profile through the flux thickness between the mold and the strand. The physical condition of the flux in each point is calculated as a function of the physical properties of the powder, the powder film thickness and the oscillation conditions. The model consists of two heat transfer submodels, one for the old and the other one for the steel strand. The dynamic of both system are used as boundary conditions for solving the heat transfer and the Navier-Stokes equations. The calculated dynamic behavior is mostly influenced by the flux properties. The thermophysical and rheological properties of the most employed fluxes by mexican steel plants were considered for carrying out the simulations. Some of these properties were determined by using standard experimental techniques. I has been found a possible non linear velocity profile, which were not prior reported, depending on the flux properties and the operation conditions. This effect has some influence on the shear stress acting on the strand surface due to the presence of the flux. (author) 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fluxes design for continuous casting mold of slab low carbon steels; Diseno de polvos de molde para colada continua de slabs de aceros bajo carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Ramirez, A.; Chavez-Alcala, J. F.; Romero-Serrano, J. A.

    2004-07-01

    Commercial fluxes were characterized by laboratory tests, and their original properties were changed with additions of chemical reagents in order to establish criteria and design strategies to produce new fluxes. The characterization of the commercial fluxes reveals that they are produced by simple mechanical blend of minerals, using feldspars and clays as base materials, containing SiO{sub 2} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O and in less quantity K{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO; limestone as the main source of CaO, fluorspar (CaF{sub 2}) used to control the viscosity and graphite as carbon source. Melting-solidification tests revealed melting and fluidity temperatures and the existence of abundant mineralogical phases formed during the flux solidification. some important mineralogical compounds are the nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) and cus pidine (Ca{sub 4}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2}): these species have a direct influence on the heat transfer phenomena from strand to mold and therefore on the phase transformations and the shrinkage of the steel. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. Effect of the Solution Annealing and Chemical Passivation Followed by Aging on the Corrosion of Shell Mold Cast CF8 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuk-Jin; Ju, Heongkyu; Moon, Young-Dae; Hong, Jun Ho; Pak, Sung Joon

    2016-10-01

    The effects of solution annealing and passivation of shell mold cast CF8 stainless steels on Elbow pipe fittings with 2-month room temperature aging have been studied using a corrosion technique. The resistance of corrosion increased with 2-month room temperature aging combined with solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. The mode of corrosion was deeply related to the δ-ferrite content, permeability, and passivation. The corrosion probability decreased as both the δ-ferrite content and the permeability decreased. Therefore, it is considered that δ-ferrite content and passive film of Cr2O3 play an important role in corrosion resistance of CF8 Elbow pipe fittings due to the long-term aging with solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. This result shows that the corrosion resistance of CF8 fittings can be enhanced by the solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. Decreased ferrite phases and permeability improve IGC resistance in CF8 steel.

  12. 分面成形法金属型铸造Pb-4Sb合金%Permanent Mold Casting Pb-4Sb Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉祥; 阎志明; 罗大伟; 曹志强; 李廷举

    2009-01-01

    Pb-4Sb alloy components with low hardnesswere produced by permanent mold casting to cancelmachinery working. Designing idea of separating faceshaping in mould design was presented, meanwhile,the preparation process of master alloy in process ofmetal melting was cancelled. The finished componentswith machinery working free were successfully pro-duced.%介绍了在机械加工能力受限制条件下,以较为简易的金属型铸造终成形硬度较小的Pb-4Sb合金铸件.在模具设计方面,提出了分面成形的设计思路;在金属的熔炼上,省去了制取中间合金的过程,成功生产出了不需要机械加工的终成形铸件.

  13. Research on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Automobile Exhaust Valve Formed in Permanent Mold during Centrifugal Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin SHENG; Dong LI; Rui YANG; Yuyin LIU; Jingjie GUO; Jun JIA

    2001-01-01

    Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb automobile exhaust valves were formed with permanent mold centrifugal cast method and their surface layer structure, microstructure, elements distribution and mechanical properties were analyzed by SEM, XRD and EMPA etc. Furthermore, the HIPped valves were tested on 483Q diesel engine. Results showed that the element distribution of TiAl based alloy exhaust valves was uniform and their microstructure was refined. The typical mechanical properties of HlPped exhaust valves were σb=670 MPa, σ0.2=527.5 MPa and δ=3%. Engine test showed that the valves had excellent airtightness and wear resistance properties and satisfied the requirements of engine successfully.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Deformation of Initial Shell in Soft Contact Continuous Casting Mold Under High Frequency Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer and deformation of initial solidification shell in soft contact continuous casting moldunder high frequency electromagnetic field were analyzed using numerical simulation method; the relative electromagnetic parameters were obtained from the previous studies. Owing to the induction heating of a high frequency electromagnetic field (20 kHz), the thickness of initial solidification shell decreases, and the temperature of strand surface and slit copper mold increases when compared with the case without the electromagnetic filed. The viscosity of flux decreases because of the induction heating of the high frequency electromagnetic field, and the dimension of the flux channel increases with electromagnetic pressure; thus, the deformation behavior of initial solidification shell was different before and after the action of high frequency electromagnetic field. Furthermore, the abatement mechanism of oscillation marks under high frequency electromagnetic field was explained.

  15. Manufacturing of Thin-walled Al-Mg Food Machinery by Permanent Mold Gravity Casting%食品机械薄壁件铝镁合金重力铸造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明沧; 许正华

    2011-01-01

    Large thin-walled Al-Mg alloy housing for food machinery was usually produced by green sand casting or semi-permanent mold integrating with semi-green sand mold casting because of the easy occurrence of hot crack of Al-Mg alloy in permanent mold. A tilting gravity casting was presented to eliminate the problems in permanent mold casting. Considering mould design and adjusting the pouring parameters, large thin-walled Al-Mg alloy housing was produced successfully by permanent mold gravity casting. The practical production shows that the technology can be widely used to produce thin-walled parts or easily-hot crack alloy parts.%由于Al-Mg合金金属型铸造易产生热裂,在生产食品机械外壳大型薄壁铸件时,多以湿砂型或半金属型-半湿砂型方式生产.针对金属型工艺生产大型薄壁铸件比较困难的问题,提出一种倾转式重力铸造工艺,结合模具设计、浇注参数的调整,实现了全金属型大型Al-Mg台金薄壁铸件的生产.实践证明,本工艺可广泛应用于薄壁铸件或易产生热裂合金铸件的生产.

  16. Casting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  17. Cracking Analysis of 60 t Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron Ingot Mold%60t蠕墨铸铁钢锭模开裂原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史向阳; 刘铁山; 孙胜伟; 宋亚虎; 赵学谦

    2014-01-01

    The 60 t vermicular graphite cast iron ingot mold produced by our company has arisen cracking during the pouring process .The cracking causes are analyzed by macroscopic test , chemical components analysis , macro-frac-ture analysis , scanning electron microscope analysis and metallographic examination .The results show that the cracking of ingot mold is caused by graphite floating , poor graphite morphology and low creep ratio .%我公司生产的60 t蠕墨铸铁钢锭模在浇注过程中发生开裂。采用低倍检验、化学成分分析、宏观断口分析、扫描电镜分析、金相检验等方法对开裂原因进行了分析。结果表明:钢锭模开裂的主要原因是石墨漂浮、石墨形态较差以及蠕化率较低。

  18. Numerical simulation of the interface molten metal air in the shot sleeve chambre and mold cavity of a die casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korti, Abdel Illah Nabil; Abboudi, Said

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study relates to the numerical simulation of the free surface during the two-dimensional flow and solidification of aluminum in the horizontal cylinder and mold cavity of the high pressure die casting HPDC machine with cold chamber. The flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations (the mass and the momentum conservations) and solved in the two phase's liquid aluminum and air. The tracking of the free surface is ensured by the VOF method. The equivalent specific heat method is used to solve the phase change heat transfer problem in the solidification process. Considering the displacement of the plunger, the geometry of the problem is variable and the numerical resolution uses a dynamic grid. The study examines the influence of the plunger speed on the evolution of the interface aluminum liquid-air profile, the mass of air imprisoned and the stream function contours versus time. Filling of a mold is an essential part of HPDC process and affects significantly the heat transfer and solidification of the melt. For this reason, accurate prediction of the temperature field in the system can be achieved only by including simulation of filling in the analysis.

  19. Process of Automatic No Bake Resin Sand Molding & Core Making Production Line for Manufacturing Steel Castings%铸钢件树脂自硬砂造型、制芯自动线工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文弟

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces process analysis, equipment selection andlayout arrangement of the no bake resin sand molding & core making production line for manufacturing steel castings. This production line utilizes flask molding for manufacturing case shaped steel casting with thin wall. Quality of the steel casting meets the standards of Ministry of Railway,TB/T-2238 and TB/T-2239.%介绍了生产铸钢件的树脂自硬砂造型、制芯线的工艺分析,设备选择和平面布置;该线采用有箱造型工艺,生产箱形结构薄壁铸钢件,所产铸件品质达到了铁道部标准TB/T-2238和TB/T-2239。

  20. Surface 3D Micro Free Forms: Multifunctional Microstructured Mesoporous α-Alumina by in Situ Slip Casting Using Excimer Laser Ablated Polycarbonate Molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Böhlen, Karl; Bowen, Paul; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2015-11-11

    Ceramic surface microstructuring is a rapidly growing field with a variety of applications in tribology, wetting, biology, and so on. However, there are limitations to large-area microstructuring and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) micro free forms. Here, we present a route to obtain intricate surface structures through in situ slip casting using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) negative molds which are replicated from excimer laser ablated polycarbonate (PC) master molds. PC sheets are ablated with a nanosecond KrF (λ = 248 nm) excimer laser mask projection system to obtain micron-scale 3D surface features over a large area of up to 3 m(2). Complex surface structures that include 3D free forms such as 3D topography of Switzerland, shallow structures such as diffractive optical elements (60 nm step) and conical micropillars have been obtained. The samples are defect-free produced with thicknesses of up to 10 mm and 120 mm diameter. The drying process of the slip cast alumina slurry takes place as a one-dimensional process, through surface evaporation and water permeation through the PDMS membrane. This allows homogeneous one-dimensional shrinkage during the drying process, independent of the sample's lateral dimensions. A linear mass diffusion model has been proposed to predict and explain the drying process of these ceramic colloidal suspensions. The calculated drying time is linearly proportional to the height of the slurry and the thickness of the negatively structured PDMS and is validated by the experimental results. An experimentally observed optimum Sylgard PDMS thickness range of ∼400 μm to 1 mm has achieved the best quality microstructured green compacts. Further, the model predicts that the drying time is independent of the microstructured areas and was validated using experimental observations carried out with microstructured areas of 300 mm(2), 1200 mm(2), and 120 cm(2). Therefore, in principle, the structures can be further replicated in areas up

  1. 覆砂铁型铸造工艺生产ADI摩擦斜楔%ADI Oblique Wedge Produced with Resin Sand Coated-Iron Mold Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 鲍玉龙; 王德军

    2013-01-01

    The casting method and heat treatment process adopted for using resin sand coated-iron mold to produce ADI oblique wedge of railway vehicles was introduced. By adopting semi -pressurized gating system and filter to skim slag, choosing rational melting charge mixture ratio and the cored-wire injection nodularizing process, using salt bath isothermal quenching process, the hi-strength , hi-hardness and hi-toughness ADI castings with bainite + residual austenite as matrix were finally obtained.%介绍了采用覆砂铁型铸造生产火车用摩擦斜楔ADI铸件的铸造工艺和热处理工艺.通过采用半封闭式浇注系统和过滤网挡渣;选用合理的炉料配比及喂丝球化处理工艺;采用盐浴等温淬火工艺,最终获得以贝氏体+残余奥氏体为基体的高强度、高硬度及高韧性的ADI铸件.

  2. High coercivity microcrystalline Nd-rich Nd-Fe-Co-Al-B bulk magnets prepared by direct copper mold casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Hong, Y.; Fang, X. G.; Qiu, Z. G.; Zhong, X. C.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, Z. W.

    2016-06-01

    High coercivity Nd25Fe40Co20Al15-xBx (x=7-15) hard magnets were prepared by a simple process of injection casting. Different from many previous investigations on nanocomposite compositions, the magnets in this work contain hard magnetic Nd2(FeCoAl)14B, Nd-rich, and Nd1+ε(FeCo)4B4 phases. The magnetic properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of the as-cast and annealed magnets were investigated. As the boron content increased from 7 to 11 at%, the intrinsic coercivity Hcj of the as-cast magnet increased from 816 to 1140 kA/m. The magnets annealed at 750 °C have shown more regular and smaller grains than the as-cast alloys, especially for the x=11 alloy. The high intrinsic coercivities for the annealed alloys with x=8~11 result from the presence of small-sized grains in the microstructure. The highest Hcj of 1427 kA/m was obtained for the heat treated alloy with x=10. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich bulk hard magnets with relatively good properties.

  3. Computer Simulation on Low Pressure Plaster Mold Casting Process for ZL205A Alloy%铸铝ZL205A石膏型低压铸造工艺计算机模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王狂飞; 周志杰; 王有超; 历长云

    2011-01-01

    利用View Cast软件对某低压石膏型ZL205A铸件铸造过程进行了计算机模拟,获得了铸件充型、凝固过程温度随时间变化的分布图,并对可能产生缩孔、缩松缺陷的位置进行了预测.模拟结果显示,低压铸造充型过程中降温不明显,而熔液流经大截面时产生速度降;凝固过程中,熔体自顶向下形成逐层递增的温度梯度,利于熔体补缩.模拟结果与实际生产情况吻合较好.%The low pressure plaster mold casting process for ZL205A alloy was simulated by View Cast software, and the relationship between cast temperature and time were obtained in casting solidification and filling, and the location of the shrinkage defects were also forecasted. The results show that the temperature of liquid metal invisibly drops during mold filling, and the melt filling rate decreases with the increase of cross-section with the ingate, and increasing temperature gradient of melt from up to down can contribute to the shrinkage elimination of casting during solidifying. The simulations reasonably agree well with production results.

  4. Solidification Structure and Macrosegregation of Billet Continuous Casting Process with Dual Electromagnetic Stirrings in Mold and Final Stage of Solidification: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, D.; Zhu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coupling macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow with microscale grain nucleation and crystal growth, a mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was established to study the SWRT82B steel solidification structure and macrosegregation in 160 mm × 160 mm billet continuous casting with dual electromagnetic stirrings in mold and final stage of solidification (M-EMS and F-EMS). In the model, the phases of liquid, columnar, and equiaxed were treated separately and the initial growing equiaxed phase, which could move freely with liquid, was regarded as slurry. To obtain the equiaxed grains nucleation and columnar front evolution, the unit tracking method and the columnar front tracking model were built. The model was validated by magnetic induction intensity of stirrer, billet surface temperature, and carbon segregation. The equiaxed phase evolution and the solute transport with effect of fluid flow and grains transport were described in this article. The results show that the equiaxed phase ratio will not increase obviously with higher current intensity of M-EMS, while the negative segregation near the strand surface becomes more serious. The negative segregation zone near the billet center and the center positive segregation come into being with the effect of equiaxed grains sedimentation and liquid thermosolutal flow. It is also found that the liquid solute transport in the F-EMS zone becomes the main factor with higher current intensity rather than the solidification rate, and therefore, the final billet center segregation decreases first and then turns to rise with the current intensity. The optimal current intensities of M-EMS and F-EMS proposed for SWRT82B billet continuous casting are 200 and 400 A, respectively.

  5. Solidification Structure and Macrosegregation of Billet Continuous Casting Process with Dual Electromagnetic Stirrings in Mold and Final Stage of Solidification: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, D.; Zhu, M.

    2016-08-01

    Coupling macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow with microscale grain nucleation and crystal growth, a mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was established to study the SWRT82B steel solidification structure and macrosegregation in 160 mm × 160 mm billet continuous casting with dual electromagnetic stirrings in mold and final stage of solidification (M-EMS and F-EMS). In the model, the phases of liquid, columnar, and equiaxed were treated separately and the initial growing equiaxed phase, which could move freely with liquid, was regarded as slurry. To obtain the equiaxed grains nucleation and columnar front evolution, the unit tracking method and the columnar front tracking model were built. The model was validated by magnetic induction intensity of stirrer, billet surface temperature, and carbon segregation. The equiaxed phase evolution and the solute transport with effect of fluid flow and grains transport were described in this article. The results show that the equiaxed phase ratio will not increase obviously with higher current intensity of M-EMS, while the negative segregation near the strand surface becomes more serious. The negative segregation zone near the billet center and the center positive segregation come into being with the effect of equiaxed grains sedimentation and liquid thermosolutal flow. It is also found that the liquid solute transport in the F-EMS zone becomes the main factor with higher current intensity rather than the solidification rate, and therefore, the final billet center segregation decreases first and then turns to rise with the current intensity. The optimal current intensities of M-EMS and F-EMS proposed for SWRT82B billet continuous casting are 200 and 400 A, respectively.

  6. 水平分型大型金属型模具设计及其应用%Design and Application of Large Permanent Casting Mold with Horizontal Parting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 梁建忠; 师文琴; 侯建兵; 原建明; 袁际章

    2013-01-01

    介绍了大型复杂铝合金箱体铸件采用水平分型的模具结构设计及铸造工艺的设计,侧重于直浇道正斜度浇注反斜度出型,冒口反斜度出型正斜度补缩的设计,以及通过在普通重力浇注机上增加反压装置的设计,实现了普通浇注机在无顶出油缸情况下完成铸件的出型和顶出.%The structure design and casting process of the large permanent casting mold with the horizontal parting for large and complex Al-alloy housing castings were introduced,focus on the process design with the positive draft angle sprue and the mold open with negative angle,as well as the process design of the mold open with negative draft angle dead head and the feeding with positive angle,by equipping the ordinary gravity filler with counterpressure device to assure that the ordinary filler fulfills the open and ejection without hydrocylinder.

  7. Analysis on the Deflection Angle of Columnar Dendrites of Continuous Casting Steel Billets Under the Influence of Mold Electromagnetic Stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xincheng; Wang, Shengqian; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Conejo, Alberto; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-11-01

    In the current study, the deflection angle of columnar dendrites on the cross section of steel billets under mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS) was observed. A mathematical model was developed to define the effect of M-EMS on fluid flow and then to analyze the relationship between flow velocities and deflection angle. The model was validated using experimental data that was measured with a Tesla meter on magnetic intensity. By coupling the numerical results with the experimental data, it was possible to define a relationship between the velocities of the fluid with the deflection angle of high-carbon steel. The deflection angle of high-carbon steel reached maximum values from 18 to 23 deg for a velocity from 0.35 to 0.40 m/s. The deflection angles of low-carbon steel under different EM parameters were discussed. The deflection angle of low-carbon steel was increased as the magnetic intensity, EM force, and velocity of molten steel increased.

  8. Vacuum-sealed casting process under pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chen-xi; GUO Tai-ming; WU Chun-jing; WANG Hong

    2006-01-01

    A new casting method, the vacuum-sealed mold casting under pressure, has been developed, and thin wall iron castings with high precision and smooth surface have been produced successfully with this casting method. The experimental results show that the liquid iron has a very excellent filling ability because a high negative pressure is formed in the mold cavity during filling process. The vacuum-sealed mold under pressure has very high compressive strength greater than 650 kPa, which is 3-4 times as high as that of the molds produced by high-pressure molding process or vacuum-sealed molding process.

  9. Analysis of filling process of Ti6Al4V alloy melt poured in permanent mold during centrifugal casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ti6Al4V hip joint was foundered and the filling process of the melt poured in permanent mould during the centrifugal casting process was analyzed and the mathematical model of the filling process was established. Furthermore, the mathematical model was validated with a wax-model experiment. Calculating results show that the centrifugal field has an important influence on the filling process and the melt fills the mould with variational cross-sectional area and inclined angle. The cross-sectional area is in inverse proportion to the filling speed and its decreasing speed becomes fast with increasing rotating speed. The tangential value of the melt cross-sectional free-surface inclined angle is in direct proportion to the filling speed and the inclined angle increases with the filling length. Change curves of the cross-sectional inclined angle and area were obtained by the wax-model experiment when the rotating speeds were 60, 90 and 120  r/min respectively, which shows that the mathematical model is consistent with the experimental results.

  10. Emission of BTEX and PAHs from molding sands with furan cold setting resins containing different contents of free furfuryl alcohol during production of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Holtzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, furan resin is the largest selling no-bake system of moulding sands. The most commonly used furan no-bake binders (FNB are condensation products of furfuryl alcohol (FA urea, formaldehyde and phenol. They are generally cured by exposure to organic sulfonic acids. FNB provide excellent mold and core strength, cure rapidly and allow the sand to be reclaimed at fairly high yields, generally 75%-80%, especially in applications where due allowance is made for the need to keep total sulfur content below 0.1%. However, due to probable carcinogenic properties of furfuryl alcohol, the EU Directive limits the content of this substance (in a monomer form in resin to 25%. The classification of furfuryl alcohol and the resulting furan resin products has changed from "harmful" to "toxic" by inhalation? The aim of this study was to determine the effect of free furfuryl alcohol content in the resin on the emission of harmful substances from the BTEX (Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene & Xylene and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon group exposed to high temperature and how it affects the emissions allowance of reclaimed sand in the matrix. Three resins from a leading manufacturer were examined, which contain a free furfuryl alcohol content of 71%-72%, about 50% and < 25%, respectively. The hardener for each resin was 65% aqueous solution of paratoluenesulfonic acid. Tests were carried out in semi-industrial conditions where liquid cast-iron was poured into sample sand mold at 1,350 ìC. The matrix of the studied sands was reclaimed in the amount of 0, 50%, 100%, respectively. With the increase of free furfuryl alcohol content, the volume of evolved gases decreased. For all resins the main component from the BTEX group dominating in the emitted gases was benzene; however toluene also appeared in the amount of a few percentages. In contrast, ethylbenzene and xylenes occurred only in the gases emitted from resin-bonded sands with the largest furfuryl

  11. WEAR-RESISTANCE OF CHROMIC CAST IRONS OF EUTECTIC COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Baranovskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Casting of wear-resistant chrome cast irons in combined molds and iron chills is studied. Application of these ways of casting results in blending of carbides and increasing of hardness of castings.

  12. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  13. Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F Wallace; David Schwam; Wen Hong dxs11@po.cwru.edu

    2001-09-14

    A test that involves immersion of the potential mod materials for permanent molds has been developed that provides a thermal cycle that is similar to the experienced during casting of aluminum in permanent molds. This test has been employed to determine the relative thermal fatigue resistance of several different types of mold materials. Four commercial mold coatings have been evaluated for their insulating ability, wear resistance and roughness. The results indicate that composition and structure of the mold materials have considerable effect on their thermal fatigue cracking behavior. Irons with a gray iron structure are the most prone to thermal fatigue cracking followed by compacted graphite irons with the least thermal fatigue cracking of the cast irons experienced by ductile iron. The composition of these various irons affects their behavior.

  14. The Study on Permanent Mold Tilting Casting For Large Aluminum Alloy Conductor%大型铝合金导体金属型倾转铸造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程俊明; 陆启为; 刘树声; 李赫

    2013-01-01

    The technology of tilting casting of permanent mold with resin-bonded sand cores to produce large aluminum alloy conductor with thick wall and local solid has been adopted, resulting in higher quality, performance and production efficiency with lower cost.%采用金属模树脂砂芯,重力倾转铸造工艺方法,生产型大壁厚、局部实心铝合金导体,质量高性能好,生产效率高、成本低。

  15. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs over ... basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very similar ...

  16. PRODUCTION OF CAST DIE INSERTS FOR HOT STRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Dudetskaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses distinctive design features of casting molds and technological aspects of producing cast inserts from 5ХНМЛ pressed steel. The designs of long-life metal shell molds are described. They ensure saving of molding material, increase of accepted material and improvement of quality of castings.

  17. 用于连铸结晶器的热电偶非标设计、安装和检测%Non-Standard Design,Installation and Testing of Thermocouple for Continuous Casting Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同彬; 康新

    2014-01-01

    为了准确、可靠、持久、经济地获得连铸结晶器铜板的温度分布,把热传导理论计算和实际经验值相结合,优化设计热电偶在连铸结晶器铜板上的位置;针对连铸结晶器的现场恶劣环境,提出热电偶的各个部件及其制作必须达到的指标要求及相应的非标设计;依据结晶器热电偶阵列安装调试的经验,总结出结晶器铜板上热电偶阵列的安装调试和维护检测等工艺技术方法。较好地解决了连铸结晶器温度检测系统现场热电偶容易损坏、维护难、成本高、实用性差等工程技术问题。研究不仅对连铸设备的改进和维护具有很好的参考价值,而且在宝钢、河北钢铁和土耳其等国内外企业取代铠装热电偶中获得成功应用。%In order to obtain accurately,reliably,durably and economically the temperature distribution in a continuous casting mold,the location of thermocouples in a continuous casting mold was optimized based on heat conduction theory and practical experience data. Aiming at the harsh environment under which a continuous casting mold usually works,the technical indexes for every part of the thermocouple and its fabrication is proposed,together with the non-standard design of thermocouple. Based on the experiences of installation and debugging of thermocouple array in mold,the corresponding technology methods of installation, debugging, maintenance and detection for thermocouple array in copper mold were proposed. The engineering technology problems of easy to damage,difficult to maintain,high cost,and poor practicability of thermocouple array in temperature measuring system of continuous casting mold were solved efficiently in this paper. The present results were not only good references for the improvement and maintain of continuous casting devices but also had gained success application in domestic and international enterprises such as Baosteel,Hebei steel and Turkey steel

  18. 铝合金低压铸造试棒模具的研究%A Study on the Mold of Low-Pressure Casting of Aluminum Alloy Test Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程俊明; 陆启为; 李立善; 李赫

    2014-01-01

    遵循低压铸造原理,按照GB1173-1995《铸造铝合金》国家标准中试棒尺寸设计制造砂型、金属模低压铸造试棒模具,在采用低压铸造工艺方法生产铸件的同时,用低压铸造试棒模浇注试棒,确保试棒等效证明低压铸造铝合金铸件性能。%Following the principle of low pressure casting and the test bar’s size of the national standard of GB1173-1995“Cast Aluminum Alloy”to design and manufacture the sand and permanent test bar mold, which is using the technology of low pressure to produce castings and test bar, tomake sure the test bar is the valid proof of properties of Al alloy by low pressure casting.

  19. Investigation of gating parameter, temperature and density effects on mold filling in the lost foam casting (LFC process by direct observation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mold filling sequence of A356 aluminum alloy was investigated with the aid of direct observation method (photography method. The results show that increase of the foam density causes decrease of the filling rate and increase of the filling time. Foam density has more pronounced effect on mold filling rate rather than pouring temperature. Gating design also affects the profile of molten metal advancement in the mold. The results show that the higher filling rate was obtained with G2 gating than with other gating system. Regarding the mold filling pattern, G3 gating system has more effective contact interface than G2 gating system and has lower filling time. Filling time in G4 gating and G1 gating system are nearly the same.

  20. Computation of Electromagnetic Field in a Novel Mold with Combination of Alternative and Static Electromagnetic Fields for Continuous Casting%电磁连铸复合式结晶器内电磁场的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱忠东; 李本文; 赫冀成; 贾光霖

    2001-01-01

    通过简化条件下的理论推导和实验测试分别对交变磁场和静磁场计算方法进行了验证,在此基础上对电磁连铸复合式结晶器内的磁场进行计算,并分析了有无结晶器条件下两种磁场的相互影响分析结果表明,该项技术是可行的%The electromagnetic fields in a novel mold with hybrid electromagnetic fields with combination of alternative and static electromagnetic fields for continuous casting were simulated numerically. The finite difference time domain(FDTD) method was used to simulate the alternative electromagnetic field and the finite difference method was used to simulate the static electromagnetic field. Experiments were performed to validate the verification of the finite difference analysis for static electromagnetic field and the computational results are proved in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The FDTD method for alternative electromagnetic field was validated by analytical solutions of a simplified one-dimensional physical model. The reasonable mutual positions for the two electromagnetic fields with and without mold were obtained based on the analysis of numerical simulation. The novel mold with hybrid electromagnetic fields is proved acceptable in the practice.

  1. Measures to Eliminate Shrinkage+Blowhole of Nodular Iron Crankshaft Cast with Resin Sand-Coated Iron Mold%消除覆砂铁型铸造曲轴气缩孔的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤虎; 崔卫东; 史传岳

    2013-01-01

    The nodular iron two-cylinder crankshafts produced with former resin sand-coated iron mold designed according former casting method had been rejected due to the shrinkage+blowhole defect. By adopting following measures,the problem has been solved: (1 )enlarging the distance between two crankshafts cast in one mold to increase the cooling effect of the iron mold; (2) improving the design of internal hole of the connecting necks and relevant sand cores to reduce sand layer thickness of the cores and thereby to reduce the gas evolution of the cores and improve the cooling condition of the areas near to the internal cores; (3 )properly adjusting chemical composition and decreasing pouring temperature to reduce liquid contraction.%覆砂铁型铸造二缸球铁曲轴按原工艺生产曾因气缩孔缺陷引起报废,通过采取相应措施,该问题已得到解决:(1)加大铸型内两支曲轴的间距和增大铁型外形尺寸,增强铁型的冷却作用;(2)改进曲轴连杆轴颈内孔形状及其砂芯设计,减薄砂芯砂层厚度,减少砂芯发气量,并改善内孔部位的冷却条件;(3)适当调整化学成分和降低浇注温度,减少液态收缩.

  2. 连铸结晶器铜板电沉积Ni-Co-Mo技术的研究%The Research on Technology of Electrodeposition of Ni-Co-Mo Alloy for Continuous Casting Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春雷; 侯峰岩; 谭兴海; 王庆新; 郁祖湛

    2012-01-01

    The continuous casting mold is very important part in continuous casting process. The continuous casting mold needs great wear resistance and great corrosion resistance for it is eroded under molten steel in a long time. The influence of content of sodium molybdate and current density on the content of coating, the hardness of coating, the structure of coating, the current efficiency of hath and corrosion resistance is studied. The mechanism of electrodepositing Ni-Co-Mo alloy is studied through polarization curves and cyclic voltammeter curves after the process is confirmed. The morphology and composition of coating is tested by SEM and EDX. The wear resistance of coating is studied by wear testing machine.%结晶器是钢材连铸技术过程中非常重要的组成部件.结晶器铜板长时间经受钢水冲刷,必须具有很高的耐摩擦磨损、耐腐蚀性能.现研究了钼酸钠含量、电流密度对结晶器铜板电沉积Ni-Co-Mo合金的影响,并对镀层的成分、硬度、耐腐蚀性能进行了测试.在确定镀液成分后通过极化曲线和循环伏安法测试研究了电沉积Ni-Co-Mo合金的机理.用SEM、EDX方法研究了镀层形貌、成分.利用磨损试验机研究了镀层的耐磨损性能.

  3. Dominância coronariana em corações humanos em moldes por corrosão Coronary dominance patterns in the human heart investigated by corrosion casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Cavalet Soares Abuchaim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esse trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os padrões de dominância circulatória de corações humanos, o número de ramos que a artéria coronária direita fornece ao ventrículo esquerdo, o número de ramos que a artéria coronária esquerda fornece ao direito e a presença de anastomoses intercoronarianas, com sua localização e frequência. MÉTODOS: Foram produzidos 25 moldes de corações submetidos à instilação de acrílico colorido e posterior corrosão com ácido clorídrico, no Laboratório de Cirurgia Experimental da FURB. Peças com lesões e cicatrizes não foram usadas. RESULTADOS: Os corações pertenciam a indivíduos de ambos os sexos, sendo 17 (68% de indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade média de 40,2 anos (15 a 70 anos. A dominância direita ocorreu em 18 (72% peças, com 1, 2, 3 e 4 ramos em 2, 14, 2 e 1 moldes, respectivamente; a dominância esquerda foi observada em 5 (20% casos, com 1 ramo em 4 moldes e 2 em 1 molde; e a dominância balanceada foi verificada em 2 (8% moldes. Houve diferença significativa entre a dominância direita e esquerda (α > 5%, direita e balanceada (α > 5% e sem significância entre esquerda e balanceada (α OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to analyze the dominance patterns of the circulation of the human heart, the number of branches from the right coronary artery to the left ventricle, the number of branches from the left coronary artery to the right ventricle and the frequency and location of intercoronary anastomoses. METHODS: Casts were made of 25 hearts by the injection of colored acrylic resin and subsequent corrosion using hydrochloric acid at the experimental surgery laboratory of Furb. Specimens with lesions or scars were discarded. RESULTS: The hearts, from both men (17 - 68% and women (8 - 32%, had a mean age of 40.2 (15 to 70 years-old. Right dominance occurred in 18 (72% subjects, with 1, 2, 3 and 4 branches leading to the left ventricle in 2, 14, 2 and 2

  4. Efeito da adição de componentes inorgânicos na resistência mecânica de moldes de areia para fundição Effect of addition of inorganic components on the mechanical strength of sand molds for casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Cilla

    2012-03-01

    tratamentos térmicos foi comprovada por testes de resistência mecânica a compressão e análise de fotomicrografias das composições estudadas, conforme previsto nos respectivos diagramas de fases.The casting process faster, economical and conventional is to green sand molding, where the main ligand is a moist clay (bentonite. However, due to technological requirements, are also used as binders toxic furan resin, phenolic or urethane. New technologies have been developed for the recovery and blanketing the sands, but the resins currently available are limited by its chemical origin. After use these molds are discarded, and thus the toxic binders become an environmental problem. Thus, the replacement of these binders by organic compounds derived from renewable sources such as polyurethane resin derived from castor oil minimizes environmental impacts, leading the casting process towards sustainability, necessary because of the increasing stringency of environmental legislation. Because of the thermal behavior of vegetable polyurethane, which decompose in a more pronounced when exposed to high temperatures compared to traditional organic binders the addition of inorganic components is required as a facilitator of the link between the grains sand and consequent cohesion of the molds during stage of fusion. In this sense, the use of phase diagrams to predict the appearance of liquid phase by the addition of inorganic components to the mix sand / resin in sand molds for casting and its effect on mechanical strength at high temperatures of the mold serves as a theoretical tool in helping to determining the composition of the molds according to its thermal stress during melting. Initial tests of molding and mechanical strength at room temperature showed that the polyurethane resin derived from castor oil produces results comparable to those of commercial resins. Also the addition of inorganic components and its effect when subjected to heat treatment is tested for mechanical

  5. Theoretical Analysis of the Solidification of Aluminum Alloy Billet in Air-Slip DC Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于赟; 马乃恒; 许振明; 李建国

    2004-01-01

    Based on the heat transfer analysis of Air-Slip DC mold, a numerical model was presented to study the quantitative relationships between critical solidification layer and casting rate, pouring temperature and mold cooling ability etc. The analytical results show that the Air-Slip mold heat transfer condition plays important roles on choices of a casting rate and the pouring temperature, and that the product of billet diameter and casting rate is a certain constant under a certain condition of the mold.

  6. Aluminum Alloy Inlet Manifold of Micro-car in Metal Mold Casting%铝合金进气歧管铸件的金属型铸造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重厚

    2001-01-01

    A new casting technology for inlet manifold in tilt casting machine for gravity die casting was described. In order to producte qualified inlet manifold casting, top gating system with lip riser and shell core made of precoated sand is used. The gas hole, shrinkage cavity and crack were eliminated through up-grading technology.%介绍了在可倾式金属型浇注机上制造进气歧管的铸造新工艺。为了获得合格的进气歧管铸件,采用压边顶铸浇注系统和覆膜砂壳芯制作工艺。并且改进工艺,以消除气孔、收缩和裂纹。

  7. RESEARCH OF GAS-FORMING ABILITY OF THE MATERIALS USED AT DEVELOPMENT OF DIVIDING COVERINGS FOR THE MOLDS OF CASTING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS UNDER PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mihaltsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of carrying out of experiments by determination of gas creating ability of different materials which are of interest from the point of view of molding of aluminum alloys under pressure are given and described, and the results of research are presented as well.

  8. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  9. Low-cycle Fatigue Behavior of Permanent-mold Cast Al-Si-Cu-Er Alloy%金属型铸造Al-Si-Cu-Er合金的低周疲劳行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 王爽; 吕伟; 车欣

    2011-01-01

    通过在不同外加总应变幅下进行应变控制的室温低周疲劳试验,探讨了金属型铸造A1-Si-Cu-Er合金的疲劳变形和断裂行为.结果表明,在低周疲劳加载下,金属型铸造Al-Si-Cu-Er合金表现为循环应变硬化、循环稳定;金属型铸造Al-Si-Cu-Er合金的弹性应变幅、塑性应变幅与疲劳断裂时的载荷反向周次之间的关系可分别用Basquin和Coffin-Manson公式描述;金属型铸造Al-Si-Cu-Er合金在低周疲劳加载条件下,裂纹均以穿晶方式萌生于试样表面,并以穿晶方式扩展.%The fatigue deformation and fracture behavior of permanent-mold cast Al-Si-Cu-Er alloy were investigated by low-cycle fatigue test at room temperature under different total strain amplitudes. The results show that permanent-mold cast Al-Si-Cu-Er alloy exhibits cyclic strain hardening and stable cyclic stress response during fatigue deformation, which mainly depend on the imposed total strain. The relation between elastic strain amplitude, plastic strain amplitude and reversals to failure can be described by Coffin-Manson and Basquin equations,respectiveiy. In addition, the fatigue cracks initiate at the free surface of fatigue specimens and propagate in a transgranular mode under low-cycle fatigue.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF EQUIPMENT FOR EFFECTIVE HARDENING SAND MIXTURE BY VACUUM MOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the design flask tooling and patterns for effective hardening sand mixture in the vacuum molding (V-Process, and molding on a one-off patterns (Lost Foam Casting. Sealing and evacuating sand mixture – two major factors influence the strength of the casting mold and casting quality, management practices which will enable to improve the casting process.

  11. Emprego de uma lama com caráter refratário para o processo de fundição odontológica Use of a refractory slurry characteristic in mold casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor PANZERI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de novos materiais, especialmente aqueles metálicos, tem sido uma constante na odontologia. Graças às necessidades da indústria no desenvolvimento de produtos cada vez com maior resistência, principalmente à corrosão, a prótese tem-se beneficiado com um número elevado de ligas metálicas excelentes. Para atender a necessidade de conformar as ligas em restaurações ou aparelhos próprios à nossa profissão, devem ser desenvolvidos refratários para estas ligas. Este é o caso da proposta de usar uma lama refratária como molde para confecção da fundição. A lama proposta, além de servir aos propósitos, tem-se mostrado capaz de oferecer melhor acabamento da liga.The use of new materials, particularly metal alloys, has been a constant trend in Dentistry. The industrial need to develop products with greater resistance to corrosion has benefited prosthodontics with a large number of excellent metallic alloys. In order to adapt such alloys to dental restorations or devices, refractory materials ought to be developed. That is the aim of using slurry as a mold in the casting process, which also makes it possible to obtain surfaces with improved finish.

  12. Analysis of Failure and Solving Measures of Grinding Ball in the Permanent Mold Casting%金属型铸造磨球失圆失效的分析与解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史正兴; 王志熙; 刘彦民; 杨永福; 秦俊敏

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-round is one of the failure types of grinding ball in the metal mold casting besides of abrasion and fragmentation failure,which has two types of the shape of steamed bread and pear.Microstructure defects,appearance defects during casting and grinding during working process are responsible for the failure.Through refining molten iron,changing geometric shape of grinding ball and standard specification of polishing,the out-of-round defects of the grinding ball can be eliminated.%失圆是金属型铸造磨球除研磨失效、破碎失效外的另一种失效形式,常表现为两种形状:馒头状和鸭梨状.失圆主要原因包括铸造组织缺陷、外形缺陷和后期修磨等,可以通过铁水精炼、改变磨球几何外形和规范修磨工艺等措施解决.

  13. A TWO-PHASE FLOW MODEL FOR SIMULATING AIR ENTRAPMENT DURING MOLD FILLING OF HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING PROCESS%应用两相流模型模拟压铸充型过程的卷气现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅君; 熊守美; Mei Li; John Allison

    2009-01-01

    通过对压铸充型过程中卷气缺陷形成机理的分析,认为型腔中空气的流动以及与金属液之间的相互作用是形成卷气现象的主要原因.为了考虑型腔中空气的流动,采用了一种不可压缩两相流数学模型来模拟压铸充型过程的卷气现象.通过计算流体力学中的两个基准算例,较为全面地验证了该模型的准确性和可靠性.在此基础上,设计了专门针对压铸充型过程的高速水模拟实验,通过对可视化实验结果与两相流模拟结果的比较,证实二者吻合较好,说明了该模型能够较好地模拟液体的充填行为和卷入其中的气泡.%The most common defect found in high pressure die casting (HPDC) process is the gas porosity which significantly affects the mechanical properties of the final components. The generation of gas porosity is known mainly due to the air entrapment in the liquid metal during the mold filling stage. Knowing the trapped-air location and amount could allow for a more accurate and objective analysis of casting quality. In the past few decades, extensive efforts have been made to develop simulation codes of casting flow. Most of these codes solve the velocity, pressure and fluid fraction only in the liquid phase with the assumption that the effect of air in the die cavity is negligible. As a matter of fact, the air in the die cavity has significant influence on the filling pattern of the molten metal and the gas porosity distribution of the die casts. Recently, following the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), two-phase flow models have drawn continuous attention in the numerical simulation of casting processes, but there are still few models and further studies are needed. In this study, the mechanism of the formation of air entrapment defects in the HPDC process was discussed and it turned out that the air flow in the die cavity as well as the interaction between air and liquid metal resulted in the final air

  14. Sinterability of Zirconia Top Coat of Investment Mold for Ti Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, zirconia is used as top mold material for Ti investment casting. Top mold samples are made by proper mold building technology. The effect of different sintering temperature on chemical composition, microstructure and residual bending strength of the top mold sample is studied. The volume and homogeneity of the air holes in the top mold are determined by sintering temperature, and finally determined the residual bending strength of the mold sample was determined.

  15. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  16. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Hai; XIE Cheng-mu; ZHAO Jia-qi

    2005-01-01

    The development and research of titanium cast alloy and its casting technology, especially its application inaeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of molding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problems and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  17. Inner surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by centrifugal casting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, H; Raptis, C N; Asgar, K

    1981-05-01

    Six variables that could affect the surface roughness of a casting were investigated. The variables were (1) type of alloy, (2) mold temperature, (3) metal casting temperature, (4) casting machine, (5) sandblasting, and (6) location of each section. It was determined that the training portion of a complete cast crown had rougher surfaces than the leading portion. Higher mold and casting temperatures produced rougher castings, and this effect was more pronounced in the case of the base metal alloy. Sandblasting reduced the roughness, but produced scratched surfaces. Sandblasting had a more pronounced affect on the surface roughness of the base metal alloy cast either at a higher mold temperature or metal casting temperature. The morphology and the roughness profile of the original cast surface differed considerably with the type of alloy used.

  18. Method for casting thin metal objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  19. Compound cast product and method for producing a compound cast product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Viswanathan, Srinath

    2002-09-17

    A compound cast product is formed in a casting mold (14) having a mold cavity (16) sized and shaped to form the cast product. A plurality of injectors (24) is supported from a bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). The injectors (24) are in fluid communication with the mold cavity (16) through the bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). A molten material holder furnace (12) is located beneath the casting mold (14). The holder furnace (12) defines molten material receiving chambers (36) configured to separately contain supplies of two different molten materials (37, 38). The holder furnace (12) is positioned such that the injectors (24) extend downward into the receiving chamber (36). The receiving chamber (36) is separated into at least two different flow circuits (51, 52). A first molten material (37) is received in a first flow circuit (51), and a second molten material (38) is received into a second flow circuit (52). The first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into the mold cavity (16) by the injectors (24) acting against the force of gravity. The injectors (24) are positioned such that the first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into different areas of the mold cavity (16). The molten materials (37, 38) are allowed to solidify and the resulting compound cast product is removed from the mold cavity (16).

  20. Análise da segmentação venosa hepática através de moldes de resina Hepatic venous segmentation analysis by resin cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Diógenes Filho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Aferir a independência da segmentação da drenagem venosa hepática, bem como a relação entre seus segmentos. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados trinta fígados humanos, analisados cuidadosamente para exclusão de possíveis rompimentos extra e intra-parenquimatosos. Foi injetada uma resina sintética (Resapol T-208 nas veias hepáticas direita, média e esquerda isoladamente, com diferentes cores, para identificação dos segmentos, utilizando-se a técnica de injeção-corrosão. Após a obtenção dos moldes, foi realizada a pesagem e a planimetria destes, em conjunto e separadamente. RESULTADOS: Foi observado que todos os moldes hepáticos apresentaram independência entre seus segmentos e que o segmento direito foi o maior (p=0,005. Ao correlacionar o peso do fígado com a proporção entre os segmentos, obteve-se um coeficiente de correlação de 0,023. CONCLUSÕES: Os segmentos das veias hepáticas são independentes entre si, ocorrendo preponderância do segmento venoso direito sobre os demais e o aumento do peso do fígado sem patologia corresponde a um aumento proporcional entre os seus segmentos.OBJECTIVE: To establish the independence of segmentation of the hepatic venous drainage and the relationship among its segments. METHODS: Thirty livers were carefully analyzed in order to exclude any intraparenchymatous injury. A synthetic resin (Resapol T-208 was injected into each one of the hepatic veins (right, middle and left, in different colors, to identify each segment, using the injection-corrosion technique. In each liver the obtained casts were weighed and submitted to planimetry, separately and altogether. RESULTS: The fact that all the livers' casts have independent segments was noticed, and the right segment was the largest one (p=0,005. A coefficient of 0,023 was obtained correlating the weight of the liver with the proportion of its segments. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic venous segments are independent and the right venous segment

  1. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Theory of batchwise centrifugal casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P. Maarten; Nijmeijer, Arian; Verweij, Henk

    1998-01-01

    In batchwise centrifugal casting a cylindrical mold is filled with suspension and rotated rapidly around its axis. This results in the movement of the particulate phase toward the cylinder wall and the formation of a tubular cast. Theory is presented for particle transport in the suspension phase an

  3. Glovebox Advanced Casting System Casting Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Casting optimization in the GACS included three broad areas; casting of U-10Zr pins, incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier, and development of a permanent crucible coating. U-10Zr casting was improved over last year’s results by modifying the crucible design to minimize contact with the colder mold. Through these modifications casting of a three pin batch was successful. Incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier also was optimized through furnace chamber pressure changes during the casting cycle to reduce gas pressures in the mold cavities which led to three full length pins being cast which incorporated FCCI barriers of three different thicknesses. Permanent crucible coatings were tested against a base case; 1500°C for 10 minutes in a U-20Pu-10Zr molten alloy. None of the candidate coating materials showed evidence of failure upon initial visual examination. In all areas of work a large amount of characterization will be needed to fully determine the effects of the optimization activities. The characterization activities and future work will occur next year.

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Wwww of... - Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Existing Open Molding Sources, New Open Molding Sources Emitting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Centrifugal Casting and Continuous Lamination/Casting Sources that Emit Less Than 100 TPY of HAP 3... Existing Centrifugal Casting and Continuous Lamination/Casting Sources that Emit Less Than 100 TPY of HAP... lb/ton. 522 lb/ton. 7. centrifugal casting—CR/HS a. resin application with the mold closed, and...

  5. Mold Testing or Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  6. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  7. THE WEAR RESISTANCE INCREASE OF CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Ilyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the tests on the wear resistance of chromium cast irons of different compositions obtained in sand forms. It has been shown that increase of the wear resistance and mechanical properties of the cast iron is possible to obtain using the casting in metal molds. A further increase in wear resistance of parts produced in metal molds is possible by changing the technological parameters of casting and alloying by titanium.

  8. Forming Mechanism of Gaseous Defect in Ti-48A1-2Cr-2Nb Exhaust Valves Formed with Permanent Mold Centrifugal Casting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A method combining theoretical analysis with experiment is adopted and the flowing process of Ti-48AI-2Cr-2Nb alloy melt poured in a permanent mould during the centrifugal casting process has been analyzed. A mathematical model of the filling process is established and the forming mechanism of internal gaseous defect is summarized. The results of calculation show that the melt fills the mould with varying cross-section area and inclined angle. The filling speed of the cross-section is a function of filling time. The cross-section area is directly proportional to the filling speed and the inclined angle is inversely proportional to the filling speed at a given rotating speed of the platform. Both of them changes more obvious near the mould entrance.The gaseous defect can be formed in several ways and the centrifugal field has an important influence on the formation of the defect. In addition, the filling process in centrifugal field has been verified by wax experiments and the theoretical analysis are consistent with experimental results.

  9. Technological parameters of die casting and quality of casting from EN AC46500 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Die casting represents the highest technological level of metal mold casting. This technology enables production of almost all final products without necessity of further processing. The important aspect of efficiency and production is a proper casting parameters setting. In the submitted paper following die casting parameters are analyzed: plunger pressing speed and pressure. The studied parameters most significantly affect a qualitative of castings from EN AC46500 alloy and they influence t...

  10. Numerical simulation of the flow field in a wide slab continuous casting mold%宽板坯连铸结晶器流场的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜平国; 赖朝斌

    2016-01-01

    针对某钢厂150 mm×1503 mm宽板坯连铸结晶器生产中出现的表面波动及卷渣情况,利用FLUENT软件对其进行了三维稳态数学计算.计算以流体表面流速为主要衡量指标,研究了出水口的倾斜角度、倒角形状对该水口作用下结晶器内流场的影响.计算结果表明,原型结晶器浸入式水口作用下,流场内的表面流速大,射流冲击深度小,液面波动大,卷渣严重.改变出水口的倾斜角度,结晶器内表面流速依旧较大,依然有较严重的卷渣现象发生.改用方案3出水口倒角形状改为相切后,表面流速由原型最大的0.6 m/s减小到0.2 m/s,冲击深度增加,流场改善,卷渣问题得到解决.%The surface fluctuation and slag entrapment involved in the wide slab continuous casting mold of 150 mmí1503 mm in a steel plant was caculated by FLUENT software. Surface velocity was set as the main measure to study about port angle and guide an-gular shape of the nozzle influence on flow field. The calculation results show that under the condition of original nozzle, the surface velocity was large, but the impact depth was small and the fluctuation was severe. Entrapment of slag was serious. After changed the angle of the outlet, the mold surface velocity remained large and severe entrapment of slag. When scheme 3 ( outlet lead angle changed shape to tangent) was applied, surface velocity reduced from 0. 6 m/s to 0. 2 m/s, impact depth improved, flow field character became better, and problem of slag entrapment was resolved.

  11. Characteristics and influence factors of mold filling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Qingming; Chen Xia; Chen Changjun; Bao Siqian; David Schwam

    2009-01-01

    The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold filling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum flowing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented gating systems. The investigation discovers that there are many influencing factors on the mold filling process. This paper focuses its research on some of the factors, such as the dimensions of the vertical riser and slot thickness, as well as roughness of the coating layer. The results indicate that molten metal can smoothly fill into casting cavity with a proper slot gating system. A bigger vertical riser, proper slot thickness and rougher coating can provide not only a better mold filling pattern, but also hot melt into the top of the cavity. A proper temperature gradient is obtainable, higher at the bottom and lower at the top of the casting cavity, which is in favor of feeding during casting solidification.

  12. 散热片砂型铸造过程的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Sand Mold Casting Cooling Fin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广太

    2013-01-01

    用真空负压方法生产铝合金散热片,根据奥赞公式计算散热片的阻流截面积,根据热节圆原理计算冒口尺寸.通过数值模拟,观察铸件充型、凝固过程,预测缺陷所在位置,进行工艺分析及改进.结果表明,通过升高静压头,加大冒口,将缺陷转移至冒口中,可有效地避免铸件中的缩孔、缩松.优化的最佳工艺参数:浇注时间为3 s,浇注温度为740℃时金属静压头高度为40 mm,9个直径为10 mm的冒口.此时充型平稳,无卷气与飞溅;由下至上顺序凝固,可以实现补缩,生产出结构完整的铸件.%Aluminum alloy cooling fin was produced by vacuum negative pressure technology, in which gating area of cooling fin was calculated by the Osann equation, and riser size was presented based on the hot spot circle. The numerical simulation was performed to visualize filling and solidification process to predict the potential position of casting defects, and process was optimized. The simulated results reveal that shrinkage porosity (hole) in the cooling fin can be eliminated effectively as a result of defects transferring into the riser by increasing height of static head and enlarging riser size. The optimized process parameters are as follows: pouring time of 3 s, pouring temperature of 740 ℃ , hydrostatic head height of 40mm and nine risers with Φ10 mm. With the optimized processing parameters, smooth filling with entrapment-gas free and splash free is conducted to realize the sequential solidification and feeding, producing successfully the qualified cooling fin.

  13. 金属型离心铸造Ti-48%Al-2%Cr-2%Nb合金汽车排气阀的研制%Research on Ti-48%Al-2%Cr-2%Nb Automobile Exhaust Valve Cast by Centrifugal Casting Process in Permanent Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛文斌; 李东; 杨锐; 郭景杰; 刘羽寅; 苏彦庆; 贾均

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb automobile exhaust valve was castby the centrifugal casting method in permanent mold and its surface layer structure, microstructure, element distribution , mechanical properties etc were analyzed by SEM, XRD and EMPA . Furthermore, the valves treated by HIP were tested on 483Q diesel engine platform. Results showed that the distribution of alloying elements in Ti-Al based alloy for exhaust valve was uniform and its microstructure was refined to a certain extent. The mechanical properties of exhaust valve cast by centrifugal permanent mold then treated by HIP were that the σb = 670MPa, σ0.2 =527.5MPa and δ=3%. Result of the engine platform test showed that the valve had excellent air-tightness and wear-resistant properties, so could successfully satisfy requirements of the engine.%本文利用离心铸造的方法,在金属型中浇铸了Ti-48%Al-2%Cr-2%Nb合金汽车排气阀,通过SEM、XRD和EMPA等分析手段,对排气阀坯件的表面层结构、组织形态、成分分布和力学性能等特征进行了检测,并将热等静压(HIP)处理后的排气阀安装到483Q型柴油发动机上进行了台架试验。结果表明,金属型离心浇铸Ti-Al基合金排气阀,在保证阀体成分均匀性的同时,可在一定程度上细化铸件的显微组织。HIP处理后排气阀的平均力学性能为:σb=670MPa,σ0.2=527.5MPa和δ=3%。进一步的台架测试结果表明,排气阀在测试过程中表现出了优异的密封性和耐磨性,完全满足发动机的性能要求。

  14. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  15. The Thermal Distortion of a Funnel Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeler, Lance C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Schimmel, Ronald C.; Abbel, Gert

    2012-10-01

    This article investigates the thermal distortion of a funnel mold for continuous casting of thin slabs and explores the implications on taper and solidification of the steel shell. The three-dimensional mold temperatures are calculated using shell-mold heat flux and cooling water profiles that were calibrated with plant measurements. The thermal stresses and distorted shape of the mold are calculated with a detailed finite-element model of a symmetric fourth of the entire mold and waterbox assembly, and they are validated with plant thermocouple data and measurements of the wear of the narrow-face copper mold plates. The narrow-face mold distorts into the typical parabolic arc, and the wide face distorts into a "W" shape owing to the large variation in bolt stiffnesses. The thermal expansion of the wide face works against the applied narrow-face taper and funnel effects, so the effect of thermal distortion must be considered to accurately predict the ideal mold taper.

  16. Effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the mold-filling behavior of titanium melts in vertically rotating molds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Daming; Jia Limin; Fu Hengzhi

    2008-01-01

    The vertical centrifugal-casting technique is widely used in the manufacture of various irregularly-shaped castings of advanced structural alloys with thin walls, complex shapes and/or large sizes. These castings are used in the increasing applications in aero-space/aviation industries, human teeth/bone repairs with near-net shaped components, etc. In a vertically rotating casting system, the mold-filling processes of alloy melts, coupled with solidification-heat transfer, may be much more complicated, because they are driven simultaneously by gravity, centrifugal and Codolis forces. In the present work, an N-S/VOF-equations-based model, solved using a SOLA-VOF algorithm, under a rotating coordinate system was applied to numerically investigate the impacts of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on metallic melt mold-filling processes in different vertical centrifugal-casting configurations with different mold-rotation rates using an authors' computer-codes system. The computational results show that the Coriolis force may cause remarkable variations in the flow patterns in the casting-part-cavities of a large horizontal-section area and directly connected to the sprue via a short ingate in a vertical centrifugal-casting process. A "turn-back" mold-filling technique, which only takes advantage of the centrifugal force in a transient rotating melt system, has been confirmed to be a rational centrifugal-casting process in order to achieve smooth and layer-by-layer casting-cavities-filling control. The simulated mold-filling processes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy melt, in a vertical centrifugal-casting system with horizontally-connected plate-casting cavities, show reasonable agreement with experimental results from the literature.

  17. Fabrication of bulk metallic glasses by centrifugal casting method

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nowosielski; R. Babilas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present work is characterization of the centrifugal casting method, apparatus andproduced amorphous materials, which are also known as bulk metallic glassesDesign/methodology/approach: The studied centrifugal casting system consists of two main parts: castingapparatus and injection system of molten alloy. The described centrifugal casting method was presented bypreparing a casting apparatus “CentriCast – 5”. The apparatus includes a cylindrical copper mold, which isrot...

  18. Agile Manufacturing Development of Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    responsible for con- verting the available 2D CATIA casting design into a 3D Pro/Engineering geometric model of the casting, for use by Clinkenbeard...changes to the draw- ings. MWM. As the part designer, MWM reviewed and evalu- ated proposed changes to the design. MWM also updated the CATIA ...creation of solid models of the cores and molds, using IGES translations of the CATIA files secured from MWM through GE Transportation Sys- tems. Due

  19. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  20. Effect of Rotational Speeds on the Cast Tube During Vertical Centrifugal Casting Process on Appearance, Microstructure, and Hardness Behavior for Al-2Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailesh Rao, A.; Tattimani, Mahantesh S.; Rao, Shrikantha S.

    2015-04-01

    The flow of molten metal plays a crucial role in determining casting quality. During rotation of the mold, melt flow around its inner circumference determines the final configurations and properties of the cast tube. In this paper, Al-2Si alloy is cast in the vertical mold at the various rotational speeds of the mold. The uniform cylinder tube is formed at a rotational speed of 1000 rpm, while before and beyond this speed, irregular-shaped cast tube is formed. Finally, fine structured grain size with high hardness value is found in uniform cast tube compared with others.

  1. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great significance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

  2. Characteristics and infl uence factors of mold fi lling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide fi lms and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold fi lling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum fl owing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to obs...

  3. Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    designed to simulate the heat transfer behavior during freezing and the subsequent cooling of an arbitrarily shaped 3D casting solidify- ing in a sand...variety of complex 2D and 3D geometries may be simulated by these routines. It is important, however, to be aware of the assumptions made in the design...three-dimensional with a sand mold surrounding a steel casting. The simulation program is desing - ed to simulate any shape. The shape of test casting

  4. APPLICATION OF EXOTHERMIC PLUGS AT PRODUCTION OF STEEL CASTING IS THE WAY TO ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gatsuro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that application of exothermic plugs allows to decrease steel intensity of casting mold, labor intensiveness for trim, expenses for melting of 1 ton of good casting, material expenses for burden materials.

  5. Characteristics and infl uence factors of mold fi lling process in permanent mold with a slot gating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Changjun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide fi lms and entrapped gas. In this study, the slot gating system is employed to improve mold fi lling behavior and therefore, to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. An equipment as well as operation procedures for real-time X-ray radiography of molten aluminum fl owing into permanent molds have been developed. Graphite molds transparent to X-rays are utilized which make it possible to observe the fl ow pattern through a number of vertically oriented gating systems. The investigation discovers that there are many infl uencing factors on the mold fi lling process. This paper focuses its research on some of the factors, such as the dimensions of the vertical riser and slot thickness, as well as roughness of the coating layer. The results indicate that molten metal can smoothly fi ll into casting cavity with a proper slot gating system. A bigger vertical riser, proper slot thickness and rougher coating can provide not only a better mold fi lling pattern, but also hot melt into the top of the cavity. A proper temperature gradient is obtainable, higher at the bottom and lower at the top of the casting cavity, which is in favor of feeding during casting solidifi cation.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A NOVEL FLOW CONTROL OF MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.J. Xu; D.H. Li; J.C. He

    2002-01-01

    In order to know the distribution of magnetic field in a novel flow control of mold(NFC Mold) and to provide the experimental data for the electromagnetic structuredesign and the analysis of flow control in continuous casting mold, the magnetic fieldin a NFC Mold were measured by Tesla meter of Model CT-3. The method of vectorsynthesis was adopted in the measurement of magnetic fields. The results showed thatthe magnetic field in the NFC Mold was composed of two main magnetic areas thatwere symmetrical. Although there was leaking magnetic flux between the lower surfaceof the upper pole and the upper surface of the lower pole on the sides, it was restrainedby the main magnetic fields effectively. Therefore the NFC Mold was more preferablysatisfied to be used in controlling the molten steel flow in continuous casting mold.

  7. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  8. Micro precision casting based on investment casting for micro structures with high aspect ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chuang; LI Bang-sheng; REN Ming-xing; FU Heng-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Microcasting is one of the significant technologies for the production of metallic micro parts with high aspect ratio (ratio of flow length to diameter). A micro precision casting technology based on investment casting using centrifugal method was investigated. The micro parts of Zn-4%Al alloy with an aspect ratio up to 200 was produced at the centrifugal speed of 1 500 r/min and the mold temperature of 270 ℃. The investigations on the relationship between flow length and rotational speed were carried out. For microcasting, the flow length is not only dependent on the centrifugal speed under the constant centrifugal radius, but also on the preheating temperature of mold. The flow length increases as the rotational speed and the mold temperature increase, and is much higher at a mold temperature of 270 ℃ than at other mold temperatures.

  9. Technological parameters of die casting and quality of casting from EN AC46500 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Gašpár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Die casting represents the highest technological level of metal mold casting. This technology enables production of almost all final products without necessity of further processing. The important aspect of efficiency and production is a proper casting parameters setting. In the submitted paper following die casting parameters are analyzed: plunger pressing speed and pressure. The studied parameters most significantly affect a qualitative of castings from EN AC46500 alloy and they influence the most a gained porosity level as well as basic mechanical properties represented by permanent deformations.

  10. Thermal Stresses in a Cylinder Block Casting Due to Coupled Thermal and Mechanical Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan; KANG Jinwu; HUANG Tianyou; HU Yongyi

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stress in castings results from nonuniform cooling. The thermal stress and the deforma-tion can change the casting and mold contact conditions which then alter the heat transfer between the cast-ing and the mold. The contact element method was used to study the interaction between a sand mold and a casting. The contact status was then fed back to the heat transfer analysis between the sand mold and the casting to re-evaluate the heat transfer coefficient based on the gap size or pressure between surfaces. The thermal and mechanical phenomena are then coupled in two directions. The method was applied to analyze stress in a stress frame specimen casting and a cylinder block. The results are more accurate than without consideration of the contact effects on the heat transfer.

  11. A silicon sheet casting experiment. [for solar cell water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sampson, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The casting of silicon blanks for solar cells directly without slicing is an exciting concept. An experiment was performed to investigate the feasibility of developing a machine that casts wafers directly. A Czochralski furnace was modified to accept a graphite ingot-simulating fixture. Silicon was melted in the middle of the ingot simulator in a boron nitride mold. Sample castings showed reasonable crystal size. Solar cells were made from the cast blanks. The performance is reported.

  12. Research on Mold Electro Magnetic Stirring of Round Billet Continuous Casting Machine and Its Practice%圆坯连铸机结晶器电磁搅拌的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭李波; 马忠存

    2015-01-01

    对圆坯连铸机结晶器内磁感应强度分布特征和结晶器电磁搅拌对GCr15钢碳偏析的影响进行了研究.研究表明:结晶器的磁感应强度随电流的增强而增大直至趋于平稳,随搅拌频率的增大而降低;结晶器内磁感应强度轴向最大位置在距结晶器上口900mm位置,向两侧陡降;径向分布不均匀,由搅拌器内表面向中心逐渐减小;高频率经结晶器铜管后衰减更大.当M-EMS参数在(450A/3.0Hz),改善了铸坯的C偏析,获得良好的工艺效果.%The magnetic flux density of mold electromagnetic stirrer (M-EMS) for round billet and the influence of M-EMS on carbon segregation for steel of GCr15 was researched. The result showed that magnetic flux density increas?es as the current increases, and decreases as the frequency increases; maximum magnetic flux density along axis of mold appears at 900mm away from the upper, and then fall dramatically in both sides; magnetic flux density unevenly distributes along radius of mold,gradually decreases from the inner surface to the center;high frequency passed through mold, attenuates more. The carbon segregation was improved and good effect achieved when the electric cur?rent was 450A and the frequency was 3.0Hz of mold electromagnetic stirrer.

  13. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  14. Development of low-temperature high-strength integral steel castings for offshore construction by casting process engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Sang-Sub; Mun Jae-Chul; Kim Tae-Won; Kang Chung-Gil

    2014-01-01

    In casting steels for offshore construction, manufacturing integral casted structures to prevent fatigue cracks in the stress raisers is superior to using welded structures. Here, mold design and casting analysis were conducted for integral casting steel. The laminar flow of molten metal was analyzed and distributions of hot spots and porosities were studied. A prototype was subsequently produced, and air vents were designed to improve the surface defects caused by the release of gas. A radio...

  15. Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of An Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Produced By Gravity Casting Process

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    High-strength aluminum alloy are widely used for structural components in aerospace, transportation and racing car applications. The objective of this study is to enhance the strength of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy used for gravity casting process. All alloys cast into stepped-form sand mold (Sand-mold Casting; SC) and Y-block shaped metal mold(Permanent mold Casting; PC) C and then two –step aged at 398-423 K after solution treated at 743 K for 36 ks. The tensile strength and total elongation of t...

  16. Numerical simulation of low pressure die-casting aluminum wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Guofa; Liu Xiangyu; Wang Kuangfei; Fu Hengzhi

    2009-01-01

    The FDM numerical simulation software, ViewCast system, was employed to simulate the low pressure die casting (LPDC) of an aluminum wheel. By analyzing the mold-filling and solidification stage of the LPDC process, the distribution of liquid fraction, temperature field and solidification pattern of castings were studied. The potential shrinkage defects were predicted to be formed at the rim/spoke junctions, which is in consistence with the X-ray detection result. The distribution pattern of the defects has also been studied. A solution towards reducing such defects has been presented. The cooling capacity of the mold was improved by installing water pipes both in the side mold and the top mold. Analysis on the shrinkage defects under forced cooling mode proved that adding the cooling system in the mold is an effective method for reduction of shrinkage defects.

  17. Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S. Fielding; J. Crapps; C. Unal; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-03-01

    One of the advantages of metallic fuel is the abilility to cast the fuel slugs to near net shape with little additional processing. However, the high aspect ratio of the fuel is not ideal for casting. EBR-II fuel was cast using counter gravity injection casting (CGIC) but, concerns have been raised concerning the feasibility of this process for americium bearing alloys. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program has begun developing gravity casting techniques suitable for fuel production. Compared to CGIC gravity casting does not require a large heel that then is recycled, does not require application of a vacuum during melting, and is conducive to re-usable molds. Development has included fabrication of two separate benchscale, approximately 300 grams, systems. To shorten development time computer simulations have been used to ensure mold and crucible designs are feasible and to identify which fluid properties most affect casting behavior and therefore require more characterization.

  18. Inference of optimal speed for sound centrifugal casting of Al-12Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agari, Shailesh Rao; Mukunda, P. G.; Rao, Shrikantha S.; Sudhakar, K. G.

    2011-05-01

    True centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. When a mold is rotated at low and very high speeds defects are found in the final castings. Obtaining the critical speed for sound castings should not be a matter of guess or based on experience. The defects in the casting are mainly due to the behavior of the molten metal during the teeming and solidification process. Motion of molten metal at various speeds and its effect during casting are addressed in this paper. Eutectic Al-12Si alloy is taken as an experiment fluid and its performance during various rotational speeds is discussed.

  19. Numerical Simulation and Water Analog of Mold Filling Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of a computer code, developed by the authors, in shaping gating systems by modeling the fluid flow phenomena through a complex gating system during mold filling. A plate casting with dimension 200 mm×200 mm×50 mm was chosen as the verifying problem. Water analog studies were carried out on this casting. The comparison indicates that computer simulation could be a powerful tool in shaping gating systems.

  20. Improving Cooling Rate During Solidification by Eliminating the Metal-Mold Interfacial Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Long; Zhang, Wei; Ji, Yanliang; Huang, Yujin; Li, Jianguo

    2015-07-01

    A new solidification process called non-interfacial-gap permanent-mold casting (NIGPMC) is proposed to improve the cooling rate by eliminating the metal-mold interfacial gap. High-Cr steel ingots were prepared by this process and conventional permanent-mold casing (CPMC) separately. Comparing with CPMC, the primary dendrite arm spacing obtained by NIGPMC is greatly refined. It is demonstrated that the NIGPMC is a promising pathway to refine the microstructure of the large ingot.

  1. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschnitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

  2. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  3. Simulation study on three casting processes for a marine propeller hub body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tongmin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mold filling and solidification process of a marine propeller hub were simulated using ProCAST? Three casting processes ?gravity casting, centrifugal casting and low pressure casting ?were compared in order to get the best process. The heat transfer coefficient of the casting/mold interface was determined using a reverse method. The simulated results of velocity, temperature and shrinkage porosity distribution were discussed in detail for the three casting processes. A smooth filling was found in all three casting processes, especially the low pressure casting exhibiting a better filling performance than the other two, but the solidification processes were different. The casting did not experience the sequential solidification, and the feeding paths were blocked, leading to shrinkage porosity defects in the riser and the bottom of the casting in gravity casting and in the upper zone of the casting in low pressure casting. While, the sequential solidification was well controlled in the solidification process of centrifugal casting, and majority of the shrinkage porosity defects can only be observed in the riser. It could be concluded that the centrifugal casting process is the most suitable casting process for the production of propeller hub body. The casting experiments verified the simulation results, and a defect-free propeller hub was obtained by centrifugal casting with a rotational speed of 150 r.in-1.

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Wwww of... - Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams 1 Table 1 to Subpart... Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams ER25AU05.020 ER25AU05.021...

  5. Combination Of Investment And Centrifugal Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeger, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    Modifications, including incorporation of centrifugal casting, made in investment-casting process reducing scrap rate. Used to make first- and second-stage high-pressure-fuel-turbopump nozzles, containing vanes with thin trailing edges and other thin sections. Investment mold spun for short time while being filled, and stopped before solidification occurs. Centrifugal force drives molten metal into thin trailing edges, ensuring they are filled. With improved filling, preheat and pour temperatures reduced and solidification hastened so less hot tearing.

  6. Rapid Cycle Casting of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    such as macrosegregation, hot tears, and blowholes are also difficult to control. Rheocasting l on the other hand, is a recent development which...viscosity. Advantages of the rheocasting process are: * Reduced attack of die or mold because of the reduced tempera- ture (by 1000 C for steel) and...4W W ’ V6W 4 1.2 THE SD PROCESS Many metals, including steel, can be cast at still lower tempera- soliifiction(2) tures than rheocasting by

  7. Influences of Casting Pressure Conditions on the Quality and Properties of a Magnesium Cylinder Head Cover Die Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhui LIU; Yangai LIU; Shoumei XIONG; Baicheng LIU; Y. Matsumoto; M. Murakami

    2005-01-01

    Casting pressure conditions have great influences on the casting defects, such as gas porosity, shrinkage porosity and gas holes. A Mg cylinder head cover die casting was used to experimentally study the influences of casting pressure,the loading time and the piston position of pressure intensification on the variation of pressure and the quality of casting. The results show that casting pressure, the loading time and the piston position of pressure intensification have great influences on the pressure variations in the mold, the quality and performance of casting. The external quality, the density and the tensile strength of casting were improved with the increase of casting pressure and the piston position of pressure intensification and the decrease of the loading time of pressure intensification.

  8. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  9. Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2003-05-01

    Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity.

  10. Mold design with simulation for chalcogenide glass precision molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Wang, Zhibin; Li, Junqi; Zhang, Feng; Su, Ying; Wang, Zhongqiang

    2016-10-01

    Compare with the manufacturing of the traditional infrared material, such as signal crystal germanium, zinc sulfide, zinc selenide etc, chalcogenide infrared glass is suitable for precision molding for the low soften temperature to have large mass industry production. So the researches of precision glass molding are necessary, especially for the fast development of infrared product. The mold design is one of the key technologies of precision glass molding. In this paper, the mold processing of a sample chalcogenide glass from the technical drawing, mold design, molding to the lens are introduced. From the result of the precision molding, the technology of finite element simulation is a useful way to guiding the mold design. The molded lens by using mold process fit the design requirement.

  11. Silicon micro-mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  12. Application of Mold Electromagnetic Stirring in Billet Continuous Casting Machine%结晶器电磁搅拌装置在方坯连铸机的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于本庆

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic stirring system is introduced, including the characteristics of the system, working principle and characteristics of inverter power supply cabinet, application and good results in the 8-strand billet continuous casting machine at the steelmaking plant.%介绍了电磁搅拌器的组成特点、逆变电源柜的工作原理特性及其在北营炼钢厂8机8流方坯连铸机应用取得的成效。

  13. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  14. Glass molding process with mold lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Richard G.

    1978-06-27

    Improvements are provided in glass forming processes of the type wherein hot metal blank molds are employed by using the complementary action of a solid film lubricant layer, of graphite dispersed in a cured thermoset organopolysiloxane, along with an overspray of a lubricating oil.

  15. STUDY ON MACRO AND MICRO MODELING ON SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS OF SHAPED CASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Facing the market economy and global challenge the development of manufacturing industry especially casting industry is critical to the national economy. To reform the traditional casting industry by using computer technology is one of the hottest research frontiers studied by many researchers and engineers. Computer simulation of solidification process of shaped casting can assure the quality of casting, optimize the casting technology, shorten the lead time and therefore decrease the developing and manufacturing cost. Recently, numerical simulation of mold-filling and solidification processes of shaped casting and prediction of microstructure and property as well are extensively studied and put into application in many casting plants with many successful simulation cases.

  16. Manufacturing of thin walled near net shape iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per Leif

    2003-01-01

    The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed...... to be substituting iron casings with aluminum castings. Substituting iron castings with aluminum castings is not as easy as first believed, and hence the substitution is very slow. This combined with the lack of fully exploiting the potential in iron castings, makes research in iron castings interesting. The 60.......000.000 cars produced world wide each year consumes enormous amounts of cast parts ! The aim of the project is to develop the green sand molding method on DISAMATIC to be able to deal with the new demands for thin walled near net shape castings in iron....

  17. Casting Technology Development for SFR Metallic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.T.; Oh, S.J.; Ryu, H.J.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Kim, S.K.; Woo, Y.M.; Ko, Y.M.; Lee, C.B. [KAERI, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for sodium fast reactor (SFR) is being developed in Korea as a national mid- and long-term nuclear R and D program from 2007. The metallic fuel for SFR should be remotely fabricated under a radiation shielded environment such as a glove box or hot cell, because it contains long-lived minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm. In order to design a reliable remote fabrication system, various casting techniques have been studied by using U-Zr and U-Zr-RE alloys as surrogate fuel material. Rare earth elements such as Ce or Nd were used as a surrogate for minor actinide elements or solid solution fission products. Macro-scale soundness, microstructures and compositional homogeneity of metallic fuel samples fabricated by vacuum-assisted injection casting, vacuum-assisted gravity casting, centrifugal atomization and continuous casting were compared. Although sound slugs of U-Zr metallic fuel of 4{approx}6 mm in diameter could be fabricated by vacuum-assisted injection casting or vacuum-assisted gravity casting, it was necessary to consider that vaporization of Am and volume of radioactive wastes such as crucibles and molds should be minimized. Effects of casting parameters on the volatile loss, and effects of coatings on the chemical reaction between metallic fuel and molds are discussed. Some methods to reduce the volatile Am loss and waste molds and crucibles will be proposed. Short rods of U-Zr or U-Zr-Ce fuel will be fabricated by the vacuum-assisted gravity casting technique for an irradiation test in the HANARO research reactor from 2010. (authors)

  18. Characterization of Bimetallic Castings with an Austenitic Working Surface Layer and an Unalloyed Cast Steel Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the technology of bimetallic castings based on the founding method of layer coating directly in the cast process of the so-called method of mold cavity preparation. The prepared castings consist of two fundamental parts, i.e., the base and the working surface layer. The base part of the bimetallic casting is typical foundry material, i.e., unalloyed cast steel, whereas the working layer is a plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The quality of the joint between the base part and the working layer was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing and structure examinations containing metallographic macro- and microscopic studies with the use of a light microscope (LOM) with microhardness measurements and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with microanalysis of the chemical composition (energy dispersive spectroscopy—EDS). On the basis of the obtained results it was confirmed that the decisive phenomena needed to create a permanent joint between the two components of the bimetallic casting are carbon and heat transport in the direction from the high-carbon and hot base material which was poured into the mold in the form of liquid metal to the low-carbon and cold material of the working layer which was placed in the mold cavity in the form of a monolithic insert.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, tensile properties, and fracture behavior of permanent mold Al-10 wt pct Si-0.6 wt pct Mg/SiC/10p composite castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, F. H.; Samuel, A. M.

    1994-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of solution treatment (in the temperature range 520 °C to 550 °C) and artificial aging (in the temperature range 140 °C to 180 °C) on the variation in the microstructure, tensile properties, and fracture mechanisms of Al-10 wt pct Si-0.6 wt pct Mg/SiC/10p composite castings. In the as-cast condition, the SiC particles are observed to act as nucleation sites for the eutectic Si particles. Increasing the solution temperature results in faster homogenization of the microstructure. Effect of solution temperature on tensile properties is evident only during the first 4 hours, after which hardly any difference is observed on increasing the solution temperature from 520 °C to 550 °C. The tensile properties vary significantly with aging time and temperature, with typical yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and percent elongation (EL) values of ˜300 MPa, ˜330 MPa, and ˜1.4 pct in the underaged condition, ˜330 MPa, ˜360 MPa, and ˜0.65 pct in the peakaged condition, and ˜323 MPa, ˜330 MPa, and ˜0.8 pct in the overaged condition. Prolonged solution treatment at 550 °C for 24 hours results in a slight improvement in the ductility of the aged test bars. The fracture surfaces exhibit a dimple morphology and cleavage of the SiC particles, the extent of SiC cracking increasing with increasing tensile strength and reaching a maximum in the overaged condition. Microvoids act as nucleation sites for the formation of secondary cracks that promote severe cracking of the SiC particles. A detailed discussion of the fracture mechanism is given.

  20. Modelado del sistema de enfriamiento primario en máquinas de colada de acero con cristalizador curvo//Modelling of continuos casting steel during first cooling system with curve mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdel Díaz‐Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el proceso de enfriamiento primario durante la colada continua de aceros sucede una serie de transformaciones físicas que inciden directamente en la calidad final del producto. Los modelos matemáticos que explican este fenómeno no pueden ser tratados indistintamente para una instalación u otra debido a las disímiles variables implicadas en el proceso. En esta investigación se obtuvo un modelo físico- estadístico mediante regresiones múltiples sucesivas para el caudal necesario de agua en máquinas de colada continua de aceros con cristalizador curvo. Para el modelado se tuvo en cuenta las variables de operación del enfriamiento en cristalizadores curvos así como la validación estadística encondiciones de explotación en tiempo real. El modelo obtenido permitió estimar el comportamiento de las variables de control del proceso con suficiente precisión.Palabras claves: enfriamiento, solidificación, colada continua, modelado, aceración.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the process of primary cooling in the continuous casting of Steel there are physical transformations that affect directly the quality of the final product. The mathematical models that explain this phenomenon cannot be applied to different installations because the variables involved in the process are different. Inthis research, a physical-statistical model was obtained through multiple and successive regression for the flow of water which is necessary in this complex process. For the modeling the variables of operations in the cured cooling systems were taken into account as well as the statistical validation in conditions ofexploitation in real time. The model permitted to predict the behavior of the variables with sufficient precision.Key words: cooling, solidifications, continuous casting, modeling, steelmaking.

  1. Mold Image Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Mold Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... the foundation of this house Fix: It is important that the water drain away from the foundation— ...

  2. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  3. Transferability of glass lens molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Masahide

    2006-02-01

    Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

  4. Technologies for Use in the Formation of a Differentiated Structure in Iron Billets Used in Glass Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leushin, I. O.; Chistyakov, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    Causes for the failure of pig iron press molds that are parts of a glass mold are described. Criteria for differentiating the structure of pig iron are established. Ways of obtaining a differentiated structure of a casting product are outlined. A heat treatment regime for the billets is determined.

  5. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedipe Oyewole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of a centrifugal casting machine was successfully carried out. The operation of the machine was based on the principle of centrifugal force. Suitable design theory, analysis and calculation were adopted carried out in the course of the work. The mold is bolted to the base plate which can rotate at moderatespeeds thereby forcing the molten metal against the inner walls of the mold. This machine could be used to cast small engineering components. The centrifugal force on the machine was determined to be 3207.3N, while the required power on the machine was 854.7W. A test was carried out on the fabricated centrifugal casting machine with aluminum alloy and the machine was able to cast 6kg of aluminum alloy and the casting was successful.

  6. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-08-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  7. Study on Antigravity Mold Filling by Conservative Scalar Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日; 王友序; 杨根仓; 毛协民

    2003-01-01

    By SIMPLE method and Van-Leer scheme, a program on numerical simulation for 3D mold filling has been developed. The fluid flow field of gas and liquid is calculated in couples by a single phase N-S equation using SIMPLE method, and free surface control equation is handied by Van-Leer scheme. Then it is verified by an anti-gravity mold filling of thin wall plate. In order to demonstrate its ability to simulate 3D casting, an anti-gravity mould filling of a cube is computed by the program.

  8. Dynamic of taking out molding parts at injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most plastic parts used in automobile production are manufactured by injection molding. Their quality depends also on taking out molding and on the manipulators for it. Task of this contribution is to theoretically describe a transport of molding at taking out after injection molding in relation on its regulation. The following quantities are derived at it: the transition characteristic of the taking out system, the blocking diagram of taking out molding regulation, the amplitude and phase characteristic and the transition characteristic of action quantity at taking out molding regulation.

  9. Best practices for making high integrity lightweight metal castings- molten metal composition and cleanliness control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qigui Wang

    2014-01-01

    To make high integrity lightweight metal castings, best practices are required in various stages of casting and heat treatment processes, including liquid metal composition and quality control, casting and gating/riser system design, and process optimization. This paper presents best practices for liquid metal processing and quality assurance of molten metal in both melting and mold ifling. Best practices for other aspects of lightweight metal casting wil be published separately.

  10. Numerical Simulation and Cold Modeling experiments on Centrifugal Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthiprasad, Kestur Sadashivaiah; Murali, Mysore Seetharam; Mukunda, Pudukottah Gopaliengar; Majumdar, Sekhar

    2011-02-01

    In a centrifugal casting process, the fluid flow eventually determines the quality and characteristics of the final product. It is difficult to study the fluid behavior here because of the opaque nature of melt and mold. In the current investigation, numerical simulations of the flow field and visualization experiments on cold models have been carried out for a centrifugal casting system using horizontal molds and fluids of different viscosities to study the effect of different process variables on the flow pattern. The effects of the thickness of the cylindrical fluid annulus formed inside the mold and the effects of fluid viscosity, diameter, and rotational speed of the mold on the hollow fluid cylinder formation process have been investigated. The numerical simulation results are compared with corresponding data obtained from the cold modeling experiments. The influence of rotational speed in a real-life centrifugal casting system has also been studied using an aluminum-silicon alloy. Cylinders of different thicknesses are cast at different rotational speeds, and the flow patterns observed visually in the actual castings are found to be similar to those recorded in the corresponding cold modeling experiments. Reasonable agreement is observed between the results of numerical simulation and the results of cold modeling experiments with different fluids. The visualization study on the hollow cylinders produced in an actual centrifugal casting process also confirm the conclusions arrived at from the cold modeling experiments and numerical simulation in a qualitative sense.

  11. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  12. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to

  13. Control on Quality of Molding Sand in Static Pressure Molding Line%静压造型线型砂质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦荣; 令军科; 王新智

    2011-01-01

    High quantities of addition of core sands to molding sand for multiple products production in our molding line has resulted in deteriorative molding sand and batch defect of metal penetration. After adjusting the addition of sand and mix process, stable properties of molding sand have been obtained and quality problems with molding sand and metal penetration of casting defect effectively resolved.%我公司静压造型线因生产品种多,芯砂流入量大,导致型砂性能恶化,铸件出现批量粘砂;通过调整型砂配比及混制工艺,稳定了型砂性能,有效解决了型砂质量问题和铸件粘砂缺陷.

  14. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  15. Mold Filling Behavior of Melts with Different Viscosity under Centrifugal Force Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Recently proposed mathematical model for mold filling processes under centrifugal force field conditions and the computer codes were first tested through the sample simulation of gravity mold filling process for a benchmark plate-casting, which were compared with quoted experimental observations. The model and the developed computer program were then applied to the numerical simulation of centrifugal field mold filling processes for a thin-section casting with a titanium alloy melt of assumed viscosity of 1.2 and 12.0 mm2/s, respectively. The computation result comparison shows that the flow behaviors of the filling melts are basically similar to each other although the less viscous melt tends to fill into the thin section casting cavity faster.

  16. Estimation of solidification time during casting by use of a heat transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, M; Takahashi, J; Kimura, H; Ida, K

    1982-10-01

    Time-dependent temperature profiles in dental casting molds were analyzed by an unsteady heat conduction model. The thermal conductivity and initial temperature of the mold greatly affected the heat transfer in the mold. The thermal conductivities of gypsum- and phosphate-bonded investments at high temperatures were accurately measured by means of the hot wire method. From the data obtained, the solidification times of Ag, Ag alloy, and Co-Cr alloy were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

  17. A custom-made silicon mold for pressure therapy to ear keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, B; Yazar, M; Alyanak, A; Guven, E

    2009-11-01

    Keloids are raised reddish nodules that develop at the site of an injury. They are characterized histologically by an abundance of fibroblasts, thick collagen bundles, and ground substance. Auricular keloid formation is a known complication of ear piercing. Many types of treatments have been described for auricular keloids.Pressure therapy in combination with surgery, corticosteroid injection, or both is widely used to manage and prevent hypertrophic scarring. Many pressure devices and procedures have been developed. However, all of them are designed for the earlobe region. If a keloid grows in the posterior auricular region, none of the devices described in the literature will be effective. The authors developed a custom-made silicon ear mold that covers whole ear. With this mold, pressure can be applied homogeneously to the lobule and cartilaginous region, which the other devices described in the literature cannot affect. The preparation technique includes making the negative cast mold of the patient's ear, creating the positive cast mold from the negative cast mold, and forming the negative silicon mold from the positive cast. After all the processes, a silicon sheet has been designed according to the region needing to be pressurized. The designed silicon sheet is applied to the region, followed by placement of the silicon mold. A simple tennis head band can be used to stabilize the silicon cast. If the keloid extends to the posterior auricular region, pressurizing with clips or other devices described previously will be difficult. Application of pressure to the cartilaginous auricle needs custom-made devices. At this point, a pressure sore caused by a device applied to the ear is the most important problem. To prevent the ear from developing a pressure sore, the device should press to whole area homogeneously. For this reason, the device applied for pressure therapy to the ear must be custom made.

  18. Face Coat Materials Through Sessile Drop and Investment Casting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu; Yuan, Chen; Blackburn, Stuart; Withey, Paul A.

    2014-06-01

    Investment casting is uniquely suited to the manufacture of Ti alloys for the production of near net-shape components, reducing material waste, and machining costs. Because of the high reactivity of titanium and its based alloy, the molds which are used in the investment casting process require high chemical inertness, which results in them being very costly and non-recyclable. In order to reduce the cost of these molds, traditionally using yttria as the face coat, two alternative molds are developed in this study with face coat materials of Y2O3-Al2O3 and Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2. The slurry properties and chemical inertness of the face coats were evaluated for viscosity, thermal expansion, friability, and phase development. The chemical inertness of these two molds were determined using both the sessile drop test and investment casting to identify the levels of interaction with a Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb-0.2B alloy. The results illustrated that the molds using Y2O3-Al2O3 and Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2 as the face coats both showed excellent sintering properties and chemical inertness when compared to the yttria face coat. They can consequently be used as two alternative face coats for the investment casting of TiAl alloys.

  19. Bioreactor-free tissue engineering: directed tissue assembly by centrifugal casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Markwald, Roger R; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2008-02-01

    Casting is a process by which a material is introduced into a mold while it is liquid, allowed to solidify in a predefined shape inside the mold, and then removed to give a fabricated object, part or casing. Centrifugal casting could be defined as a process of molding using centrifugal forces. Although the centrifugal casting technology has a long history in metal manufacturing and in the plastics industry, only recently has this technology attracted the attention of tissue engineers. Initially, centrifugation was used to optimize cell seeding on a solid scaffold. More recently, centrifugal casting has been used to create tubular scaffolds and both tubular and flat multilayered, living tissue constructs. These newer applications were enabled by a new class of biocompatible in situ crosslinkable hydrogels that mimic the extracellular matrix. Herein the authors summarize the state of the art of centrifugal casting technology in tissue engineering, they outline associated technological challenges, and they discuss the potential future for clinical applications.

  20. SYSTEMATIC AND DYNAMIC PROPER-TIES OF CASTING HOT SPOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The variation of casting hot spot with proceeding of solidification and components of casting-mold system is studied by the technique of numerical simulation of solidification.The result shows that the thickest part of casting is not exactly the last part of solidification in the casting, while the last part of solidification is not exactly casting hot spot at the early stage of solidification.The location, size, shape and number of casting hot spot change with geomitric, physical and technological factors of the casting-mold system such as thickness of the casting secondary wall and with the passage of time in the course of the solidification.The former is known as the systematic property of hot spot and the latter, dynamic property.Only when the properties of hot spot are grasped completely and accurately, can it be fed more effectively.By doing so, not only sound castings can be obtained, but also riser efficiency can be improved.

  1. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures,called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described.Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  2. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucai WANG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  3. Phase separation micro molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the development of a new microfabrication method, Phase Separation Micro Molding (PSμM). While microfabrication is still best known from semiconductor industry, where it is used to integrate electrical components on a chip, the scope has immensely expan

  4. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    demonstrated the importance of proper heat treat cycles for Homogenization, and Solutionizing parameters selection and implementation. 3) Step blocks casting of Nimonic 263: Carried out casting solidification simulation analysis, NDT inspection methods evaluation, detailed test matrix for Chemical, Tensile, LCF, stress rupture, CVN impact, hardness and J1C Fracture toughness section sensitivity data and were reported. 4) Centrifugal Casting of Haynes 282, weighing 1400 lbs. with hybrid mold (half Graphite and half Chromite sand) mold assembly was cast using compressor casing production tooling. This test provided Mold cooling rates influence on centrifugally cast microstructure and mechanical properties. Graphite mold section out performs sand mold across all temperatures for 0.2% YS; %Elongation, %RA, UTS at 1400°F. Both Stress-LMP and conditional Fracture toughness plots data were in the scatter band of the wrought alloy. 5) Fundamental Studies on Cooling rates and SDAS test program. Evaluated the influence of 6 mold materials Silica, Chromite, Alumina, Silica with Indirect Chills, Zircon and Graphite on casting solidification cooling rates. Actual Casting cooling rates through Liquidus to Solidus phase transition were measured with 3 different locations based thermocouples placed in each mold. Compared with solidification simulation cooling rates and measurement of SDAS, microstructure features were reported. The test results provided engineered casting potential methods, applicable for heavy section Haynes 282 castings for optimal properties, with foundry process methods and tools. 6) Large casting of Haynes 282 Drawings and Engineering FEM models and supplemental requirements with applicable specifications were provided to suppliers for the steam turbine proto type feature valve casing casting. Molding, melting and casting pouring completed per approved Manufacturing Process Plan during 2014 Q4. The partial valve casing was successfully cast after casting methods were

  5. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  6. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  7. Theoretical Model of Steel Continuous Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Gheorghies; I Crudu; C Teletin; C Spanu

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model adapted for studying steel continuous casting technology was proposed.The model based on system theory contained input/output,command,and control parameters.The process was divided into five stages,i.e.,tundish,mold,guiding system,guiding-drawing system,and guiding-drawing-soft reduction system.The model can be used to describe the physicoehemical processes,thermal processes,chemical processes,and characteristics of the cast material according to the above-mentioned stages.It can also be applied to other metallurgical technologies and even to other industries (chemistry,food,etc.).

  8. Numerical simulation of semisolid continuous casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A general mathematical model and boundary condition applicable to momentum and heat transfer in the semisolid continuous casting(SCC) process was established. Using the model, the numerical simulation of the momentum and heat transfer of molten metal was carried out in the SCC system. The obtained results fit well with the measured ones. Moreover, using the numerical simulating software, the effect of various factors on breakout and breakage was explored. The obtained results show that heat flow density of copper mold and the withdrawal beginning time are two major influencing factors. The larger the heat flow density of copper mold, or the shorter the withdrawal beginning time, the more stable the semisolid continuous casting process.

  9. Traceability of Height Measurements on Green Sand Molds using Optical 3D Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohaghegh, K.; Yazdanbakhsh, S.A.; Tiedje, N. S.;

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a reliable measurement procedure for dimensional measurements on green sand molds is a prerequisite for analysis of geometric deviations in mass production of quality castings. Surface of the green sand mold is not suitable for measurements using a tactile coordinate measuring machine....... This paper presents a metrological approach for height measurement on green sand molds using an optical 3D scanner with fringe projection. A new sand sample was developed with a hard binder to withstand the contact force of a touch probe, while keeping optical cooperativeness similar to green sand...

  10. Atomic layer deposition as pore diameter adjustment tool for nanoporous aluminum oxide injection molding masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Rasilainen, Tiina; Puukilainen, Esa; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2008-05-06

    The wetting properties of polypropylene (PP) surfaces were modified by adjusting the dimensions of the surface nanostructure. The nanostructures were generated by injection molding with nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the mold insert. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of molybdenum nitride film was used to control the pore diameters of the AAO inserts. The original 50-nm pore diameter of AAO was adjusted by depositing films of thickness 5, 10, and 15 nm on AAO. Bis(tert-butylimido)-bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum and ammonia were used as precursors in deposition. The resulting pore diameters in the nitride-coated AAO inserts were 40, 30, and 20 nm, respectively. Injection molding of PP was conducted with the coated inserts, as well as with the non-coated insert. Besides the pore diameter, the injection mold temperature was varied with temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 degrees C tested. Water contact angles of PP casts were measured and compared with theoretical contact angles calculated from Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories. The highest contact angle, 140 degrees , was observed for PP molded with the AAO mold insert with 30-nm pore diameter. The Cassie-Baxter theory showed better fit than the Wenzel theory to the experimental values. With the optimal AAO mask, the nanofeatures in the molded PP pieces were 100 nm high. In explanation of this finding, it is suggested that some sticking and stretching of the nanofeatures occurs during the molding. Increase in the mold temperature increased the contact angle.

  11. Numerical simulation of temperature and strength distributions of mold(core) on heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using Visual C+ +, a model with post-processing was carried out to simulate the temperature and strength distributions of the mold(core). The results are shown in 256-color graphic mode. With this model, the temperature and strength distributions of the mold(core) both in case of heating process for core in the furnace and solidification process for a thin-wall aluminum alloy casting in the mold(core) are numerically simulated. The results show that the temperature and strength distributions of the mold(core) were uneven because the thermal conductivity of the resin sand was much small. This study laid a basis for the optimum design of the mold(core) properties.

  12. Optimization of casting defects analysis with supply chain in cast iron foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narayanaswamy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the foundries are in need of meeting production targets and due to the urgency they ignore the rejections. The objective of this paper is to analyze the various defects, [1] from molding process in a cast iron foundry. The Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA in quality control [2-6] with suitable supply chain for mold making process considering rejection rates are identified and analyzed in terms of Risk Priority Number (RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The optimum levels of selected parameters [7] are obtained in this analysis.

  13. The potential of centrifugal casting for the production of near net shape uranium parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E. [United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO (US). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

    1993-09-01

    This report was written to provide a detailed summary of a literature survey on the near net shape casting process of centrifugal casting. Centrifugal casting is one potential casting method which could satisfy the requirements of the LANL program titled Near Net Shape Casting of Uranium for Reduced Environmental, Safety and Health Impact. In this report, centrifugal casting techniques are reviewed and an assessment of the ability to achieve the near net shape and waste minimization goals of the LANL program by using these techniques is made. Based upon the literature reviewed, it is concluded that if properly modified for operation within a vacuum, vertical or horizontal centrifugation could be used to safely cast uranium for the production of hollow, cylindrical parts. However, for the production of components of geometries other than hollow tubes, vertical centrifugation could be combined with other casting methods such as semi-permanent mold or investment casting.

  14. State of the Art Treatment of Non-Ferrous Castings 3-in-1 Heat Treatment Systems Combine Foundry Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker R. Knobloch

    2004-01-01

    The interior of a high-pressure die-casting is of an unsatisfactory quality. Engine blocks made with this die casting process show lower specific engine performance. Pressure die-casting can hardly be heat treated for obvious reasons.PSM (Precision Sand Molds) process uses sand and organic binder to generate a mold and even allows the manufacturing of complex diesel engine blocks in aluminum alloys. Combined technologies are available for semi-permanent mold castings with cores and castings made in Precision Sand Molds with organic binders. Castings are placed into the special heat treatment furnace immediately after pouring without the operations in stand alone machinery. This patented Sand Lion(R) 3-in-1 technology processes hot castings and carries out three (3) foundry processes simultaneously in one (1) automated machine: 1) De-coring and sand removal; 2) Thermal sand reclamation; 3) Solution heat treatment of castings. The combination of several main casting processes is reflected in significant reductions of energy consumption, of production costs, and improving the quality of the castings. Audits in foundries using the 3-in-1 process showed an average reduction in production costs of more than 30%.

  15. Effect of Mould Wall Thickness on Rate of Solidification of Centrifugal Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Centrifugal Casting process the centrifugal force presses the metal against the inner wall of the metal mould, resulting in rapid solidification of the molten metal. However the solidification structures like structural uniformity and structural character of the solidified metal of centrifugal casting is of great importance, regarding to its mechanical properties. The solidification time of the casting is dependent upon the various parameters like speed ofrotation of the mold, mould wall temperature, heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface, mould wall thickness, material of the mould and so on. In this paper experimental study of effect of mould wall thickness on solidification of the centrifugal casting has been discussed. As the mould wall thickness increases, due to the chilling effect, the solidification time decreases. Fine grains are observed in castings produced in thick walled mould and coarse grains are observed in thin walled moulds. Brinel Hardness of the casting was measured.

  16. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  17. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  18. Mg含量对金属型铸造Al-Mg合金的微观组织和枝晶形貌的影响%Effects of Mg Content on Microstructure and Dendrite Morphology of Permanent Mold Casting Al-Mg Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海洋; 陈体军; 段天全; 孙明杰

    2013-01-01

    The microstructures and dendrite morphologies of permanent mold casting Al-Mg alloys with different Mg contents have been investigated by using OM, SEM. Simultaneously, the growth orientations of columnar crystals have been measured by using EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction) . The results show that the microstructures of all of the alloys are generally composed of two zones, columnar crystal zone and equiaxed grain zone. The width of the columnar grain zone is the largest for pure aluminum. The width decreases with the increase of the Mg content, and this zone completely disappears when the content is up to 15%. The primary dendrite arm spacing of the columnar dendrites continuously increases with the increase of the Mg content. The dendrite morphology changes from cellular crystal to columnar dendrite crystal, and finally turn into equiaxed one. Mg elements have certain effect on the crystal growth orientation in Al-Mg alloy: the main growth orientation for the alloy with 2% Mg is [100], and is accompanied by [011], [120], [230]; but when the Mg content increases to 10%, the growth orientation changes to [001].%利用OM、EM研究了Mg含量对金属型铸造Al-Mg合金微观组织和枝晶形貌的影响,并用EBSD(电子背散射衍射)研究了组织中柱状晶的生长取向.结果表明:不同成分的合金其组织主要由柱状晶区和等轴晶区组成,纯铝的柱状晶区最大,随着Mg含量的增加柱状晶区的宽度逐渐减小,当Mg含量达到15%时柱状晶区完全消失;一次枝晶间距则随Mg含量的增加而持续增加,且枝晶形貌由胞状晶转变为柱状树枝晶,最后变为等轴晶;Mg元素对Al-Mg合金中初生晶的生长取向有一定的影响,在Mg含量为2%时,枝晶生长取向以[100]晶向为主,同时还伴有[011]、[120]、[230]晶向,而Mg含量为10%时,枝晶的生长取向为[001]晶向.

  19. Improved Sand-Compaction Method for Lost-Foam Metal Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    2008-01-01

    An improved method of filling a molding flask with sand and compacting the sand around a refractory-coated foam mold pattern has been developed for incorporation into the lost-foam metal-casting process. In comparison with the conventional method of sand filling and compaction, this method affords more nearly complete filling of the space around the refractory-coated foam mold pattern and more thorough compaction of the sand. In so doing, this method enables the sand to better support the refractory coat under metallostatic pressure during filling of the mold with molten metal.

  20. Application of particle method to the casting process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Zulaida, Y. M.; Anzai, K.

    2012-07-01

    Casting processes involve many significant phenomena such as fluid flow, solidification, and deformation, and it is known that casting defects are strongly influenced by the phenomena. However the phenomena complexly interacts each other and it is difficult to observe them directly because the temperature of the melt and other apparatus components are quite high, and they are generally opaque; therefore, a computer simulation is expected to serve a lot of benefits to consider what happens in the processes. Recently, a particle method, which is one of fully Lagrangian methods, has attracted considerable attention. The particle methods based on Lagrangian methods involving no calculation lattice have been developed rapidly because of their applicability to multi-physics problems. In this study, we combined the fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification simulation programs, and tried to simulate various casting processes such as continuous casting, centrifugal casting and ingot making. As a result of continuous casting simulation, the powder flow could be calculated as well as the melt flow, and the subsequent shape of interface between the melt and the powder was calculated. In the centrifugal casting simulation, the mold was smoothly modeled along the shape of the real mold, and the fluid flow and the rotating mold are simulated directly. As a result, the flow of the melt dragged by the rotating mold was calculated well. The eccentric rotation and the influence of Coriolis force were also reproduced directly and naturally. For ingot making simulation, a shrinkage formation behavior was calculated and the shape of the shrinkage agreed well with the experimental result.

  1. INSULATING CERAMIC INSERTS FOR CASTING PRODUCTS FROM ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses production of reusable ceramic insulating inserts applied in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys. It presents results of manufacturing of ceramic products from synthesized materials based on wollastonite, secondary grog, aluminum slag, etc. The paper demonstrates prospects of their applying.

  2. INSULATING CERAMIC INSERTS FOR CASTING PRODUCTS FROM ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Volochko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses production of reusable ceramic insulating inserts applied in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys. It presents results of manufacturing of ceramic products from synthesized materials based on wollastonite, secondary grog, aluminum slag, etc. The paper demonstrates prospects of their applying.

  3. A Statistics-Based Cracking Criterion of Resin-Bonded Silica Sand for Casting Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Lu, Yan; Ripplinger, Keith; Detwiler, Duane; Luo, Alan A.

    2017-02-01

    Cracking of sand molds/cores can result in many casting defects such as veining. A robust cracking criterion is needed in casting process simulation for predicting/controlling such defects. A cracking probability map, relating to fracture stress and effective volume, was proposed for resin-bonded silica sand based on Weibull statistics. Three-point bending test results of sand samples were used to generate the cracking map and set up a safety line for cracking criterion. Tensile test results confirmed the accuracy of the safety line for cracking prediction. A laboratory casting experiment was designed and carried out to predict cracking of a cup mold during aluminum casting. The stress-strain behavior and the effective volume of the cup molds were calculated using a finite element analysis code ProCAST®. Furthermore, an energy dispersive spectroscopy fractographic examination of the sand samples confirmed the binder cracking in resin-bonded silica sand.

  4. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  5. Study on heat treatment blister of squeeze casting parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Wen-jun; QI Lin; QI Pi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Heat treatment blister is one of the common defects found in squeeze casting parts, which is related to squeeze mode, process and mold. For direct squeeze-casting parts, solution heat treatment can be performed smoothly as long as oil-based paint is not used and air exhaust is well arranged. For indirect squeeze casting parts,solution heat treatment can also be applied when additional factors are taken into consideration, including well designed internal feeding system and strictly controlled liquid metal filling velocity to prevent from inclusions.

  6. STUDY KOMPARASI LOST FOAM DAN KONVENSIONAL CASTING PRODUK DISC BRAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoso, Sumeru; -, Suyitno

    2014-01-01

    Disc brake component is a vital component with gray cast iron base material, it’s also fast lasting wearing part, so it has be replaced often. The disc brake replacement component in a local market is being supplied by the small scale local metal casting industries have the same quality as the genuine part.Disc brake making process is utilizing casting method inserting RCS core between drag and coup, than metal molten poured inside mold. The problem of this method is the product result often ...

  7. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); England, Roger [Cummins, Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  8. Mold and Crucible Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-28

    34;" -"""-"’" " " ""’’ "" "" ’"" ’ j * AD I. AT)-E 9 7 W CONTRACTOR REPORT ARCCD-CR-86007 MOLD AND CRUCIBLE COATINGS Sylvia J. Canino Arthur L. Geary Nuclear...IFnlRpr April 1984_-_December 198, .. AUTNORfo) S. CONTRACT on CRAM? # "I MWef(e)I Sylvia J. Canino and Arthur L. Geary DAAK1O-84-C-0056 PERFORMING

  9. Nanofabrication with molds & stamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron D. Gates

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of methods can be used to fabricate patterns with features having dimensions <100 nm. These techniques, however, can require specialized equipment and are often restricted to a cleanroom environment. Nanofabrication can be made accessible to multiple users by using elastomeric molds or stamps to transfer high-resolution patterns into other materials. These techniques are inexpensive and can transfer patterns into functional materials and onto a number of surfaces. This review describes recent advances in fabricating nanostructures using these techniques.

  10. The World's Largest Steel Casting Poured Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The world's largest steel casting -- the upper beam (or the top head) for free forging oil hydraulic press with a 18,000-ton force capacity, was poured successfully by CITIC Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. (CITICHM) on May 22, 2008. This head piece is 11.95 meters long, 3.8 meters wide, 4.59 meters high and about 520 tons in gross weight. Pouring is the most important and critical step during its manufacturing process. The production of this huge casting requires about 830 tons of refined molten steel from 10 smelting furnaces and pouring with six ladles into the mold cavity at one time, which made it currently the world's largest steel casting poured and the most one-time molten steel organized.

  11. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  12. Injection Compression Molding of Replica Molds for Nanoimprint Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a breakthrough in the cost and durability of molds for nanoimprint lithography (NIL, replica molds are fabricated by injection compression molding (ICM. ICM is commonly used for optical disks such as DVDs or Blu-ray disks and is also a practical fabrication method for nanostructures. In this paper, I successfully demonstrated the fabrication of cycloolefin polymer replica molds with structures smaller than 60 nm by ICM. Furthermore, ultraviolet (UV-NIL using these replica molds was demonstrated. UV-cured resist was replicated over an area of 60 mm diameter. The degree of replication by UV-NIL in the first usage of each replica mold had good repeatability. Because ICM is a high-throughput, low-cost process, the replica mold can be disposed of after a certain time for UV-NIL. This method leads to a high-integrity UV-NIL process of patterned media because multiple large-area replica molds can be fabricated simultaneously.

  13. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  14. Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Simons, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We have used replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy to characterize the threedimensional shape of high aspect ratio microstructures. Casting inverted replicas of microstructures using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) circumvents the inability of AFM probes to measure deep and narrow c...

  15. Three-Dimensional Molding Based on Microstereolithography Using Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Slurry for the Production of Bioceramic Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Takashi; Inada, Makoto; Maruo, Shoji

    2011-06-01

    We report on a three-dimensional (3D) molding technique of fabricating bioceramic scaffolds. In this method, ceramic slurry is cast into a 3D polymer master mold, which is fabricated via microstereolithography, by a centrifugal casting method. The polymer master mold is thermally decomposed, so that a complex 3D bioceramic scaffold can be produced. In experiments, the decomposition process of the polymer model was optimized by the master decomposition curve theory to reduce harmful cracks in a green body. As a result, we could produce not only precise lattice models but also a sophisticated porous scaffold using beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) slurry. This bioceramic 3D molding technique based on microstereolithography will be useful for tailor-made tissue engineering and regeneration medicine.

  16. Thermophilic molds: Biology and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Johri, B N; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-11-01

    Thermophilic molds thrive in a variety of natural habitats including soils, composts, wood chip piles, nesting materials of birds and other animals, municipal refuse and others, and ubiquitous in their distribution. These molds grow in simple media containing carbon and nitrogen sources and mineral salts. Polyamines are synthesized in these molds and the composition of lipids varies considerably, predominantly containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids with low levels of lauric, palmiotoleic and stearic acids. Thermophilic molds are capable of efficiently degrading organic materials by secreting thermostable enzymes, which are useful in the bioremediation of industrial wastes and effluents that are rich in oil, heavy metals, anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid and polysaccharides. Thermophilic molds synthesize several antimicrobial substances and biotechnologically useful miscellaneous enzymes. The analysis of genomes of thermophilic molds reveals high G:C contents, shorter introns and intergenic regions with lesser repetitive sequences, and further confirms their ability to degrade agro-residues efficiently. Genetic engineering has aided in ameliorating the characteristics of the enzymes of thermophilic molds. This review is aimed at focusing on the biology of thermophilic molds with emphasis on recent developments in the analysis of genomes, genetic engineering and potential applications.

  17. Copper base materials prepared by gel-casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Weihua; JIA Chengchang; SHI Yantao; HAN Yuepeng

    2008-01-01

    Gel-casting process was developed as a new molding process in the field of copper base powder metallurgy to manufacture metal parts with excellent performance and complex shapes.Through changing the parameters of gel-casting process,such as dispersant and solid loading,the corresponding effects on the rheology of Cu slurries,molding and sintering behaviors were studied.The results show that the viscosity of Cu slurries was significantly reduced with an increase in dispersant.The most appropriate solid loading was found to be 61% and the sintering temperature was 910℃ in these experiments.After the optimization of parameters of gel-casting process,copper composite parts with relatively high density and better properties were obtained.

  18. Multiphysics modeling of the steel continuous casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeler, Lance C.

    This work develops a macroscale, multiphysics model of the continuous casting of steel. The complete model accounts for the turbulent flow and nonuniform distribution of superheat in the molten steel, the elastic-viscoplastic thermal shrinkage of the solidifying shell, the heat transfer through the shell-mold interface with variable gap size, and the thermal distortion of the mold. These models are coupled together with carefully constructed boundary conditions with the aid of reduced-order models into a single tool to investigate behavior in the mold region, for practical applications such as predicting ideal tapers for a beam-blank mold. The thermal and mechanical behaviors of the mold are explored as part of the overall modeling effort, for funnel molds and for beam-blank molds. These models include high geometric detail and reveal temperature variations on the mold-shell interface that may be responsible for cracks in the shell. Specifically, the funnel mold has a column of mold bolts in the middle of the inside-curve region of the funnel that disturbs the uniformity of the hot face temperatures, which combined with the bending effect of the mold on the shell, can lead to longitudinal facial cracks. The shoulder region of the beam-blank mold shows a local hot spot that can be reduced with additional cooling in this region. The distorted shape of the funnel mold narrow face is validated with recent inclinometer measurements from an operating caster. The calculated hot face temperatures and distorted shapes of the mold are transferred into the multiphysics model of the solidifying shell. The boundary conditions for the first iteration of the multiphysics model come from reduced-order models of the process; one such model is derived in this work for mold heat transfer. The reduced-order model relies on the physics of the solution to the one-dimensional heat-conduction equation to maintain the relationships between inputs and outputs of the model. The geometric

  19. Development of low-temperature high-strength integral steel castings for offshore construction by casting process engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sang-Sub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In casting steels for offshore construction, manufacturing integral casted structures to prevent fatigue cracks in the stress raisers is superior to using welded structures. Here, mold design and casting analysis were conducted for integral casting steel. The laminar flow of molten metal was analyzed and distributions of hot spots and porosities were studied. A prototype was subsequently produced, and air vents were designed to improve the surface defects caused by the release of gas. A radiographic test revealed no internal defects inside the casted steel. Evaluating the chemical and mechanical properties of specimens sampled from the product revealed that target values were quantitatively satisfied. To assess weldability in consideration of repair welding, the product was machined with grooves and welded, after which the mechanical properties of hardness as well as tensile, impact, and bending strengths were evaluated. No substantive differences were found in the mechanical properties before and after welding.

  20. Development of low-temperature high-strength integral steel castings for offshore construction by casting process engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang-Sub; Mun, Jae-Chul; Kim, Tae-Won; Kang, Chung-Gil

    2014-12-01

    In casting steels for offshore construction, manufacturing integral casted structures to prevent fatigue cracks in the stress raisers is superior to using welded structures. Here, mold design and casting analysis were conducted for integral casting steel. The laminar flow of molten metal was analyzed and distributions of hot spots and porosities were studied. A prototype was subsequently produced, and air vents were designed to improve the surface defects caused by the release of gas. A radiographic test revealed no internal defects inside the casted steel. Evaluating the chemical and mechanical properties of specimens sampled from the product revealed that target values were quantitatively satisfied. To assess weldability in consideration of repair welding, the product was machined with grooves and welded, after which the mechanical properties of hardness as well as tensile, impact, and bending strengths were evaluated. No substantive differences were found in the mechanical properties before and after welding.

  1. 电机机座铸件的消失模铸造%Lost Foam Casting for Motor Block Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志超; 叶升平; 胡国良; 常湫生

    2001-01-01

    针对出口电机机座铸件,简要介绍了其消失模模具设计、成型发泡及铸件的浇注试验情况,确定了合适的铸造工艺参数,生产出了合格的铸件,证实了消失模铸造工艺生产电机机座铸件的可行性。%The design of lost foam die, pattern molding process, and pouring experiment of exported motor block casting were studied. The pertient casting technological parameters were determined. Qualified casting was made successfully, which testified the feasibility using lost foam casting to manufacture motor block casting.

  2. Study of Thermal Stress Influence on Dimensional Stability of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of temperature influence on dimensional stability of silicone molds used for spin casting of the low melting points alloys. The silicone material denoted as TEKSIL Silicone-GP-S was used to produce samples during experiments. The samples were heated to temperatures in the range from 100 up to 250oC for 30 up to 120 min. Dimensional changes of the samples in the radial and axial directions aa well as their change of weight were evaluated. The results of experiments proved that thermal stress of silicone molds can influence the size and shape of mold cavities. These results can also explain the possible mechanism of degradation process of silicone molds under thermal stress.

  3. The UK Casting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The casting production in the UK in 2004 is presented and analysed. The UK casting industry has played an important role in world casting and manufacturing production. However recent years the rapid development of some developing countries has been shifting the casting production from the western industrialized countries including the UK. The UK casting industry and associated research and technology organizations, universities have been working together very hard to face the serious competition to make the UK casting industry have a sustainable future. The UK casting industry remains strong and plays an important role in world casting and manufacturing production.

  4. CA Investment Casting Process of Complex Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CA (Computer aided) investment casting technique used in superalloy castings of aerospace engine parts was presented. CA investment casting integrated computer application, RP (Rapid Prototyping) process, solidification simulation and investment casting process. It broke the bottle neck of making metal die. Solid model of complex parts were produced by UGII or other software, then translated into STL(Stereolithography) file, after RP process of SLS(Selective Laser Sintering), wax pattern used in investment ...

  5. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  6. Research in manufacturing of micro-structured injection molded polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Thomas; Struklec, Tobias; Burgsteiner, Martin; Graninger, Georg; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    An overview of current research results is given for the topic of injection molding of micro-structured polymer parts regarding filling behavior and demolding process of micro-structures as well as the production of micro-structures on curved surfaces. In order to better understand how micro-structures are formed during the filling stage of injection molding, a study was performed on a test part with micro-channels placed parallely and perpendicularly to flow direction. Short shots with a highly fluent Polypropylene grade were injection molded with the melt front stopping in the structure fields. The melt and mold temperature, the injection rate as well as the use of a variotherm heating system were varied in a systematic Design of Experiments. The shape of the flow front was investigated with the optical measurement system Alicona InfiniteFocus. The data gained was analyzed with Matlab scripts and provided the needed distance to completely fill the structures as a reference value. The next topic covers the demolding step, which is a crucial process step in injection molding of micro-structured parts as the successfully replicated structures often get destroyed in the following demolding step. In order to evaluate the influence of the four aspects polymer, mold surface (coatings), structure (geometry and placement) and process settings on the demolding behavior, an injection mold with integrated measurement system was built, which makes it possible to measure the demolding force respectively a demolding energy under process conditions. These values can be used to quantitatively compare the impact of the above mentioned influencing factors on demolding. Finally, a concept to produce micro-structures on curved surfaces with injection molding is shown: A flat metal premaster structure is used to produce an elastomeric polymer (dimethylsiloxane) master in a casting process. This master is fixed in a conventional injection mold and a thermoplastic polymer is replicated

  7. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    Efforts during Phase III focused mainly on the shell-alloy systems. A high melting point alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel, was considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. Shell molds made of fused-silica and alumino-silicates were considered. A literature review was conducted on thermophysical and thermomechanical properties alumino-silicates. Material property data, which were not available from material suppliers, was obtained. For all the properties of 17-4PH stainless steel, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. Thus, some material properties were evaluated using ProCAST, based on CompuTherm database. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data was made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted only over several temperature ranges. No experimental data for plastic modulus were found. Thus, several assumptions were made and ProCAST recommendations were followed in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution on heating and cooling. Numerical simulations were performed using ProCAST for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts in fused silica molds using the thermal expansion obtained on heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The shell mold was considered to be a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were

  8. Production and characterization of miro- and nano-features in biomedical alumina and zirconia ceramics using a tape casting route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domanski, M.; Winnubst, L.; Luttge, R.; Lamers, E.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.; Gardeniers, H.

    2012-01-01

    A process of micromolding, delivering micro- and nanopatterned ceramic surfaces for biomaterial applications is described in this work. To create the desired structures, tape casting of ceramic slurries on microfabricated silicon mold was used. Several tape casting slurry compositions were tested to

  9. Production and characterization of micro- and nano-features in biomedical alumina and zirconia ceramics using a tape casting route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domanski, M.; Winnubst, A.J.A.; Luttge, R.; Lamers, E.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.

    2012-01-01

    A process of micromolding, delivering micro- and nanopatterned ceramic surfaces for biomaterial applications is described in this work. To create the desired structures, tape casting of ceramic slurries on microfabricated silicon mold was used. Several tape casting slurry compositions were tested to

  10. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  11. A facile and simple high-performance polydimethylsiloxane casting based on self-polymerization dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Lu-lu; Sun, Jian-hai; Li, Hui; Cui, Da-fu

    2014-09-01

    We present a new and facile method for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting by dip-coating the master molds in an aqueous solution of dopamine. A poly(dopamine) film formed by self-polymerization of dopamine is used as the surface anti-adhesion coating for PDMS de-molding. Different master molds, such as metal, silicon and PDMS replica, were used to verify the feasibility of this proposed PDMS casting method. The poly(dopamine) coatings at various fabrication conditions were studied by using surface plasmon resonance technology. We found that it is very easy to form repeated poly(dopamine) coatings with similar thicknesses and density at fairly flexible conditions of self-polymerization. The water contact angles of the PDMS master molds and the positive PDMS replicas were studied after the PDMS master molds were immersed in the dopamine coating solution for different times. The de-molding process was then measured by surface plasmon resonance technology. The surface morphology of the master molds and the PDMS replicas were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results demonstrate that the poly(dopamine) coating exhibits a strong release property in the PDMS de-molding process and has good stickiness after PDMS de-molding a dozen times. The package performances of the PDMS replicas were detected and compared by bonding experiments. PDMS replicas after a second round of de-molding present a little higher package performance than that of the PDMS replicas with an anti-sticking agent of silane. The biochemical properties of PDMS replicas were studied through fluorescence immunoassay experiments. The PDMS replicas present similar biochemical properties to the bare PDMS. This biomimetic surface modification method of dopamine for PDMS casting has a great potential for preparing microdevices for various biological and clinical applications.

  12. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  13. Rapid control of mold temperature during injection molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liparoti, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Hunag, Tsang Min; Cakmak, Mukerrem [Department of Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Sorrentino, Andrea [Institute for Polymers, Composite and Biomaterials (IPCB) - CNR, P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2015-05-22

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that determines surface morphology and its dimension in thickness direction. It can also affect the frozen molecular orientation and the mold surface replicability in injection molded products. In this work, thin thermally active films were used to quickly control the mold surface temperature. In particular, an active high electrical conductivity carbon black loaded polyimide composites sandwiched between two insulating thin polymeric layers was used to condition the mold surface. By controlling the heating time, it was possible to control precisely the temporal variation of the mold temperature surface during the entire cycle. The surface heating rate was about 40°C/s and upon contact with the polymer the surface temperature decreased back to 40°C within about 5 s; the overall cycle time increased only slightly. The effect on cross section sample morphology of samples of iPP were analyzed and discussed on the basis of the recorded temperature evolution.

  14. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Cannell (EMTEC); Adrian S. Sabau (ORNL)

    2005-09-30

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in

  15. Microstructures of electromagnetic casting and direct chill casting LY12 aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志强; 金俊泽; 郝海; 贾非

    2003-01-01

    LY12 aluminum alloys made by electromagnetic casting (EMC) and direct chill casting (DCC), were analyzed by optical microscope, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the surface and subsurface quality of the ingot is improved largely due to the absence of an ingot mold, which is impossible to achieve with conventional DCC. It is also found that the intense forced convection can promote the fast superheat evacuation and break the dendrite arms, leading to the grain multiplication and the appearance of a fine equiaxed grains over the whole cross section. As a result, the hardness of EMC specimens increases one time than that from DCC in the as-cast state. Even though after the solid solution treatment and the artificial aging, the DCC ingot still can not get the same hardness as EMC ones.

  16. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena,Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed w...

  17. Prevention of Mold Contamination : Ozone Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nakarmi, Kanchan

    2016-01-01

    Mold is a common pest that can cause diseases and decay property. Moreover, certain mold can produce toxic chemicals which leads directly or indirectly to additional health impacts and economic losses. Therefore, prevention of mold growth is a major concern, and disinfection of mold has become a center of attention. The purpose of this thesis was to study about the effect of ozone in the disinfection of mold and the method of producing ozone. The usage of ozone for disinfection in in...

  18. Numerical simulation and fabrication of silicon sheet via spin casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Hyunhui; Lee, Changbum; Kim, Joonsoo; Jang, Bo-Yun; Lee, Jinseok; Ahn, Youngsoo; Yoon, Wooyoung

    2013-05-01

    A spin-casting process for fabricating polycrystalline silicon sheets for use as solar cell wafers is proposed, and the parameters that control the sheet thickness are investigated. A numerical study of the fluidity of molten silicon indicates that the formation of thin silicon sheets without a mold and via spin casting is feasible. The faster the rotation speed of graphite mold, the thinner the thickness of sheet. After the spread of the molten silicon to cover the graphite mold with rotation speed of above 500 rpm, the solidification has to start. Silicon sheets can be produced by using the centrifugal force under appropriate experimental conditions. The spin-cast sheet had a vertical columnar microstructure due to the normal heat extraction to the substrate, and the sheet lifetime varied from 0.1 microS to 0.3 microS measured by using the microwave photoconductance decay (MW-PCD) to confirm that the spin-cast silicon sheet is applicable to photovoltaics.

  19. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    demonstrated the importance of proper heat treat cycles for Homogenization, and Solutionizing parameters selection and implementation. 3) Step blocks casting of Nimonic 263: Carried out casting solidification simulation analysis, NDT inspection methods evaluation, detailed test matrix for Chemical, Tensile, LCF, stress rupture, CVN impact, hardness and J1C Fracture toughness section sensitivity data and were reported. 4) Centrifugal Casting of Haynes 282, weighing 1400 lbs. with hybrid mold (half Graphite and half Chromite sand) mold assembly was cast using compressor casing production tooling. This test provided Mold cooling rates influence on centrifugally cast microstructure and mechanical properties. Graphite mold section out performs sand mold across all temperatures for 0.2% YS; %Elongation, %RA, UTS at 1400°F. Both Stress-LMP and conditional Fracture toughness plots data were in the scatter band of the wrought alloy. 5) Fundamental Studies on Cooling rates and SDAS test program. Evaluated the influence of 6 mold materials Silica, Chromite, Alumina, Silica with Indirect Chills, Zircon and Graphite on casting solidification cooling rates. Actual Casting cooling rates through Liquidus to Solidus phase transition were measured with 3 different locations based thermocouples placed in each mold. Compared with solidification simulation cooling rates and measurement of SDAS, microstructure features were reported. The test results provided engineered casting potential methods, applicable for heavy section Haynes 282 castings for optimal properties, with foundry process methods and tools. 6) Large casting of Haynes 282 Drawings and Engineering FEM models and supplemental requirements with applicable specifications were provided to suppliers for the steam turbine proto type feature valve casing casting. Molding, melting and casting pouring completed per approved Manufacturing Process Plan during 2014 Q4. The partial valve casing was successfully cast after casting methods were

  20. Precision casting of Ti-15V-3Cr-3AI-3Sn alloy setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Hai; Liu Changkui; Huang Dong; Zhao Jiaqi; Zhao Hongxia

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy ingots were prepared using ceramic mold and centrifugal casting. The Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn setting casting, for aeronautic engine, with 1.5 mm in thickness was manufactured.The alloy melting process, precision casting process, and problems in casting application were discussed. Effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing and heat treatment on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy were studied.

  1. Precision casting of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Hai

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy ingots were prepared using ceramic mold and centrifugal casting. The Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn setting casting, for aeronautic engine, with 1.5 mm in thickness was manufactured. The alloy melting process, precision casting process, and problems in casting application were discussed. Effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing and heat treatment on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy were studied.

  2. Application of 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST to produce ductile iron castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on a method using numerical simulation equations and their solution schemes for liquid metal flows and heat transfer during mold filling and the solidification process of casting, 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST was created. This includes enmeshment of casting; velocity and temperature fields calculation; displaying iso-temperature lines;velocity vectors and 3-D temperature fields on a Windows 9x operating system. SRIFCAST was applied to produce sound castings of automobile and diesel engines, and also to connect with microstructure simulation for ductile iron castings.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY OF GRAY CAST IRON GRAPHITIZING MODIFICATION BY DISPERSION-FILLED CONSUMABLE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nebozhak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key criteria of the process of graphitizing modification of matrix melt silicon concentration and silicon assimilation evaluated were on samples of gray cast iron grade СЧ20 State Standard 1412-85. These criteria of evaluation on the structure and properties of casting ingots proved an efficiency of intra-mold modification of molten gray cast iron by dispersed ferrosilicon grade ФС75 State Standard 1415-93 (ISO 5445-80 using lost-foam casting (LFC-process.

  4. Deep UV patterning of acrylic masters for molding biomimetic dry adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel fabrication method for the production of biomimetic dry adhesives that allows enormous variation in fiber shapes and sizes. The technology is based on deep-UV patterning of commercial acrylic with semi-collimated light available from germicidal lamps, and combined careful processing conditions, material selection and novel developer choices to produce relatively high-aspect-ratio fibers with overhanging caps on large areas. These acrylic fibers are used as a master mold for subsequent silicone rubber negative mold casting. Because the bulk acrylic demonstrates little inherent adhesion to silicone rubbers, the master molds created in this process do not require any surface treatments to achieve high-yield demolding of interlocked structures. Multiple polymers can be cast from silicone rubber negative molds and this process could be used to structure smart materials on areas over multiple square feet. Using direct photopatterning of acrylic allows many of the desired structures for biomimetic dry adhesives to be produced with relative ease compared to silicon-based molding processes, including angled fibers and hierarchical structures. Optimized fiber shapes for a variety of polymers can be produced using this process, and adhesion measurements on a well-characterized polyurethane, ST-1060, are used to determine the effect of fiber geometry on adhesion performance.

  5. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  6. A Study of the Oscillation Marks' Characteristics of Continuously Cast Incoloy Alloy 825 Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Saud; Vynnycky, Michael; Fredriksson, Hasse

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive experimental study of oscillation mark (OM) formation and its characteristics during the solidification of Incoloy alloy 825 in the continuous casting of blooms is investigated by plant trials and metallographic study. The experiments involved two heats with the same casting and mold conditions and sampling at different locations across the strand. The metallographic study combined macro/micro-examinations of OMs and segregation analysis of Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Si by microprobe analysis. The results show that OMs have widely different characteristics, such as mark type, depth, segregation, and accompanying microstructure. Furthermore, the mark pitch can vary considerably even for the similar casting conditions, leading to different conditions for the marks' formation in relation to the mold's cyclic movement. Finally, a mechanism for the OM formation is discussed and proposed. Possible solutions for minimizing the observed defects by optimizing the mold conditions are suggested.

  7. Hydrogen silsesquioxane mold coatings for improved replication of nanopatterns by injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobæk, Thor Christian; Matschuk, Maria; Kafka, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the replication of nanosized pillars in polymer (cyclic olefin copolymer) by injection molding using nanostructured thermally cured hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) ceramic coatings on stainless steel mold inserts with mold nanostructures produced by a simple embossing process...

  8. Effect of heat treatment on corrosion behavior of low pressure sand cast Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr alloys

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of low-pressure sand cast Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (wt.%) alloys in as-cast, solution treated (T4) and aged (T6) conditions were studied by means of immersion test and electrochemical measurements in 5wt.% NaCl solution saturated with Mg(OH)2. It was observed that the corrosion rate in the T4 condition was lower than that of the as-cast and T6 conditions by both sand casting and permanent mold casting with the same order of as-cast>T6>T4; while the corrosion resistance of the ...

  9. Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a mold within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. The magnetic fields associated with the currents in the aforementioned coils levitate the molten metal sheet while the mold provides for its lateral and vertical confinement. A leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the molten metal sheet is used to start the casing process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the yoke/coil arrangement and mold and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The yoke/coil arrangement may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of spaced, facing bedstead coils.

  10. Design optimization of clutch housing mold by fluid flow and solidification simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Maryam; Utlu, Zafer [Istanbul Aydin Univ., Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2016-06-15

    Aluminum die casting is so complex where flow momentum is critical matter in the mould filling process due the high velocity of the liquid metal. Actually, in complex parts the exact calculation of mould filling performance with using experimental knowledge is almost impossible. Aluminum die castings play a definitive role in the manufacturing of lightweight automobile bodies. Hence it is more essential today that these castings be produced with the high quality methods. In this condition the simulation is becoming more important in the designing procedure. This saves time and reduces the cost of the casting system design, which is an advantage of using simulation programs. Also, economical utilization of materials can be obtained when the quantity of test castings is decreased. This paper describes the advantages of the clutch housing die casting mold simulations to achieve better casting system design in High pressure die castings (HPDC). Filling analysis is used to determine the size and location of the gate as well as proper runner system design for ensuring a complete and balanced filling of the clutch housing part.

  11. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...... the molding process. The main advantage with this method is that surface treatments and chemical additives are avoided, which minimizes health risks and simplifies recycling. Another advantage is that the unique technology enables nanostructuring of free form molded parts. The functional surfaces can have...

  12. Large structural, thin-wall castings made of metals subject to hot tearing, and their fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An article, such as a gas turbine engine mixer, is made by providing a mold structure defining a thin-walled, hollow article, and a base metal that is subject to hot tear cracking when cast in a generally equiaxed polycrystalline form, such as Rene' 108 and Mar-M247. The article is fabricated by introducing the molten base metal into the mold structure, and directionally solidifying the base metal in the mold structure to form a directionally oriented structure. The directionally oriented structure may be formed of a single grain or oriented multiple grains.

  13. Effect of MnO content on the interfacial property of mold flux and steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanlin; Li, Jingwen; Zhou, Lejun; Yang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The interfacial property between liquid mold flux and steel has significant impact on the quality of casting slab, and this property is mainly determined by the chemical composition of mold flux and the reaction between the flux and steel. The effect of MnO content on the contact angle and interfacial tension between liquid mold flux and ultra-low carbon steel was investigated by sessile drop method in this article, and the results suggested that both the contact angle and interfacial tension decreased with the increase of MnO content in the mold flux. The increase of Si and Mn and the reduction of Al and Ti in the interaction layer were caused by the chemical reactions occurred in the vicinity of interface between mold flux and steel substrate. Besides, the thickness of the interaction layer increased from 4 μm to 7 μm, then to 9 μm, 11 μm and 15 μm when the MnO content was added from 1 wt% to 3 wt%, then to 5 wt%, 7 wt%, and 9 wt% due to the fact that MnO can simplify the polymerized structure of the melt and improve the penetrability of molten mold flux to make the interfacial reaction easier.

  14. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro Arisuda; Akihito Hasuno; Junji Yoshida; Kazunari Tanii

    2008-01-01

    High-speed injection die casting is an efficient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, deficiencies (such as die damage in eady period) due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die temperature analysis, flow analysis and thermal stress analysis). The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  15. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Hasuno

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available High-speed injection die casting is an effi cient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, defi ciencies (such as die damage in early period due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die emperature analysis, fl ow analysis and thermal stress analysis. The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  16. Application of the gel casting process in iron powder metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of various gel casting process parameters such as the dispersant and solid loading on the rheology of Fe slurries, molding, and sintering behaviors were studied. The relationship between solid loading and viscidity in the process of iron base powder metallurgy was researched to obtain better microstructure and properties. The results showed that the viscosity of Fe slurries is obviously reduced with the increase of the dispersant. The suitable parameters are as follows: the solid loading is 61% and sintering temperature is 1180℃. Iron parts with relatively high density and better properties were obtained by the gel casting process.

  17. THEORETICAL STUDY OF AN OSCILLATING WAVEFORM FUNCTION AND PARAMETERS FOR CONTROLLING THE NON-SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATION OF A MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Tingzhi; Liu Cai

    2004-01-01

    A new non-sinusoidal oscillation waveform is constructed for controlling the mold oscillation during continuous casting. Casting velocity and oscillation parameters are then established for a computer model of the continuous casting process. The waveform distortion coefficient ε of waveform function is close to the waveform distortion rate α, so ε is taken for ε when the basic parameters are selected initially. The waveform function can be created for the servo hydraulic system or the mechanical driving system. Industrial scale experiments show the waveform function is effective.

  18. Molding Sand Quality Control in Green sand Molding%湿型砂造型中型砂质量的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪仁; 马顺龙

    2011-01-01

    介绍了湿型砂各组分的作用,论述了型砂性能与其组分的关系,认为控制好有效膨润土量和有效添加剂量是控制型砂质量的关键,结合生产实例说明了型砂质量的控制要点;指出提高型砂质量控制水平、生产优质铸件和实现铸造生产循环用砂是铸造生产节能减排的根本方法之一.%The effects of various in gredients of the green molding sand were introduced. The relationship hetween properties of the molding sand and its ingredients was described. It was considered that correct controlling the active bentonite amount and its addition amount is the key measure to control the quality of molding sand. By showing practical example, the key points of molding sand quality control were explained. It was pointed out that elevafing the quality control level of molding sand to produce high quality castings and actualize sand cycling usage in foundry production is one of the radical methods to conduct energy saving and emission reducing in foundry production.

  19. Effect of Structure Parameters on Power and Magnetic Field in Electromagnetic Soft-Contact Continuous Casting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG An-yuan; WANG En-gang; HE Ji-cheng

    2008-01-01

    To design a power source system and mold for electromagnetic soft-contact continuous casting process and to theoretically estimate the heat losses from the charges and the system power, the effect of structure parameters on system power and magnetic flux density distribution was calculated using finite element method. The results show that as for electromagnetic soft-contact continuous casting system with partial-segment type mold, the power consumption is much more than that with a full-segment type mold; about 62% of electric power is dissipated in the mold, and the effective acting range of magnetic field is relatively narrow. Optimizing mold structure is a crucial measure of remarkably reducing mold power consumption and saving electric energy. Increasing slit number, width, and length can remarkably increase the magnetic flux density in the mold and can reduce the electric energy consumption. Among structure parameters, slit number and slit width are relatively more effective to reduce energy consumption. For a round billet electromagnetic continuous casting system with diameter of 178 mm, the reasonable slit number, width, and length are about 24-32, 0.5-1.0 mm, and 160 mm, respectively.

  20. LLNL casting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  1. Temperature Measurements On Semi-Permanent Mold Surfaces Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Ronald G.

    1983-03-01

    Die surface temperature and internal die thermal balance are critical to the quality of semi-permanent mold die castings. Measurements of the surface temperature are currently made using either hand-held contact temperature probes or optical pyrometers. Neither measurement technique provides a thermal map of the entire die surface. This paper discusses the use of infrared thermography for die surface temperature measurement. Using infrared thermographic techniques, scans were made over the surface of an experimental 302 CID semi-permanent mold cylinder head die during several casting cycles. The results obtained were in reasonable agreement with the temperature measurements made using optical pyrometers and the contact probes. In addition, using gray-level conversion the IR technique provided a measure of the temperature gradient over the surface of the die. Such thermal mapping has not been practical using optical or contact temperature probes.

  2. Distribution of Magnetic Flux Density in Soft-Contact EMCC Rectangular Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lin-tao; WANG En-gang; DENG An-yuan; HE Ji-cheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the magnetic flux density in a soft-contact electromagnetic continuous casting (EMCC) rectangular mold was investigated. The experimental results show that with an increase in electric power, the magnetic flux density increases. The position where the maximum magnetic flux density appears will shift up when the coil moves to the top of the mold. At the same time, the maximum magnetic flux density will increase and the effective acting range of electromagnetic pressure will widen. As a result, in practice, the coil should be placed near the top part of the mold. The meniscus should be controlled near the top part of the coil, as this not only remarkably improves the billet surface quality but also saves energy. With the same electric power input, the higher the frequency, the lower the magnetic flux density.

  3. Surface microstructure replication in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Uffe Arlø; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection molding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection molding, the mold surface topogra...

  4. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  5. Planning an Injection Mold Design Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Edward P.

    With the increased use of plastics worldwide the shortage of trained personnel in moldmaking and design for plastic injection molds is becoming critical. Local schools and community colleges should provide courses in mold design and mold making, since most workers presently learn while working under experienced designers on the job. Following this…

  6. Confined Growth of Metal Nanoparticles Within 3D DNA Origami Molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Shen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturing prescribed shaped metal nanoparticles promises emerging applications in plasmonics, energy, and disease diagnosis. The key to the shape-controllable synthesis is generating local environments encoded with prescribed geometrical information. Here, we describe a general strategy that uses 3D self-assembled DNA origami as mold to confine the casting growth of metal nanoparticle. By transferring the shape information from DNA cavities to metal nanoparticles, metal nanoparticles with prescribed shapes, dimensions, and surface binding features could be rationally designed and synthesized.

  7. Is Mold the New Asbestos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to architects and their educational clients. The Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program offers help to districts seeking to tackle IAQ issues. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.…

  8. Stochastic resin transfer molding process

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M

    2016-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of stochastic resin transfer molding process, which are formulated as random moving boundary problems. We study their properties, analytically in the one-dimensional case and numerically in the two-dimensional case. We show how variability of time to fill depends on correlation lengths and smoothness of a random permeability field.

  9. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  10. Hydrogen silsesquioxane mold coatings for improved replication of nanopatterns by injection molding

    OpenAIRE

    Hobæk, Thor Christian; Matschuk, Maria; Kafka, Jan; Pranov, Henrik J.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the replication of nanosized pillars in polymer (cyclic olefin copolymer) by injection molding using nanostructured thermally cured hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) ceramic coatings on stainless steel mold inserts with mold nanostructures produced by a simple embossing process. At isothermal mold conditions, the average pillar height increases by up to 100% and a more uniform height distribution is observed compared to a traditional metal mold insert. Thermal heat transfer simulat...

  11. Study of the Viscosity of Mold Flux Based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin

    2017-02-01

    Viscosity is one of the most important properties of mold flux and affects the process of continuous casting significantly. In order to describe the variation of viscosity of mold flux accurately in a wide range of temperature occurring in the casting mold, a non-Arrhenius Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) model was adopted in this study. The results showed that the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R 2) of non-Arrhenius VFT Model ranges from 0.92 to 0.96, which suggests this model could be well adapted to predict the relationship between viscosity and temperature of mold flux. The temperature at which viscosity becomes infinite, T VFT, increased with the addition of Cr2O3 and improvement of basicity, while it decreased with the addition of B2O3, as it was determined by both the degree of polymerization of the melt structure and crystallization behavior of the melt. Also, the pseudo-activation energy, E VFT, of Samples 1 to 5 was 60.1 ± 3.6, 94.7 ± 14.9, 101.7 ± 19.0, 38.0 ± 4.8, and 32.4 ± 4.0 kJ/mol, respectively; it increased with the addition of Cr2O3 and B2O3, but deceased with the increase of basicity.

  12. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic PDMS devices from reusable PDMS molds using laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksacan, Ziya; Tahsin Guler, M.; Aydogdu, Berkan; Bilican, Ismail; Elbuken, Caglar

    2016-03-01

    The conventional fabrication methods for microfluidic devices require cleanroom processes that are costly and time-consuming. We present a novel, facile, and low-cost method for rapid fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds and devices. The method consists of three main fabrication steps: female mold (FM), male mold (MM), and chip fabrication. We use a CO2 laser cutter to pattern a thin, spin-coated PDMS layer for FM fabrication. We then obtain reusable PDMS MM from the FM using PDMS/PDMS casting. Finally, a second casting step is used to replicate PDMS devices from the MM. Demolding of one PDMS layer from another is carried out without any potentially hazardous chemical surface treatment. We have successfully demonstrated that this novel method allows fabrication of microfluidic molds and devices with precise dimensions (thickness, width, length) using a single material, PDMS, which is very common across microfluidic laboratories. The whole process, from idea to device testing, can be completed in 1.5 h in a standard laboratory.

  13. In-situ surface hardening of cast iron by surface layer metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Sebastian F., E-mail: s.fischer@gi.rwth-aachen.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Muschna, Stefan, E-mail: smuschna@yahoo.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas, E-mail: sekretariat@gi.rwth-aachen.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Bünck, Matthias, E-mail: m.buenck@access-techcenter.de [Access e.V., Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    Abrasive wear is a serious problem in many cast iron castings used in industry. To minimize failure and repair of these components, different strategies exist to improve their surface microhardness thus enhancing their wear resistance. However, most of these methods lead to very brittle and/or expensive castings. In the current work a new method for surface hardening is presented which utilizes surface layer metallurgy to generate in-situ a boron-enriched white cast iron surface layer with a high microhardness on a gray cast iron casting. To do this, sand molds are coated with a ferroboron suspension and cast with a cast iron melt. After solidification, a 100–900 µm thick layer of boron-enriched ledeburite is formed on the surface of the casting which produces an increase in the average microhardness from 284 HV{sub 0.1}±52 HV{sub 0.1} to 505 HV{sub 0.1}±87 HV{sub 0.1}. Analyses of the samples' core reveal a typical cast iron microstructure which leads to the conclusion that the coating mainly affects the castings' surface. By varying the grain size of the ferroboron powder in the coatings, it is shown that a powder size ≤100 µm is most suitable to create a boron-enriched ledeburite surface layer possessing high hardness values.

  14. Internal adaptation of cast titanium crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As the adaptation of titanium crowns obtained by Rematitan Plus investment, specific for titanium, is not recognized to be suitable, this study evaluated the effect of the concentration of the specific liquid and the temperature of the mold of investments on the internal misfit of crowns cast on commercially pure titanium. Individual dies of epoxy resin were obtained, representing teeth prepared for full-crown restoration with a 6-degree axial surface convergence angle and shoulder (1.0 mm. For the waxing of each crown, a ring-shaped stainless steel matrix (8.0mm internal diameter; 7.5 mm height was adapted above the individual dies of epoxy resin. The Rematian Plus investment was mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions using two different concentrations of the specific liquid: 100%, 75%. Casting was performed in a Discovery Plasma Ar-arc vacuum-pressure casting machine with molds at temperatures of 430ºC, 515ºC and 600ºC. The crowns were cleaned individually in a solution (1% HF + 13% HNO3 for 10 min using a ultrasonic cleaner, with no internal adaptations, and luted with zinc phosphate cement under a 5 kg static load. The crown and die assemblies were embedded in resin and sectioned longitudinally. The area occupied by cement was observed using stereoscopic lens (10X and measured by the Leica Qwin image analysis system (mm². The data for each experimental condition (n=8 were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (á=0.05. The results showed that liquid dilution and the increase in mold temperature did not significantly influence the levels of internal fit of the cast titanium crowns. The lowest means (±SD of internal misfit were obtained for the 430ºC/100%: (7.25 mm² ±1.59 and 600ºC/100% (8.8 mm² ±2.25 groups, which presented statistically similar levels of internal misfit.

  15. Effect of yttrium on microstructure and mold filling capacity of a near-α high temperature titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ertuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The addition of rare earth yttrium (Y can improve the performances of high temperature titanium alloys, such as the tensile ductility, thermal stability and creep property, etc. However, few studies on the effect of Y on the castability of titanium alloys have been carried out, which is significant to fabrication of thin-walled complex titanium castings by investment casting. In this study, the microstructure and mold filling capacity of a Ti-1100 alloy with different Y additions (0, 0.1wt.%, 0.3wt.%, 0.5wt.% and 1.0wt.% were investigated systematically through investment casting experiments, and the casting experiments were carried out in a centrifugal titanium casting machine. The microstructures of the alloy were observed via the optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The mold filling capacity was tested by using of a grid pattern and was evaluated by the number of segments completely filled by the cast alloy. The results indicate that the grain size is decreased and the mold filling capacity is improved significantly with increasing the addition of Y from 0 to 1.0wt.%. The average primary β grain size of Ti-1100 alloy is reduced from 250 μm to 50 μm and the mold filling capacity is increased from 61.5% to 100%. Considering the potential harmful effect on tensile properties of titanium alloys due to high concentrations of Y, it is suggested that Y addition should be about 0.3wt.%.

  16. A novel method for fabricating polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip master molds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Ting-ting; XIA Zhi-ning; CHEN Hua; YU Yan-lin

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a novel method of fabricating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip polymer master molds in this paper. The method mainly includes two steps. First, a stainless steel slice was laser etched to form a metal model. Then, the organic solution of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was casted onto the metal model to fabricate the PMMA master which subsequently would be used to fabricate PDMS chips. We systematically researched different laser parameters influencing the surface status of microchannels and obtained optimized etching parameters. We investigated and optimized the organic solution composition of PMMA while casting chip masters, and developed a method to form fine polymer masters using two different viscosity solutions to cast the model in turn, and studied the repeatable replication. Then, we investigated physical performance of this chip and evaluated the practicability by analyzing Rhodamine B. Compared with present methods, the proposed method does not need photolithography on photoresistant and chemical etching. The entire fabricating progress is simple, fast, low-cost and can be controlled easily. Only several minutes are required to make a metal model, 3 hours for a PMMA master, and one day for PDMS chips.

  17. Implementation of Molding Constraints in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, S.; Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    In many cases the topology optimization method yield inadmissible solutions in respect to a particular manufacturing process, e.g. injection molding. In the present work it is chosen to focus on the most common injection molding parameters/factors determining the quality of the mold geometry, i.......e. uniform thickness, filling of the die and ejection of the molded item, i.e. extrusion. The mentioned injection mold parameters/factors are introduced in the topology optimization by defining a centerline of the initial domain and then penalize elements in respect to the distance to the defined centerline...

  18. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  19. Modeling on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2016-08-01

    During the centrifugal continuous casting process, unreasonable casting parameters can cause violent level fluctuation, serious gas entrainment, and formation of frozen shell pieces at the meniscus. Thus, in the current study, a three-dimensional multiphase turbulent model was established to study the transport phenomena during centrifugal continuous casting process. The effects of nozzle position, casting and rotational speed on the flow pattern, centrifugal force acting on the molten steel, level fluctuation, gas entrainment, shear stress on mold wall, and motion of inclusions during centrifugal continuous casting process were investigated. Volume of Fluid model was used to simulate the molten steel-air two-phase. The level fluctuation and the gas entrainment during casting were calculated by user-developed subroutines. The trajectory of inclusions in the rotating system was calculated using the Lagrangian approach. The results show that during centrifugal continuous casting, a large amount of gas was entrained into the molten steel, and broken into bubbles of various sizes. The greater the distance to the mold wall, the smaller the centrifugal force. Rotation speed had the most important influence on the centrifugal force distribution at the side region. Angular moving angle of the nozzle with 8° and keeping the rotation speed with 60 revolutions per minute can somehow stabilize the level fluctuation. The increase of angular angle of nozzle from 8 to 18 deg and rotation speed from 40 to 80 revolutions per minute favored to decrease the total volume of entrained bubbles, while the increase of distance of nozzle moving left and casting speed had reverse effects. The trajectories of inclusions in the mold were irregular, and then rotated along the strand length. After penetrating a certain distance, the inclusions gradually moved to the center of billet and gathered there. More work, such as the heat transfer, the solidification, and the inclusions entrapment

  20. Assessment of Computer Simulation Software and Process Data for High Pressure Die Casting of Magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Hatfield, Edward C [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Kuwana, Kazunori [University of Kentucky; Viti, Valerio [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Hassan, Mohamed I [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Saito, Kozo [University of Kentucky

    2007-09-01

    Computer software for the numerical simulation of solidification and mold filling is an effective design tool for cast structural automotive magnesium components. A review of commercial software capabilities and their validation procedures was conducted. Aside form the software assessment, the program addressed five main areas: lubricant degradation, lubricant application, gate atomization, and heat transfer at metal mold interfaces. A test stand for lubricant application was designed. A sensor was used for the direct measurement of heat fluxes during lubricant application and casting solidification in graphite molds. Spray experiments were conducted using pure deionized water and commercial die lubricants. The results show that the sensor can be used with confidence for measuring heat fluxes under conditions specific to the die lube application. The data on heat flux was presented in forms suitable for use in HPDC simulation software. Severe jet breakup and atomization phenomena are likely to occur due to high gate velocities in HPDC. As a result of gate atomization, droplet flow affects the mold filling pattern, air entrapment, skin formation, and ensuing defects. Warm water analogue dies were designed for obtaining experimental data on mold filling phenomena. Data on break-up jet length, break-up pattern, velocities, and droplet size distribution were obtained experimentally and was used to develop correlations for jet break-up phenomena specific to die casting gate configurations.

  1. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold......A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...

  2. Simulation Study of Al-1Mn/Al-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-01

    A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and Al-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of Al-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while Al-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the Al-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al-1Mn alloy.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Mold Deformation Including Plastic Melt Flow During Injection Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon Tae; Lee, Bong-Kee [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, a numerical analysis of an injection molding process was conducted for predicting the mold deformation considering non-Newtonian flow, heat transfer, and structural behavior. The accurate prediction of mold deformation during the filling stage is important to successfully design and manufacture a precision injection mold. While the local mold deformation can be caused by various factors, a pressure induced by the polymer melt is considered to be one of the most significant ones. In this regard, the numerical simulation considering both the melt filling and the mold deformation was carried out. A mold core for a 2D axisymmetric center-gated disk was used for the demonstration of the present study. The flow behavior inside the mold cavity and temperature distribution were analyzed along with the core displacement. Also, a Taguchi method was employed to investigate the influence of the relevant parameters including flow velocity, mold core temperature, and melt temperature.

  4. Simulation of fluid flow inside a continuous slab-casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. G.; Mika, L. J.; Najjar, F. M.

    1990-04-01

    A finite element model has been developed and applied to compute the fluid flow distribution inside the shell in the mold region of a continuous, steel slab-casting machine. The model was produced with the commercial program FIDAP, which allows this nonlinear, highly turbulent problem to be simulated using the K- ɛ turbulence model. It consists of separate two-dimensional (2-D) models of the nozzle and a section through the mold, facing the broad face. The predicted flow patterns and velocity fields show reasonable agreement with experimental observations and measurements conducted using a transparent plastic water model. The effects of nozzle angle, casting speed, mold width, and turbulence simulation parameters on the flow pattern have been investigated. The overall flow field is relatively insensitive to process parameters.

  5. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, David R. (Westlake, OH); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Arnaud, Guy (Morin Heights, CA); Bigler, Nicolas (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-06-17

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  6. Development and Demonstration of Adanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Enrique J. Lavernia

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes research results in the project Development and Demonstration of Advanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies. Molds, dies and related tooling are used to manufacture most of the plastic and metal products we use every day. Conventional fabrication of molds and dies involves a multiplicity of machining, benching and heat treatment unit operations. This approach is very expensive and time consuming. Rapid Solidifcation Process (RSP) Tooling is a spray-forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The appraoch combines rapid solidifcation processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. An atomized spray of a tool-forming alloy, typically a tool steel, is deposited onto an easy-to-form tool pattern to replicate the pattern's shape and surface features. By so doing, the approach eliminates many machining operations in conventional mold making, significantly reducing cost, lead time and energy. Moreover, rapid solidification creates unique microstructural features by suppressing carbide precipitation and growth, and creating metastable phases. This can result in unique material properties following heat treatment. Spray-formed and aged tool steel dies have exhibited extended life compared to conventional dies in many forming operations such as forging, extrusion and die casting. RSP Tooling technolocy was commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC in Solon, Oh.

  7. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. I parte. El molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous casting mold plays the important role of receiving the liquid steel and allowing an uniform and defect free solidified skin to be developed. In this work, the different heat transfer mechanisms which are present from the liquid steel to the mold cooling water are reviewed. The effect of operating variables on heat extraction and the relationship between global and distributed heat flux are also analyzed.

    El molde de colada continua cumple la importante función de recibir el acero líquido y permitir que se desarrolle una capa solidificada uniforme y libre de defectos. En este trabajo se revisan los distintos mecanismos implicados en el proceso de transferencia de calor, desde el acero líquido hasta el agua de refrigeración del molde. Se analiza también el efecto de las distintas variables de funcionamiento en la extracción calórica producida y la relación entre el flujo global de calor y su distribución a lo largo del molde.

  8. Simulation of the ingot extraction in the continuous casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cast ingot pulling speed is significantly affecting the nature of the resulting structure and the quality of the outer surface of the ingot. By introducing a variable algorithm for extraction of the ingot we may to some extent control the shape and location of the solid / liquid interface and temperature field in the cross-section of the ingot. The shape of the crystallization front, as well as its position relative to mold plays an important role in the process of continuous casting ingots of grey iron and affects the structure of the casting. In order to verify the impact of an algorithm on the shape and the location of solid / liquid interface, a number of simulations in ANSYS Fluent 12 were made, for determining the shape of crystallization front and temperature distribution on the cross-section of the ingot.

  9. Gating System Design for a Magnesium Alloy Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The gating system of a cylindrical magnesium casting has been designed by using multiple objective optimization and Taguchi method. Mold filling and solidification processes were simulated by using MAGMASOFT(R).The simulation results indicate that the gating system design has a significant effect on the quality of magnesium castings. In an effort to obtain the optimal design of gating system, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was used to analyze the effect of various gating designs on cavity filling and casting quality by using a weighting method based on the design of an orthogonal array. Four gating system parameters, namely, ingate height,ingate width, runner height, runner width, were optimized with a consideration of multiple objective criteria including filling velocity, shrinkage porosity and product yield.

  10. Technical parameters in electromagnetic continuous casting of aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 张兴国; 贾非; 姚山; 金俊泽

    2003-01-01

    The temperature field of aluminum ingot during electromagnetic continuous casting was calculated by the numerical method, and the effects of cooling water strength, position of the cooling water holes and pouring temperature as well as induction heat on casting speed, were studied. The results show that among the technical parameters the distance from the position of the cooling water holes to the bottom of the mold is the most important factor, whose change from 20mm to 15mm and from 15mm to 10mm causes the setting rate increasing respectively by 0.14mm/s and 0.3mm/s.The calculated results also agree with the experiment well. The simulation program can be used to determine technical parameters of electromagnetic casting of aluminum ingot effectively.

  11. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  12. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  13. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  14. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  15. Design optimization of gating and feeding system through simulation technique for sand casting of wear plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L. Nimbulkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Casting is a manufacturing process to make complex shapes of metal materials; during mass production, we may experience many defects, such as gas porosity, pin holes, blow holes, shrinkages and incomplete filling that may occur in sand casting. Porosity is one of the defects most frequently encountered in ductile iron casting. Porosity impacts cost by scrap loss and limits the use of cast parts in critical high strength applications. The amount of porosity is closely related to the parameter of sand casting process. The gating/riser system design plays a very important role for improving casting quality. Many researchers reported that 90% of the defects in casting are obtained only because of improper design of gating and feeding system. The main objectives were to study the existing design of gating and feeding system, to optimize the gating and feeding system using Auto-CAST X1 casting simulation software, to prepare the sand mold and cast the part, to compare the simulated result and experimental results, to reduce rejection rate and to enable the company to again start the production.

  16. Study on particle distribution in A356/SiCp upward suction castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifan; Zhao, Haidong; Sun, Fengzhen; Zhao, Yu

    2014-10-01

    In this investigation, cylindrical A356-5%50 μm SiCp and A356-10%100 μm SiCp castings of 40 mm diameter and 350 mm height were produced by stirring preparation and vertically upward suction casting process. The SiCp fractions in the casting different sections along the filling direction were quantitatively measured. The composite slurry flow during the casting mold filling was simulated based on the Euler method while the particle flow was calculated with the Lagrangian method for predicting the SiCp distribution. The simulated distributions were compared and validated with the experiment. It has shown that as the filling distance increased, the particle fractions decreased dramatically in the A356-10%100 μm SiCp casting while varied slightly in the A356-5%50 μm SiCp casting, and that the particles were prone to be aggregated near the mold wall at the filling beginning parts whereas more particles concentrated in the centre and fewer particles were present near the wall region in the casting front.

  17. Heat transfer characteristics of lost foam casting process of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zi-li; PAN Qing-lin; CHEN Zhao-feng; LIU Xi-qin; TAO Jie

    2006-01-01

    Effects of vacuum, pouring temperature and pattern thickness on the heat transfer of magnesium alloy lost foam casting(LFC) process were explored. The results indicate that without vacuum a positive thermal gradient from the gate to the end of the casting was formed immediately after the mold filling. The average temperature of the casting, the temperature gradient and solidification times increase significantly with pouring temperature and pattern thickness. Vacuum plays a quite different role in the heat transfer during mould filling and solidification periods: it significantly increases the cooling rate of the filling melt, but decreases the cooling rate of the casting during solidification period. The temperature of the liquid metal drops sharply and varies greatly with no apparent mode in the casting after the mold filling. The amplitude of temperature fluctuations in the casting increases with vacuum, pouring temperature and pattern thickness. The average temperature increases with pouring temperature and pattern thickness, but less rapidly than that without vacuum. The effect of vacuum on the solidification times of castings is found to depend on pouring temperature, vacuum makes solidification times increase greatly at high pouring temperature, while decreases slightly at low pouring temperature.

  18. Evolution of halictine castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, Gerd

    1980-03-01

    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  19. Nonaqueous slip casting of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductive ceramics. Ph.D. Thesis - 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigates the slip casting of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) powders using nonaqueous carrier liquids and fired ceramic molds. The parameters of the process examined here include the rheological properties of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) powder dispersed in various solvent/dispersant systems, the combination of nonaqueous slips with fired ceramic molds to form the superconductive ceramics, the process-property relationships using a four-factor factorial experiment, and the applicability of magnetic fields to align the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) grains during the casting process.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Influence of the Mold Material on the Distribution of Shrinkage Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dyja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of castings, like any other field of technology is aimed at providing high-quality product, free from defects. One of the maincauses of defects in castings is the phenomenon of shrinkage of the casting. This phenomenon causes the formation of shrinkage cavitiesand porosity in the casting. The major preventive measure is supplementing a shortage of liquid metal. For supplement to be effective, it is necessary to use risers in proper shapes. Usually, the risers are selected on the basis of determination the place of formation of hot-spots in the castings. Although in these places the shrinkage defects are most likely to occur, shape and size of these defects are also affected by other factors. The article describes the original program setting out the shape and location of possible cavities in the casting. In the program is also taken into account the effect of temperature on the change in volume of liquid metal and the resultant differences in the shape and size of formed shrinkage cavities. The aim of the article is to describe the influence that have material properties of the mold on the simulation results.

  1. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1) the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc.), and (2) the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  2. Application of Numerical Simulation Technique to Casting Process of Valve Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Guo-fa; LIU Xiang-yu; WANG Kuang-fei; FU Heng-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The numerical simulation technique was applied to the casting process of a valve-type part. The mold-filling and solidification stages of the casting were numerically analyzed. The filling behavior, solidification sequence,and thermal stress distribution were reproduced and the possible defects, such as cold shut and shrinkage, were predicted. Based on the simulation result, the double-gating system was replaced by a single-gating system. Meanwhile,the chills were used to regulate the solidification sequence of casting. To eliminate the cracks in the casting, the sand core was converted into a canulate one. By modifying the original process, the defects were eliminated and the casting with good quality was obtained.

  3. Fabrication of rare-earth bearing fuel slug by injection casting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Herein, U.10wt%Zr fuel slugs containing 0, 3, and 7 wt%RE were prepared by an injection casting method and their characteristics were evaluated. The as-cast fuel slugs were generally sound and fabricated to the full length of the mold. However, the increased amount of the charged RE noticeably deteriorated the quality of the casting components such as melting crucible. Chemical analysis of the U.10Zr and U.10Zr.3RE slugs showed that the target composition was matched to within 1.0 wt%. In contrast, the composition of the U.10Zr.7RE fuel slug differed by as much as 4.6 wt% from the target. Therefore, more protective casting variables should be considered, when casting high RE-bearing fuel slugs. KAERI seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products.

  4. Longitudinal surface cracks on continuous casting slabs of P and Cu containing container steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Wang; Zhiyuan Zhu; Li Zhang; Guodong Xu

    2003-01-01

    The fact that the amount of the mold flux components differs at different locations on the cracking surface indicates that the longitudinal surface cracks are initially formed in the mold and are enlarged in the secondary cooling zone. Based on the hot ductility measurement of two typical container used steels, it is known that the steels are in severe embrittlement state in the temperature range of 825-775℃. By means of increasing Cr/Ni plating thickness on the upper part of the mold, reducing mold heat flux, adopting new secondary cooling pattern, etc., the occurrence of the surface longitudinal cracks on the steel CC (continuous casting) slabs has been significantly reduced.

  5. Effect of Functional Nano Channel Structures Different Widths on Injection Molding and Compression Molding Replication Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Garnaes, J.

    The present study investigates the capabilities of the two employed processes, injection molding (IM) and injection compression molding (ICM) on replicating different channel cross sections. Statistical design of experiment was adopted to optimize replication quality of produced polymer parts wit...

  6. Metal Injection Molding (MIM of Magnesium and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research has highlighted that magnesium and its alloys as biodegradable material are highly suitable for biomedical applications. The new material fully degrades into nontoxic elements and offers material properties matching those of human bone tissue. As biomedical implants are rather small and complex in shape, the metal injection molding (MIM technique seems to be well suited for the near net shape mass production of such parts. Furthermore, MIM of Mg-alloys is of high interest in further technical fields. This study focusses on the performance of MIM-processing of magnesium alloy powders. It includes Mg-specific development of powder blending, feedstock preparation, injection molding, solvent and thermal debinding and final sintering. Even though Mg is a highly oxygen-affine material forming a stable oxide layer on each particle surface, the material can be sintered to nearly dense parts, providing mechanical properties matching those of as cast material. An ultimate tensile strength of 142 MPa, yield strength of 67 MPa, elastic modulus of 40 GPa and 8% elongation at fracture could be achieved using novel organic polymer binders for the feedstock preparation. Thus, first implant demonstrator parts could be successfully produced by the MIM technique.

  7. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  8. A cast orientation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K

    1994-12-01

    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  9. Higher Education's Caste System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  10. Caste and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste...

  11. Analysis of optical properties in injection-molded and compression-molded optical lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung Yen; Wang, Pei Jen

    2014-04-10

    Numerical mold-flow simulations and experimental measurements for injection-molded lenses have been investigated in form accuracy on a two-cavity mold with various process conditions. First, form profiles of the molded lenses have been measured together with the corresponding simulated mold-temperature distribution and displacement distribution of the lens in the z direction. A flow-through type layout of cooling channels has been devised for balance of mold-temperature distribution in mold cavities with various parametric distances for assessments in uniformity of temperature distribution. Finally, a compression-molding process is proposed for the post-process of birefringence relaxation as well as adequate form accuracy of lenses. In conclusion, optimization of process parameters to achieve good form accuracy in a multicavity mold with symmetric geometry but nonuniform cooling conditions is difficult. A good design of cooling channels plus optimized process conditions could provide uniform mold-temperature distribution so that molded lenses of good quality would be possible. Then, the profile deviation of lenses could be further compensated by profile geometry corrections. In conclusion, the post-compression-molding process could make birefringence-free plastic lenses with good form accuracy.

  12. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  13. Tracing the Origin of Non-ferrous Oxides in Lamination Defects on Hot-Rolled Coils: Mold Slag Entrainment vs Submerged Entry Nozzle Reaction Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengo, Sabri; Romano Triguero, Patricia; Zinngrebe, Enno; Mensonides, Fokko

    2017-02-01

    In this work, lamination defects (slivers) on hot-rolled coils of Ca-treated steel were investigated for microstructure and composition using optical and scanning electron microscopy combined with microanalysis (SEM/EDS). The goal was to identify possible origins for the observed defects which contain a complex assemblage of phases, such as different types of calcium aluminates (CA, CA2, CA6), melilite (C2AS), spinel (MA), and a newly identified phase, CNA2. Mold slag similar to that employed during the cast was absent. Analysis of the bulk composition of some of the defects indicated these to be too rich in alumina to be derived from mold slag through steel-slag redox exchange. In contrast, microstructural observation of the inner side of the submerged entry nozzles (SEN) used during casting showed deposits with compositions comparable to those of the defect material. Based on an estimation of the chemical evolution of mold slag interacting with steel, it is found that the defects are not likely to be entrained mold slag but remobilized SEN deposits, as supported by several microstructural and trace phase criteria. However, it should be noted that extensive reduction of mold slag by steel can lead to compositions rich in sodic-calcic aluminates (CNA2). Therefore, differentiation between specific locations of the defect materials within a casting system requires detailed analysis from the potential sources of origin as well as from the materials found in the defects.

  14. Structuring of bioactive glass surfaces at the micrometer scale by direct casting intended to influence cell response

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Defect-free bioactive glass surfaces with a grooved microstructure at the low micrometer scale were achieved by a mold casting process. The process was applied to the well-known glass compositions 45S5 and 13–93. Such microstructured surfaces may exhibit especially favorable conditions for bone cell orientation and growth. The aim of the study was to assess the parameter range for a successful casting process and thus to produce samples suitable to investigate the inte...

  15. Microstructure and fracture of SiC-particulate-reinforced cast A356 aluminum alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghak; Suh, Dongwoo; Kwon, Dongil

    1996-12-01

    A microstructural analysis of local microfracture of cast A356 Al-SiC p composites fabricated by permanent mold re-casting and squeeze-casting methods was made. Notch fracture toughness tests were conducted on these composites to identify critical fracture parameters using a stress-modified critical-strain criterion. The composite microstructure shows continuous networks of densely populated SiC and eutectic Si particles along the intercellular regions. Squeeze casting produces a more homogeneous structure and larger spacing of brittle particles and increases the tensile ductility and fracture toughness, while strength levels are almost identical to the re-casting case. The calculated values of the microstructurally characteristic distance l* for the re-cast and squeeze-cast composites are about 40 µm, which is comparable to the average sizes of the intercellular network. However, the reference critical strainbar \\varepsilon _0^* for squeeze casting is larger than that for re-casting, showing a trend to higher ductility and fracture toughness.

  16. Through process numerical simulation of a heavy hydro turbine blade casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. W.; Wang, T. J.; Y Huang, T.; Liu, B. C.

    2012-07-01

    Heavy Hydro turbine castings, made of martensitic stainless steel, of spatially twisted shape, are susceptible to deformation during both casting and heat treatment processes. During production, uneven heating and cooling, phase transformation, stress and stain are responsible for the deformation of castings. However, the current research most focus on casting process or heat treatment process or both but separately, martensitic phase transformation is usually neglected in casting process. In this paper, a coupled thermo-martensitic phase transformation-stress model is established. And it is implemented by secondary development of ABAQUS, which deals the finite element model change and incorporates multi thermal and mechanical boundaries during casting and heat treatment processes as well, such as the contact pair between casting and mold during casting process. The stress analysis of a heavy hydro blade casting was performed by this system. The stress, displacement and phase are obtained. The effect of martensitic phase transformation on the stress and deformation is discussed. The simulated deformation is compared with measured results, and their agreement is improved by the through process simulation.

  17. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  18. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1 the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc., and (2 the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  19. Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all, may produce toxins or poisonous substances called mycotoxins that may cause effects in humans. Although there are many types of mycotoxins, aflatoxins are probably the best known and most ...

  20. Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded and Compression Molded Samples from Nature-Butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobak Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show what extent there is an impact on the mechanical properties (tensile strength and tear strength of a standardized testing sample made of rubber compound based on nature rubber and butadiene rubber produced by injection molding in comparison with a sample produced by classic preparation (cutting out a compression molded plate according to the standard ISO 23529. For realization of this study it was necessary to design and produce an injection mold for all types testing samples. Subsequently, mechanical properties such as the tensile stress-strain and tear strenght of compression molded samples and injection molded samples were studied, compared and discussed.

  1. Nonlinear Modeling of a High Precision Servo Injection Molding Machine Including Novel Molding Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪松; 王旭永; 冯正进; 章志新; 杨钦廉

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear mathematical model of the injection molding process for electrohydraulic servo injection molding machine (IMM) is developed.It was found necessary to consider the characteristics of asymmetric cylinder for electrohydraulic servo IMM.The model is based on the dynamics of the machine including servo valve,asymmetric cylinder and screw,and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of polymer melt in injection molding is also considered.The performance of the model was evaluated based on novel approach of molding - injection and compress molding,and the results of simulation and experimental data demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  2. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing this delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at

  3. Low-cost silicone imaging casts for zebrafish embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Wouter; Wong, Jin Cheng; Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing; Currie, Peter David

    2014-02-01

    Due to their size and optical clarity, zebrafish embryos have long been appreciated for their usefulness in time-lapse confocal microscopy. Current methods of mounting zebrafish embryos and larvae for imaging consist mainly of mounting in low percentage, low melting temperature agarose in a Petri dish. Whereas imaging methods have advanced greatly over the last two decades, the methods for mounting embryos have not changed significantly. In this article, we describe the development and use of 3D printed plastic molds. These molds can be used to create silicone casts and allow embryos and larvae to be mounted with a consistent and reproducible angle, and position in X, Y, and Z. These molds are made on a 3D printer and can be easily and cheaply reproduced by anyone with access to a 3D printer, making this method accessible to the entire zebrafish community. Molds can be reused to create additional casts, which can be reused after imaging. These casts are compatible with any upright microscope and can be adapted for use on an inverted microscope, taking the working distance of the objective used into account. This technique should prove to be useful to any researcher imaging zebrafish embryos.

  4. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items...

  5. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  6. Evaluation of Alpha-case in Titanium Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The alpha-case formation reactions between Ti and investment molds (Al2O3, ZrSiO4, ZrO2, CaO stabilized ZrO2) were evaluated in a plasma arc melting furnace. Regardless of thermodynamic approaches, there were distinct alpha-case formations. The reaction products were characterized by electron probe micro-analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The α-case generation between Ti and Al2O3 mold was not able to be explained by the conventional α-case formation mechanism, which is known to be formed by the interstitials, especially oxygen dissolved from mold materials. However, from our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations, it was confirmed that the c-case is formed not only by an interstitial element but also by substitutional metallic elements dissolved from mold materials. Our newly established α-case formation mechanism will surely lead to a variety of significant applications of the α-case controlled Ti casting.

  7. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  8. The use of IR thermography to show the mold and part temperature evolution in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, Karol; Różański, Leszek; Marciniak-Podsadna, Lidia; Wróbel, Dawid

    2016-12-01

    This study concerns the application of infrared camera for injection molding analysis by measuring temperatures of both injection molded parts and injection mold cavities in a function of injection cycles. The mold with two cavities, differing in thickness (1 and 3 mm), and a cold direct runner was used. Isotactic polypropylene homopolymer was utilized to produce parts. Mold temperature was set at 22°C and controlled by a water chiller. Five measuring points were determined: SP1, SP2 (placed in the 3 mm cavity), SP3, SP4 (located in the 1 mm cavity) and SP5 around an injection molding gate. Our investigations showed that the highest temperature is localized around SP2 point and the lowest at SP4. Also, it was proved that even after 62 injection molding cycles, temperatures of cavities were not stable, revealing their further increase with each cycle.

  9. The use of IR thermography to show the mold and part temperature evolution in injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bula Karol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the application of infrared camera for injection molding analysis by measuring temperatures of both injection molded parts and injection mold cavities in a function of injection cycles. The mold with two cavities, differing in thickness (1 and 3 mm, and a cold direct runner was used. Isotactic polypropylene homopolymer was utilized to produce parts. Mold temperature was set at 22°C and controlled by a water chiller. Five measuring points were determined: SP1, SP2 (placed in the 3 mm cavity, SP3, SP4 (located in the 1 mm cavity and SP5 around an injection molding gate. Our investigations showed that the highest temperature is localized around SP2 point and the lowest at SP4. Also, it was proved that even after 62 injection molding cycles, temperatures of cavities were not stable, revealing their further increase with each cycle.

  10. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  11. Symptomatic stent cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, John; Moore, Michael; O'Mahony, Seamus; Crosbie, Orla

    2008-02-01

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  12. IC chip stress during plastic package molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1998-02-01

    Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

  13. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  14. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of as-cast and T6-treated AA2195 DC cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmat-Ardakan, A. [Universite de Sherbrook, Sherbrook, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Elgallad, E.M. [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Ajersch, F. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Chen, X.-G., E-mail: xgrant_chen@uqac.ca [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The use of direct chill (DC) cast ingot plates of AA2195 alloys has been recently extended for large mold applications in the plastics and automotive industries. The microstructural evolution of the as-cast AA2195 alloy was investigated using the Factsage thermodynamic software under both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions, and was compared with the results from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and microstructural observations. The as-cast microstructure exhibited the presence of Al{sub 2}CuMg, Al{sub 2}Cu and Al{sub 2}CuLi intermetallic phases formed at the aluminum dendrite boundaries, which can be completely dissolved in the {alpha}-Al matrix during the solution treatment. A significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the AA2195 cast alloy after the T6 heat treatment is attributed to the formation of nano-scale {theta} Prime (Al{sub 2}Cu) and T1 (Al{sub 2}CuLi) precipitates. However, the non-uniform distribution of T1 precipitates together with the large size and low density indicate that the role of {theta} Prime precipitates in strengthening the AA2195 cast alloy is more dominant than that of the T1 precipitates, in contrast with the strengthening mechanism of the pre-deformed AA2195-T8 rolled products.

  15. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2011-01-01

    White Cast Iron (Ⅰ) White cast iron or ‘white iron' refers to the type of cast iron in which all of the carbon exists as carbide;there is no graphite in the as-cast structure and the fractured surface shows a white colour.White cast iron can be divided in three classes:· Normal white cast iron — this iron contains only C,Si,Mn,P and S,with no other alloying elements.· Low-alloy white cast iron — the total mass fraction of alloying elements is less than 5%.

  16. Three-dimensional ceramic molding process based on microstereolithography for the production of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Shoji; Sugiyama, Kenji; Daicho, Yuya; Monri, Kensaku

    2014-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) molding process using a master polymer mold produced by microstereolithography has been developed for the production of piezoelectric ceramic elements. In this method, ceramic slurry is injected into a 3-D polymer mold via a centrifugal casting process. The polymer master mold is thermally decomposed so that complex 3-D piezoelectric ceramic elements can be produced. As an example of 3-D piezoelectric ceramic elements, we produced a spiral piezoelectric element that can convert multidirectional loads into a voltage. It was confirmed that a prototype of the spiral piezoelectric element could generate a voltage by applying a load in both parallel and lateral directions in relation to the helical axis. The power output of 123 pW was obtained by applying the maximum load of 2.8N at 2 Hz along the helical axis. In addition, to improve the performance of power generation, we utilized a two-step sintering process to obtain dense piezoelectric elements. As a result, we obtained a sintering body with relative density of 92.8%. Piezoelectric constant d31 of the sintered body attained to -40.0 pC/N. Furthermore we analyzed the open-circuit voltage of the spiral piezoelectric element using COMSOL multiphysics. As a result, it was found that use of patterned electrodes according to the surface potential distribution of the spiral piezoelectric element had a potential to provide high output voltage that was 20 times larger than that of uniform electrodes.

  17. 机箱盖板金属型铸造工艺%Permanent Molding of Avionics Case Cover Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建民; 顾红; 路平; 沈成龙; 肖宪波

    2001-01-01

    In the permanent molding process, computer emulation technology is adopted to simulate the process of mould filling and solidification and to optimize the casting parameters.%采用计算机仿真技术对机箱盖板金属型铸造过程进行了充型和凝固模拟,并对铸造工艺进行了优化。

  18. A finite element modeling on the fluid flow and solidification in a continuous casting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; Kim, D.S. [Hanyang University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Choi, H.C. [Agency for Defence Development, Taejon (Korea); Kim, S.W. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, S.K. [Chung Buk National University, Chungju (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    The coupled turbulent flow and solidification is considered in a typical slab continuous casting process using commercial program FIDAP. Standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is modified to decay turbulent viscosity in the mushy zone and laminar viscosity is set to a sufficiently large value at the solid region. This coupled turbulent flow and solidification model also contains thermal contact resistance due to the mold powder and air gap between the strand and mold using an effective thermal conductivity. From the computed flow pattern, the trajectory of inclusion particles was calculated. The comparison between the predicted and experimental solidified shell thickness shows a good agreement. (author). 27 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Influence of Billet Size on Flow, Solidification and Solute Transport in Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-wei; WANG En-gang; HE Ji-cheng

    2003-01-01

    The influence of billet size on continuous casting was studied using the 3-D coupled turbulent flow, solidification and solute transport model. It is shown that the larger the billet size is, the larger the inlet velocity is; The deeper the stream penetration is and more liquid steel is pushed by mainstream, the stronger turbulent flow is observed in the upper part of mold. For Fe-C binary alloy system, the thickness of solidified shell is determined by temperature and solute concentration. The more serious macrosegregation and thinner shell are observed for smaller billet, thus a longer mold should be used.

  20. Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of An Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Produced By Gravity Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikawa S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-strength aluminum alloy are widely used for structural components in aerospace, transportation and racing car applications. The objective of this study is to enhance the strength of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy used for gravity casting process. All alloys cast into stepped-form sand mold (Sand-mold Casting; SC and Y-block shaped metal mold(Permanent mold Casting; PC C and then two –step aged at 398-423 K after solution treated at 743 K for 36 ks. The tensile strength and total elongation of the two-step aged SC alloys were 353-387 MPa and about 0.4% respectively. This low tensile properties of the SC alloys might be caused by remaining of undissolved crystallized phase such as Al2CuM, MgZn2 and Al-Fe-Cu system compounds. However, good tensile properties were obtained from PC alloys, tensile strength and 0.2% proof stress and elongation were 503-537 MPa, 474-519 MPa and 1.3-3.3%.

  1. Thermoplastic blow molding of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schroers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While plastics have revolutionized industrial design due to their versatile processability, their relatively low strength has hampered their use in structural components. On the other hand, while metals are the basis for strong structural components, the geometries into which they can be processed are rather limited. The “ideal” material would offer a desirable combination of superior structural properties and the ability to be precision (net shaped into complex geometries. Here we show that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, which have superior mechanical properties, can be blow molded like plastics. The key to the enhanced processability of BMG formers is their amenability to thermoplastic forming. This allows complex BMG structures, some of which cannot be produced using any other metal process, to be net shaped precisely.

  2. Preparation of Permanent Mold Coating Using Magnesia Powder for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangsi; Wang, Guangtai; Yu, Haifeng; Ye, Sheng

    A kind of permanent mold coating for magnesium alloy was developed using magnesia powder and diatomite as refractory aggregate. The properties of the coating were tested and analyzed by various ingredients. The final ingredient was determined through the tests which are to find out the optimal proportion of two kinds of aggregate and the influences to coating properties by changing the proportion of binder and suspending agents. The experimental results shown that the permanent mold coating performed good properties on magnesium alloys when the optimized ratio of magnesia powder and diatomite was 6: 4, and the integrated property is very excellent when the coating was prepared with 2 percent of sodium bentonite, 0.4 percent of CMC, 7 percent of sodium hexametaphosphate, and 7 percent of sodium silicate. The excellent performance has also been proved by actual casting test.

  3. Monolithic multilayer microfluidics via sacrificial molding of 3D-printed isomalt†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a method for creating multilayer or 3D microfluidics by casting a curable resin around a water-soluble, freestanding sacrificial mold. We use a purpose-built 3D printer to pattern self-supporting filaments of the sugar alcohol isomalt, which we then back-fill with a transparent epoxy resin. Dissolving the sacrificial mold leaves a network of cylindrical channels as well as input and output ports. We use this technique to fabricate a combinatorial mixer capable of producing 8 combinations of two fluids in ratios ranging from 1 : 100 to 100 : 1. This approach allows rapid iteration on microfluidic chip design and enables the use of geometry and materials not accessible using conventional soft lithography. The ability to precisely pattern round channels in all three dimensions in hard and soft media may prove enabling for many organ-on-chip systems. PMID:25671493

  4. Monolithic multilayer microfluidics via sacrificial molding of 3D-printed isomalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Matthew K; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-04-07

    Here we demonstrate a method for creating multilayer or 3D microfluidics by casting a curable resin around a water-soluble, freestanding sacrificial mold. We use a purpose-built 3D printer to pattern self-supporting filaments of the sugar alcohol isomalt, which we then back-fill with a transparent epoxy resin. Dissolving the sacrificial mold leaves a network of cylindrical channels as well as input and output ports. We use this technique to fabricate a combinatorial mixer capable of producing 8 combinations of two fluids in ratios ranging from 1 : 100 to 100 : 1. This approach allows rapid iteration on microfluidic chip design and enables the use of geometry and materials not accessible using conventional soft lithography. The ability to precisely pattern round channels in all three dimensions in hard and soft media may prove enabling for many organ-on-chip systems.

  5. Challenges in mold manufacturing for high precision molded diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongs, Guido; Bresseler, Bernd; Schweizer, Klaus; Bergs, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal precision glass molding of imaging optics is the key technology for mass production of precise optical elements. Especially for numerous consumer applications (e.g. digital cameras, smart phones, …), high precision glass molding is applied for the manufacturing of aspherical lenses. The usage of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can help to further reduce the number of lenses in the optical systems which will lead to a reduced weight of hand-held optical devices. But today the application of molded glass DOEs is limited due to the technological challenges in structuring the mold surfaces. Depending on the application submicrometer structures are required on the mold surface. Furthermore these structures have to be replicated very precisely to the glass lens surface. Especially the micro structuring of hard and brittle mold materials such as Tungsten Carbide is very difficult and not established. Thus a multitude of innovative approaches using diffractive optical elements cannot be realized. Aixtooling has investigated in different mold materials and different suitable machining technologies for the micro- and sub-micrometer structuring of mold surfaces. The focus of the work lays on ultra-precision grinding to generate the diffractive pattern on the mold surfaces. This paper presents the latest achievements in diffractive structuring of Tungsten Carbide mold surfaces by ultra-precision grinding.

  6. Characterization of fiberglass-filled diallyl phthalate plastic molding resins and molded parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, R.B.; Glaub, J.E.; Bonekowski, N.R.; Gillham, P.D.

    1980-12-01

    Characterization of diallyl phthalate (DAP) molding resins was undertaken by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC)/low angle laser light scattering (LALLS) in order to better predict moldability and storage life limits. Completeness of cure of molded parts, before and after any post-curing, was also determined by thermal analysis. Molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of the DAP molding resins by SEC/LALLS indicated that the better molding resins have lower M/sub w//M/sub n/ ratios. Association effects were observed, which could not be overcome by solvent modification alone. Determination of DAP molding resin heats of reaction by DSC indicated a linear relation between ..delta..H/sub R/ and weight percent filler for the good molding resins. DSC analyses of molded DAP parts showed that 95% cure was achieved in some as-molded parts, with a post-cure temperature of 165/sup 0/C being required to complete the cure to 100%. Thickness of the parts was a factor, with the thicker parts being 100% cured as molded. The glass transition temperature (T/sub g/) of the molded parts increased as cure was completed, to approx. 160 to 165/sup 0/C maximum. These results are consistent with a model of thermoset resin curing behavior which states that 100% cure can be achieved only if a post-curing operation is conducted above the T/sub g infinity/ (T/sub g/ at complete cure) of the polymer.

  7. Influência do desempenho térmico de moldes fabricados com compósito epóxi/alumínio nas propriedades de pp moldado por injeção Thermal behavior of epoxy/aluminum rapid tooling composite during injection molding of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean V. Salmoria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento das tecnologias de prototipagem rápida (RP e de ferramental rápido (RT tem despertado interesse da indústria de moldes de injeção. O vazamento de termofixos com cargas metálicas possibilita a construção de moldes usando materiais compósitos, os quais apresentam maior resistência que os utilizados por outras técnicas RT. Neste trabalho foi estudado o comportamento térmico de moldes fabricados em epóxi/alumínio durante a injeção de polipropileno através de avaliações da estrutura e de propriedades mecânicas utilizando difração de raio X e ensaios de dureza e de tração. Os corpos-de-prova injetados no molde em compósito epóxi/alumínio apresentaram pequenas diferenças no grau de cristalinidade das superfícies analisadas e propriedades mecânicas semelhantes aos corpos-de-prova injetados em molde de aço. O estudo mostrou um razoável desempenho térmico do molde compósito durante a injeção de polipropileno evidenciando a viabilidade de utilização destes moldes na produção de pequenas séries de protótipos e de produtos neste termoplástico.rapid prototyping (RP and rapid tooling (RT technologies are gaining increasing importance in the injection molding industry. Casting of resin/metal composites allows the construction of molds with greater resistance than those manufactured by other RT techniques such as Stereolithography. In this work, the thermal behavior of molds manufactured in epoxy/aluminum during the injection molding of polypropylene specimens was investigated. Structural and mechanical characterization of the molded specimens included X ray analysis, hardness and tensile testing. The samples presented small differences in the degree of crystallinity and similar mechanical properties in comparison with samples injected into steel molds. This study showed a reasonable thermal performance of the epoxy/aluminum mold during the injection molding of polypropylene, thus demonstrating the

  8. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  9. Evaluation of marginal gap of Ni-Cr copings made with conventional and accelerated casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar Tannamala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Conventional casting techniques following the manufacturers′ recommendations are time consuming. Accelerated casting techniques have been reported, but their accuracy with base metal alloys has not been adequately studied. Aim: We measured the vertical marginal gap of nickel-chromium copings made by conventional and accelerated casting techniques and determined the clinical acceptability of the cast copings in this study. Settings and Design: Experimental design, in vitro study, lab settings. Materials and Methods: Ten copings each were cast by conventional and accelerated casting techniques. All copings were identical, only their mold preparation schedules differed. Microscopic measurements were recorded at ×80 magnification on the perpendicular to the axial wall at four predetermined sites. The marginal gap values were evaluated by paired t test. Results: The mean marginal gap by conventional technique (34.02 μm is approximately 10 μm lesser than that of accelerated casting technique (44.62 μm. As the P value is less than 0.0001, there is highly significant difference between the two techniques with regard to vertical marginal gap. Conclusion: The accelerated casting technique is time saving and the marginal gap measured was within the clinically acceptable limits and could be an alternative to time-consuming conventional techniques.

  10. Interfacial heat transfer in squeeze casting of magnesium alloy AM60 with variation of applied pressures and casting wall-thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Fang, Li; Sun, Zhizhong; Hu, Henry; Nie, Xueyuan; Tjong, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    The heat transfer coefficient at the casting-die interface is the most important factor on the solidification process. With the 75-ton hydraulic press machine and P20 steel die mold, 5-step castings of magnesium alloy AM60 with different wall-thicknesses (3, 5, 8, 12, 20 mm) were poured under various hydraulic pressures (30, 60, and 90 MPa) using an indirect squeeze casting process. Thermal histories throughout the die wall and the casting surface have been recorded by fine type-K thermocouples. The in-cavity local pressures measured by pressure transducers were explored at the casting-die interfaces of 5 steps. The casting-die interfacial heat transfer coefficients (IHTC) initially reached a maximum peak value followed by a gradually decline to the lower level. Similar characteristics of IHTC peak values can be observed at the applied pressures of 30, 60 and 90 MPa. With the applied pressure of 90 MPa, the peak IHTC values from steps 1 to 5 varied from 5623 to 10,649 W/m2 K. As the applied hydraulic pressure increased, the IHTC peak value of each step was increased accordingly. The wall thickness also affected IHTC peak values significantly. The peak IHTC value and heat flux increased as the step became thicker. The empirical equations relating the IHTCs to the local pressures and the solidification temperature at the casting surface were developed based on the multivariate linear and polynomial regression.

  11. Cooling simulation of plastic injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the cooling of mold and plastic part during injectionmolding and the continued cooling of plastic part after being ejected from mold using the heat transfer theory and Boundary Element Method (BEM) to predict the temperature distribution in both mold and plastic part,and presents the experiments carried out with plates of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) to verify the validity of the cooling analysis software used to simulate the temperature distribution in ABS plate parts, and concludes that the analysis software agree qualitatively well with actual experimental findings.

  12. Numerical simulation and optimization of Al alloy cylinder body by low pressure die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Guofa; Liu Yanlei; Zhao Hengtao; Fu Hengzhi

    2008-01-01

    Shrinkage defects can be formed easily at critical location during low pressure die casting(LPDC)of aluminum alloy cylinder body.It has harmful effect on the products.Mold filling and solidification process of a cylinder body was simulated by using of Z-CAST software.The casting method was Improved based on the simulation results.In order to create eriective feeding passage,the structure of casting was modified by changing the location of strengthening ribs at the bottom,without causing any adverse effect on the part's performance.Inserting copper billet at suitable Iocation of the die is a valid way to create suitable solidification sequence that is beneficial to the feeding.Using these methods.the shrinkage defect was completely eliminated at the critical location.

  13. Scientific paper zircon-based coating for the applications in Lost Foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prstić Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a possibility to develop a new zircon-based refractory coating for casting applications was investigated. Optimization of the coating composition with controlled rheological properties was attained by application of different coating components, particularly by application of a new suspension agent and by alteration of coating production procedure. Zircon powder with particle size of 25x10-6 m was used as filler. The zircon sample was investigated by means of the following methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed by means of the PC program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that application of this type of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings of cast iron obtained by pouring into sand molds by means of the expandable patterns method (Lost Foam casting process.

  14. Anisotropic shrinkage characteristics of tape cast alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Jaideep Suresh

    Dimensional control during sintering is a major issue in ceramics processing to avoid high post-sintering costs associated with machining of the fired ceramic part to desired tolerances and dimensions. Ceramic forming processes such as tape casting, injection molding, and extrusion involve shear of anisotropic particles resulting in preferential alignment of the particles in the green body. This preferential alignment causes directionality in mechanical, electrical, optical, and magnetic properties and most importantly warpage or distortion during sintering. A large effort has been devoted to synthesizing ceramic green bodies with minimal density gradients and uniform packing and modeling the sintering behavior evolution but little effort has been devoted to characterizing orientation of particles and the effect of preferential alignment on sintering shrinkage anisotropy. A systematic study was initiated to study the effect of processing variables such as shear rate, solids loading, temperature, and binder content on aqueous tape cast alumina. Three different alumina systems: A16-SG, Baikowski RC-UFX DBM and RC-LS DBM were investigated. Aqueous tapes of high solids loading alumina (56 vol. %) were tape cast at various speeds and thicknesses and assuming plane Couette flow a shear rate regime of 21--270 s-1 was investigated. Higher shear rates and high solids loading resulted in higher in-plane anisotropy whereas the anisotropy in the thickness direction was higher for low solids loading systems. The anisotropy was found to be fairly constant above a certain critical shear rate (˜100 s-1) irrespective of the temperature and the solids loading and this correlated with the viscosity-shear rate relationship of the cast slips. The higher shrinkage anisotropy in the thickness direction for the low solids loading systems (35 and 45 vol. %) was attributed to the higher amount of organics in the slip required to sustain the suitable viscosity for tape casting and

  15. Effects of Cr Content and Annealing Temperature on Microstructure and Wear Characteristics of Cast Ausferrite Nodular Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-peng ZOU; Kazumichi SHIMIZU; Qi-zhou CAI

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Cr content and annealing temperature on abrasive wear characteristics of cast ausferrite nodular iron were investigated with Suga type abrasive wear tester. The surface morphology and Vickers hardness of the tested samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), digital microscope and Vickers hardness tester. The results show that the cast ausferrite nodular iron could be obtained by alloying with Cr in the as-cast ductile cast iron and permanent mold casting, and the bainite con-tent in the matrix increased with increasing Cr content. However, the decomposition of bainite took place during annealing at 500 °C to 800 °C; especially, at 800 °C, the bainite transformed into a mixture of ifne lamellar pearlite and ferrite matrix structure. The wear loss of specimens was reduced with increasing Cr content in the cast ausferrite nodular iron. The wear loss of the sample cast ausferrite nodular iron with 0.4mass% Cr is the least. The wear loss began to increase while the Cr content is 0.6mass%. The wear loss of annealed ductile irons at different annealing temperatures was higher than that of as-cast samples. During the abrasive wear, the shear stress transformed austenite to martensite, and the hardness of specimens increased and the wear resistance of as-cast duc-tile cast iron was improved.

  16. Preparation of cast aluminum alloy-mica particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonath, MR.; Bhat, R. T.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for making aluminum-mica particle composites is presented in which mica particles are stirred in molten aluminum alloys followed by casting in permanent molds. Magnesium is added either as an alloying element or in the form of pieces to the surface of the alloy melts to disperse up to 3 wt% mica powders in the melts and to obtain high recoveries of mica in the castings. The mechanical properties of the aluminum alloy-mica composite decrease with increasing mica content; however, even at 2.2% it has a tensile strength of 14.22 kg/sq mm with 1.1% elongation, a compression strength of 42.61 kg/sq mm, and an impact strength of 0.30 kgm/sq cm. Cryogenic and self-lubricating bearing are mentioned applications.

  17. Modeling of solidification of MMC composites during gravity casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zagórski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with computer simulation of gravity casting of the metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramics (MMC into sand mold. The subject of our interest is aluminum matrix composite (AlMMC reinforced with ceramic particles i.e. silicon carbide SiC and glass carbon Cg. The created model describes the process taking into account solidification and its influence on the distribution of reinforcement particles. The computer calculation has been carried out in 2D system with the use of Navier-Stokes equations using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The Volume of Fluid approach (VOF and enthalpy method have been used to model the air-fluid free surface (and also volume fraction of particular continuous phases and the solidification of the cast, respectively.

  18. Fast prototyping of injection molded polymer microfluidic chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Selmeczi, David; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We present fast prototyping of injection molding tools by the definition of microfluidic structures in a light-curable epoxy (SU-8) directly on planar nickel mold inserts. Optimized prototype mold structures could withstand injection molding of more than 300 replicas in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC...

  19. Evaluation of stability for monolayer injection molding tools coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    We tested and characterized molecular coating of Aluminium and Nickel prototype molds and mold inserts for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energy and roughness data have been...... and especially suitable for rapid prototyping and mold geometry testing....

  20. The fluidity and molding ability of glass-forming Zr-based alloy melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fluidity and filling ability of glass-forming Zr-based alloy melt in copper mould were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The major factors which affected the flowing behavior of the metallic melt in the mold were determined,which provides the foundation for overcoming the contradiction between the filling and formation of amorphous alloy during the rapid cooling process of the metallic melts. The casting factors to prepare a metallic ring were discussed and selected. As a result,a Zr-based bulk metallic glass ring was prepared successfully.

  1. Stress analysis of biomass fuel molding machine piston type stamping forming cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established the ram biomass straw machine as the analysis object in this paper,the molding machine cones of stress in the forming process of the analysis of the system. We used pottery instead of Wear-resistant cast iron for improving the performance of forming sleeve. The structure of the forming sleeve was analyzed with the mechanical module of a soft named Pro/engineer in this paper. The result indicated that the program was feasible. With the sensitivity analysis we identified the suitable angle for the sleeve.

  2. Study of Shell-Mold Thermal Resistance: Laboratory Measurements, Estimation from Compact Strip Production Plant Data, and Observation of Simulated Flux-Mold Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de la C., J. Manuel; Flores F., Tania M.; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2016-08-01

    The slag film that forms between the shell and mold in steel continuous casting is key in regulating the heat transfer between them. Generally, the mechanisms proposed are related to the phenomena associated with the formation of crystals in the solid layer of the film, such as the appearance of internal pores and surface roughness, which decrease phononic conduction through the layer and interfacial gap with the mold, respectively, and the emergence of crystals themselves, which reduce the transmissivity of infrared radiation across the layer. Due to the importance of the solid layer, this study investigates experimentally the effective thermal resistance, R T, between a hot Inconel surface and a cold Cu surface separated by an initially glassy slag disk, made from powders for casting low and medium-carbon steels, denoted as A and B, respectively. In the tests, an initially mirror-polished disk is sandwiched for 10,800 seconds while the Inconel temperature, away from the disk face, is maintained steady at a value, T c, between 973 K and 1423 K (700 °C and 1150 °C)-below the liquidus temperature of the slags. The disks have a thickness, d t, between ~0.7 and 3.2 mm. Over the range of conditions studied, mold slag B shows R T 33 pct larger than slag A, and microscopic observation of disks hints that the greater resistance arises from the larger porosity developed in B. This finding is supported by high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscope observations of the evolution of the surface of slag parallelepipeds encased between Pt sheets, which reveal that during devitrification the film surface moves outward not inward, contrary with what is widely claimed. This behavior would favor contact of the slag with the mold for both kinds of powders. However, in the case of slag A, the crystalline grains growing at or near the surface pack closely together, leaving only few and small empty spaces. In slag B, crystalline grains pack loosely and many and large empty

  3. Solving depressions formed during production of plastic molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with improvement of design properties of molded plastic parts. It can be achieved by modifying construction of metal injection mold and optimization of parameters in injection process. The subject of our examination was depressions formed on molded plastic parts which are inacceptable in the process of approval. The problem which has arisen was solved in two phases. The first phase consisted in alteration of injection mold design – enlargement of injection molding gate. In the second phase, we have changed the location of injection molding gate. After performing constructional modifications, new molded plastic parts were manufactured and assessed.

  4. A new insight into foaming mechanisms in injection molding via a novel visualization mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shaayegan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex mechanisms of bubble nucleation and dynamics in foam injection molding have not been uncovered despite many previous efforts due to the non-steady stop-and-flow nature of injection molding and the non-uniform temperature and pressure distributions in the mold. To this end, a new visualization mold was designed and manufactured for the direct observation of bubble nucleation and growth/collapse in foam injection molding. A reflective prism was incorporated into the stationary part of the injection mold with which the nucleation and growth behaviors of bubbles were successfully observed. The mechanisms of bubble nucleation in low- and high-pressure foam injection molding, with and without the application of gas-counter pressure, was investigated. We identified how the inherently non-uniform cell structure is developed in low-pressure foam injection molding with gate-nucleated bubbles, and when and how cell nucleation occurs in high-pressure foam injection molding with a more uniform pressure drop.

  5. Custom molded thermal MRg-FUS phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Matthew D. C.; Snell, John W.; Hananel, Arik; Kassell, Neal F.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes a method for creating custom-molded thermal phantoms for use with MR-guided focused ultrasound systems. The method is defined here for intracranial applications, though it may be modified for other anatomical targets.

  6. Rozen : steeds meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.P.; Kohrman, E.

    2009-01-01

    Onderzoek naar Black Mold heeft al veel informatie opgeleverd over de verspreiding, bestrijding en ontwikkeling van de oculatieschimmel. In dit artikel de nieuwste resultaten van PPO en Cultus Agro Advies

  7. Three-Dimensional Pneumatic Molding of Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Gaff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to introduce a new testing method suitable for the evaluation of the three-dimensional (3-D moldability of veneers and to use this method to test the impact of specific factors on the 3-D pneumatic molding process. The tested factors included veneer moisture content, wood species, shape of test piece, and fixing method on the maximum wood deflection. Veneers were molded using compressed air on equipment designed by our group for the sole purpose of this experiment. The results indicated that the monitored factors had an effect on deflection during the 3-D molding process. The results of this investigation extend the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this technology and indicate the possibility of utilizing this innovative testing method for 3-D molded veneers.

  8. Injection molded optical backplane for broadcast architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Mathai, Sagi; Sorin, Wayne V.; McLaren, Moray; Straznicky, Joseph; Panotopoulos, Georgios; Warren, David; Morris, Terry; Tan, Michael R. T.

    2012-01-01

    A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12 channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.

  9. Molds on Food: Are They Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... green dots on bread, white dust on Cheddar, coin-size velvety circles on fruits, and furry growth ... below the surface. Moldy foods may also have bacteria growing along with the mold. Hard salami and ...

  10. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Expert Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 11, 2017 Location: ... 11, 2017 Click Here to View Most Recent Pollen and Spore Levels (04/10/2017) If you ...

  11. Analysis of Crystallization Behavior of Mold Fluxes Containing TiO2 Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun LEI; Bing XIE; Wen-hui MA

    2016-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of mold fluxes containing 0-8 mass% TiO 2 was investigated using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT)and X-ray diffraction (XRD)to study the possible effects on the coordination of heat transfer control and strand lubrication for casting crack-sensitive peritectic steels.Time-temperature-transforma-tion (TTT)and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT)curves were plotted using the data obtained from SHTT to characterize the crystallization of the mold fluxes.The results showed that crystallization of the mold fluxes during isothermal and non-isothermal processes was suppressed with TiO 2 addition.From the TTT curves,it could be seen that the incubation and growth time of crystallization increased significantly with TiO 2 addition.The CCT curves showed that the crystallization temperature initially decreased,and then suddenly increased with increasing the TiO 2 content.XRD analysis suggested the presence of cuspidine in the mold fluxes with lower TiO 2 content (< 4 mass%),while both perovskite and cuspidine were detected in the mold fluxes when the TiO 2 content was increased to 8 mass%.In addition,the growth mechanisms of the crystals changed during the isothermal crystallization process from interface-controlled growth to diffusion-controlled growth with increasing the TiO 2 content.

  12. Freeform fabrication of tissue-simulating phantoms by combining three-dimensional printing and casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuwei; Zhao, Zuhua; Wang, Haili; Han, Yilin; Dong, Erbao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wendong; Cromeens, Barrett; Adler, Brent; Besner, Gail; Ray, William; Hoehne, Brad; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Appropriate surgical planning is important for improved clinical outcome and minimal complications in many surgical operations, such as a conjoined twin separation surgery. We combine 3D printing with casting and assembling to produce a solid phantom of high fidelity to help surgeons for better preparation of the conjoined twin separation surgery. 3D computer models of individual organs were reconstructed based on CT scanned data of the conjoined twins. The models were sliced, processed, and converted to an appropriate format for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). The skeletons of the phantom were printed directly by FDM using Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) material, while internal soft organs were fabricated by casting silicon materials of different compositions in FDM printed molds. The skeleton and the internal organs were then assembled with appropriate fixtures to maintain their relative positional accuracies. The assembly was placed in a FMD printed shell mold of the patient body for further casting. For clear differentiation of different internal organs, CT contrast agents of different compositions were added in the silicon cast materials. The produced phantom was scanned by CT again and compared with that of the original computer models of the conjoined twins in order to verify the structural and positional fidelity. Our preliminary experiments showed that combining 3D printing with casting is an effective way to produce solid phantoms of high fidelity for the improved surgical planning in many clinical applications.

  13. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  14. Effect of Technological Parameters on the Quality and Dimensional Accuracy of Castings Manufactured by Patternless Process Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoš E.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Submitted article deals with the effect of selected technological parameters on the quality and dimensional accuracy of prototype castings made by Patternless process technology. During experiments were used two types of molding compounds (foamed gypsum and compound based on silica sand and resin. Experiments were focused on optimization of cutting parameters in terms of efficiency, accuracy and possibilities to minimize tool wear. Article deals also with the dimensional and shape accuracy of the castings made by Z-Cast technology. The main aim of the research is to optimize Patternless process technology to such an extent, that achieved dimensional and shape accuracy will be comparable to castings made by the Z-Cast technology.

  15. Determination of the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of high pressure die cast B390 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongyou; Guo, Zhipeng; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    High-pressure die cast B390 alloy was prepared on a 350 ton cold chamber die casting machine. The metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of the alloy was investigated. Considering the filling process, a "finger"-shaped casting was designed for the experiments. This casting consisted of five plates with different thicknesses (0.05 inch or 1.27 mm to 0.25 inch or 6.35 mm) as well as individual ingates and overflows. Experiments under various operation conditions were conducted, and temperatures were measured at various specific locations inside the die. Based on the results, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and heat flux were determined by solving the inverse heat transfer problem. The influence of the mold-filling sequence, sensor locations, as well as processing parameters including the casting pressure, die temperature, and fast/slow shot speeds on the heat transfer coefficient were discussed.

  16. REVISED k-ε TURBULENCE MODEL IN ELECTROMAGNETIC CONTINUOUS CASTING OF MELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.F. Huo; B.K. Li

    2003-01-01

    The research is motivated by the ongoing the electromagnetic continuous casting of molten metal. The revised k-ε model considering the effect of magnetic field application was derived. The specific model equations for the electromagnetic braking were used to calculate the velocity distribution in the continuous casting mold of steel. The results show that the revised k-ε model considering the effect of magnetic field application tends to suppress the production of turbulence and difference between the conventional and revised k-ε model is small.

  17. A computational study of low-head direct chill slab casting of aluminum alloy AA2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mainul; Begum, Latifa

    2016-04-01

    The steady state casting of an industrial-sized AA2024 slab has been modeled for a vertical low-head direct chill caster. The previously verified 3-D CFD code is used to investigate the solidification phenomena of the said long-range alloy by varying the pouring temperature, casting speed and the metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficient from 654 to 702 °C, 60-180 mm/min, and 1.0-4.0 kW/(m2 K), respectively. The important predicted results are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  18. Study on hardness and microstructural characteristics of sand cast Al–Si–Cu alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muzaffer Zeren; Erdem Karakulak

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the influence of Cu content on the hardness and microstructural characteristics of sand cast Al–Si–Cu alloys have been investigated. Al–Si alloys with 2% and 5% Cu have been utilized for this purpose. Solidification of Al–Si–Cu alloys have been realized by melting in a gas furnace with a crucible and casting in green sand molds at 690°C. The solution treatment has been performed at 500°C for 7 h and then specimens were quenched in water. The samples have been aged at 190°C for 15 h to observe the effect of aging on mechanical properties.

  19. Integrated mold/surface-micromachining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Hetherington, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    We detail a new monolithically integrated silicon mold/surface-micromachining process which makes possible the fabrication of stiff, high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures integrated with finely detailed, compliant structures. An important example, which we use here as our process demonstration vehicle, is that of an accelerometer with a large proof mass and compliant suspension. The proof mass is formed by etching a mold into the silicon substrate, lining the mold with oxide, filling it with mechanical polysilicon, and then planarizing back to the level of the substrate. The resulting molded structure is recessed into the substrate, forming a planar surface ideal for subsequent processing. We then add surface-micromachined springs and sense contacts. The principal advantage of this new monolithically integrated mold/surface-micromachining process is that it decouples the design of the different sections of the device: In the case of a sensitive accelerometer, it allows us to optimize independently the proof mass, which needs to be as large, stiff, and heavy as possible, and the suspension, which needs to be as delicate and compliant as possible. The fact that the high-aspect-ratio section of the device is embedded in the substrate enables the monolithic integration of high-aspect-ratio parts with surface-micromachined mechanical parts, and, in the future, also electronics. We anticipate that such an integrated mold/surface micromachining/electronics process will offer versatile high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures that can be batch-fabricated and monolithically integrated into complex microelectromechanical systems.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF CELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a study of cellular injection, molding process uses polyvinylchloride PVC. Polymers modified with introducing blowing agents into them in the Laboratory of the Department of Technologies and Materiase of Technical University of Kosice. For technological reasons, blowing agents have a form of granules. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2,0 % by mass fed into the processed polymer was adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the chemical blowing agents occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm were used. The view of the technological line for cellular injection molding and injection mold cavity with injection moldings are shown in Figure 1. The results of the determination of selected properties of injection molded parts for various polymeric materials, obtained with different content of blowing agents, are shown in Figures 4-7. Microscopic examination of cross-sectional structure of the moldings were obtained using the author's position image analysis of porous structure. Based on analysis of photographs taken (Figures 7, 8, 9 it was found that the coating containing 1.0% of blowing agents is a clearly visible solid outer layer and uniform distribution of pores and their sizes are similar.