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Sample records for cast copper base

  1. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  2. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Kranc, M.; Garbacz-Klempka, A.; Kozana, J.; Piękoś, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup) and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2) formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameter...

  3. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  4. Modelling of solidification processing and continuous strip casting for copper-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Jafar [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Processing

    2000-04-01

    An experimental and numerical study was carried out to investigate the solidification process in a copper continuous strip casting process. Heat flow and solidification process has been experimentally studied. Cooling curves during solidification were registered using a thermocouple of type K connected to a data acquisition system. Temperature measurements in the mould and cooling water were also performed. The numerical model considers a generalized set of mass, momentum and heat equations that is valid for the solid, liquid and solidification interval in the cast. A k-{epsilon} turbulence model, produced with the commercial program CFX, is used to analyse the solidification process of pure copper in the mould region of the caster. The fluid flow, temperature and heat flux distributions in the mould region of the caster were computed. The shape and location of the solidification front were also determined. The effects of the parameters such as heat transfer coefficient, casting speed, casting temperature, heat of fusion and specific heat on the shape and location of the solidification front and the heat transport at the mould-cast interface were investigated. The predicted temperature and heat flux distributions were compared with experimental measurements, and reasonable agreement was obtained. The solidification behaviour of pure copper and different copper base alloys has been studied. A series of solidification experiments using DTA furnace, mirror furnace and levitation technique were performed on different copper-base alloys. The undercooling, cooling rates of the liquid and the solid states, solidification times and temperatures were evaluated from the curves. The cooling curves for different samples were simulated using a FEM solidification program. It was found that the calculated values of the heat of fusion were much lower than the tabulated ones. The fraction of solid formed before quenching, in the DTA experiments, has been observed to be much higher

  5. Surface Crystallization in Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass during Copper Mold Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The localized crystallization of Mg54Cu28Ag7Y11 bulk metallic glass (BMG in the injection casting process using a copper mold was investigated. It has been found that several crystalline phases were formed close to the as-cast surface but did not exist in the internal part of the BMG plate. It is abnormal that the as-cast surface is partially crystallized with higher cooling rate than that of inside. Overheating of the melt and nucleation induced by the surface of copper mold play key roles in the abnormal crystallization. It is suggested that the function of copper mold to trigger heterogeneous nucleation cannot be totally ignored, although it provides the high cooling rate for the glass formation during casting.

  6. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2 formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameters were tested for a chosen chromium copper content, based on the criterion of hardness and electrical conductivity tests. Searching for materials with high wear resistance, the influence of variable silicone content on the properties of CuNiSi alloy was researched.

  7. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  8. Evaluation of thiouracil-based adhesive systems for bonding cast silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Miyuki; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Ishii, Takaya; Furuchi, Mika; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adhesive systems based on a thiouracil monomer on bonding to silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy (Castwell M.C.12). Disk specimens were cast from the alloy and then air-abraded with alumina. The disks were bonded using six bonding systems selected from four primers and three luting materials. Shear bond strengths were determined both before and after thermocycling. Bond strength varied from 2.7 MPa to 32.0 MPa. Three systems based on a thiouracil monomer (MTU-6) showed durable bonding to the alloy, with post-thermocycling bond strengths of 22.4 MPa for the Metaltite (MTU-6) primer and Super-Bond, a tri-n-butylborane (TBB) initiated resin, 9.0 MPa for the Multi-Bond II resin, and 8.1 MPa for the Metaltite and Bistite II system. It can be concluded that a combination of thiouracil-based primer and TBB initiated resin is effective for bonding Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

  9. Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques Possibilities for Centrifugal Cast Copper Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konar R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with ultrasonic testing possibilities of the copper alloy centrifugal casts. It focused on the problems that arise when testing of castings is made of non-ferrous materials. Most common types of casting defects is dedicated in theoretical introduction of article. Ultrasonic testing technique by conventional ultrasound system is described in the theoretical part too. Practical ultrasonic testing of centrifugal copper alloy cast - brass is in experimental part. The experimental sample was part of centrifugally cast brass ring with dimensions of Ø1200x34 mm. The influence of microstructure on ultrasonic attenuation and limitations in testing due to attenuation is describes in experimental part. Conventional direct single element contact ultrasound probe with frequencies of 5 MHz, 3.5 MHz and 2 MHz were used for all experimental measurements. The results of experimental part of article are recommendations for selecting equipment and accessories for casting testing made of non-ferrous metals.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Directionally Freeze-cast Copper Foams

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    Aurelia I. Cuba Ramos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their excellent thermal and electric conductivities, copper foams are ideally suited for applications such as heat exchangers, catalyst supports and EMI-shields. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of copper with ~80% aligned, elongated, interconnected pores via directional freeze casting, a well established processing technique for porous ceramics. First, an aqueous slurry of 40−80 nm cupric oxide powders was directionally solidified, resulting in a preform consisting of elongated, aligned dendrites of pure ice separated by interdendritic ice walls with high oxide powder content. Oxide rather than metallic nanometric particles are used, as the latter would oxidize rapidly and uncontrollably when suspended in the aqueous solution used during directional casting. The preforms were then freeze-dried to sublimate the ice and sintered in a hydrogen-bearing atmosphere to reduce the copper oxide to metallic copper particles and densify these copper particles. Microstructural analysis of the copper foams shows that three types of porosities are present: (i aligned, elongated pores replicating the ice dendrites created during the freeze-casting process; (ii micro-porosity in the partially sintered copper walls separating the elongated pores; and (iii cracks in these copper walls, probably created because of shrinkage associated with the reduction of the oxide powders.

  11. Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Dale T. Peters; Stephen P. Midson; Darryl J. Van Son

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.

  12. Prediction of thermal fatigue in Tooling for die-casting copper via finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhuja, Amit; Brevick, Jerald R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research by the Copper Development Association (CDA) has demonstrated the feasibility of die-casting electric motor rotors using copper. Electric motors using copper rotors are significantly more energy efficient relative to motors using aluminum rotors. However, one of the challenges in copper rotor die-casting is low tool life. Experiments have shown that the higher molten metal temperature of copper (1085 deg. C), as compared to aluminum (660 deg. C) accelerates the onset of thermal fatigue or heat checking in traditional H-13 tool steel. This happens primarily because the mechanical properties of H-13 tool steel decrease significantly above 650 deg. C. Potential approaches to mitigate the heat checking problem include: 1) identification of potential tool materials having better high temperature mechanical properties than H-13, and 2) reduction of the magnitude of cyclic thermal excursions experienced by the tooling by increasing the bulk die temperature. A preliminary assessment of alternative tool materials has led to the selection of nickel-based alloys Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 as potential candidates. These alloys were selected based on their elevated temperature physical and mechanical properties. Therefore, the overall objective of this research work was to predict the number of copper rotor die-casting cycles to the onset of heat checking (tool life) as a function of bulk die temperature (up to 650 deg. C) for Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 alloys. To achieve these goals, a 2D thermo-mechanical FEA was performed to evaluate strain ranges on selected die surfaces. The method of Universal Slopes (Strain Life Method) was then employed for thermal fatigue life predictions

  13. Microstructure of Archaeological 17th Century Cast Copper Alloys

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    Konieczny J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, researchers have a very strong interest in archaeometallurgy, which, as presented in classical works, focuses on dating artefacts from the prehistoric and early medieval periods in the form of cast iron and copper castings. This study, extending the current knowledge, presents the results of a microstructure investigation into the findings from the Modern era dating back to the late Middle Ages. The investigated material was an object in the form of a heavy solid copper block weighing several kilograms that was excavated by a team of Polish archaeologists working under the direction of Ms Iwona Młodkowska-Przepiórowska during works on the marketplace in the city of Czestochowa during the summer of 2009. Pre-dating of the material indicates the period of the seventeenth century AD. The solid copper block was delivered in the form of a part shaped like a bell, named later in this work as a “kettlebell”. To determine the microstructure, the structural components, chemical composition, and homogeneity, as well as additives and impurities, investigations were carried out using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy including analysis of the chemical composition performed in micro-areas, and qualitative X-ray phase analysis in order to investigate the phase composition. Interpretation of the analytical results of the material’s microstructure will also help modify and/or develop new methodological assumptions to investigate further archaeometallurgical exhibits, throwing new light on and expanding the area of knowledge of the use and processing of seventeenth-century metallic materials.

  14. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  15. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.G.

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  16. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  17. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cl..Cu.. interactions but restricted ..Cu..N N..Cu interacations. Supramolecular isomers of Br and I are reported for the first time in this paper. [Cu2I(pdz)X2]. Figure S18. Self assembly of the simultaneous presence of tecton {Cu(sol)3X} and {Cu(pdz)(sol)2X} result in [Cu2I(pdz)X2]. 1. Table S3. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs ...

  18. Galvanic corrosion of copper-cast iron couples in relation to the Swedish radioactive waste canister concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, N.R.; Fennell, P.A.H.; Rance, A.P.; Werme, L.O.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure the safe encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel rods for geological disposal, SKB are considering using the Copper-Iron Canister, which consists of an outer copper canister and an inner cast iron container. The canister will be placed into boreholes in the bedrock of a geologic repository and surrounded by bentonite clay. In the unlikely event of the outer copper canister being breached, water could enter the annulus between the inner and outer canister and at points of contact between the two metals there would be a possibility of galvanic interactions. To study this effect, copper-cast iron galvanic couples were set up in a number of different environments representing possible conditions in the SKB repository. The tests investigated two artificial pore-waters and a bentonite slurry, under aerated and deaerated conditions, at 30 deg. C and 50 deg. C. The currents passing between the coupled electrodes and the potential of the couples were monitored for several months. In addition, some bimetallic crevice specimens based on the multi-crevice assembly (MCA) design were used to simulate the situation where the copper canister will be in direct contact with the cast iron inner vessel. The effect of growing an oxide film on the surface of the cast iron prior to coupling it with copper was also investigated. The electrochemical results are presented graphically in the form of electrode potentials and galvanic corrosion currents as a function of time. The galvanic currents in aerated conditions were much higher than in deaerated conditions. For example, at 30 deg. C, galvanic corrosion rates as low as 0.02 μm/year were observed for iron in groundwater after de-aeration, but of the order of 100 μm/year for the cast iron at 50 deg. C in the presence of oxygen. The galvanic currents were generally higher at 50 deg. C than at 30 deg. C. None of the MCA specimens exhibited any signs of crevice corrosion under deaerated conditions. It will be shown that in deaerated

  19. Environmental degradation of mechanical properties of grey cast iron with different copper contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, M.; Abd El-Mageed, A.M.; Abu El-Ainin, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, different percentages of copper were added to grey cast iron to investigate its effect on microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the tested cast iron. Mechanical testing included hardness, tension, compression and impact, while corrosion testing was conducted by immersing specimens in 1 mol HC1 for different exposure times (120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 hrs). It was found that the copper addition had a remarkable effect on graphite morphology, as well as, pearlite and ferrite existing. Copper content proved to affect mechanical properties, improving these properties up to 2%, after which a decrease was noticed. Copper addition has no noticeable effect on percentage tensile strain to fracture, however, it has an obvious effect on the percentage compressive strain to fracture, especially for 2.0 % copper addition. The alloys containing 0.0 % and 1.0 % copper recorded the lower corrosion resistance, while those containing 2.0 % and 4.0 % copper addition gave the higher corrosion resistance. Also, the corrosion rate decreased with the increase of copper content. A change in the angle of fracture in compression was noticed for corroded specimens from about 55 to 90 degrees as exposure time increases. (author)

  20. ALLOYING OF CUPOLA IRON WITH CAST IRON DUE TO APPLICATION OF USED COPPER-MAGNESIUM CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloying process of cupola iron by means of input into charge structure of briquettes of the worked-out coppermagnesium catalysts is investigated. This technology allows to carry out recycling of expensive metals, such as copper, and to raise strength properties of cast iron melted in a cupola.

  1. Industrialization of Ni-?SiC electrodeposition on copper moulds for steel continuous casting

    OpenAIRE

    Lekka, M.; Bonora, P.L.; Lanzutti, A.; Benoni, S.; Caoduro, P.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Copper moulds usually used for steel continuous casting suffer from severe wear at relatively high temperaturesand low friction loads. The more severe solid friction occurs at about 10-40cm distance from the meniscus, dependingon the process parameters, where the temperature is about 300-350°C. The copper moulds have been traditionallycoated with hard chromium and actually also with thick nickel deposits even if they present lower wear resistance.The aim of this work was the development of a ...

  2. Consumable electrode arc casting of copper-refactory metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.L.; Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on consumable electrode arc casting that has been developed as a preparation method for producing high strength/high electrical and thermal conductivity metal-metal matrix composites. Electrode configuration and melting parameters have been studied to improve ingot homogeneity. Alloy ingot impurities have been reduced by a combination of mold material and melting practice. Alloys containing 15 to 20 vol % Cr, Mo, Nb, Ta and V have been prepared with strengths of 150-300 ksi produced in deformation processed Cu-Nb sheet and wire respectively. Significant differences in strengthening behavior are attributed to filament morphology which is related to the deformation mode. Cold axisymmetric deformations of 99.999% reduction in area have been achieved with axisymmetric deformation providing the highest strengthening

  3. Consumable electrode arc casting of copper-refractory metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.L.; Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on consumable electrode arc casting that has been developed as a preparation method for producing high strength/high electrical and thermal conductivity metal-metal matrix composites. Electrode configuration and melting parameters have been studied to improve ingot homogeneity. Alloy ingot impurities have been reduced by a combination of mold material and melting practice. Alloys containing 15 to 20 vol. % Cr, Mo, Nb, Ta and V have been prepared with strengths of 150-300 ksi produced in deformation processed Cu-Nb sheet and wire respectively. Significant differences in strengthening behavior are attributed to filament morphology which is related to the deformation mode. Cold axisymmentric deformations of 99.999% reduction in area have been achieved with axisymmetric deformation providing the highest strengthening

  4. Development of fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts. Status report in August 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran

    2002-04-01

    This report contains an account of the results of trial fabrication of copper canisters with cast inserts carried out during the period 1998 - 2001. The work of testing of fabrication methods is being focused on a copper thickness of 50 mm. Occasional canisters with 30 mm copper thickness are being fabricated for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. For the fabrication of copper tubes, SKB has concentrated its efforts on seamless tubes made by extrusion and pierce and draw processing. Five tubes have been extruded and two have been pierced and drawn during the period. Materials testing has shown that the resultant structure and mechanical properties of these tubes are good. Despite certain problems with dimensional accuracy, it can be concluded that both of these methods can be developed for use in the serial production of SKB' copper tubes. No new trial fabrication with roll forming of copper plate and longitudinal welding has been done. This method is nevertheless regarded as a potential alternative. Copper lids and bottoms are made by forging of continuous-cast bars. The forged blanks are machined to the desired dimensions. Due to the Canister Laboratory's need for lids to develop the technique for sealing welding, a relatively large number of forged blanks have been fabricated. It is noted in the report that the grain size obtained in lids and bottoms is much coarser than in fabricated copper tubes. Development work has been commenced for the purpose of optimizing the forging process. Nine cast inserts have been cast during the three-year period. The results of completed material testing of test pieces taken at different places along the length of the inserts have in several cases shown an unacceptable range of variation in strength properties and structure. In the continued work, insert fabrication will be developed in terms of both casting technique and iron composition. Development

  5. Microstructure and properties of TP2 copper tube with La microalloying by horizontal continuous casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hu Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The TP2 copper tube was prepared with La microalloying by horizontal continuous casting (HCC. The absorptivity of La and its effects on microstructure, tensile and corrosion properties of HCC TP2 copper tube were studied by means of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results show that the absorptivity of La in the HCC TP2 copper tube is about 15% under antivacuum conditions due to the good chemical activities of La. The impurity elements in copper tube such as O, S, Pb and Si can be significantly reduced, and the average columnar dendrite spacing of the copper tube can also be reduced from 2.21 mm to 0.93 mm by adding La. The ultimate tensile strength and the elongation with and without La addition are almost unchanged. However, the annual corrosion rate of the HCC TP2 copper tube is reduced from 10.18 mm•a-1 to 9.37 mm•a-1 by the purification effect of trace La.

  6. Mechanical and corrosion behaviors of developed copper-based metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manvandra Kumar; Gautam, Rakesh Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Ji, Gopal

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of cast copper-tungsten carbide (WC) metal matrix composites (MMCs). Copper matrix composites have been developed by stir casting technique. Different sizes of micro and nano particles of WC particles are utilized as reinforcement to prepare two copper-based composites, however, nano size of WC particles are prepared by high-energy ball milling. XRD (X-rays diffraction) characterize the materials for involvement of different phases. The mechanical behavior of composites has been studied by Vickers hardness test and compression test; while the corrosion behavior of developed composites is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions. The results show that hardness, compressive strength and corrosion resistance of copper matrix composites are very high in comparison to that of copper matrix, which attributed to the microstructural changes occurred during composite formation. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) reveals the morphology of the corroded surfaces.

  7. Effects of aluminum and copper chill on mechanical properties and microstructures of Cu-Zn-Al alloys with sand casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhyananta, Hosta; Wibisono, Alvian Toto; Ramadhani, Mavindra; Widyastuti, Farid, Muhammad; Gumilang, Muhammad Shena

    2018-04-01

    Cu-Zn-Al alloy is one type of brass, which has high strength and high corrosion resistant. It has been applied on ship propellers and marine equipment. In this research, the addition of aluminum (Al) with variation of 1, 2, 3, 4% aluminum to know the effect on mechanical properties and micro structure at casting process using a copper chill and without copper chill. This alloy is melted using furnace in 1100°C without holding. Then, the molten metal is poured into the mold with copper chill and without copper chill. The speciment of Cu-Zn-Al alloy were chracterized by using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), Metallography Test, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Hardness Test of Rockwell B and Charpy Impact Test. The result is the addition of aluminum and the use of copper chill on the molds can reduce the grain size, increases the value of hardness and impact.

  8. The effect of silver (Ag) addition to mechanical and electrical properties of copper alloy (Cu) casting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicia, Dian M.; Rochiem, R.; Laia, Standley M.

    2018-04-01

    Copper have good mechanical properties and good electrical conductivities. Therefore, copper usually used as electrical components. Silver have better electrical conductivities than copper. Female contact resistor is one of the electrical component used in circuit breaker. This study aims to analyze the effect of silver addition to hardness, strength, and electric conductivity properties of copper alloy. This study uses variation of 0; 0.035; 0.07; 0.1 wt. % Ag (silver) addition to determine the effect on mechanical properties and electrical properties of copper alloy through sand casting process. Modelling of thermal analysis and structural analysis was calculated to find the best design for the sand casting experiments. The result of Cu-Ag alloy as cast will be characterized by OES test, metallography test, Brinell hardness test, tensile test, and LCR meter test. The result of this study showed that the addition of silver increase mechanical properties of Cu-Ag. The maximum hardness value of this alloy is 83.1 HRB which is Cu-0.01 Ag and the lowest is 52.26 HRB which is pure Cu. The maximum strength value is 153.2 MPa which is Cu-0.07 Ag and the lowest is 94.6 MPa which is pure Cu. Silver addition decrease electrical properties of this alloy. The highest electric conductivity is 438.98 S/m which is pure Cu and the lowest is 52.61 S.m which is Cu-0.1 Ag.

  9. The role of manganese and copper in the eutectoid transformation of spheroidal graphite cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, J.; Boudot, A.; Gerval, V.; Oquab, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse (France). Equipe Metallurgie Physique; Santos, H. [Univ. do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgia

    1997-10-01

    The decomposition of austenite to ferrite plus graphite or to pearlite in spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron is known to depend on a number of factors among which are the nodule count, the cooling rate, and the alloying additions (Si, Mn, Cu, etc.). This study was undertaken in order to deepen the understanding of the effect of alloying with Mn and/or Cu on the eutectoid reaction. For this purpose, differential thermal analyses (DTAs) were carried out in which samples were subjected to a short homogenization treatment designed to smooth out the microsegregations originating from the solidification step. The effect of various additions of copper and manganese and of the cooling rate on the temperature of the onset of the stable and metastable eutectoid reactions was investigated. The experimental results can be explained if the appropriate reference temperature is used. The cooling rate affects the temperature of the onset of the ferrite plus graphite growth in the same way as for the eutectic reaction, with a measured undercooling that can be extrapolated to a zero value when the cooling rate is zero. The growth undercooling of pearlite had values that were in agreement with similar data obtained on silicon steels. The detrimental effect of Mn on the growth kinetics of ferrite during the decomposition of austenite in the stable system is explained in terms of the driving force for diffusion of carbon through the ferrite ring around the graphite nodules. Finally, it is found that copper can have a pearlite promoter role only when combined with a low addition of manganese.

  10. Characteristics of copper-clad aluminum rods prepared by horizontal continuous casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Fu, Ying; Jie, Jinchuan; Wu, Li; Svynarenko, Kateryna; Guo, Qingtao; Li, Tingju; Wang, Tongmin

    2017-11-01

    An innovative horizontal continuous casting method was developed and successfully used to prepare copper-clad aluminum (CCA) rods with a diameter of 85 mm and a sheath thickness of 16 mm. The solidification structure and element distribution near the interface of the CCA ingots were investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope, an energy dispersive spectrometer, and an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. The results showed that the proposed process can lead to a good metallurgical bond between Cu and Al. The interface between Cu and Al was a multilayered structure with a thickness of 200 μm, consisting of Cu9Al4, CuAl2, α-Al/CuAl2 eutectic, and α-Al + α-Al/CuAl2 eutectic layers from the Cu side to the Al side. The mean tensile-shear strength of the CCA sample was 45 MPa, which fulfills the requirements for the further extrusion process. The bonding and diffusion mechanisms are also discussed in this paper.

  11. Exploring As-Cast PbCaSn-Mg Anodes for Improved Performance in Copper Electrowinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Jodie A.; Clancy, Marie; Chen, Xiaobo; Birbilis, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Lead calcium tin (PbCaSn) alloys are the common anodes used in copper electrowinning (Cu EW). Given a large amount of energy consumed in Cu EW process, anodes with controlled oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics and a lower OER overpotential are advantageous for reducing the energy consumption. To date, magnesium (Mg) has never been studied as an alloying element for EW anodes. As-cast PbCaSn anodes with the addition of Mg were examined herein, revealing an improved performance compared to that of the industrial standard PbCaSn anode. The alloy performances in the early stages of anode life and passivation were established from electrochemical studies which were designed to simulate industrial Cu EW process. The 24-hour polarization testing revealed that the Mg alloying depolarizes the anode potential up to 80 mV; thus, resulting in a higher Cu EW efficiency. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the alteration of the alloy microstructure and the corresponding interfacial reactions contribute to the changes of the anode electrochemical performances. The present study reveals for the first time the potency of Mg alloying in reducing the overpotential of PbCaSn anode.

  12. Numerical Modelling of Mechanical Integrity of the Copper-Cast Iron Canister. A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanru Jing

    2004-04-01

    This review article presents a summary of the research works on the numerical modelling of the mechanical integrity of the composite copper-cast iron canisters for the final disposal of Swedish nuclear wastes, conducted by SKB and SKI since 1992. The objective of the review is to evaluate the outstanding issues existing today about the basic design concepts and premises, fundamental issues on processes, properties and parameters considered for the functions and requirements of canisters under the conditions of a deep geological repository. The focus is placed on the adequacy of numerical modelling approaches adopted in regards to the overall mechanical integrity of the canisters, especially the initial state of canisters regarding defects and the consequences of their evolution under external and internal loading mechanisms adopted in the design premises. The emphasis is the stress-strain behaviour and failure/strength, with creep and plasticity involved. Corrosion, although one of the major concerns in the field of canister safety, was not included

  13. Development of Cloud Based Casting Defects Categorization System (CDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sata Amit V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects affect the properties and behavior of the casting during its service life. Since the defects can occur due to different reasons, they must be correctly identified and categorized, to enable applying the appropriate remedial measures. several different approaches for categorizing casting defects have been proposed in technical literature. They mainly rely on physical description, location, and formation of defects. There is a need for a systematic approach for classifying investment casting defects, considering appropriate attributes such as their size, location, identification stage, inspection method, consistency, appearance of defects. A systematic approach for categorization of investment casting defects considering multiple attributes: detection stage, size, shape, appearance, location, consistency and severity of occurrence. Information about the relevant attributes of major defects encountered in investment casting process has been collected from an industrial foundry. This has been implemented in a cloud-based system to make the system freely and widely accessible.

  14. Awareness programs and change in taste-based caste prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.

  15. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  16. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinea, M. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)], E-mail: m.voinea@unitbv.ro; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)

    2008-08-25

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO{sub x} cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO{sub x} was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components.

  17. Effect of Stone Cast Type on Complete Denture Base Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hamdan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few researches have been conducted researches on the influence of the type of dental stone used for fabrication of casts on the adaptation of denture bases. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two types of stone casts on the accuracy of fit in complete denture bases. Methods: Using sixty fully replicated master casts obtained by duplicating a metal die representing an edentulous maxillary arch, 30 casts were poured in type III dental stone and 30 made from type V dental stone. All dentures were completely waxed using a same thickness of base plate wax and teeth were made for the purpose of accuracy. Following polymerization in the same working conditions, dentures were trimmed. After silicone injection between each denture and metal die was performed, weighing the elastomeric silicone layer was performed to study adaptation of dentures. Metal die was used both before copying the casts and   after storing them in water for two months. Results: The values ​​for silicone layer weight (in grams in the group with dental stone type III were greater than the values in type V  regardless of the studied period (both after polymerization and after water immersion for a period of two months in the sample (p

  18. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show ... 100 > ± 0.1, DP is observed. This criterion points to diffusional coherency strain theory to be the operative mechanism for DP.

  19. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is ...

  20. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-based Caste Prejudice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker...... in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste...... and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit...

  1. Awareness programs and change in taste-based caste prejudice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Becker (1971......) in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find...... that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinoion about reservation in jobs for the lower...

  2. Influence of boron on ferrite formation in copper-added spheroidal graphite cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the original work of the authors published recently, describing the influence of B on the matrix of the Cuadded spheroidal graphite cast iron. The effect of Cu has been corrected as a ferrite formation promoter in the matrix of the grey cast iron by the usage of high-purity material. Also, this paper focuses on the ferrite formation and the observation of the Cu distribution in the B-added and B-free Cu-containing spheroidal graphite cast iron. The Cu film on the spheroidal graphite can be successfully observed in the B-free sample using a special etching method. However, in the B-added sample, no Cu film could be found, while the secondary graphite was formed on the surface of the spheroidal graphite. The interaction between B and Cu is stressed as a peculiar phenomenon by the employment of a contrast experiment of B and Mn. The heat treatment could make Cu precipitate more significantly in the eutectic cells and in the matrix in the form of large Cu particles because of the limited solubility of Cu.

  3. Effect of surface roughness on ultrasonic echo amplitude in aluminium-copper alloy castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardar, R.; Pathak, S.D.; Prabhakar, O.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of test surface roughness on ultrasonic back-wall echo (BWE) amplitude in Al-4.5%Cu alloy cast specimens has been studied. The results indicate that as the value of surface roughness of the specimen increases, the value of relating BWE amplitude at a given probe frequency decreases. However, under the present set of experimental conditions, the decrease in BWE amplitude with the increase in surface roughness of the test specimen is found to be appreciable at 10 MHz probe frequency. (author)

  4. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  5. Study on cast Ni3A1-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiz'hang, Z.; Tianxiang, Z.; Yingjie, T.; Bingda, Z.; Yaoxiao, Z.; Zhuanggi, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a series of cast Ni 3 Al-base alloys with the addition of alloying elements, such as Hf, Zr, Ti, Nb etc., in which the total amount of Al and alloying elements substituting for Al was controlled in the range of 18 to 23 at%. It was found the alloying elements change remarkably the morphology, distribution and amount of γ phase as well as the morphology and size of primary γ intermetallic compound. The size of primary γ can be decreased to micron order. The brittle γ - γ boundary (refer to primary γ) can be substituted by touch γ - γ - γ boundary. As a result, the mechanical properties of the cast Ni 3 Al-base alloys, especially high temperature ductility, can be enhanced. In addition, the effect of Cr is discussed when tested in air environment, and considered that chromium addition is not very effective to improve the high temperature embrittlement

  6. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  7. New method for diagnosing cast compactness based on laser ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swornowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologically advanced materials, such as alloys of aluminum, nickel or titanium are currently used increasingly often in significantly loaded components utilized in the aviation industry, among others in the construction of jet turbine engine blades. The article presents a method for diagnosing the condition of the inside of cast blades with the use of laser ultrasonography. The inspection is based on finding hidden flaws with a size of between 10 and 30μm. Laser ultrasonography offers a number of improvements over the non-destructive methods used so far, e.g. the possibility to diagnose the cast on a selected depth, high signal-to-noise ratio and good sensitivity. The article includes a brief overview of non-destructive inspection methods used in foundry engineering and sample results of inspecting the inner structure of a turbo jet engine blade using the method described in the article.

  8. Optimal design of feeding system in steel casting by constrained optimization algorithms based on InteCAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-chun Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional foundry industry has developed rapidly in recently years due to advancements in computer technology. Modifying and designing the feeding system has become more convenient with the help of the casting software, InteCAST. A common method of designing a feeding system is to first design the initial systems, run simulations with casting software, analyze the feedback, and then redesign. In this work, genetic, fruit fly, and interior point optimizer (IPOPT algorithms were introduced to guide the optimal riser design for the feeding system. The results calculated by the three optimal algorithms indicate that the riser volume has a weak relationship with the modulus constraint; while it has a close relationship with the volume constraint. Based on the convergence rate, the fruit fly algorithm was obviously faster than the genetic algorithm. The optimized riser was also applied during casting, and was simulated using InteCAST. The numerical simulation results reveal that with the same riser volume, the riser optimized by the genetic and fruit fly algorithms has a similar improvement on casting shrinkage. The IPOPT algorithm has the advantage of causing the smallest shrinkage porosities, compared to those of the genetic and fruit fly algorithms, which were almost the same.

  9. THE EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED IRON BASED GRANULES ON PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FORMED BY CASTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  10. Physical Properties of Copper Based MMC Strengthened with Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmar J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the development of Cu-Al2O3 composites of copper Cu-ETP matrix composite materials reinforced by 20 and 30 vol.% Al2O3 particles and study of some chosen physical properties. Squeeze casting technique of porous compacts with liquid copper was applied at the pressure of 110 MPa. Introduction of alumina particles into copper matrix affected on the significant increase of hardness and in the case of Cu-30 vol. % of alumina particles to 128 HBW. Electrical resistivity was strongly affected by the ceramic alumina particles and addition of 20 vol. % of particles caused diminishing of electrical conductivity to 20 S/m (34.5% IACS. Thermal conductivity tests were performed applying two methods and it was ascertained that this parameter strongly depends on the ceramic particles content, diminishing it to 100 Wm-1K-1 for the composite material containing 30 vol.% of ceramic particles comparing to 400 Wm-1K-1 for the unreinforced copper. Microstructural analysis was carried out using SEM microscopy and indicates that Al2O3 particles are homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix. EDS analysis shows remains of silicon on the surface of ceramic particles after binding agent used during preparation of ceramic preforms.

  11. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  12. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  13. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-11

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  14. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  15. Caste-, work-, and descent-based discrimination as a determinant of health in social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    Social epidemiology explores health in the context of broad social determinants of health, where the boundary lines between health and politics appear increasingly blurred. Social determinants of health such as caste, discrimination, and social exclusion are inherently political in nature, hence it becomes imperative to look at health through a broader perspective of political philosophy, ideology, and caste that imposes enormous obstacles to a person's full attainment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. Caste is descent based and hereditary in nature. It is a characteristic determined by one's birth into a particular caste, irrespective of the faith practiced by the individual. Caste denotes a system of rigid social stratification into ranked groups defined by descent and occupation. Under various caste systems throughout the world, caste divisions also dominate in housing, marriage, and general social interaction divisions that are reinforced through the practice and threat of social ostracism, economic boycotts, and even physical violence-all of which undermine health equality.

  16. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  17. Assessment of a spent fuel disposal canister. Assessment studies for a copper canister with cast steel inner component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.E.; Hoch, A.R.; Jones, G.D.; Tomczyk, A.J.; Wiggin, R.M.; Worraker, W.J.

    1997-05-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden, is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in vertical storage holes drilled in a series of caverns excavated from the granite bedrock at a depth of about 500 m. Each canister will be surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. In this report, a simple model of the behaviour of the canister subsequent to a first breach in its copper overpack is developed. This model is used to predict: -the ingress of water to the canister (as a function of the size and the shape of the initial defect, the buffer conductivity, the corrosion rate and the pressure inside the canister); -the build-up of corrosion products in the canister (as a function of the available water in the canister, the corrosion rate and the properties of the corrosion products); -the effect of corrosion on the structural integrity of the canister. A number of different scenarios for the location of the breach in the copper overpack are considered

  18. Casting and stress-strain simulations of a cast ductile iron component using microstructure based mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Jakob; Svensson, Ingvar L

    2012-01-01

    The industrial demand for increased component performance with concurrent reductions in component weight, development times and verifications using physical prototypes drives the need to use the full potential of casting and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations to correctly predict the mechanical behavior of cast components in service. The mechanical behavior of the component is determined by the casting process, and factors as component geometry and casting process parameters are known to affect solidification and microstructure formation throughout the component and cause local variations in mechanical behavior as well as residual stresses. Though residual stresses are known to be an important factor in the mechanical behavior of the component, the importance of local mechanical behavior is not well established and the material is typically considered homogeneous throughout the component. This paper deals with the influence of solidification and solid state transformation on microstructure formation and the effect of local microstructure variations on the mechanical behavior of the cast component in service. The current work aims to investigate the coupling between simulation of solidification, microstructure and local variations in mechanical behavior and stress-strain simulation. This is done by performing several simulations of a ductile iron component using a recently developed simulation strategy, a closed chain of simulations for cast components, able to predict and describe the local variations in not only elastic but also plastic behavior throughout the component by using microstructural parameters determined by simulations of microstructural evolution in the component during the casting process. In addition the residual stresses are considered. The results show that the FEM simulation results are significantly affected by including microstructure based mechanical behavior. When the applied load is low and the component is subjected to stress levels

  19. Towards an all-copper redox flow battery based on a copper-containing ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaltin, Stijn; Li, Yun; Brooks, Neil R; Sniekers, Jeroen; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2016-01-07

    The first redox flow battery (RFB), based on the all-copper liquid metal salt [Cu(MeCN)4][Tf2N], is presented. Liquid metal salts (LMS) are a new type of ionic liquid that functions both as solvent and electrolyte. Non-aqueous electrolytes have advantages over water-based solutions, such as a larger electrochemical window and large thermal stability. The proof-of-concept is given that LMSs can be used as the electrolyte in RFBs. The main advantage of [Cu(MeCN)4][Tf2N] is the high copper concentration, and thus high charge and energy densities of 300 kC l(-1) and 75 W h l(-1) respectively, since the copper(i) ions form an integral part of the electrolyte. A Coulombic efficiency up to 85% could be reached.

  20. Contribute to quantitative identification of casting defects based on computer analysis of X-ray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The forecast of structure and properties of casting is based on results of computer simulation of physical processes which are carried out during the casting processes. For the effective using of simulation system it is necessary to validate mathematica-physical models describing process of casting formation and the creation of local discontinues, witch determinate the casting properties.In the paper the proposition for quantitative validation of VP system using solidification casting defects by information sources of II group (methods of NDT was introduced. It was named the VP/RT validation (virtual prototyping/radiographic testing validation. Nowadays identification of casting defects noticeable on X-ray images bases on comparison of X-ray image of casting with relates to the ASTM. The results of this comparison are often not conclusive because based on operator’s subjective assessment. In the paper the system of quantitative identification of iron casting defects on X-ray images and classification this defects to ASTM class is presented. The methods of pattern recognition and machine learning were applied.

  1. Development of environmentally friendly cast alloys and composites. High zinc Al-base cast alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Krajewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to grain refinement of the foundry Al-20 wt% Zn (AlZn20 alloy, aiming at improving ductility of the sand-cast alloy The melted alloy was inoculated using traditional AlTi5B1 (TiBAl and AlTi3C0.15 (TiCAl master alloys and newly introduced (Zn,Al-Ti3 one. The performed structural examinations showed out significant increasing of the grain population of the inoculated alloy and plas-ticity increase represented by elongation. The high damping properties of the initial alloy, measured using an ultrasonic Olympus Epoch XT device, are basicly preserved after inoculation. Also tensile strength preserves its good values, while elongation shows an increase – which are beneficials of the employed grain-refining process.

  2. Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in soil bed exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Thomas Nilsson; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    Copper-based biocides are widely used to protect wood from biological attack in a variety of environments. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is the dominant copper-based preservative for wood protection (J. T. MICKLEWRIGHT, 1989). First developed in India in the 1930s, CCA contains a very effective combination of materials. Copper provides protection against most...

  3. Micronized copper wood preservatives: An efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Civardi Francis W.M.R. Schwarze Peter Wick

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection but fails to protect wood against Cu tolerant wood destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nme25 mm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu based nanoparticles (Cu based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However d...

  4. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C; McCall, S K; Ott, R T

    2017-09-05

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems for melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.

  5. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  6. Gibbs energy calculation of electrolytic plasma channel with inclusions of copper and copper oxide with Al-base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posuvailo, V. M.; Klapkiv, M. D.; Student, M. M.; Sirak, Y. Y.; Pokhmurska, H. V.

    2017-03-01

    The oxide ceramic coating with copper inclusions was synthesized by the method of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Calculations of the Gibbs energies of reactions between the plasma channel elements with inclusions of copper and copper oxide were carried out. Two methods of forming the oxide-ceramic coatings on aluminum base in electrolytic plasma with copper inclusions were established. The first method - consist in the introduction of copper into the aluminum matrix, the second - copper oxide. During the synthesis of oxide ceramic coatings plasma channel does not react with copper and copper oxide-ceramic included in the coating. In the second case is reduction of copper oxide in interaction with elements of the plasma channel. The content of oxide-ceramic layer was investigated by X-ray and X-ray microelement analysis. The inclusions of copper, CuAl2, Cu9Al4 in the oxide-ceramic coatings were found. It was established that in the spark plasma channels alongside with the oxidation reaction occurs also the reaction aluminothermic reduction of the metal that allows us to dope the oxide-ceramic coating by metal the isobaric-isothermal potential oxidation of which is less negative than the potential of the aluminum oxide.

  7. Upper Bound Performance Estimation for Copper Based Broadband Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    of copper based access connections at a household level by using Geographical Information System data. This can be combined with different configurations of DSLAMs distributions, in order to calculate the required number of active equipment points to guarantee certain QoS levels. This method can be used...... to define the limitations of copper based broadband access. A case study in a municipality in Denmark shows how the estimated network dimension to be able to provide video conference services to the majority of the population might be too high to be implemented in reality....

  8. Comparative aspects about the studying methods of cast irons machinability, based on the tool wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carausu, C.; Pruteanu, O.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents some considerations of the authors, regarding the studying methods of the cast irons machinability, based on the tools wear on drilling operations. Are described the conditions in which the experimental researches were conducted, intended to offer an overview on drilling machinability of some cast irons categories. It is presented a comparison between long-term methods and short-term methods, for determining the optimal speed chipping of a grey cast iron with lamellar graphite, with average values of tensile strength. Are described: the research methodology, obtained results and conclusions drawn after the results analysis.

  9. High coercivity microcrystalline Nd-rich Nd–Fe–Co–Al–B bulk magnets prepared by direct copper mold casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.Z.; Hong, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Fang, X.G. [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Qiu, Z.G.; Zhong, X.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gao, X.S. [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-06-15

    High coercivity Nd{sub 25}Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 20}Al{sub 15−x}B{sub x} (x=7–15) hard magnets were prepared by a simple process of injection casting. Different from many previous investigations on nanocomposite compositions, the magnets in this work contain hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}(FeCoAl){sub 14}B, Nd-rich, and Nd{sub 1+ε}(FeCo){sub 4}B{sub 4} phases. The magnetic properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of the as-cast and annealed magnets were investigated. As the boron content increased from 7 to 11 at%, the intrinsic coercivity H{sub cj} of the as-cast magnet increased from 816 to 1140 kA/m. The magnets annealed at 750 °C have shown more regular and smaller grains than the as-cast alloys, especially for the x=11 alloy. The high intrinsic coercivities for the annealed alloys with x=8~11 result from the presence of small-sized grains in the microstructure. The highest H{sub cj} of 1427 kA/m was obtained for the heat treated alloy with x=10. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich bulk hard magnets with relatively good properties. - Highlights: • 2 mm hard magnetic Nd{sub 25}Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 20}Al{sub 15−x}B{sub x} rods were prepared by direct casting. • High coercivity of 1.78 T was achieved in x=11 sample after heat treatment. • Small grains are responsible for the significant increase in H{sub C} after annealing. • Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with two different sizes lead to two-step demagnetization process.

  10. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  11. Scientific paper zircon-based coating for the applications in Lost Foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prstić Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a possibility to develop a new zircon-based refractory coating for casting applications was investigated. Optimization of the coating composition with controlled rheological properties was attained by application of different coating components, particularly by application of a new suspension agent and by alteration of coating production procedure. Zircon powder with particle size of 25x10-6 m was used as filler. The zircon sample was investigated by means of the following methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed by means of the PC program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that application of this type of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings of cast iron obtained by pouring into sand molds by means of the expandable patterns method (Lost Foam casting process.

  12. The future of copper in China--A perspective based on analysis of copper flows and stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Cai, Zhijian; Yang, Jiameng; Yuan, Zengwei; Chen, Yan

    2015-12-01

    This study attempts to speculate on the future of copper metabolism in China based on dynamic substance flow analysis. Based on tremendous growth of copper consumption over the past 63 years, China will depict a substantially increasing trend of copper in-use stocks for the next 30 years. The highest peak will be possibly achieved in 2050, with the maximum ranging between 163 Mt and 171 Mt. After that, total stocks are expected to slowly decline 147-154 Mt by the year 2080. Owing to the increasing demand of in-use stocks, China will continue to have a profound impact on global copper consumption with its high import dependence until around 2020, and the peak demand for imported copper are expected to approach 5.5 Mt/year. Thereafter, old scrap generated by domestic society will occupy an increasingly important role in copper supply. In around 2060, approximately 80% of copper resources could come from domestic recycling of old scrap, implying a major shift from primary production to secondary production. With regard to the effect of lifetime distribution uncertainties in different end-use sectors of copper stocks on the predict results, uncertainty evaluation was performed and found the model was relatively robust to these changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Streaming Model Based Volume Ray Casting Implementation for Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusub Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactive high quality volume rendering is becoming increasingly more important as the amount of more complex volumetric data steadily grows. While a number of volumetric rendering techniques have been widely used, ray casting has been recognized as an effective approach for generating high quality visualization. However, for most users, the use of ray casting has been limited to datasets that are very small because of its high demands on computational power and memory bandwidth. However the recent introduction of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell B.E. processor, which consists of 9 heterogeneous cores designed to handle extremely demanding computations with large streams of data, provides an opportunity to put the ray casting into practical use. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parallel implementation of volume ray casting on the Cell B.E. The implementation is designed to take full advantage of the computational power and memory bandwidth of the Cell B.E. using an intricate orchestration of the ray casting computation on the available heterogeneous resources. Specifically, we introduce streaming model based schemes and techniques to efficiently implement acceleration techniques for ray casting on Cell B.E. In addition to ensuring effective SIMD utilization, our method provides two key benefits: there is no cost for empty space skipping and there is no memory bottleneck on moving volumetric data for processing. Our experimental results show that we can interactively render practical datasets on a single Cell B.E. processor.

  14. Pure titanium casting into zirconia-modified magnesia-based investment molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chun-Cheng; Hou, Guey-Lin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Cheng-Ching

    2004-11-01

    Molten titanium is highly reactive with common mold materials at elevated temperatures. The aim of this investigation was to improve the accuracy of pure titanium casting by adding unreactive zirconia into magnesia-based investment material. An automatic thermal expansion laser-recording machine (TEM-1000/Pantos, Nippon Co.) was used to measure thermal expansion of investment materials. An automatic argon-casting machine (Castmatic-S, Iwatani Co.) was used to cast pure titanium samples. A stereomicroscope was used (Nikon SM-2T, Japan) to measure marginal discrepancy on a metal die. A Vickers microhardness indenter (MXT-50, Matsuzawa Seiki Co.) determined the Vickers hardness (VH) of the titanium samples. Interfacial reactivity of the titanium was evaluated with an X-ray diffractometer (Rigaku D/max VIII, Tokyo, Japan). A dental X-ray machine was used to examine internal porosity of the castings. Data was analysed with paired t-test (p zirconia to a magnesia-based investment material significantly increased its thermal expansion value (p zirconia-added group (p zirconia decreased interfacial reactivity and the VH of titanium. Under appropriately adjusted conditions, the addition of zirconia to magnesia-based mold materials may be used to produce high quality pure titanium castings.

  15. Melting of Grey Cast Iron Based on Steel Scrap Using Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojczew A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the issue of synthetic cast iron production in the electric induction furnace exclusively on the steel scrap base. Silicon carbide and synthetic graphite were used as carburizers. The carburizers were introduced with solid charge or added on the liquid metal surface. The chemical analysis of the produced cast iron, the carburization efficiency and microstructure features were presented in the paper. It was stated that ferrosilicon can be replaced by silicon carbide during the synthetic cast iron melting process. However, due to its chemical composition (30% C and 70% Si which causes significant silicon content in iron increase, the carbon deficit can be partly compensated by the carburizer introduction. Moreover it was shown that the best carbon and silicon assimilation rate is obtained where the silicon carbide is being introduced together with solid charge. When it is thrown onto liquid alloy surface the efficiency of the process is almost two times less and the melting process lasts dozen minutes long. The microstructure of the cast iron produced with the silicon carbide shows more bulky graphite flakes than inside the microstructure of cast iron produced on the pig iron base.

  16. Social exclusion, caste & health: a review based on the social determinants framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, K R

    2007-10-01

    Poverty and social exclusion are important socio-economic variables which are often taken for granted while considering ill-health effects. Social exclusion mainly refers to the inability of our society to keep all groups and individuals within reach of what we expect as society to realize their full potential. Marginalization of certain groups or classes occurs in most societies including developed countries and perhaps it is more pronounced in underdeveloped countries. In the Indian context, caste may be considered broadly as a proxy for socio-economic status and poverty. In the identification of the poor, scheduled caste and scheduled tribes and in some cases the other backward castes are considered as socially disadvantaged groups and such groups have a higher probability of living under adverse conditions and poverty. The health status and utilization patterns of such groups give an indication of their social exclusion as well as an idea of the linkages between poverty and health. In this review, we examined broad linkages between caste and some select health/health utilization indicators. We examined data on prevalence of anaemia, treatment of diarrhoea, infant mortality rate, utilization of maternal health care and childhood vaccinations among different caste groups in India. The data based on the National Family Health Survey II (NFHS II) highlight considerable caste differentials in health. The linkages between caste and some health indicators show that poverty is a complex issue which needs to be addressed with a multi-dimensional paradigm. Minimizing the suffering from poverty and ill-health necessitates recognizing the complexity and adopting a perspective such as holistic epidemiology which can challenge pure technocentric approaches to achieve health status.

  17. Single underwater image enhancement based on color cast removal and visibility restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongyi; Guo, Jichang; Wang, Bo; Cong, Runmin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Images taken under underwater condition usually have color cast and serious loss of contrast and visibility. Degraded underwater images are inconvenient for observation and analysis. In order to address these problems, an underwater image-enhancement method is proposed. A simple yet effective underwater image color cast removal algorithm is first presented based on the optimization theory. Then, based on the minimum information loss principle and inherent relationship of medium transmission maps of three color channels in an underwater image, an effective visibility restoration algorithm is proposed to recover visibility, contrast, and natural appearance of degraded underwater images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, qualitative comparison, quantitative comparison, and color accuracy test are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively remove color cast, improve contrast and visibility, and recover natural appearance of degraded underwater images. Additionally, the proposed method is comparable to and even better than several state-of-the-art methods.

  18. High Efficiency Graphene Coated Copper Based Thermocells Connected in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Sindhuja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2 W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60°C of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  19. Disposable copper-based electrochemical sensor for anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xing; Kang, Wenjing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2014-05-20

    In this work, we report the first copper-based point-of-care sensor for electrochemical measurements demonstrated by zinc determination in blood serum. Heavy metals require careful monitoring, yet current methods are too complex for a point-of-care system. Electrochemistry offers a simple approach to metal detection on the microscale, but traditional carbon, gold (Au), or platinum (Pt) electrodes are difficult or expensive to microfabricate, preventing widespread use. Our sensor features a new low-cost electrode material, copper, which offers simple fabrication and compatibility with microfabrication and PCB processing, while maintaining competitive performance in electrochemical detection. Anodic stripping voltammetry of zinc using our new copper-based sensors exhibited a 140 nM (9.0 ppb) limit of detection (calculated) and sensitivity greater than 1 μA/μM in the acetate buffer. The sensor was also able to determine zinc in a bovine serum extract, and the results were verified with independent sensor measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (μL scale), reduced cost, short response time, and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte.

  20. Prediction of Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing in Squeeze Casting Using Fuzzy Logic Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel M.G.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the squeeze castings is significantly affected by secondary dendrite arm spacing, which is influenced by squeeze cast input parameters. The relationships of secondary dendrite arm spacing with the input parameters, namely time delay, pressure duration, squeeze pressure, pouring and die temperatures are complex in nature. The present research work focuses on the development of input-output relationships using fuzzy logic approach. In fuzzy logic approach, squeeze cast process variables are expressed as a function of input parameters and secondary dendrite arm spacing is expressed as an output parameter. It is important to note that two fuzzy logic based approaches have been developed for the said problem. The first approach deals with the manually constructed mamdani based fuzzy system and the second approach deals with automatic evolution of the Takagi and Sugeno’s fuzzy system. It is important to note that the performance of the developed models is tested for both linear and non-linear type membership functions. In addition the developed models were compared with the ten test cases which are different from those of training data. The developed fuzzy systems eliminates the need of a number of trials in selection of most influential squeeze cast process parameters. This will reduce time and cost of trial experimentations. The results showed that, all the developed models can be effectively used for making prediction. Further, the present research work will help foundrymen to select parameters in squeeze casting to obtain the desired quality casting without much of time and resource consuming.

  1. Salvaging of service exposed cast alloy 625 cracker tubes of ammonia based Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Misra, B.; Mahajan, M.P.; Mittra, J.; Sundararaman, M.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    In ammonia based heavy water plants, cracking of ammonia vapour, enriched in deuterium is carried out inside a cracker tube, packed with catalyst. These cracker tubes are made of alloy 625 (either wrought or cast) having dimensions of about 12.5 metres long, 88 mm outer diameter and 7.9 mm wall thickness. Seventy such tubes are housed in a typical ammonia cracker unit. The anticipated design life of such tube is 1,00,000 hrs. when operated at 720 degC based on creep as main degradation mechanism. Presently, these tubes are being operated at 680 degC skin temperature. Alloy 625 tubes are costly and normally not manufactured in India and are being imported. The cast alloy 625 cracker tubes have outlived their design life of 100,000 hrs. Therefore it has been decided to salvage the cast cracker tubes and extend the life further as it had already been done for wrought tubes. Similar to the earlier attempt of resolutionising of wrought alloy 625 tubes, efforts are in progress to salvage these cast tubes. In this study, cast tubes samples were subjected to solution-annealing treatment at two different temperatures, 1100degC and 1160degC respectively for two hrs. Mechanical properties along with the microstructure of the samples, which were resolutionized at 1160degC were comparable with that of virgin material. The 12.5 metres long cast alloy 625 cracker tubes will also be shortly solution-annealed in a specially designed resistance heating furnace after completing some more tests. (author)

  2. U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeCast: A cloud-based future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Turner, Loren; Bekiri, Nebi

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap portrays the extent of potentially damaging shaking. In turn, the ShakeCast system, a freely-available, post-earthquake situational awareness application, automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users’ facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage assessment maps and other web-based products for emergency managers and responders. ShakeCast is particularly suitable for earthquake planning and response purposes by Departments of Transportation (DOTs), critical facility and lifeline utilities, large businesses, engineering and financial services, and loss and risk modelers. Recent important developments to the ShakeCast system and its user base are described. The newly-released Version 3 of the ShakeCast system encompasses advancements in seismology, earthquake engineering, and information technology applicable to the legacy ShakeCast installation (Version 2). In particular, this upgrade includes a full statistical fragility analysis framework for general assessment of structures as part of the near real-time system, direct access to additional earthquake-specific USGS products besides ShakeMap (PAGER, DYFI?, tectonic summary, etc.), significant improvements in the graphical user interface, including a console view for operations centers, and custom, user-defined hazard and loss modules. The release also introduces a new adaption option to port ShakeCast to the "cloud". Employing Amazon Web Services (AWS), users now have a low-cost alternative to local hosting, by fully offloading hardware, software, and communication obligations to the cloud. Other advantages of the "ShakeCast Cloud" strategy include (1) Reliability and robustness of offsite operations, (2) Scalability naturally accommodated, (3), Serviceability, problems reduced due to software and hardware uniformity, (4

  3. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC, and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  4. Micronized copper wood preservatives: an efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm-25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic bioactive novel ether based Schiff bases and their copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-10-01

    Novel ether based Schiff bases (HL1- HL4) were synthesized from 5-chloro-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde and primary amines (1-amino-4-phenoxybenzene, 4-(4-aminophenyloxy) biphenyl, 1-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene and 2-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene). From these Schiff bases copper(II) complexes (Cu(L1)2-Cu(L4)2)) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR) techniques. The synthesized Schiff bases and copper(II) complexes were further assessed for various biological studies. In brine shrimp assay the copper(II) complexes revealed 4-fold higher activity (LD50 3.8 μg/ml) as compared with simple ligands (LD50 12.4 μg/ml). Similar findings were observed in potato disc antitumor assay with higher activities for copper(II) complexes (IC50 range 20.4-24.1 μg/ml) than ligands (IC50 range 40.5-48.3 μg/ml). DPPH assay was performed to determine the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Significant antioxidant activity was shown by the copper(II) complexes whereas simple ligands have shown no activity. In DNA protection assay significant protection behavior was exhibited by simple ligand molecules while copper(II) complexes showed neutral behavior (neither protective nor damaging).

  6. Synthesis of copper telluride nanowires using template-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper telluride (CuTe) nanowires were synthesized electrochemically from aqueous acidic solution of copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tellurium oxide (TeO2) on a copper substrate by template-assisted electrodeposition method. The electrodeposition was conducted at 30 °C and the length of nanowires was ...

  7. Numerical Simulation of Directional Solidification Process of Single Crystal Ni- Based Superalloy Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeliga D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of influence of mould withdrawal rate on the solidification process of CMSX-4 single crystal castings produced by Bridgman method was presented in this paper. The predicted values of temperature gradient, solidification and cooling rate, were determined at the longitudinal section of casting blade withdrawn at rate from 1 to 6mm/min using ProCAST software. It was found that the increase of withdrawal rate of ceramic mould results in the decrease of temperature gradient and the growth of cooling rate, along blade height. Based on results of solidification parameter G/R (temperature gradient/solidification rate, maximum withdrawal rate of ceramic mould (3.5 mm/min, which ensures lower susceptibility to formation process of new grain defects in single crystal, was established. It was proved that these defects can be formed in the bottom part of casting at withdrawal rate of 4 mm/min. The increase of withdrawal rate to 5 and 6 mm/min results in additional growth of susceptibility of defects formation along the whole height of airfoil.

  8. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of copper-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowen

    In this study, copper vermiculite was synthesized, and the characteristics, antimicrobial effects, and chemical stability of copper vermiculite were investigated. Two types of copper vermiculite materials, micron-sized copper vermiculite (MCV) and exfoliated copper vermiculite (MECV), are selected for this research. Since most of the functional fillers used in industry products, such as plastics, paints, rubbers, papers, and textiles prefer micron-scaled particles, micron-sized copper vermiculite was prepared by jet-milling vermiculite. Meanwhile, since the exfoliated vermiculite has very unique properties, such as high porosity, specific surface area, high aspect ratio of laminates, and low density, and has been extensively utilized as a functional additives, exfoliated copper vermiculite also was synthesized and investigated. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was qualitatively evaluated by the diffusion methods (both liquid diffusion and solid diffusion) against the most common pathogenic species: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The result showed that the release velocity of copper from copper vermiculite is very slow. However, copper vermiculite clearly has excellent antibacterial efficiency to S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The strongest antibacterial ability of copper vermiculite is its action on S. aureus. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was also quantitatively evaluated by determining the reduction rate (death rate) of E. coli versus various levels of copper vermiculite. 10 ppm of copper vermiculite in solution is sufficient to reduce the cell population of E. coli, while the untreated vermiculite had no antibacterial activity. The slow release of copper revealed that the antimicrobial effect of copper vermiculite was due to the strong interactions between copper ions and bacteria cells. Exfoliated copper vermiculite has even stronger

  9. Copper extraction by fatty hydroxamic acids derivatives synthesized based on palm kernel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Jelas; Jahangirian, Hossein; Silong, Sidik; Yusof, Nor Azah; Kassim, Anuar; Moghaddam, Roshanak Rafiee; Peyda, Mazyar; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Amin, Jamileh; Gharayebi, Yadollah

    2012-01-01

    Fatty hydroxamic acids derivatives based on palm kernel oil which are phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs), methyl fatty hydroxamic acids (MFHAs), isopropyl fatty hydroxamic acids (IPFHAs) and benzyl fatty hydroxamic acids (BFHAs) were applied as chelating agent for copper liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction of copper from aqueous solution by MFHAs, PFHAs, BFHAs or IPFHAs were carried out in hexane as an organic phase through the formation of copper methyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-MFHs), copper phenyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-PFHs), copper benzyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-BFHs) and copper isopropyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-IPFHs). The results showed that the fatty hydroxamic acid derivatives could extract copper at pH 6.2 effectively with high percentage of extraction (the percentages of copper extraction by MFHAs, PFHAs, IPFHs and BFHAs were found to be 99.3, 87.5, 82.3 and 90.2%, respectively). The extracted copper could be quantitatively stripped back into sulphuric acid (3M) aqueous solution. The obtained results showed that the copper recovery percentages from Cu-MFHs, Cu-PFHs, Cu-BFHs and Cu-IPFHs are 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.9 respectively. The copper extraction was not affected by the presence of a large amount of Mg (II), Ni (II), Al (III), Mn (II) and Co (II) ions in the aqueous solution.

  10. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Philips; Austin, Ravi David; Varghese, Soma Susan; Manojkumar, A D

    2015-01-01

    Potentially malignant disorders like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) often precede oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The rate of transformation of OSMF to OSCC ranges from 3 to 19%. OSMF is etiologically related to chewing of areca nut (betel nut), and the high copper content in areca nut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Even though many studies estimated and confirmed increased copper levels in areca nuts, studies tracing the source of the increased copper content are scarce. Interestingly, on review of agricultural literature, it was found that most of the areca nut plantations in South India commonly use a copper-based fungicide, bordeaux mixture (BM). The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the copper content in areca nuts from plantations with and without copper-based fungicide usage. Four areca nut plantations from Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka (group A) and four plantations from Ernakulam district, Kerala (group B) were selected for the study. The plantations from Karnataka used copper-based fungicide regularly, whereas the latter were devoid of it. Areca nut samples of three different maturities (unripe, ripe, and exfoliated) obtained from all plantations were dehusked, ground, and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for copper analysis. There was statistically significant difference in the copper content of areca nuts from both groups. The areca nuts from plantations treated with copper-based fungicide showed significantly higher copper levels in all maturity levels compared to their counterparts in the other group (P < 0.05). The high copper content in areca nut may be related to the copper-based fungicide treatment on the palms. These areca nuts with high copper content used in quid or commercial products may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of OSMF.

  11. Styromal based polymer films modified with copper microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor F. Vargalyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for the synthesis of polymeric film based on a copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride (stiromal and oligodiol was suggested. Block copolymer of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was used as oligodiol. It was shown that synthesized materials have moderate water swelling capacity in and ion-exchange properties. Static exchange capacity in 0.1 mol/L NaOH aqueous solution is within the interval of 1.44–1.76 mmol/g. At air-dry state films have a tensile strength of 4–6.6 MPa and an elongation at break tensile 38–61 %. The effect of stiromal molecular weight and oligodiol type, and conditions of film formation on ion-exchange and physical-mechanical properties of the films was studied. The synthesized material appeared to be able to sorb Cu2+-ions from neutral and acidic solutions. The distribution coefficient in case of sorption from slightly acidic solution with Cu2+ concentration of 50 mg/L was 48–50. Composite material with a metal submicroparticles uniformly distributed in the polymeric matrix was obtained by chemical reduction of copper ions sorbed. It was found that the film acquires electric conductivity, as a result of filling of metal particles, which allows copper electrodeposition on the film surface.

  12. Fabrication of copper-selective PVC membrane electrode based on newly synthesized copper complex of Schiff base as carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulekh Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The newly synthesized copper(II complex of Schiff base p-hydroxyacetophenone semicarbazone was explored as neutral ionophore for the fabrication of poly(vinylchloride (PVC based membrane electrode selective to Cu(II ions. The electrode shows a Nernstian slope of 29.8 ± 0.3 mV/decade with improved linear range of 1.8 × 10−7 to 1.0 × 10−1 M, comparatively lower detection limit 5.7 × 10−8 M between pH range of 2.0–8.0, giving a relatively fast response within 5s and can be used for at least 16 weeks without any divergence in potential. The selectivity coefficient was calculated using the fixed interference method (FIM. The electrode can also be used in partially non-aqueous media having up to 25% (v/v methanol, ethanol or acetone content with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range. It was successfully applied for the direct determination of copper content in water and tea samples with satisfactory results. The electrode has been used in the potentiometric titration of Cu2+ with EDTA.

  13. Hot-tearing of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys based on casting load measurements in a constrained permanent mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Mirmiran, Seyed [Fiat Chrysler Automobiles North America; Glaspie, Christopher [Fiat Chrysler Automobiles North America; Li, Shimin [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), MA; Apelian, Diran [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), MA; Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Rodriguez, Andres [Nemak, Garza Garcia, N.L., Mexico

    2017-01-01

    Hot-tearing is a major casting defect that is often difficult to characterize, especially for multicomponent Al alloys used for cylinder head castings. The susceptibility of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys to hot-tearing during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and displacement was measured. The experimental results for hot tearing susceptibility are compared with those obtained from a hot-tearing criterion based temperature range evaluated at fraction solids of 0.87 and 0.94. The Cu composition was varied from approximately 5 to 8 pct. (weight). Casting experiments were conducted without grain refining. The measured load during casting can be used to indicate the severity of hot tearing. However, when small hot-tears are present, the load variation cannot be used to detect and assess hot-tearing susceptibility.

  14. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol

    2005-01-01

    -rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood......Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based...... wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ...

  15. Room temperature deformation of in-situ grown quasicrystals embedded in Al-based cast alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Markoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An Al-based cast alloy containing Mn, Be and Cu has been chosen to investigate the room temperature deformation behavior of QC particles embedded in Al-matrix. Using LOM, SEM (equipped with EDS, conventional TEM with SAED and controlled tensile and compression tests, the deformation response of AlMn2Be2Cu2 cast alloy at room temperature has been examined. Alloy consisted of Al-based matrix, primary particles and eutectic icosahedral quasicrystalline (QC i-phase and traces of Θ-Al2Cu and Al10Mn3. Tensile and compression specimens were used for evaluation of mechanical response and behavior of QC i-phase articles embedded in Al-cast alloy. It has been established that embedded QC i-phase particles undergo plastic deformation along with the Al-based matrix even under severe deformation and have the response resembling that of the metallic materials by formation of typical cup-and-cone feature prior to failure. So, we can conclude that QC i-phase has the ability to undergo plastic deformation along with the Al-matrix to greater extent contrary to e.g. intermetallics such as Θ-Al2Cu for instance.

  16. Water Quality Criteria for Copper Based on the BLM Approach in the Freshwater in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yahui; Zang, Wenchao; Qin, Lumei; Zheng, Lei; Cao, Ying; Yan, Zhenguang; Yi, Xianliang; Zeng, Honghu; Liu, Zhengtao

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms are highly dependent on water quality parameters in freshwaters. The biotic ligand model (BLM) for copper is an approach to generate the water quality criteria (WQC) with water chemistry in the ambient environment. However, few studies were carried out on the WQCs for copper based on the BLM approach in China. In the present study, the toxicity for copper to native Chinese aquatic organisms was conducted and the published toxicit...

  17. Investigation of peptide based surface functionalization for copper ions detection using an ultrasensitive mechanical microresonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Rasmussen, Jakob Lyager

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of developing a portable label-free sensor for multi arrayed detection of heavy metals in drinking water, we present a mechanical resonator-based copper ions sensor, which uses a recently synthesized peptide Cysteine–Glycine–Glycine–Histidine (CGGH) and the l-Cysteine (Cys) peptide...... devices to detect a concentration of 10μM of copper in water, we regenerate the surface by removing the copper ions from the functionalization layer using EDTA....

  18. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.

    1977-01-01

    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  19. Surface investigation of naturally corroded gilded copper-based objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingo, G.M., E-mail: gabriel.ingo@ismn.cnr.it [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISMN—CNR), Area della Ricerca del CNR Roma1-Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Riccucci, C. [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISMN—CNR), Area della Ricerca del CNR Roma1-Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Lavorgna, M.; Salzano de Luna, M. [Istituto per i Polimeri, Compositi e Biomateriali—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IPCB—CNR), P.le E. Fermi 1, 80050 Portici, Napoli (Italy); Pascucci, M. [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISMN—CNR), Area della Ricerca del CNR Roma1-Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Di Carlo, G., E-mail: gabriella.dicarlo@ismn.cnr.it [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISMN—CNR), Area della Ricerca del CNR Roma1-Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Naturally corroded Au and Ag coated Cu-based objects studied by XPS, SEM + EDS and OM. • The main degrading agents are Cl, S and P species from surrounding environment. • Metal galvanic coupling enhances corrosion phenomena. • Corrosion forms a layered patina of noble metal remains, soil components and Cu{sub 2}O. • Useful information to tailor safe cleaning and reliable conservation strategies. - Abstract: Gold and silver coated copper-based artefacts subjected to long-term natural corrosion phenomena were studied by means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM + EDS), and optical microscopy (OM). The results allowed the identification of the chemistry and structure of the Au or Ag layers deposited by fire-gilding or mercury-silvering and the determination of the corrosion products formed due to interaction with the surrounding environment. Different degradation phenomena of the noble metal layer and copper substrate are induced by the presence of chlorine, sulphur and phosphorous and they are boosted by the metal galvanic coupling which makes gilded-metal art works unstable from a chemico-physical point of view. The SEM + EDS and OM results also suggest that particular care must be used during the removal of the encrustations and of the external corrosion products to avoid the loss of the remains of the noble layer often floating or embedded in the corrosion products. Furthermore, in order to avoid the reaction between nantokite (CuCl) and moisture the use no or low toxic inhibitors is suggested to avoid further severe degradation phenomena enhancing the long-lasting chemico-physical stability of these precious artefacts and giving them a greater chance of survival.

  20. Surface investigation of naturally corroded gilded copper-based objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingo, G.M.; Riccucci, C.; Lavorgna, M.; Salzano de Luna, M.; Pascucci, M.; Di Carlo, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Naturally corroded Au and Ag coated Cu-based objects studied by XPS, SEM + EDS and OM. • The main degrading agents are Cl, S and P species from surrounding environment. • Metal galvanic coupling enhances corrosion phenomena. • Corrosion forms a layered patina of noble metal remains, soil components and Cu 2 O. • Useful information to tailor safe cleaning and reliable conservation strategies. - Abstract: Gold and silver coated copper-based artefacts subjected to long-term natural corrosion phenomena were studied by means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM + EDS), and optical microscopy (OM). The results allowed the identification of the chemistry and structure of the Au or Ag layers deposited by fire-gilding or mercury-silvering and the determination of the corrosion products formed due to interaction with the surrounding environment. Different degradation phenomena of the noble metal layer and copper substrate are induced by the presence of chlorine, sulphur and phosphorous and they are boosted by the metal galvanic coupling which makes gilded-metal art works unstable from a chemico-physical point of view. The SEM + EDS and OM results also suggest that particular care must be used during the removal of the encrustations and of the external corrosion products to avoid the loss of the remains of the noble layer often floating or embedded in the corrosion products. Furthermore, in order to avoid the reaction between nantokite (CuCl) and moisture the use no or low toxic inhibitors is suggested to avoid further severe degradation phenomena enhancing the long-lasting chemico-physical stability of these precious artefacts and giving them a greater chance of survival.

  1. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  2. The Copper(I) / Copper(II) Transition in Complexes with 8-alkylthioquinoline Based Multidentate Ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Su, Ch. Y.; Liao, S.; Wanner, M.; Fiedler, Jan; Zhang, Ch.; Kang, B. S.; Kaim, W.

    - (2003), s. 189-202 ISSN 1472-7773 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D15.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : X-ray structure * 5-coordinate copper(II) complexes * electron-transfer kinetics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.023, year: 2002

  3. Planarization mechanism of alkaline copper CMP slurry based on chemical mechanical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengli; Yin Kangda; Li Xiang; Yue Hongwei; Liu Yunling

    2013-01-01

    The planarization mechanism of alkaline copper slurry is studied in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process from the perspective of chemical mechanical kinetics. Different from the international dominant acidic copper slurry, the copper slurry used in this research adopted the way of alkaline technology based on complexation. According to the passivation property of copper in alkaline conditions, the protection of copper film at the concave position on a copper pattern wafer surface can be achieved without the corrosion inhibitors such as benzotriazole (BTA), by which the problems caused by BTA can be avoided. Through the experiments and theories research, the chemical mechanical kinetics theory of copper removal in alkaline CMP conditions was proposed. Based on the chemical mechanical kinetics theory, the planarization mechanism of alkaline copper slurry was established. In alkaline CMP conditions, the complexation reaction between chelating agent and copper ions needs to break through the reaction barrier. The kinetic energy at the concave position should be lower than the complexation reaction barrier, which is the key to achieve planarization. (semiconductor technology)

  4. Copper Concentrations in Tidal Creeks and Estuaries of the Eastern Shore and the Relationship to Plasticulture and Copper-based Crop Protectants

    OpenAIRE

    Klawiter, Kathryn Alyce

    1998-01-01

    This project investigates the effect of plasticulture and copper-based crop protectants on water quality on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Water and sediment copper concentrations in both plasticulture and non-plasticulture containing watersheds were measured to determine the scope of copper in Eastern Shore tidal creeks. Runoff from a variety of land-uses including agricultural, plasticultural, residential and natural areas were collected and measure...

  5. Copper-decorated carbon nanotubes-based composite electrodes for nonenzymatic detection of glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, A.; Manea, F.; Orha, C.; Motoc, S.; Llinoiu, E.; Vaszilcsin, N.; Schoonman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare three types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based composite electrodes and to modify their surface by copper electrodeposition for nonenzymatic oxidation and determination of glucose from aqueous solution. Copper-decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes composite

  6. Synthesis of copper nanocolloids using a continuous flow based microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 (United States); Peng, Jinhui [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Program, The petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 253 (United Arab Emirates); Chen, Guo [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Shen, Amy Q., E-mail: amy.shen@oist.jp [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 (United States); Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Technology Graduate University, Okinawa (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The copper nanocolloidal were synthesized in a T-shaped microreactor at room temperature. • The morphology of copper nanocolloidal are spherical, and with good size distribution. • The mean particle diameter increased with decreases the NaBH{sub 4} molar concentration. • With increasing particle size, the more obvious localized surface plasmon resonance absorption. - Abstract: The copper (Cu) nanocolloids were prepared by sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) reduction of metal salt solutions in a T-shaped microreactor at room temperature. The influence of NaBH{sub 4} molar concentrations on copper particle's diameter, morphology, size distribution, and elemental compositions has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) was used to verify the chemical compounds of nanocolloids and estimate the average size of copper nanocolloids. The synthesized copper nanocolloids were uniform in size and non-oxidized. A decrease in the mean diameter of copper nanocolloids was observed with increasing NaBH{sub 4} molar concentrations. The maximum mean diameter (4.25 nm) occurred at the CuSO{sub 4}/NaBH{sub 4} molar concentration ratio of 1:2.

  7. Development of a CCD-based pyrometer for surface temperature measurement of casting billets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Lang, Xianli; Hu, Zhenwei; Shu, Shuangbao

    2017-06-01

    In order to achieve high accuracy and good stability of temperature measurement results, an online vision-based temperature field measurement system for continuous casting billets is developed instead of the conventional single-point radiation pyrometer in this paper. This system is a hybrid temperature measurement system which consists of a monochrome array CCD camera with high resolution and a single spot colorimetric thermometer simultaneously. In this system, a narrow-band spectrum radiation temperature measurement model is established for the optical CCD-based pyrometer system, and the non-uniformity of the temperature field measurement due to the inter-element sensitivity deviations of the CCD-array detector and photometric distortion caused by the vignetting in the optical system is analyzed in detail and compensated. Furthermore, in order to eliminate the temperature fluctuation caused by the stripped iron oxide scale on billets, a temperature field reconstruction approach, which took full advantage of the high resolution characteristic of CCD and the distribution character of the surface temperature field of billets, is introduced in this system. Meanwhile, based on the narrow band spectral thermometry theory, the spot temperature measured by the colorimetric thermometer is used to correct the temperature field measured by the CCD camera on-line so as to reduce the temperature measurement error caused by the inconclusive absolute emissivity of different grades of steel and the interference of industrial dust. Currently, the system has been successfully applied and verified in some continuous casting production lines. Industrial trials indicate that the system could effectively eliminate false temperature variation caused by striped iron oxide scale and provide information about changes of processing parameters in the continuous casting production line in real time.

  8. Low cycle fatigue life of two nickel-base casting alloys in a hydrogen environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of low cycle fatigue tests on alloy Mar-M-246 and Inconel 713 are presented. Based on the limited data, it was concluded that the Mar-M-246 material had a cyclic life in hydrogen that averaged three times higher than the alloy 713LC material for similar strain ranges. The hydrogen environment reduced life for both materials. The life reduction was more than an order of magnitude for the 713LC material. Porosity content of the cast specimens was as expected and was an important factor governing low cycle fatigue life

  9. An approach for the fatigue estimation of porous cast iron based on non-destructive testing results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrietz André

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Big cast iron components made of spheroidal cast iron allow constructing big structures such as stone mills, engine blocks or wind mills with acceptable expenses. Thus, in economically optimized cast processes pores cannot be always prevented in thick walled cast iron components and these components are often rejected because of safety reasons. On the one hand the fatigue performance of high loadable spheroidal cast iron components is reduced significantly by the presence of local porosities which has been pointed out in the past. On the other hand concepts for the fatigue estimation based on fracture mechanics which take the size and localization of the defect into account can lead to erroneous estimations because the defect is modelled as a crack. The challenge of an estimation method is to derive a fatigue life without the necessity to perform component tests. In the contribution an estimation method is presented which is able to determine the fatigue strength of a material volume taking the pores into account. The method can be applied based on data from computer tomographic X-ray (CT or Sampling Phased Array (SPA ultrasonic analyses. The method is presented for three spheroidal cast iron types: ferritic GJS-400-18, ferritic GJS-450-15 with high silicon content and perlitic GJS-700-3.

  10. Review on Copper and Palladium Based Catalysts for Methanol Steam Reforming to Produce Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhai Xu; Kaipeng Shuai; Ben Xu

    2017-01-01

    Methanol steam reforming is a promising technology for producing hydrogen for onboard fuel cell applications. The methanol conversion rate and the contents of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the reformate, significantly depend on the reforming catalyst. Copper-based catalysts and palladium-based catalysts can effectively convert methanol into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Copper and palladium-based catalysts with different formulations and compositions have been thoroughly inve...

  11. Corrosion behavior of copper-base materials in a gamma-irradiated environment; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunker, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Specimens of three copper-base materials were corrosion tested with gamma radiation exposure dose rates in the range of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 3} R/h to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 5} R/h. Materials used were pure copper, 7% aluminum bronze and 30% copper-nickel. Exposures were performed in moist air at 95{degree}C and 150{degree}C and liquid Well J-13 water at 95{degree}C, for periods of up to 16 months. Specimens were monitored for uniform weight loss, stress-induced corrosion and crevice corrosion. Specimen surfaces were examined visually at 10X magnification as well as by Auger Electron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and metallography. Corrosion was not severe in any of the cases. In general, the pure copper was corroded most uniformly while the copper-nickel was the least reproducibly corroded. 11 refs, 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Corrosion behavior of copper-base materials in a gamma-irradiated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunker, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Specimens of three copper-base materials were corrosion tested with gamma radiation exposure dose rates in the range of 1.9 x 10 3 R/h to 4.9 x 10 5 R/h. Materials used were pure copper, 7% aluminum bronze and 30% copper-nickel. Exposures were performed in moist air at 95 degree C and 150 degree C and liquid Well J-13 water at 95 degree C, for periods of up to 16 months. Specimens were monitored for uniform weight loss, stress-induced corrosion and crevice corrosion. Specimen surfaces were examined visually at 10X magnification as well as by Auger Electron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and metallography. Corrosion was not severe in any of the cases. In general, the pure copper was corroded most uniformly while the copper-nickel was the least reproducibly corroded. 11 refs, 40 figs., 15 tabs

  13. Copper-based nanoparticles prepared from copper (II acetate bipyridine complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastovina Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of CuO, Cu/Cu2O and Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles (NPs from the single copper (II acetate bipyridine complex by three different methods:microwave-assisted, solvothermal and borohydride. Presence of bipyridine ligand in the copper complex would impose no need in additional stabilization during synthesis. The phases of formed NPs were identified by X-ray diffraction. CuO NPs of ~11 nm were obtained via solvothermal synthesis from alkaline solution at 160°C. The Cu/Cu2O NPs of ~80 nm were produced via microwave-assisted polyol procedure at 185-200°C, where ethylene glycol can play a triple role as a solvent, a reducing agent and a surfactant. The Cu2O/CuO NPs of ~16 nm were synthesized by a borohydride method at room temperature. Interplanar spacing calculated from the selected-area electron diffraction data confirmed the formation of Cu, CuO and Cu2O phases in respective samples. All NPs are stable and can be used for various applications including biomedicine.

  14. Anti-carburizing Coating for Resin Sand Casting of Low Carbon Steel Based on Composite Silicate Powder Containing Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Chunyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the structure and properties of anticarburizing coating based on composite silicate powder containing zirconium by X-ray diffraction analyzer, thermal expansion tester, digital microscope and other equipment. It is introduced that the application example of the coating in the resin-sand casting of ZG1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel impeller. The anti-carburizing effect of the coating on the surface layer of the cast is studied by using direct reading spectrometer and spectrum analyzer. The change of the micro-structure of the coating after casting and cooling is observed by scanning electron microscope. The analysis of anti-carburizing mechanism of the coating is presented. The results indicate that the coating possesses excellent suspension property, brush ability, permeability, levelling property and crackresistance. The coating exhibits high strength and low gas evolution. Most of the coating could be automatically stripped off flakily when the casting was shaken out. The casting possesses excellent surface finish and antimetal penetration effect. The carburizing layer thickness of the stainless steel impeller casting with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is about 1mm and maximum carburizing rate is 23.6%. The anticarburizing effect of casting surface is greatly improved than that of zircon powder coating whose maximum carburizing rate is 67.9% and the carburizing layer thickness with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is greater than 2mm. The composite silicate powder containing zirconium coating substantially reduces the zircon powder which is expensive and radioactive and mainly dependent on imports. The coating can be used instead of pure zircon powder coating to effectively prevent metal-penetration and carburizing of resin-sand-casting surface of low carbon steel, significantly improve the foundry production environment and reduce the production costs.

  15. Copper-based nanomaterials for environmental decontamination - An overview on technical and toxicological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Mohammadreza; Kamali, Mohammadreza; Khodaparast, Zahra; Jahanshahi, Akram

    2018-02-01

    Synthesis of the various types of engineered nanomaterials has gained a huge attention in recent years for various applications. Copper based nanomaterials are a branch of this category seem to be able to provide an efficient and cost-effective way for the treatment of the persistent effluents. The present work aimed to study the various parameters may involve in the overall performance of the copper based nanomaterials for environmental clean-up purposes. To this end, the related characteristics of copper based nanomaterials and their effects on the nanomaterials reactivity and the environmental and operating parameters have been critically reviewed. Toxicological study of the copper based nanomaterials has been also considered as a factor with high importance for the selection of a typical nanomaterial with optimum performance and minimum environmental and health subsequent effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuzzy rule based classification and quantification of graphite inclusions from microstructure images of cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Pattan; Mytri, V D; Hiremath, P S

    2011-12-01

    The quantification of three classes of graphite inclusions in cast iron, namely, nodular, flake, and irregular, is the most important process in the foundry industry. This classification is based on the ISO 945 proposed morphology of graphite inclusions. This work presents a novel solution for automatic quantitative analysis of graphite inclusions into the three mentioned classes. The proposed work comprises three stages, namely, preprocessing of micrographs, classification of graphite inclusions, and then quantification of inclusions in each class. An effort has been made in this work to propose a minimum set of features to represent graphite inclusion morphology. The method employs just two geometric shape descriptors: the diameter ratio and the area ratio. A fuzzy rule based classifier is built using known feature values that are efficient in the classification of the three classes of graphite inclusions. The proposed method is automatic, fast, and provides the basis for determining many more morphological parameters that can be determined with the least effort. The results obtained by the proposed method are compared with the manual method. It is observed that the results obtained from the proposed method are useful in the optimization of cast iron manufacturing in the foundry industry.

  17. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: A Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of 2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid and 2, 4 - pentanedione. The reaction of the prepared Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride formed diaquo bis( N – 2 – amino – 3 - methylbutyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) complex. The Schiff base is ...

  18. Fluorescence-based determination of the copper concentration in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötzer, Benjamin; Scheu, Timo; Jung, Gregor; Castritius, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Copper is a heavy metal, which is used in heat and electrical conductors and in a multitude of alloys in the technical context. Moreover, it is a trace element that is essential for the life of organisms but can cause toxic effects in elevated concentrations. Maximum limits in water and beverages exist. Here, the decrease of the fluorescence lifetime of green fluorescent protein (GFP) by Förster resonance energy transfer is used to measure the copper ion concentration in drinking water. Therefore, a system is developed that is based on a GFP sample in a predefined concentration. The GFP mutant can be excited with blue light. For binding of copper ions, a His-tag is included in the GFP. After measuring the fluorescence lifetime of pure GFP, the copper determination of the sample is performed by lifetime measurement. Therefore, the lifetime can be assigned to the copper concentration of the GFP-doped drinking water sample. In summary, a method for the quantification of copper ions based on changes of the fluorescence lifetime of GFP is developed, and the measurement of the copper concentration in water samples is performed.

  19. [Research on the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-xin; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Wang, Feng-ping; Huang, Shu-hua; Fang, Wu; Wang, Wei-qiang; Huang, Yong-feng

    2012-05-01

    A method of copper converting process determination based on PbO/PbS emission spectrum analysis was described. According to the known emission spectrum of gas molecules, the existence of PbO and PbS was confirmed in the measured spectrum. Through the field experiment it was determined that the main emission spectrum of the slag stage was from PbS, and the main emission spectrum of the copper stage was from PbO. The relative changes in PbO/PbS emission spectrum provide the method of copper converting process determination. Through using the relative intensity in PbO/PbS emission spectrum the copper smelting process can be divided into two different stages, i.e., the slag stage (S phase) and the copper stage (B phase). In a complete copper smelting cycle, a receiving telescope of appropriate view angle aiming at the converter flame, after noise filtering on the PbO/PbS emission spectrum, the process determination agrees with the actual production. Both the theory and experiment prove that the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis is feasible.

  20. Method of improving fatigue life of cast nickel based superalloys and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzine, Allen F.; Kolakowski, Thomas A.; Wallace, John F.

    1978-03-14

    The invention consists of a method of producing a fine equiaxed grain structure (ASTM 2-4) in cast nickel-base superalloys which increases low cycle fatigue lives without detrimental effects on stress rupture properties to temperatures as high as 1800.degree. F. These superalloys are variations of the basic nickel-chromium matrix, hardened by gamma prime [Ni.sub.3 (Al, Ti)] but with optional additions of cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, columbium, tantalum, boron, zirconium, carbon and hafnium. The invention grain refines these alloys to ASTM 2 to 4 increasing low cycle fatigue life by a factor of 2 to 5 (i.e. life of 700 hours would be increased to 1400 to 3500 hours for a given stress) as a result of the addition of 0.01% to 0.2% of a member of the group consisting of boron, zirconium and mixtures thereof to aid heterogeneous nucleation. The alloy is vacuum melted and heated to 250.degree.-400.degree. F. above the melting temperature, cooled to partial solidification, thus resulting in said heterogeneous nucleation and fine grains, then reheated and cast at about 50.degree.-100.degree. F. of superheat. Additions of 0.1% boron and 0.1% zirconium (optional) are the preferred nucleating agents.

  1. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ertuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and strength. The results indicate that a higher viscosity of binder leads to a higher viscosity and suspensibility of slurry with the same powder/binder ratio. The retention rate and thickness of primary layer increase with an increase in the viscosity of the slurry, and a higher retention rate is associated with a thicker primary layer. The gel velocity of the slurry is correlated with the gel velocity of the binder. The green strength and the baked strength of the primary layer are determined by the properties of the binder after gel and by the production of the binder after fired, respectively.

  2. Intelligent Machine Vision Based Modeling and Positioning System in Sand Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ikramullah Butt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced vision solutions enable manufacturers in the technology sector to reconcile both competitive and regulatory concerns and address the need for immaculate fault detection and quality assurance. The modern manufacturing has completely shifted from the manual inspections to the machine assisted vision inspection methodology. Furthermore, the research outcomes in industrial automation have revolutionized the whole product development strategy. The purpose of this research paper is to introduce a new scheme of automation in the sand casting process by means of machine vision based technology for mold positioning. Automation has been achieved by developing a novel system in which casting molds of different sizes, having different pouring cup location and radius, position themselves in front of the induction furnace such that the center of pouring cup comes directly beneath the pouring point of furnace. The coordinates of the center of pouring cup are found by using computer vision algorithms. The output is then transferred to a microcontroller which controls the alignment mechanism on which the mold is placed at the optimum location.

  3. Forward and Reverse Process Models for the Squeeze Casting Process Using Neural Network Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Patel Gowdru Chandrashekarappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work is focussed to develop an intelligent system to establish the input-output relationship utilizing forward and reverse mappings of artificial neural networks. Forward mapping aims at predicting the density and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS from the known set of squeeze cast process parameters such as time delay, pressure duration, squeezes pressure, pouring temperature, and die temperature. An attempt is also made to meet the industrial requirements of developing the reverse model to predict the recommended squeeze cast parameters for the desired density and SDAS. Two different neural network based approaches have been proposed to carry out the said task, namely, back propagation neural network (BPNN and genetic algorithm neural network (GA-NN. The batch mode of training is employed for both supervised learning networks and requires huge training data. The requirement of huge training data is generated artificially at random using regression equation derived through real experiments carried out earlier by the same authors. The performances of BPNN and GA-NN models are compared among themselves with those of regression for ten test cases. The results show that both models are capable of making better predictions and the models can be effectively used in shop floor in selection of most influential parameters for the desired outputs.

  4. Operation of an InGrid based X-ray detector at the CAST experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Christoph; Desch, Klaus; Kaminski, Jochen; Lupberger, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for axions and other particles which could be candidates for DarkMatter and even Dark Energy. These particles could be produced in the Sun and detected by a conversion into soft X-ray photons inside a strong magnetic field. In order to increase the sensitivity for physics beyond the Standard Model, detectors with a threshold below 1 keV as well as efficient background rejection methods are required to compensate for low energies and weak couplings resulting in very low detection rates. Those criteria are fulfilled by a detector utilizing the combination of a pixelized readout chip with an integrated Micromegas stage. These InGrid (Integrated Grid) devices can be build by photolithographic postprocessing techniques, resulting in a close to perfect match of grid and pixels facilitating the detection of single electrons on the chip surface. The high spatial resolution allows for energy determination by simple electron counting as well as for an event-shape based analysis as background rejection method. Tests at an X-ray generator revealed the energy threshold of an InGrid based X-ray detector to be well below the carbon Kα line at 277 eV. After the successful demonstration of the detectors key features, the detector was mounted at one of CAST's four detector stations behind an X-ray telescope in 2014. After several months of successful operation without any detector related interruptions, the InGrid based X-ray detector continues data taking at CAST in 2015. During operation at the experiment, background rates in the order of 10-5 keV-1 cm-2 s-1 have been achieved by application of a likelihood based method discriminating the non-photon background originating mostly from cosmic rays. For continued operation in 2016, an upgraded InGrid based detector is to be installed among other improvements including decoupling and sampling of the signal induced on the grid as well as a veto scintillator to further lower the

  5. Research based teaching as a model for developing complex pre-cast concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the potentials of utilising research-based teaching as a method for developing advanced concrete structures in an architectural context. A novel technique for casting concrete elements in PETG plastic is described as a body of research that formed the basis of a case in which...... master students assisted in the development and realisation of an amorphous, catenary grid-shell. Development in many areas simultaneously was essential for the success of the case studies, which made them suitable for a research-based teaching setup, where didactic considerations on a general...... and specific level were important: On a general level, three didactic tools were used: the first being the presentation of knowledge generation as something that happens between researcher and student. The second involved presenting students with a narrow focus before presenting a wide one, and the third...

  6. Synthesis of copper telluride nanowires using template-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using air and chloroform, acetone, ethanol, glycerol, distilled water as liquids having dielectric constants 1, 4·81,. 8·93, 21, 24·55, 42·5 and 80·1, respectively. The results unequivocally prove that copper telluride nanowires can be fabricated as chemical sensors with enhanced sensitivity and reliability. Keywords. CuTe ...

  7. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photo-induced cell death is via generation of oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species. Keywords. Copper; dipyridophenazine ... apoptotic pathway involving photo-induced generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species ... Bruker Alpha and Perkin-Elmer Spectrum 650 spectro- photometers, respectively, at 25.

  8. Conductivity modeling of gas sensors based on copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this work is to study the electronic conductivity of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films in presence of certain strong oxidizing gases involved in air pollution, particularly NO2, for use as gas sensor devices. To achieve this objective, the first part presents a study of the conductivity evolution of these ...

  9. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    400-700 nm) with low dark toxicity. The photo-induced cell death is via ... The present work stems from our interest to design new copper(II) complexes that are ... measurements were made using a Control Dynamics. (India) conductivity meter.

  10. Improved Safety and Cost Savings from Reductions in Cast-Saw Burns After Simulation-Based Education for Orthopaedic Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donald S; Lynch, Hayley; Jamieson, Katherine; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Roussin, Christopher

    2017-09-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simulation training aimed at reducing cast-saw injuries. Third-year orthopaedic residents underwent simulation-based instruction on distal radial fracture reduction, casting, and cast removal using an oscillating saw. The analysis compared incidences of cast-saw injuries and associated costs before and after the implementation of the simulation curriculum. Actual and potential costs associated with cast-saw injuries included wound care, extra clinical visits, and potential total payment (indemnity and expense payments). Curriculum costs were calculated through time-derived, activity-based accounting methods. The researchers compared the costs of cast-saw injuries and the simulation curriculum to determine overall savings and return on investment. In the 2.5 years prior to simulation, cast-saw injuries occurred in approximately 4.3 per 100 casts cut by orthopaedic residents. For the 2.5-year period post-simulation, the injury rate decreased significantly to approximately 0.7 per 100 casts cut (p = 0.002). The total cost to implement the casting simulation was $2,465.31 per 6-month resident rotation. On the basis of historical data related to cast-saw burns (n = 6), total payments ranged from $2,995 to $25,000 per claim. The anticipated savings from averted cast-saw injuries and associated medicolegal payments in the 2.5 years post-simulation was $27,131, representing an 11-to-1 return on investment. Simulation-based training for orthopaedic surgical residents was effective in reducing cast-saw injuries and had a high theoretical return on investment. These results support further investment in simulation-based training as cost-effective means of improving patient safety and clinical outcomes. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Particle size effects in the thermal conductivity enhancement of copper-based nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present an analysis of the dispersion characteristics and thermal conductivity performance of copper-based nanofluids. The copper nanoparticles were prepared using a chemical reduction methodology in the presence of a stabilizing surfactant, oleic acid or cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. Nanofluids were prepared using water as the base fluid with copper nanoparticle concentrations of 0.55 and 1.0 vol.%. A dispersing agent, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS, and subsequent ultrasonication was used to ensure homogenous dispersion of the copper nanopowders in water. Particle size distribution of the copper nanoparticles in the base fluid was determined by dynamic light scattering. We found that the 0.55 vol.% Cu nanofluids exhibited excellent dispersion in the presence of SDBS. In addition, a dynamic thermal conductivity setup was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivity performance of the nanofluids. The 0.55 vol.% Cu nanofluids exhibited a thermal conductivity enhancement of approximately 22%. In the case of the nanofluids prepared from the powders synthesized in the presence of CTAB, the enhancement was approximately 48% over the base fluid for the 1.0 vol.% Cu nanofluids, which is higher than the enhancement values found in the literature. These results can be directly related to the particle/agglomerate size of the copper nanoparticles in water, as determined from dynamic light scattering.

  12. Thermal cooling effects in the microstructure and properties of cast cobalt-base biomedical alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Valer, Vladimir

    Joint replacement prosthesis is widely used in the biomedical field to provide a solution for dysfunctional human body joints. The demand for orthopedic knee and hip implants motivate scientists and manufacturers to develop novel materials or to increase the life of service and efficiency of current materials. Cobalt-base alloys have been investigated by various researchers for biomedical implantations. When these alloys contain Chromium, Molybdenum, and Carbon, they exhibit good tribological and mechanical properties, as well as excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In this study, the microstructure of cast Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy is purposely modified by inducing rapid solidification through fusion welding processes and solution annealing heat treatment (quenched in water at room temperature. In particular the effect of high cooling rates on the athermal phase transformation FCC(gamma)↔HCP(epsilon) on the alloy hardness and corrosion resistance is investigated. The Co-alloy microstructures were characterized using metallography and microscopy techniques. It was found that the as cast sample typically dendritic with dendritic grain sizes of approximately 150 microm and containing Cr-rich coarse carbide precipitates along the interdendritic boundaries. Solution annealing gives rise to a refined microstructure with grain size of 30 microm, common among Co-Cr-Mo alloys after heat treating. Alternatively, an ultrafine grain structure (between 2 and 10 microm) was developed in the fusion zone for specimens melted using Laser and TIG welding methods. When laser surface modification treatments were implemented, the developed solidification microstructure shifted from dendritic to a fine cellular morphology, with possible nanoscale carbide precipitates along the cellular boundaries. In turn, the solidified regions exhibited high hardness values (461.5HV), which exceeds by almost 110 points from the alloy in the as-cast condition. The amount of developed athermal

  13. Comparison of the bond strength of laser-sintered and cast base metal dental alloys to porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akova, Tolga; Ucar, Yurdanur; Tukay, Alper; Balkaya, Mehmet Cudi; Brantley, William A

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strengths of cast Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys and the laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy to dental porcelain. Dental porcelain was applied on two cast and one laser-sintered base metal alloy. Ten specimens were prepared for each group for bond strength comparison. ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test (alpha=0.05) was used for statistical analysis. Fractured specimens were observed with a stereomicroscope to classify the type of failure after shear bond testing. While the mean shear bond strength was highest for the cast Ni-Cr metal-ceramic specimens (81.6+/-14.6 MPa), the bond strength was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that for the cast Co-Cr metal-ceramic specimens (72.9+/-14.3 MPa) and the laser-sintered Co-Cr metal-ceramic specimens (67.0+/-14.9 MPa). All metal-ceramic specimens prepared from cast Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys exhibit a mixed mode of cohesive and adhesive failure, whereas five of the metal-ceramic specimens prepared from the laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy exhibited the mixed failure mode and five specimens exhibited adhesive failure in the porcelain. The new laser-sintering technique for Co-Cr alloy appears promising for dental applications, but additional studies of properties of the laser-sintered alloy and fit of castings prepared by this new technique are needed before its acceptance into dental laboratory practice. Laser sintering of Co-Cr alloy seems to be an alternative technique to conventional casting of dental alloys for porcelain fused to metal restorations.

  14. Physico-chemical characteristic of aluminum alloy castings manufactured with cores containing fly ash as a base material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Castings were poured from PA9 aluminum alloy. Cores in the form of standard cylindrical specimens were made from the core mixture based on fly ash of the identified chemical and granular composition. The binder for the fly ash-based core mixture was chemically modified, hydrated sodium silicate. From the ready test castings, specimens were cut out for metallographic examinations and evaluation of morphology in the examined microregions. The structure was examined under a NEOPHOT 32 metallographic microscope using metallographic polished sections etched and unetched. For the specimen surface morphology evaluation a STEREOSCAN 420 scanning electron microscope and SE1 detector were used. The X-ray microanalysis was made on an EDS LINK ISIS 300 microanalyser. The fly ash was observed to have no major effect on the structure and chemical composition of castings.

  15. Vacuum brazing of TiAl48Cr2Nb2 casting alloys based on TiAl (γ intermetallic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mirski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in modern engineering materials characterised by increasingly better operational parameters combined with a necessity to obtain joints of such materials representing good operation properties create important research and technological problems of today. These issues include also titanium joints or joints of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds. Brazing is one of the basic and sometimes even the only available welding method used for joining the aforesaid materials in production of various systems, heat exchangers and, in case of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds, turbine elements and space shuttle plating etc. This article presents the basic physical and chemical properties as well as the brazability of alloys based on intermetallic compounds. The work also describes the principle and mechanisms of diffusion-brazed joint formation as well as reveals the results of metallographic and strength tests involving diffusion-welded joints of TiAl48Cr3Nb2 casting alloy based on TiAl (γ phase with the use of sandwich-type layers of silver-based parent metal (grade B- Ag72Cu-780 (AG 401 and copper (grade CF032A. Structural examination was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS. Furthermore, the article reveals the results of shear strength tests involving the aforementioned joints.

  16. Caste, social stigma and identity processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2011-01-01

    Caste persists as an important socio-psychological phenomenon in many spheres of Indian social life and particularly within village contexts. It is argued that socio-psychological insights into caste identity and caste- based stigma may complement ongoing sociological and anthropological research into caste. Drawing upon identity process theory, this article explores the possible functions performed by caste-based stigma both for the higher caste groups (HCGs) and the ‘Scheduled Caste’ (SC) g...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME COPPER BASED FUNGICIDES ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga GRĂDILĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality.

  18. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J.

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters

  19. Fabrication of a zirconia MEMS-based microthruster by gel casting on PDMS soft molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, K H; Khiew, P S; Chin, J K

    2012-01-01

    A zirconia microelectromechanical-system-based microthruster was fabricated through a newly developed fabrication route. Gel casting of homogenously dispersed zirconia suspension on polydimethylsiloxane soft mold was utilized to replicate the geometries of microthruster design onto a ceramic layer of about 1.2 mm thick. Lamination of the patterned ceramic layer to another flat ceramic layer and subsequent sintering produced the microthruster. Characterizations on the fabricated prototype showed good shape retention on the replicated geometries and good quality of lamination. Shrinkage of about 10–15% was noted after sintering. The current fabrication route is particularly promising for the development of high-performance micropropulsion systems which require their structural material to survive in an extreme environment which is corrosive, of high temperature and highly oxidative. (paper)

  20. In vitro corrosion of dental Au-based casting alloys in polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasusuki, Norio; Ida, Yusuke; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behaviors of two Au-based casting alloys (ISO type 1 and type 4 Au alloys) and their constituent pure metals, Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution were examined. The two Au alloys actively corroded, and the main anodic reaction for both was dissolution of Au as AuI₂(-). The amount of Au released from the ISO type 1 Au alloy was significantly larger than that from the ISO type 4 Au alloy (Palloy exhibited higher susceptibility to tarnishing than the type 4 alloy. The corrosion forms of the two Au alloys were found to be completely different, i.e., the type 1 alloy exhibited the corrosion attack over the entire exposed surface with a little irregularity whereas the type 4 alloy exhibited typical intergranular corrosion, which was caused by local cells produced by segregation of Pd and Pt.

  1. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnken, N., E-mail: n.warnken@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ma, D. [Foundry Institute of the RWTH-Aachen, Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Drevermann, A. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Reed, R.C. [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fries, S.G. [SGF Consultancy, 52064 Aachen (Germany)] [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Steinbach, I. [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  2. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnken, N.; Ma, D.; Drevermann, A.; Reed, R.C.; Fries, S.G.; Steinbach, I.

    2009-01-01

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  3. PLC and SCADA based automation of injection casting process for casting of uranium-zirconium blanket fuel slugs for metallic fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yathish Kumar, G.; Jagadeeschandran, J.; Avvaru, Prafulla Kumar; Yadaw, Abhishek Kumar; Lavakumar, R.; Prabhu, T.V.; Muralidharan, P.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of metallic (U-6wt.%Zr) slugs involves melting of binary alloy under vacuum and injection casting into quartz moulds at high pressure. Injection casting system housed inside glove box comprises of high vacuum, induction melting, high pressure control, motion control, mould preheating, chamber cooling, crucible handling and glove box pressure control systems. The technology development for process automation of injection casting system and process optimisation for fabrication of metallic (U-6%Zr) slugs is outlined in this paper. (author)

  4. Higher Education's Caste System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  5. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  6. Effect of recasting on element release from base metal dental casting alloys in artificial saliva and saline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, K.; Kumar Shetty, K. Harish; Shetty, A. Nityananda; Nandish, Bantarahalli Thopegowda

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to quantitatively estimate the concentration of ion release from recasted base metal alloys in various pH conditions using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Materials and Methods: Specimens of commercially available dental casting alloys (cobalt [Co]-chromium [Cr] and nickel [Ni]- chromium [Cr]) were prepared using lost-wax casting techniques and were stored in the test solution for 1 week and 4 weeks, and ions released during chemical corrosion were detected using AAS. Results: An increase in the quantity of ion release was observed with recasting. These changes were higher after twice recasting in Ni-Cr alloy. PMID:29279626

  7. Wettability and Surface Free Energy of Ti(C,N Coatings on Nickel-based Casting Prosthetic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszek K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The production process of prosthetic restorations runs in two stages. In the first stage, the prosthetic foundation is produced of metal alloys. In the second stage, a facing material is applied on the produced element. In both stages, the wettability is significantly important, as well as the free surface energy relating to it. The quality of the obtained cast depends on the surface phenomena occurring between the metal alloy and the material of which the casting mould is made. The performed examinations also point to a relation between the ceramics joint and the base, depending on the wetting angle.

  8. Thick Co-based coating on cast iron by side laser cladding : Analysis of processing conditions and coating properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; de Boer, M.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create Co-based coatings (compositionally close to Stellite 6) on compacted graphite and gray cast iron,substrates with a high power laser (2 kW continuous Nd:YAG) cladding process. The relationships between the relevant laser cladding parameters (i.e. laser beam

  9. Optical Characteristics of Polystyrene Based Solid Polymer Composites: Effect of Metallic Copper Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujahadeen B. Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer composites (SPCs were prepared by solution cast technique. The optical properties of polystyrene doped with copper powder were performed by means of UV-Vis technique. The optical constants were calculated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The dispersion regions were observed in both absorption and refractive index spectra at lower wavelength. However, a plateau can be observed at high wavelengths. The small extinction coefficient compared to the refractive index reveals the transparency of the composite samples. The refractive index and optical band gap were determined from the reflectance and optical absorption coefficient data, respectively. The nature of electronic transition from valence band to conduction band was determined and the energy band gaps of the solid composite samples were estimated. It was observed that, upon the addition of Cu concentration, the refractive index increased while the energy gaps are decreased. The calculated refractive indexes (low index of refraction of the samples reveal their availability in waveguide technology.

  10. 3D scanning based mold correction for planar and cylindrical parts in aluminum die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Seno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum die casting is an important manufacturing process for mechanical components. Die casting is known to be more accurate than other types of casting; however, post-machining is usually necessary to achieve the required accuracy. The goal of this investigation is to develop machining- free aluminum die casting. Improvement of the accuracy of planar and cylindrical parts is expected by correcting metal molds. In the proposed method, the shape of cast aluminum made with the initial metal molds is measured by 3D scanning. The 3D scan data includes information about deformations that occur during casting. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the deformation and correction amounts by comparing 3D scan data with product computer-aided design (CAD data. We corrected planar and cylindrical parts of the CAD data for the mold. In addition, we corrected the planar part of the metal mold using the corrected mold data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by evaluating the accuracy improvement of the cast aluminum made with the corrected mold.

  11. Repair welding of cast iron coated electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Górka, J.; Dojka, R.; Czupryński, A.

    2017-08-01

    Welding cast iron is a complex production procedure. Repair welding was used to repair damaged or poorly made castings. This is due to a tendency to cracking of the material during welding as well as after it. Welding cast iron can be carried out on hot or on cold. Hot welding requires high heat material and the use of welding material in the form of cast iron. In the case of cold welding, it is possible to use different materials. Mostly used filler metals are nickel and copper based. The work shows the course of research concerning repairmen of ductile iron with arc welding method. For the reparation process four types of ESAB company coated electrodes dedicated for cast iron were used with diameter 3.2 and 4 mm: ES 18-8-6B (4mm), EB 150 (4mm), OK NiCl, EŻM. In the cast iron examined during the testing grooves were made using plasma methods, in order to simulate the removed casting flaws. Then the welding process with coated electrodes was executed. The process utilized low welding current row of 100A, so there would only be a small amount of heat delivered to the heat affected zone (HAZ). Short stitches were made, after welding it was hammered, in order to remove stresses. After the repair welding the part of studies commenced which purpose was finding surface defects using visual testing (VT) and penetration testing (PT). In the second part, a series of macro and microscopic studies were executed witch the purpose of disclosuring the structure. Then the hardness tests for welds cross sections were performed. An important aspect of welding cast iron is the colour of the padding weld after welding, more precisely the difference between the base material and padding weld, the use of different materials extra gives the extra ability to select the best variant. The research of four types of coated electrode was executed, based on the demands the best option in terms of aesthetic, strength and hardness.

  12. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  13. Genetic profile based upon 15 microsatellites of four caste groups of the eastern Indian state, Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashma, R; Kashyap, V K

    2003-01-01

    The formation of caste groups among the Hindu community and the practice of endogamy exert a great impact on the genetic structure and diversity of the Indian population. Allele frequency data of 15 microsatellite loci clearly portray the genetic diversity and relatedness among four socio-culturally advanced caste groups: Brahmin, Bhumihar, Rajput and Kayasth of Caucasoid ethnicity of Bihar. The study seeks to understand the impact of the man-made caste system on the genetic profile of the four major caste groups of Bihar. Computation of average heterozygosity, most frequent allele, allele diversity and coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst), along with genetic distance (DA)and principal coordinate analysis were performed to assess intra-population and inter-population diversity. The average Gst value for all the loci was 0.012 +/- 0.0033, and the level of average heterozygosity was approximately 75.5%, indicating genetic similarity and intra-population diversity. Genetic distance (DA) values and the phylogenetic tree along with other higher caste groups of India indicate the relative distance between them. The present study clearly depicts the genetic profile of these caste groups, their inherent closeness in the past, and the impact of the imposed caste system that later restricted the gene flow. The study highlights the status of Bhumihar and Kayasth in the Hindu caste system. The former was found clustering with the Brahmin group (as expected, since Bhumihar is known to be a subclass of Brahmin), whereas the distance between the Brahmin and Kayasth caste groups was found to be large. North-eastern Indian Mongoloids form a separate cluster.

  14. A comparative study on microgap of premade abutments and abutments cast in base metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithamma, Jaini Jaini; Mallan, Sreekanth Anantha; Murukan, Pazhani Appan; Zarina, Rita

    2014-06-01

    The study compared the marginal accuracy of premade and cast abutments. Premade titanium, stainless steel, and gold abutments formed the control groups. Plastic abutments were cast in nickel-chromium, cobalt-chromium and grade IV titanium. The abutment/implant interface was analyzed. Analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test revealed no significant difference in mean marginal microgap between premade gold and titanium abutments and between premade stainless steel and cast titanium abutments. Statistically significant differences (P < .001) were found among all other groups.

  15. Tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking in automatic building-up of copper and copper base alloys in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, V.R.; Andronik, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking during automatic building-up of copper and bronze in argon. The investigation was carried out on the 0kh18n10t steel in argon. It had been established, that the degree of copper penetration into the steel inceases with the increase in the time of the 0Kh18n10t steel contact with liquid copper. Liquid copper and copper base alloys have a detrimental effect on mechanical properties of the steel under external tensile load during intercontant. It is shown that in building-up of copper base alloys on the steel-0Kh18n10t, tendency of the steel to cracking decreases with increase in stiffness of a surfaced weld metal plate and with decrease in building-up energy per unit length. The causes of macrocracking in steel at building-up non-ferrous metals are explained. The technological procedures to avoid cracking are suggested

  16. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  17. Evaluation of carbon nanotube based copper nanoparticle composite for the efficient detection of agroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials based sensors offer sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of a specific analyte-of-the-interest. Described here is a novel assay for the detection of a DNA sequence based on nanostructured carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles composite. This assay was modeled on strong electro...

  18. Fabricating Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Microcomponent by Suction Casting Using Silicon Micromold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A suction casting process for fabricating Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass microcomponent using silicon micromold has been studied. A complicated BMG microgear with 50 μm in module has been cast successfully. Observed by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that the cast microgear duplicates the silicon micromold including the microstructure on the surface. The amorphous state of the microgear is confirmed by transmission election microscopy. The nanoindentation hardness and elasticity modulus of the microgear reach 6.5 GPa and 94.5 GPa. The simulation and experimental results prove that the suction casting process with the silicon micromold is a promising one-step method to fabricate bulk metallic glass microcomponents with high performance for applications in microelectromechanical system.

  19. Marine Microcosm Experiments on Effects of Copper and Tributylin-Based Antifouling Paint Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    SPC-4 treatment. The increased aggregation of diatoms was attributed to potential binding effects of a higher than normal secretion of mucilage by the...Technical Report 1060 June 1988 00 Marine Microcosm Experiments on 2TiC’ Effects of Copper kE LECTE wm% and Tributyltin-Based Antifouling Paint D... EFFECTS OF COPPER AND TRIBUTYLTIN-BASED ANTIFOUALING PAINT LEACHATES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR (S) R. Scott Henderson F4DT 5PG ON13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME

  20. Constraint-aware interior layout exploration for pre-cast concrete-based buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han

    2013-05-03

    Creating desirable layouts of building interiors is a complex task as designers have to manually adhere to various local and global considerations arising from competing practical and design considerations. In this work, we present an interactive design tool to create desirable floorplans by computationally conforming to such design constraints. Specifically, we support three types of constraints: (i) functional constraints such as number of rooms, connectivity among the rooms, target room areas, etc.; (ii) design considerations such as user modifications and preferences, and (iii) fabrication constraints such as cost and convenience of manufacturing. Based on user specifications, our system automatically generates multiple floor layouts with associated 3D geometry that all satisfy the design specifications and constraints, thus exposing only the desirable family of interior layouts to the user. In this work, we focus on pre-cast concrete-based constructions, which lead to interesting discrete and continuous optimization possibilities. We test our framework on a range of complex real-world specifications and demonstrate the control and expressiveness of the exposed design space relieving the users of the task of manually adhering to non-local functional and fabrication constraints. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Mechanism-Based Modeling for Low Cycle Fatigue of Cast Austenitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; Sloss, Clayton

    2017-09-01

    A mechanism-based approach—the integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT)—is used to model low cycle fatigue behavior of 1.4848 cast austenitic steel over the temperature range from room temperature (RT) to 1173 K (900 °C) and the strain rate range from of 2 × 10-4 to 2 × 10-2 s-1. The ICFT formulates the material's constitutive equation based on the physical strain decomposition into mechanism strains, and the associated damage accumulation consisting of crack nucleation and propagation in coalescence with internally distributed damage. At room temperature, the material behavior is controlled by plasticity, resulting in a rate-independent and cyclically stable behavior. The material exhibits significant cyclic hardening at intermediate temperatures, 673 K to 873 K (400 °C to 600 °C), with negative strain rate sensitivity, due to dynamic strain aging. At high temperatures >1073 K (800 °C), time-dependent deformation is manifested with positive rate sensitivity as commonly seen in metallic materials at high temperature. The ICFT quantitatively delineates the contribution of each mechanism in damage accumulation, and predicts the fatigue life as a result of synergistic interaction of the above identified mechanisms. The model descriptions agree well with the experimental and fractographic observations.

  2. Prediction of recrystallisation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys during investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwisawas Chinnapat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of gas turbines for jet propulsion and power generation requires the manufacture of turbine blades from single crystal nickel-based superalloys, most typically using investment casting. During the necessary subsequent solution heat treatment, the formation of recrystallised grains can occur. The introduction of grain boundaries into a single crystal component is potentially detrimental to performance, and therefore manufacturing processes and/or component geometries should be designed to prevent their occurrence. If the boundaries have very low strength, they can degrade the creep and fatigue properties. The root cause for recrystallisation is microscale plasticity caused by differential thermal contraction of metal, mould and core; when the plastic deformation is sufficiently large, recrystallisation takes place. In this work, numerical and thermo-mechanical modelling is carried out, with the aim of establishing computational methods by which recrystallisation during the heat treatment of single crystal nickel-based superalloys can be predicted and prevented prior to their occurrence. Elasto-plastic law is used to predict the plastic strain necessary for recrystallisation. The modelling result shows that recrystallisation is most likely to occur following 1.5–2.5% plastic strain applied at temperatures between 1000 ∘C and 1300 ∘C; this is validated with tensile tests at these elevated temperatures. This emphasises that high temperature deformation is more damaging than low temperature deformation.

  3. XPS characterization of (copper-based) coloured stains formed on limestone surfaces of outdoor Roman monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Limestone basements holding bronzes or other copper alloys artefacts such as sculptures, decorations and dedicatory inscriptions are frequently met both in modern and ancient monuments. In outdoor conditions, such a combination implies the corrosion products of the copper based alloy, directly exposed to rainwater, will be drained off and migrate through the porous surfaces, forming stains of different colours and intensities, finally causing the limestone structures to deteriorate. In this work we have analysed samples from two modern limestone monuments in Rome, the Botticino surfaces of the ‘Vittoriano’ (by G.Sacconi, 1885-1911- Piazza Venezia) and the travertine basement of the ‘Statua dello Studente’ (by A.Cataldi, 1920- University city, La Sapienza), and focussed our investigation on the chemical composition of the copper-stained zones using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as a surface-specific technique. Based on observations reporting on the structure and bonding at the calcite surfaces we have identified copper complexes and mixed calcium/copper carbonates associated with the stains, as well as the chemical state of other elements therein included, and related the compositional changes with differences in chromatic characteristics and sampling locations. PMID:22594435

  4. Remote stabilization of copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks in metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Wenyang

    2015-03-24

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu2(O2C-)4], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu3O(N4-x(CH)xC-)3] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  5. Performance of metal Hall sensors based on copper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sentkerestiová, J.; Ďuran, Ivan; Kovařík, Karel; Viererbl, L.; Kohout, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, 6-8 (2013), s. 1310-1314 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT-27)/27./. Liège, 24.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Grant - others:EUROATOM(XE) FU07-CT-2007-00060 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Metal Hall sensor * Magnetic diagnostics * Copper Hall sensor * Fusion reactors * Neutron irradiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.149, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613001701#

  6. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  7. Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; David Vine; Stefan Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products when subjected to frequent moisture exposure. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Previous research has shown the most...

  8. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper contamination on China’s arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg-1 in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  9. Real-Time, Model-Based Spray-Cooling Control System for Steel Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, Bryan; Zheng, Kai; Zhou, X.; Thomas, Brian G.; Bentsman, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    This article presents a new system to control secondary cooling water sprays in continuous casting of thin steel slabs (CONONLINE). It uses real-time numerical simulation of heat transfer and solidification within the strand as a software sensor in place of unreliable temperature measurements. The one-dimensional finite-difference model, CON1D, is adapted to create the real-time predictor of the slab temperature and solidification state. During operation, the model is updated with data collected by the caster automation systems. A decentralized controller configuration based on a bank of proportional-integral controllers with antiwindup is developed to maintain the shell surface-temperature profile at a desired set point. A new method of set-point generation is proposed to account for measured mold heat flux variations. A user-friendly monitor visualizes the results and accepts set-point changes from the caster operator. Example simulations demonstrate how a significantly better shell surface-temperature control is achieved.

  10. Tundish Cover Flux Thickness Measurement Method and Instrumentation Based on Computer Vision in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.

  11. Optimization of steel casting feeding system based on BP neural network and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-dan Gong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The trial-and-error method is widely used for the current optimization of the steel casting feeding system, which is highly random, subjective and thus inefficient. In the present work, both the theoretical and the experimental research on the modeling and optimization methods of the process are studied. An approximate alternative model is established based on the Back Propagation (BP neural network and experimental design. The process parameters of the feeding system are taken as the input, the volumes of shrinkage cavities and porosities calculated by simulation are simultaneously taken as the output. Thus, a mathematical model is established by the BP neural network to combine the input variables with the output response. Then, this model is optimized by the nonlinear optimization function of the genetic algorithm. Finally, a feeding system optimization of a steel traveling wheel is conducted. No shrinkage cavities and porosities are induced through the optimization. Compared to the initial design scheme, the process yield is increased by 4.1% and the volume of the riser is decreased by 5.48×106 mm3.

  12. A high efficacy antimicrobial acrylate based hydrogels with incorporated copper for wound healing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuković, Jovana S.; Babić, Marija M.; Antić, Katarina M.; Miljković, Miona G.; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A.; Filipović, Jovanka M.; Tomić, Simonida Lj., E-mail: simonida@tmf.bg.ac.rs

    2015-08-15

    In this study, three series of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and itaconic acid, unloaded, with incorporated copper(II) ions and reduced copper, were successfully prepared, characterized and evaluated as novel wound healing materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the expected structure of obtained hydrogels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed porous morphology of unloaded hydrogels, and the morphological modifications in case of loaded hydrogels. Thermal characteristics were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the glass transition temperatures were observed in range of 12–50 °C. Swelling study was conducted in wide range of pHs at 37 °C, confirming pH sensitive behaviour for all three series of hydrogels. The in vitro copper release was investigated and the experimental data were analysed using several models in order to elucidate the transport mechanism. The antimicrobial assay revealed excellent antimicrobial activity, over 99% against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, as well as good correlation with the copper release experiments. In accordance with potential application, water vapour transmission rate, oxygen penetration, dispersion characteristics, fluid retention were observed and the suitability of the hydrogels for wound healing application was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Design and evaluation of novel pH responsive hydrogel series. • Structural, morphological, thermal characterization and controlled copper release. • Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over 99%. • Antifungal activity against Candida albicans over 99%. • In vitro evaluation studies revealed great potential for wound healing application.

  13. The determination of copper ions based on sensitized chemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X.; Wang, Q.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first application of novel, water-soluble and fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) in a chemiluminescent (CL) detection system. A method has been developed for the determination of copper(II) ion that is based on the fact that the weak CL resulting from the redox reaction between Ce(IV) ion and sulfite ion is strongly enhanced by the Ag NCs and that the main CL signals now originate from Ag NCs. UV-visible spectra, CL spectra and fluorescent (FL) spectra were acquired to investigate the enhanced CL mechanism. It is proposed that the electronic energy of the excited state intermediate SO2* that originates from the CL reaction is transferred to Ag NCs to form an electronically excited NC whose emission is observed. In addition, it is found that copper(II) is capable of inhibiting the CL of the nanoclusters system, but not if other common metal ions are present. The detection of copper(II) is achieved indirectly by measuring the CL intensity of Ag NCs. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a linear relationship does exist between the intensity of CL and the concentrations of copper(II) in the range of 0.2 nM to 0.1 mM. The detection limit is 0.12 nM. The method is applied to the determination of copper(II) ion in tap water with satisfactory results. (author)

  14. Performance Analysis of Water Based Copper Oxide Nano Fluids in Heat Exchanger with Twisted Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Reddy, K.; Hanmanthu, Bhukya

    2018-03-01

    A new experimental setup has been designed for conducting experiments in a copper round pipe heat exchanger with inner diameter di=14.5mm and outer diameter do=16mm and length L = 1720 mm . By using two copper oxide nano concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3% with water as based fluid, the heat transfer rates have been obtained with helical twisted insert H/D=5 in turbulent flow condition. Reynolds number and friction factor with pressure gradient have been evaluated. The heat transfer rates of 0.1% conc. Nano-fluid with insert was found to be 13.77% more when compared to water.

  15. The simulation of magnesium wheel low pressure die casting based on PAM-CASTTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yinghong; Wang Yingchun; Li Dayong; Zeng Xiaoqin

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal commonly used in engineering, with various excellent characteristics such as high strength and electromagnetic interference shielding capability. Particularly, the usage of magnesium in automotive industry can meet better the need to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Nowadays, most current magnesium components in automobiles are made by die casting. In this paper, commercial software for die casting, PAM-CAST TM , was utilized to simulate the low pressure die casting process of magnesium wheel. Through calculating temperature field and velocity field during filling and solidification stages, the evolution of temperature distribution and liquid fraction was analyzed. Then, the potential defects including the gas entrapments in the middle of the spokes, shrinkages between the rim and the spokes were forecasted. The analytical results revealed that the mold geometry and die casting parameters should be improved in order to get the sound magnesium wheel. The reasons leading to these defects were also analyzed and the solutions to eliminate them were put forward. Furthermore, through reducing the pouring velocity, the air gas entrapments and partial shrinkages were eliminated effectively

  16. 8 COPPER (I) OXIDE (Cu2O) BASED SOLAR CELLS - A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) is a potential material for the fabrication of low cost solar cells for terrestrial application. A detailed survey on the previous work so far carried out on Cu2O based solar cells has been presented. The aspects discussed include the fabrication of Schottky. (metal/semiconductor) barrier ...

  17. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  18. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  19. A New Copper (I) Complex Based on 4-amino-3, 5-bis (3-pyridyl)-1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 2. A New Copper(I) Complex Based on 4-amino-3,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Theoretical Study, Thermal Behavior and Luminescence. CHEN AI-HUA MENG SU-CI ZHOU KAI WANG CONG-CONG ZHAO WEI WANG AI-JIAN ...

  20. Room-temperature base-free copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates to trifluoromethylarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yuanyuan

    2012-12-01

    An efficient room temperature copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates under the base free condition using an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent is demonstrated. The corresponding trifluoromethylarenes were obtained in good to excellent yields and the reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystallization of copper(II) sulfate based minerals and MOF from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    critical nucleus in terms of aggregation of tectons through non-covalent interactions provides chemical insights into the architecture of a solid. The retrosynthetic analysis of copper-based minerals and materi- als offers an elegant description for the crystal packing. It addresses the influence of the geometry, func- tionality and ...

  2. Copper (I) oxide (Cu 2 ) based solar cells - a review | Abdu | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) is a potential material for the fabrication of low cost solar cells for terrestrial application. A detailed survey on the previous work so far carried out on Cu2O based solar cells has been presented. The aspects discussed include the fabrication of Schottky (metal/semiconductor) barrier Cu2O solar cells, ...

  3. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  4. Monolayered copper based film. Experimental observation and theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Pavel; Kano, Emi; Kvashnin, Dmitry; Chernozatonskii, Leonid; Sakai, Seiji; Hashimoto, Ayako; Takeguchi, Masaki

    Here we present the report of existence of novel two-dimensional phase of copper oxide studied by experimental and theoretical methods. Using in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy it was observed 2D CuO on graphene as well as in the graphene pore with principally different structure from the former reports Density functional theory allowed to elucidate the nature of the stability of observed CuO nanofilms. It was defined a critical role of the oxygen impurity atoms in the formation of stable 2D Cu cluster with unexpected orthogonal crystal lattice. It was found that the structure and stability of 2D Cu clusters strongly depends on the concentration and relative arrangement of oxygen impurities. Number of oxygen configurations was analyzed and the stable configuration was found corresponded well with experimental data. Additional to separated clusters, the periodic 2D CuO crystal was studied in details. Relative stability, features of elastic, electronic and magnetic properties were investigated. First-principles calculations explained the origin of the 2D phase formation and confirms the experimentally observed structures. P.B.S. acknowledges the fi\\x81nancial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST ''MISiS'' No. 2-2015-033 and RFBR 16-32-60138 mol a dk.

  5. Probabilistic thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion for lost foam casting aluminium alloys based on 2D/3D porosities distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmytka F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion is proposed to assess the lifetime of aluminium alloys produced by a lost foam casting process. It is based on the observed size distribution of pores sizes which are considered as critical zones for cracks initiation and gives reliable results when both pores sizes are identified from X-ray tomography and mean stresses are taken into account. Lifetime probabilities are finally successfully compared with experimental results.

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  7. Numerical simulation and optimization of Al alloy cylinder body by low pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Guofa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrinkage defects can be formed easily at Critical location during low pressure die casting (LPDC of aluminum alloy cylinder body. It has harmful effect on the products. Mold fi lling and solidifi cation process of a cylinder body was simulated by using of Z-CAST software. The casting method was improved based on the simulation results. In order to create effective feeding passage, the structure of casting was modifi ed by changing the location of strengthening ribs at the bottom, without causing any adverse effect on the part’s performance. Inserting copper billet at suitable location of the die is a valid way to create suitable solidifi cation sequence that is benefi cial to the feeding. Using these methods, the shrinkage defect was completely eliminated at the critical location.

  8. Low cost chemical oxygen demand sensor based on electrodeposited nano-copper film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy H. Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available copper electrical cable and pure Cu disk were used as substrates for the electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles (nano-Cu. The surface morphology of the prepared nano-Cu/Cu electrodes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX. The bare copper substrates and the nano-copper modified electrodes were utilized and optimized for electrochemical assay of chemical oxygen demand (COD using glycine as a standard. A comparison was made among the four electrodes (i.e., bare and nano-Cu coated copper cable and pure copper disk as potential COD sensors. The oxidation behavior of glycine was investigated on the surface of the prepared sensors using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. The results indicate significant enhancement of the electrochemical oxidation of glycine by the deposited nano-Cu. The effects of different deposition parameters, such as Cu2+ concentration, deposition potential, deposition time, pH, and scan rate on the response of the prepared sensors were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the optimal nano-Cu based COD sensor exhibited a linear range of 2–595 mg/L, lower limit of detection (LOD as low as 1.07 mg/L (S/N = 3. The developed method exhibited high tolerance level to Cl− ion where 1.0 M Cl− exhibited minimal influence. The sensor was utilized for the detection of COD in different real water samples. The results obtained were validated using the standard dichromate method.

  9. Wolfiporia cocos : a potential agent for composting of bioprocessing Douglas-fir wood treated with copper-based preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney. De Groot; Bessie. Woodward

    1998-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, Douglas-fir wood blocks that were treated with copper- based wood preservatives were challenged with two wood decay fungi known to be tolerant of copper. Factors influencing the amount of decay, as determined by loss of weight in the test blocks, were preservative, then fungus. Within those combinations, the relative importance of...

  10. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  11. Aging of Dissolved Copper and Copper-based Nanoparticles in Five Different Soils: Short-term Kinetics vs. Long-term Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the growing availability and use of copper-based nanomaterials (Cu-NMs), there is increasing concern regarding their release and potential impact on the environment. In this study, the short term (≤5 d) aging profile and the long-term (135 d) speciation of dissolved Cu, cop...

  12. Ultrastretchable and flexible copper interconnect-based smart patch for adaptive thermotherapy

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-12-03

    Unprecedented 800% stretchable, non-polymeric, widely used, low-cost, naturally rigid, metallic thin-film copper (Cu)-based flexible and non-invasive, spatially tunable, mobile thermal patch with wireless controllability, adaptability (tunes the amount of heat based on the temperature of the swollen portion), reusability, and affordability due to low-cost complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible integration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. GPU-based multi-volume ray casting within VTK for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgi, Mohammadmehdi; Lindseth, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Multi-volume visualization is important for displaying relevant information in multimodal or multitemporal medical imaging studies. The main objective with the current study was to develop an efficient GPU-based multi-volume ray caster (MVRC) and validate the proposed visualization system in the context of image-guided surgical navigation. Ray casting can produce high-quality 2D images from 3D volume data but the method is computationally demanding, especially when multiple volumes are involved, so a parallel GPU version has been implemented. In the proposed MVRC, imaginary rays are sent through the volumes (one ray for each pixel in the view), and at equal and short intervals along the rays, samples are collected from each volume. Samples from all the volumes are composited using front to back α-blending. Since all the rays can be processed simultaneously, the MVRC was implemented in parallel on the GPU to achieve acceptable interactive frame rates. The method is fully integrated within the visualization toolkit (VTK) pipeline with the ability to apply different operations (e.g., transformations, clipping, and cropping) on each volume separately. The implemented method is cross-platform (Windows, Linux and Mac OSX) and runs on different graphics card (NVidia and AMD). The speed of the MVRC was tested with one to five volumes of varying sizes: 128(3), 256(3), and 512(3). A Tesla C2070 GPU was used, and the output image size was 600 × 600 pixels. The original VTK single-volume ray caster and the MVRC were compared when rendering only one volume. The multi-volume rendering system achieved an interactive frame rate (> 15 fps) when rendering five small volumes (128 (3) voxels), four medium-sized volumes (256(3) voxels), and two large volumes (512(3) voxels). When rendering single volumes, the frame rate of the MVRC was comparable to the original VTK ray caster for small and medium-sized datasets but was approximately 3 frames per second slower for large datasets. The

  14. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  15. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  16. Effects of operational parameters and common ions on the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by scrap copper-modified cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-Hong; Wang, Hong-Wu

    2015-07-01

    Scrap Cu-modified cast iron (CMCI) is a potent material for the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by a surface-mediated reaction. However, the effects of operational parameters and common ions on its reduction and final rate are unknown. Results show that the 2,4-DNT reduction was significantly affected by Cu:Fe mass ratio and the optimum m(Cu:Fe) was 0.25%. The slight pH-dependent trend of 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI was observed at pH 3 to 11, and the maximum end product, 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), was generated at pH 7. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water reduced the 2,4-DNT degradation and the formation of 2,4-DAT. CMCI effectively treated high concentrations of 2,4-DNT (60 to 150 mg L(-1)). In addition, varying the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L(-1) improved the efficiency of the reduction process. The green rust-like corrosion products (GR-SO4 (2-)) were also effective for 2,4-DNT reduction, in which Na2CO3 (0.01 to 0.2 mol L(-1)) significantly inhibited this reduction. The repeated-use efficiency of CMCI was also inhibited. Moreover, 2,4-DNT and its products, such as 4A2NT, 2A4NT, and 2,4-DAT, produced mass imbalance (iron or accumulating a passive oxide film on the reactivity sites.

  17. Development of Low Density CaMg-A1-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senkov, O. N; Scott, J. M; Miracle, D. B

    2006-01-01

    Low density Ca-Mg-Al-based bulk metallic glasses containing additionally Cu and Zn, were produced by a copper mold casting method as wedge-shaped samples with thicknesses varying from 0.5 mm to 10 rom...

  18. The Effect of Shell Thickness, Insulation and Casting Temperature on Defects Formation During Investment Casting of Ni-base Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbine blades have complex geometries with free form surface. Blades have different thickness at the trailing and leading edges as well as sharp bends at the chord-tip shroud junction and sharp fins at the tip shroud. In investment casting of blades, shrinkage at the tip-shroud and cord junction is a common casting problem. Because of high temperature applications, grain structure is also critical in these castings in order to avoid creep. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different process parameters, such as, shell thickness, insulation and casting temperature on shrinkage porosity and grain size. The test geometry used in this study was a thin-walled air-foil structure which is representative of a typical hot-gas-path rotating turbine component. It was observed that, in thin sections, increased shell thickness helps to increase the feeding distance and thus avoid interdendritic shrinkage. It was also observed that grain size is not significantly affected by shell thickness in thin sections. Slower cooling rate due to the added insulation and steeper thermal gradient at metal mold interface induced by the thicker shell not only helps to avoid shrinkage porosity but also increases fill-ability in thinner sections.

  19. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  20. 1H NMR-based metabolomics investigation of copper-laden rat: a model of Wilson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xu

    Full Text Available Wilson's disease (WD, also known as hepatoleticular degeneration (HLD, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of copper metabolism, which causes copper to accumulate in body tissues. In this study, rats fed with copper-laden diet are used to render the clinical manifestations of WD, and their copper toxicity-induced organ lesions are studied. To investigate metabolic behaviors of 'decoppering' process, penicillamine (PA was used for treating copper-laden rats as this chelating agent could eliminate excess copper through the urine. To date, there has been limited metabolomics study on WD, while metabolic impacts of copper accumulation and PA administration have yet to be established.A combination of 1HNMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis was applied to examine the metabolic profiles of the urine and blood serum samples collected from the copper-laden rat model of WD with PA treatment.Copper accumulation in the copper-laden rats is associated with increased lactate, creatinine, valine and leucine, as well as decreased levels of glucose and taurine in the blood serum. There were also significant changes in p-hydroxyphenylacetate (p-HPA, creatinine, alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG, dimethylamine, N-acetylglutamate (NAG, N-acetylglycoprotein (NAC in the urine of these rats. Notably, the changes in p-HPA, glucose, lactate, taurine, valine, leucine, and NAG were found reversed following PA treatment. Nevertheless, there were no changes for dimethylamine, α-KG, and NAC as a result of the treatment. Compared with the controls, the concentrations of hippurate, formate, alanine, and lactate were changed when PA was applied and this is probably due to its side effect. A tool named SMPDB (Small Molecule Pathway Database is introduced to identify the metabolic pathway influenced by the copper-laden diet.The study has shown the potential application of NMR-based metabolomic analysis in providing further insights into the molecular

  1. Review on Copper and Palladium Based Catalysts for Methanol Steam Reforming to Produce Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhai Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol steam reforming is a promising technology for producing hydrogen for onboard fuel cell applications. The methanol conversion rate and the contents of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the reformate, significantly depend on the reforming catalyst. Copper-based catalysts and palladium-based catalysts can effectively convert methanol into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Copper and palladium-based catalysts with different formulations and compositions have been thoroughly investigated in the literature. This work summarized the development of the two groups of catalysts for methanol steam reforming. Interactions between the activity components and the supports as well as the effects of different promoters were discussed. Compositional and morphological characteristics, along with the methanol steam reforming performances of different Cu/ZnO and Pd/ZnO catalysts promoted by Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2 or other metal oxides, were reviewed and compared. Moreover, the reaction mechanism of methanol steam reforming over the copper based and palladium based catalysts were discussed.

  2. Elucidating the mechanism and active site of the cyclohexanol dehydrogenation on copper-based catalysts: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyun; Liu, Xinyi; Rooney, D. W.; Hu, P.

    2015-10-01

    The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone is very important in the manufacture of nylon. Copper-based catalysts are the most popular catalysts for this reaction, and on these catalysts the reaction mechanism and active site are in debate. In order to elucidate the mechanism and active site of the cyclohexanol dehydrogenation on copper-based catalysts, density functional theory with dispersion corrections were performed on up to six facets of copper in two different oxidation states: monovalent copper and metallic copper. By calculating the surface energies of these facets, Cu(111) and Cu2O(111) were found to be the most stable facets for metallic copper and for monovalent copper, respectively. On these two facets, all the possible elementary steps in the dehydrogenation pathway of cyclohexanol were calculated, including the adsorption, dehydrogenation, hydrogen coupling and desorption. Two different reaction pathways for dehydrogenation were considered on both surfaces. It was revealed that the dehydrogenation mechanisms are different on these two surfaces: on Cu(111) the hydrogen belonging to the hydroxyl is removed first, then the hydrogen belonging to the carbon is subtracted, while on Cu2O(111) the hydrogen belonging to the carbon is removed followed by the subtraction of the hydrogen in the hydroxyl group. Furthermore, by comparing the energy profiles of these two surfaces, Cu2O(111) was found to be more active for cyclohexanol dehydrogenation than Cu(111). In addition, we found that the coordinatively unsaturated copper sites on Cu2O(111) are the reaction sites for all the steps. Therefore, the coordinatively unsaturated copper site on Cu2O(111) is likely to be the active site for cyclohexanol dehydrogenation on the copper-based catalysts.

  3. Field-based evidence for copper contamination induced changes of antibiotic resistance in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Li, Jing; Li, Jun-Jian; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals are frequently linked, suggesting that exposure to heavy metals might select for bacterial assemblages conferring resistance to antibiotics. However, there is a lack of clear evidence for the heavy metal-induced changes of antibiotic resistance in a long-term basis. Here, we used high-capacity quantitative PCR array to investigate the responses of a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to 4-5 year copper contamination (0-800 mg kg -1 ) in two contrasting agricultural soils. In total, 157 and 149 unique ARGs were detected in the red and fluvo-aquic soil, respectively, with multidrug and β-lactam as the most dominant ARG types. The highest diversity and abundance of ARGs were observed in medium copper concentrations (100-200 mg kg -1 ) of the red soil and in high copper concentrations (400-800 mg kg -1 ) of the fluvo-aquic soil. The abundances of total ARGs and several ARG types had significantly positive correlations with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), suggesting mobility potential of ARGs in copper-contaminated soils. Network analysis revealed significant co-occurrence patterns between ARGs and microbial taxa, indicating strong associations between ARGs and bacterial communities. Structural equation models showed that the significant impacts of copper contamination on ARG patterns were mainly driven by changes in bacterial community compositions and MGEs. Our results provide field-based evidence that long-term Cu contamination significantly changed the diversity, abundance and mobility potential of environmental antibiotic resistance, and caution the un-perceived risk of the ARG dissemination in heavy metal polluted environments. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lead Acetate Based Hybrid Perovskite Through Hot Casting for Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gwang Su; Choi, Won-Gyu; Na, Sungjae; Gökdemir, Fatma Pinar; Moon, Taeho

    2018-03-01

    Flawless coverage of a perovskite layer is essential in order to achieve realistic high-performance planar heterojunction solar cells. We present that high-quality perovskite layers can be efficiently formed by a novel hot casting route combined with MAI (CH3NH3I) and non-halide lead acetate (PbAc2) precursors under ambient atmosphere. Casting temperature is controlled to produce various perovskite microstructures and the resulted crystalline layers are found to be comprised of closely packed islands with a smooth surface structure. Lead acetate employed perovskite solar cells are fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and PCBM charge transporting layers, in p-i-n type planar architecture. Especially, the outstanding open-circuit voltage demonstrates the high crystallinity and dense coverage of the produced perovskite layers by this facile route.

  5. Comparative analysis of copper and zinc based agrichemical biocide products: materials characteristics, phytotoxicity and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikishan Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, copper based biocides have been extensively used in food crop protection including citrus, small fruits and in all garden vegetable production facilities. Continuous and rampant use of copper based biocides over decades has led to accumulation of this metal in the soil and the surrounding ecosystem. Toxic levels of copper and its derivatives in both the soil and in the run off pose serious environmental and public health concerns. Alternatives to copper are in great need for the agriculture industry to produce food crops with minimal environmental risks. A combination of copper and zinc metal containing biocide such as Nordox 30/30 or an improved version of zinc-only containing biocide would be a good alternative to copper-only products if the efficacy can be maintained. As of yet there is no published literature on the comparative study of the materials characteristics and phyto-compatibility properties of copper and zinc-based commercial products that would allow us to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both versions of pesticides. In this report, we compared copper hydroxide and zinc oxide based commercially available biocides along with suitable control materials to assess their efficacy as biocides. We present a detailed material characterization of the biocides including morphological studies involving electron microscopy, molecular structure studies involving X-ray diffraction, phytotoxicity studies in model plant (tomato and antimicrobial studies involving surrogate plant pathogens (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Zinc based compounds were found to possess comparable to superior antimicrobial properties while exhibiting significantly lower phytotoxicity when compared to copper based products thus suggesting their potential as an alternative.

  6. Hardness analysis and morphological characterization of copper-zinc alloys produced in pyrophosphate-based electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ferreira de Senna

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, copper-zinc alloy coatings on mild steel substrates were obtained in nontoxic pyrophosphate-based electrolytes, at room temperature and under continuous current. The effects of bath composition and current density on the hardness of the coatings, as well as on their morphologies, were evaluated. The results showed that the electrolyte composition, and the use of stress relieving additives strongly influence the hardness of the coatings, while the current density directly affect their morphology. Hence, for a current density of 116 A/m², copper-zinc alloy deposits with no pores or cracks were produced in a pyrophosphate-based electrolyte, especially when allyl alcohol was added to the solution.

  7. Physically Based Simulation of Electromigration-Induced Degradation of Inlaid Copper Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukharev, Valeriy

    2004-01-01

    A novel physical model and a simulation algorithm capable of predicting electromigration (EM) induced void nucleation and growth in an arbitrary interconnect segment have been developed. EM-induced void nucleation and growth in dual damascene (DD) copper interconnect structures have been predicted with a developed physical model and a simulation algorithm. The incorporation of all important contributions to directed atom migration into the mass balance equation and its solution together with the solution of the corresponding electromagnetics, heat transfer and elasticity problems, in a coupled manner, allows to simulate EM-induced degradation in dual-inlaid copper interconnect segments characterized by different dominant channels for EM-induced mass transport. Model provides a capability for the EM design rules generation/optimization with the physically based simulations. A simulation-based optimization of interconnect architecture, segment geometry, material properties and some of the process parameters can generate on-chip interconnect systems with a high immunity to EM-induced failures

  8. Development of a new passive sampler based on diffusive milligel beads for copper analysis in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Reynaud, S.; Lespes, G.; Potin-Gautier, M. [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour/CNRS UMR IPREM 5254, Hélioparc, 2 av. du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Mignard, E. [CNRS-Solvay-Université Bordeaux, UMR5258, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Chéry, P. [Bordeaux Science Agro, 1 cours du Général De Gaulle, Gradignan, 33175 (France); Schaumlöffel, D. [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour/CNRS UMR IPREM 5254, Hélioparc, 2 av. du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Grassl, B., E-mail: bruno.grassl@univ-pau.fr [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour/CNRS UMR IPREM 5254, Hélioparc, 2 av. du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France)

    2015-08-26

    A new passive sampler was designed and characterized for the determination of free copper ion (Cu{sup 2+}) concentration in aqueous solution. Each sampling device was composed of a set of about 30 diffusive milligel (DMG) beads. Milligel beads with incorporated cation exchange resin (Chelex) particles were synthetized using an adapted droplet-based millifluidic process. Beads were assumed to be prolate spheroids, with a diameter of 1.6 mm and an anisotropic factor of 1.4. The milligel was controlled in chemical composition of hydrogel (monomer, cross-linker, initiator and Chelex concentration) and characterized in pore size. Two types of sampling devices were developed containing 7.5% and 15% of Chelex, respectively, and 6 nm pore size. The kinetic curves obtained demonstrated the accumulation of copper in the DMG according to the process described in the literature as absorption (and/or adsorption) and release following the Fick's first law of diffusion. For their use in water monitoring, the typical physico-chemical characteristics of the samplers, i.e. the mass-transfer coefficient (k{sub 0}) and the sampler-water partition coefficient (K{sub sw}), were determined based on a static exposure design. In order to determine the copper concentration in the samplers after their exposure, a method using DMG bead digestion combined to Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis was developed and optimized. The DMG devices proved to be capable to absorb free copper ions from an aqueous solution, which could be accurately quantified with a mean recovery of 99% and a repeatability of 7% (mean relative uncertainty). - Highlights: • Controlled geometry of new passive sampler with ellipsoidal shape. • Original manufacturing process based on droplet-based millifluidic device. • Pore size characterization of the sampler. • Mass-transfer and sampler-water partitioning coefficients by static exposure experiments.

  9. Copper based superconductors by the combination of blocking and mediating layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K.; Nobumasa, H.; Kawai, T.

    1992-01-01

    Copper based high temperature superconductors are composed of Cu-O 2 sheets in combination with thin atomic mediating layers and thick blocking layers which mediate and intercept interactions between Cu-O 2 sheets, respectively. New possible superconductors can be designed by the stacking of the Cu-O 2 sheets along with the periodic insertion of the mediating layers and different kinds of blocking layers. (orig.)

  10. Emerging Photovoltaics: Organic, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide, and Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraavya Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the photovoltaics industry continues to grow rapidly, materials other than silicon are being explored. The aim is to develop technologies that use environmentally friendly, abundant materials, low-cost manufacturing processes without compromising on efficiencies and lifetimes. This paper discusses three of the emerging technologies, organic, copper zinc tin sulphide (CZTS, and perovskite-based solar cells, their advantages, and the possible challenges in making these technologies commercially available.

  11. Surface films and corrosion of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, J.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1999-03-01

    In Sweden and Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be encapsulated in cast iron canisters that have an outer shield made of copper. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister construction. General corrosion of the copper is not expected to be the limiting factor in the waste repository environment when estimating the life-time of the canister construction. However, different forms of localised corrosion, i.e. pitting, stress corrosion cracking, or environmentally assisted creep fracture may cause premature failure of the copper shield. Of the probable constituents in the groundwater, nitrites, chlorides, sulphides and carbonates have been suggested to promote localised corrosion of copper. The main assumption made in planning this research program is that the surface films forming on copper in the repository environment largely determine the susceptibility of copper to the different forms of localised corrosion. The availability of reactants, which also may become corrosion rate limiting, is investigated in several other research programs. This research program consists of a set of successive projects targeted at characterising the properties of surface films on copper in repository environment containing different detrimental anions. A further aim was to assess the significance of the anion-induced changes in the stability of the oxide films with regard to localised corrosion of copper. This report summarises the results from a series of investigations on properties of surface films forming on copper in water of pH = 8.9 at temperature of 80 deg C and pressure of 2 MPa. The main results gained so far in this research program are as follows: The surface films forming on copper in the thermodynamic stability region of monovalent copper at 80 deg C consist of a bulk part (about 1 mm thick) which is a good ionic and electronic conductor, and an outer, interfacial layer (0.001 - 0.005 mm thick) which shows p-type semiconductor

  12. Copper diffusion in TaN-based thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazon, J. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Fraisse, B. [Laboratoire Structure, Proprietes et Modelisation des Solides (UMR 8580), Ecole Centrale de Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Sarradin, J. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Fries, S.G. [SGF Scientific Consultancy, Arndt str.9, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Tedenac, J.C. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Frety, N. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, cc 1504, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: Nicole.Frety@univ-montp2.fr

    2008-07-15

    The diffusion of Cu through TaN-based thin layers into a Si substrate has been studied. The barrier efficiency of TaN/Ta/TaN multilayers of 150 nm in thickness has been investigated and is compared with that of TaN single layers. Thermal stabilities of these TaN-based thin layers against Cu diffusion were determined from in situ X-ray diffraction experiments, conducted in the temperature range of 773-973 K. The TaN/Ta/TaN barrier appeared to be more efficient in preventing Cu diffusion than the TaN single layer.

  13. Study of the influence of Cu and Ni on the kinetics of strain-induced martensite in austempered ductile cast iron; Estudio de la influencia del Cu y Ni en la cinetica de transformacion martensitica inducida por deformacion en fundiciones nodulares austemperadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, D.; Navea, L.; Garin, J.; Aguilar, C.; Guzman, A.

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of copper and nickel on the kinetics of strain-induced martensite in austempered ductile cast iron. The austempered ductile cast irons were obtained from two ductile cast irons with different copper and nickel contents by means of austempering treatment. The deformation was carried out using a rolling mill. The quantification of the phases was obtained by means of X ray diffraction, while the microstructural characterization was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was proved that the kinetics of strain-induced martensite in austempered ductile cast iron can be modeled using the equations proposed by Olson- Cohen and Chang et al. Based on the results obtained from these analyses, it is possible to conclude that the nickel and copper complicate the martensite transformation because these elements increase the staking fault energy of the austenite and its thermodynamic stability. (Author)

  14. Preparation and properties of copper-oil-based nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Wenjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by surface modification method to improve their dispersion stability in hydrophobic organic media. The oil-based nanofluids were prepared with the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles. The transport properties, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids have been measured. The viscosities and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids with the surface-modified nanoparticles have higher values than the base fluids do. The composition has more significant effects on the thermal conductivity than on the viscosity. It is valuable to prepare an appropriate oil-based nanofluid for enhancing the heat-transfer capacity of a hydrophobic system. The effects of adding Cu nanoparticles on the thermal oxidation stability of the fluids were investigated by measuring the hydroperoxide concentration in the Cu/kerosene nanofluids. The hydroperoxide concentrations are observed to be clearly lower in the Cu nanofluids than in their base fluids. Appropriate amounts of metal nanoparticles added in a hydrocarbon fuel can enhance the thermal oxidation stability.

  15. The evaluation of working casts prepared from digital impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y C; Park, Y S; Kim, H K; Hong, Y S; Ahn, J S; Ryu, J J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of working casts of a digital impression system by comparing them with the original, virtual, and rapid prototyping casts. A total of 54 cast sets in clinically stable occlusion were used. They were scanned by an iTero intraoral scanner and converted into STL format virtual casts. Rapid prototyping casts and polyurethane casts were fabricated from the iTero milling system based on the virtual casts. Several horizontal and vertical measurements were performed from the four types of casts, that is, original stone casts, virtual casts, rapid prototyping casts, and polyurethane casts of iTero. Measurement error, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and differences among the casts were calculated and compared. Casts from iTero milling machines exhibited greater dimensional differences and lower ICC values than did other casts. In addition, many of the measurements of the iTero working casts showed statistically significant differences in comparison to the three other types of casts. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the virtual and original casts. Virtual casts made by the iTero intraoral scanner exhibited excellent reproducibility. However, the casts from the iTero milling machine showed greater dimensional differences and lower reproducibility compared to other types of casts.

  16. Clinical parameters and biomarkers of oxidative stress in agricultural workers who applied copper-based pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Nathalie; Astiz, Mariana; de Alaniz, María J T; Marra, Carlos A

    2011-09-01

    Copper based-pesticides are widely used in agricultural practice throughout the world. We studied the (i) concentration of Cu and proteins involved in Cu homeostasis, (ii) plasma redox status, and (iii) biomarkers of exposure in Cu-based pesticide applicators in order to compare them with clinical biochemical tests. Thirty-one professional applicators and 32 control subjects were recruited. Oxidative stress biomarkers, ceruloplasmin (CRP), metallothioneins (MTs), copper, hematological parameters, and biochemical markers for pancreatic, hepatic and renal function were measured in plasma. Copper was increased in the exposed group compared to the control group concomitantly with TBARS, protein carbonyls, and nitrate+nitrite levels. In the exposed group, α-tocopherol and the FRAP assay were lower and LDH, transaminases, GGT, ALP, urea, creatinine, CRP and MTs were higher than in the control group. The relative leukocyte subclasses were also different between the two groups. Clinical chemistry tests did not surpass the upper reference limit. Our results suggest that the incorporation of oxidative stress biomarkers to biochemical/clinical tests should be considered for validation and included in the human health surveillance protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Copper Porphyrin-Based Conjugated Mesoporous Polymer-Derived Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shengsheng; Qian, Manman; Liu, Xiang; Sun, Zijun; Du, Pingwu

    2016-09-08

    Scalable and robust catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are required for the implementation of water splitting technologies as a globally applicable method of producing renewable hydrogen. Herein, we report nitrogen-enriched porous carbon materials containing copper/copper oxide, derived from copper porphyrin-based conjugated mesoporous polymers (CMPs), as a bifunctional catalyst for both HER and OER. These catalysts have a high surface area, unique tubular structure, and strong synergistic effect of copper/copper oxide and porous carbons, resulting in excellent performance for water splitting. Under optimal conditions, the catalyst exhibits a quite low overpotential for OER (350 mV to reach 1.0 mA cm(-2) and 450 mV to reach 10 mA cm(-2) ) in alkaline media, which places it among the best copper-based water oxidation catalysts reported in the literature. Furthermore, the catalyst shows good catalytic activity for HER at a low overpotential (190 mV to reach 1.0 mA cm(-2) ) as well as a high current density (470 mV to reach 50 mA cm(-2) ). The results suggest that hybridized copper/carbon materials are attractive noble-metal-free catalysts for water splitting. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Decrease in cytotoxicity of copper-based intrauterine devices (IUD) pretreated with 6-mercaptopurine and pterin as biocompatible corrosion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Florencia; Grillo, Claudiaa; Schilardi, Patricial; Rubert, Aldo; Benítez, Guillermo; Lorente, Carolina; de Mele, Mónica Fernández Lorenzo

    2013-01-23

    The copper intrauterine device (IUD) based its contraceptive action on the release of cupric ions from a copper wire. Immediately after the insertion, a burst release of copper ions occurs, which may be associated to a variety of side effects. 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and pterin (PT) have been proposed as corrosion inhibitors to reduce this harmful release. Pretreatments with 1 × 10(-4) M 6-MP and 1 × 10(-4) M PT solutions with 1h and 3h immersion times were tested. Conventional electrochemical techniques, EDX and XPS analysis, and cytotoxicity assays with HeLa cell line were employed to investigate the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of copper with and without treatments. Results showed that copper samples treated with PT and 6-MP solutions for 3 and 1 h, respectively, are more biocompatible than those without treatment. Besides, the treatment reduces the burst release effect of copper in simulated uterine solutions during the first week after the insertion. It was concluded that PT and 6-MP treatments are promising strategies able to reduce the side effects related to the "burst release" of copper-based IUD without altering the contraceptive action.

  19. Separation of copper-64 from copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, R.I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its precipitation in water. In the other one the compound is irradiated with water in paste form following treatment with water and hydrochloric acid. The influence of the crystal form of the copper phthalocyanine on the separation yield of copper-64 is shown. Preliminary tests using the ionic exchange technique for purification and changing of copper-64 sulfate to chloride form are carried out. The specific activity using the spectrophotometric technique, after the determination of the copper concentration in solution of copper-64, is calculated. (Author) [pt

  20. Comparison of iron-, nickel-, copper- and manganese-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Cho; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2004-06-01

    For combustion with CO{sub 2} capture, chemical-looping combustion (CLC) with inherent separation of CO{sub 2} is a promising technology. Two interconnected fluidized beds are used as reactors. In the fuel reactor, a gaseous fuel is oxidized by an oxygen carrier, e.g. metal oxide particles, producing carbon dioxide and water. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported to the air reactor, where it is oxidized with air back to its original form before it is returned to the fuel reactor. The feasibility of using oxygen carrier based on oxides of iron, nickel, copper and manganese was investigated. Oxygen carrier particles were produced by freeze granulation. They were sintered at 1300{sup o}C for 4 h and sieved to a size range of 125-180 {mu}m. The reactivity of the oxygen carriers was evaluated in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor, simulating a CLC system by exposing the sample to alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions at 950{sup o}C for all carriers except copper, which was tested at 850{sup o}C. Oxygen carriers based on nickel, copper and iron showed high reactivity, enough to be feasible for a suggested CLC system. However, copper oxide particles agglomerated and may not be suitable as an oxygen carrier. Samples of the iron oxide with aluminium oxide showed signs of agglomeration. Nickel oxide showed the highest reduction rate, but displayed limited strength. The reactivity indicates a needed bed mass in the fuel reactor of about 80-330 kg/MW{sub th} and a needed recirculation flow of oxygen carrier of 4-8 kg/s, MW{sub th}. 30 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. A facile and simple high-performance polydimethylsiloxane casting based on self-polymerization dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Lu-lu; Sun, Jian-hai; Li, Hui; Cui, Da-fu

    2014-01-01

    We present a new and facile method for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting by dip-coating the master molds in an aqueous solution of dopamine. A poly(dopamine) film formed by self-polymerization of dopamine is used as the surface anti-adhesion coating for PDMS de-molding. Different master molds, such as metal, silicon and PDMS replica, were used to verify the feasibility of this proposed PDMS casting method. The poly(dopamine) coatings at various fabrication conditions were studied by using surface plasmon resonance technology. We found that it is very easy to form repeated poly(dopamine) coatings with similar thicknesses and density at fairly flexible conditions of self-polymerization. The water contact angles of the PDMS master molds and the positive PDMS replicas were studied after the PDMS master molds were immersed in the dopamine coating solution for different times. The de-molding process was then measured by surface plasmon resonance technology. The surface morphology of the master molds and the PDMS replicas were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results demonstrate that the poly(dopamine) coating exhibits a strong release property in the PDMS de-molding process and has good stickiness after PDMS de-molding a dozen times. The package performances of the PDMS replicas were detected and compared by bonding experiments. PDMS replicas after a second round of de-molding present a little higher package performance than that of the PDMS replicas with an anti-sticking agent of silane. The biochemical properties of PDMS replicas were studied through fluorescence immunoassay experiments. The PDMS replicas present similar biochemical properties to the bare PDMS. This biomimetic surface modification method of dopamine for PDMS casting has a great potential for preparing microdevices for various biological and clinical applications. (paper)

  2. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  3. Copper-based opaque red glasses - Understanding the colouring mechanism of copper nanoparticles in archaeological glass samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drünert, F.; Blanz, M.; Pollok, K.; Pan, Z.; Wondraczek, L.; Möncke, D.

    2018-02-01

    Red opaque glasses of two different sites in central Germany, a medieval glassworks in Glashütten, Taunus Mountains, and an early modern glassworks in Wieda, Harz Mountains, were analysed with regard to their optical appearance. By scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, metallic copper nanoparticles were identified as a conspicuous constituent in these glasses. In addition, similar opaque red glasses were reproduced in the laboratory in order to better understand the manufacturing process. Detailed analysis of the optical scattering was conducted in order to evaluate the role of Cu0 nanoparticles in the colouring mechanism relative to other possible reasons of colouration. We find clear differences between the possible contributions of Cu2O (cuprite) particles and metallic copper (Cu0) nanoparticles. Through simulated backscattering spectra we were able to calculate an average copper particle radius in the archaeological glass samples resulting in a value of up to 95 nm, which matches well the results of SEM investigation (minimum 65 nm). Using the methods we applied in this study, it becomes possible to reconstruct various processing conditions as they were applied in medieval manufacture of these particular materials.

  4. A Novel Melt Cast Composite Booster Formulation Based on DNTF/TNT/GAP-ETPE/Nano-HMX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the melt cast booster explosive formulation with high energy and low critical detonation diameter, melt cast explosives were designed by 3,4-bis(3-nitrofurazan-4-ylfuroxan (DNTF/2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT/glycidyl azide polymer-energetic thermoplastic elastomer (GAP-ETPE/nano-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX/Aristowax. Furthermore, the impact sensitivity, small scale gap test, rheological properties, propagation reliability, and detonation velocity were measured and analyzed. The results show that when the mass ratio of DNTF/TNT/GAP-ETPE/nano-HMX/Aristowax is 34.2/22.8/2/40/1, not only does it indicate excellent rheological property but it has a brilliant safety performance as well. Moreover, it can propagate the detonation waves successfully in the groove at 0.7 mm × 0.7 mm. When the charge density in the groove is 1.70 g·cm−3, its detonation velocity can reach 7890 m·s−1.

  5. Upgrade of the InGrid based X-ray detector for the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desch, Klaus; Kaminski, Jochen; Krieger, Christoph; Schmidt, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is a magnetic helioscope searching for solar axions and chameleons using the inverse Primakoff effect. The produced photons are in the low X-ray regime. Chameleon search demands high sensitivity to photons with less than 1 keV and a very low background rate. Several improvements to the detector design used in 2014/15 are envisaged for 2016. The readout system is to be improved by including a flash ADC to read out the analog signal induced on the grid. The pulse shape contains information about the longitudinal shape of the event in addition to the transverse shape given by the pixel read out. Tracks passing through the chip orthogonally resemble photons in transverse shape. A scintillator behind the detector will also allow cross referencing chip and and scintillator signals to further reduce background rates. Finally, a new X-ray window separating detector and X-ray telescope volume from one another will be installed. Due to the low expected signal rate, a window with very low X-ray opacity is needed. Due to a pressure difference of ∝1 bar between detector and the vacuum of CAST this is demanding. The usage of silicon nitride windows is being explored. The current progress of the detector upgrade will be presented.

  6. Artificial patina formation onto copper-based alloys: Chloride and sulphate induced corrosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, G.; Giuliani, C.; Riccucci, C.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Lavorgna, M.; Ingo, G. M.

    2017-11-01

    Naturally grown patinas are typically detected onto the surface of modern copper-based artefacts and strictly affect their surface reactivity and appearance. The production of representative patinas is a key issues in order to obtain model systems which can be used for the development and validation of appropriate conservation materials and methods. In this study, we have prepared different artificial representative patinas by using a quaternary Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy with chemical composition and metallurgical features similar to those of valuable modern works of art. In order to produce degradation products usually observed onto their surface, chloride and sulphate species were used to induce corrosion processes. Different patinas were produced by changing the nature of corrosive species and the set-up for the accelerated degradation. The composition and structural properties of the patinas were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results allow to identify degradation products and to distinguish copper hydroxychloride polymorphs and copper hydroxysulphates with similar structure. Our findings show that patina composition can be tailored by modifying the degradation procedure and patinas representative of modern artefacts made of quaternary Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy can be obtained.

  7. Hydrometallurgical Approach for Leaching of Metals from Copper Rich Side Stream Originating from Base Metal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Surya Mohanty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrometallurgical metal production results in side streams, such as dusts and slags, which are carriers of metals, though commonly containing lower metal concentrations compared to the main process stream. In order to improve the circular economy of metals, selective leaching of copper from an intermediate raw material originating from primary base metal production plant was investigated. The raw material investigated was rich in Cu (12.5%, Ni (2.6%, Zn (1.6%, and Fe (23.6% with the particle size D80 of 124 µm. The main compounds present were nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4, fayalite (Fe2SiO4, cuprite (Cu2O, and metallic copper. Leaching was studied in 16 different solutions. The results revealed that copper phases could be dissolved with high yield (>90% and selectivity towards nickel (Cu/Ni > 7 already at room temperature with the following solutions: 0.5 M HCl, 1.5 M HCl, 4 M NaOH, and 2 M HNO3. A concentration of 4 M NaOH provided a superior selectivity between Cu/Ni (340 and Cu/Zn (51. In addition, 1–2 M HNO3 and 0.5 M HCl solutions were shown to result in high Pb dissolution (>98%. Consequently, 0.5 M HCl leaching is suggested to provide a low temperature, low chemical consumption method for selective copper removal from the investigated side stream, resulting in PLS (pregnant leach solution which is a rich in Cu and lead free residue, also rich in Ni and Fe.

  8. Education and Caste in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  9. Coupling effects of tungsten and molybdenum on microstructure and stress-rupture properties of a nickel-base cast superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively understand the forming mechanism of abnormal phases solidified in a nickel-base cast superalloy with additives of tungsten and molybdenum, the coupling effects of W and Mo on the microstructure and stress-rupture properties were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the precipitation of primary α-(W, Mo phase depended tremendously on the amount of W and Mo addition. When the total amount of W and Mo was greater than 5.79 at%, α-(W, Mo phase became easily precipitated in the alloy. With increasing of Mo/W ratio, the dendrite-like α-(W, Mo phases were apt to convert into small bars or blocky-like phases at the vicinities of γ′/γ eutectic. The morphological changes of α-(W, Mo phase can be interpreted as the non-equilibrium solidification of W and Mo in the alloy. Since the large sized α-(W, Mo phase has detrimental effects on stress-rupture properties in as-cast conditions, secondary cracks may mainly initiate at and then propagate along the interfaces of brittle phases and soft matrix. During exposing at 1100 ℃ for 1000 h, the α-(W, Mo phases transformed gradually into bigger and harder M6C carbide, which results in decreasing of stress-rupture properties of the alloy. Finally, the alloy with an addition of 14W-1Mo(wt% maintained the longest stress lives at high temperatures and therefore it revealed the best microstructure stability after 1100 ℃/1000 h thermal exposure. Keywords: Superalloy, Tungsten and molybdenum, Cast, Microstructure, Stress-rupture properties

  10. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  11. Gating system optimization of low pressure casting A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold based on numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wenming

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate the shrinkage porosity in low pressure casting of an A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold casting, numerical simulation on filling and solidification processes of the casting was carried out using the ProCAST software. The gating system of the casting is optimized according to the simulation results. Results show that when the gating system consists of only one sprue, the filling of the molten metal is not stable; and the casting does not follow the sequence solidification, and many shrinkage porosities are observed through the casting. After the gating system is improved by adding one runner and two in-gates, the filling time is prolonged from 4.0 s to 4.5 s, the filling of molten metal becomes stable, but this casting does not follow the sequence solidification either. Some shrinkage porosity is also observed in the hot spots of the casting. When the gating system was further improved by adding risers and chill to the hot spots of the casting, the shrinkage porosity defects were eliminated completely. Finally, by using the optimized gating system the A356 aluminum alloy intake manifold casting with integrated shape and smooth surface as well as dense microstructure was successfully produced.

  12. Electrochemical Study of Polymer and Ceramic-Based Nanocomposite Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Cast Iron Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Uddin Ammar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coating is one of the most effective measures to protect metallic materials from corrosion. Various types of coatings such as metallic, ceramic and polymer coatings have been investigated in a quest to find durable coatings to resist electrochemical decay of metals in industrial applications. Many polymeric composite coatings have proved to be resistant against aggressive environments. Two major applications of ferrous materials are in marine environments and in the oil and gas industry. Knowing the corroding behavior of ferrous-based materials during exposure to these aggressive applications, an effort has been made to protect the material by using polymeric and ceramic-based coatings reinforced with nano materials. Uncoated and coated cast iron pipeline material was investigated during corrosion resistance by employing EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical DC corrosion testing using the “three electrode system”. Cast iron pipeline samples were coated with Polyvinyl Alcohol/Polyaniline/FLG (Few Layers Graphene and TiO2/GO (graphene oxide nanocomposite by dip-coating. The EIS data indicated better capacitance and higher impedance values for coated samples compared with the bare metal, depicting enhanced corrosion resistance against seawater and “produce water” of a crude oil sample from a local oil rig; Tafel scans confirmed a significant decrease in corrosion rate of coated samples.

  13. Electrochemical Study of Polymer and Ceramic-Based Nanocomposite Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Cast Iron Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ameen Uddin; Shahid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Muhammad Khitab; Khan, Munawar; Khalid, Amir

    2018-01-01

    Coating is one of the most effective measures to protect metallic materials from corrosion. Various types of coatings such as metallic, ceramic and polymer coatings have been investigated in a quest to find durable coatings to resist electrochemical decay of metals in industrial applications. Many polymeric composite coatings have proved to be resistant against aggressive environments. Two major applications of ferrous materials are in marine environments and in the oil and gas industry. Knowing the corroding behavior of ferrous-based materials during exposure to these aggressive applications, an effort has been made to protect the material by using polymeric and ceramic-based coatings reinforced with nano materials. Uncoated and coated cast iron pipeline material was investigated during corrosion resistance by employing EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and electrochemical DC corrosion testing using the “three electrode system”. Cast iron pipeline samples were coated with Polyvinyl Alcohol/Polyaniline/FLG (Few Layers Graphene) and TiO2/GO (graphene oxide) nanocomposite by dip-coating. The EIS data indicated better capacitance and higher impedance values for coated samples compared with the bare metal, depicting enhanced corrosion resistance against seawater and “produce water” of a crude oil sample from a local oil rig; Tafel scans confirmed a significant decrease in corrosion rate of coated samples. PMID:29495339

  14. Electrochemical Study of Polymer and Ceramic-Based Nanocomposite Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Cast Iron Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ameen Uddin; Shahid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Muhammad Khitab; Khan, Munawar; Khalid, Amir; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad

    2018-02-25

    Coating is one of the most effective measures to protect metallic materials from corrosion. Various types of coatings such as metallic, ceramic and polymer coatings have been investigated in a quest to find durable coatings to resist electrochemical decay of metals in industrial applications. Many polymeric composite coatings have proved to be resistant against aggressive environments. Two major applications of ferrous materials are in marine environments and in the oil and gas industry. Knowing the corroding behavior of ferrous-based materials during exposure to these aggressive applications, an effort has been made to protect the material by using polymeric and ceramic-based coatings reinforced with nano materials. Uncoated and coated cast iron pipeline material was investigated during corrosion resistance by employing EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and electrochemical DC corrosion testing using the "three electrode system". Cast iron pipeline samples were coated with Polyvinyl Alcohol/Polyaniline/FLG (Few Layers Graphene) and TiO₂/GO (graphene oxide) nanocomposite by dip-coating. The EIS data indicated better capacitance and higher impedance values for coated samples compared with the bare metal, depicting enhanced corrosion resistance against seawater and "produce water" of a crude oil sample from a local oil rig; Tafel scans confirmed a significant decrease in corrosion rate of coated samples.

  15. The influence of copper-based fungicide use in soils and aquatic sediments. Case study: Aetoliko lagoon, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Barouchas, Pantelis; Dünwald, Thomas; Unkel, Ingmar

    2017-04-01

    In the study area, in order farmers to keep their olive trees healthy, the first measure is to keep their olive trees well-fed that is the best initial defense against diseases. Copper-based fungicides are the most common fungicides to protect olive plantations against diseases such as the olive leaf spot. Pathogens are controlled by farmers with strategically timed disease control programs rely on copper sprays to protect the foliage and fruit from infection Successful disease control depends on even distribution and good retention of the copper over all of the plant surfaces before the disease develops. Artificially added copper has the ability to accumulate in soils and aquatic sediments and can cause adverse effects on flora and fauna in its environment. For the present study soil and aquatic sediments field campaign was carried out in the Aetoliko Lagoon ecosystem which is exclusively dominated by olive orchards. It is for the first time in Greece that soil as well as aquatic sediments samples of one coherent protected aquatic ecosystem were taken and compared. To determine the influence that the usage of copper-based fungicides have on the lagoon and surrounding areas, ten (10) sediment samples from the bottom of the lagoon and twenty five (25) soil samples at the different olive orchards that are bordering the water body were taken. The samples were analyzed for total copper content (total digestion) and extractable copper (DTPA and NH4NO3). Furthermore, soil / sedimentological and geochemical analyses such as pH, grain size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and calcium carbonate content were carried out. The results show in over 80 % of the orchard soils a critical accumulation of the total amount of copper. In some of the examined soils the value of 140 mg/kg(as set by the European Union as a limit for total copper in farmland) is exceeded by the factors of 2 to 4.5. Copper content in the aquatic sediments is generally lower and varies between 43.85 mg

  16. Fabrication of hierarchically structured superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces by Cu and CuO casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Christopher P.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2015-10-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films decorated with hierarchically structured pillars are cast from large area copper and copper oxide negative molds. The molds are fabricated using a single patterning step and electroplating. The process of casting structured PDMS films is simpler and cheaper than alternatives based on deep reactive ion etching or laser roughening of bulk silicone. Texture imparted to the pillars from the mold walls renders the PDMS films superhydrophobic, with the contact angle/hysteresis of the most non-wetting surfaces measuring 164°/9° and 158°/10° for surfaces with and without application of a low surface energy coating. The usefulness of patterned PDMS films as a "self-cleaning" solar cell module covering is demonstrated and other applications are discussed.

  17. Influence of tooth dimension on the initial mobility based on plaster casts and X-ray images : A numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Martin; Dirk, Cornelius; Reimann, Susanne; Keilig, Ludger; Konermann, Anna; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    The goal was to determine the influence of different geometric parameters of the tooth on the initial tooth mobility and the position of the center of resistance employing numerical models based on scaled X-ray images and plaster casts. The dimensions of tooth 21 were measured in 21 patients, using radiographs and dental casts. Length and mesiodistal width of the tooth were obtained from the X-ray image and the orovestibular diameter from the plaster cast. Finite element models were generated. Cortical and cancellous bone and the periodontal ligament were simulated to create realistic models. Root length (11-17 mm), mesiodistal width (6-10 mm) and orovestibular thickness (7-9 mm) were varied in 1-mm steps to generate 105 models. In the simulation, each model was loaded with a force of 10 N in vestibulopalatinal direction and with a torque of 10 Nmm to determine tooth displacements and center of resistance. Initial tooth displacement and thus mobility increased with decreasing total root surface. The shortest, slimmest and thinnest tooth showed a total deflection of 0.14 mm at the incisal edge, while the longest, widest and thickest tooth showed a total deflection of 0.10 mm. Changes in mesiodistal width had the greatest influence on initial tooth mobility and changes in orovestibular thickness the least. The teeth's center of resistance was positioned between 37 and 43% of the root length measured from the cervical margin of the alveolar bone. The center of resistance of the longest dental root investigated was located around 6% more cervically compared to the one of the shortest dental root. The influence of root width and thickness on the position of the center of resistance was significantly lower than root length. Geometric parameters significantly impact initial tooth mobility and position of the center of resistance. Thus, tooth dimensions should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning. Dental radiographs represent a sufficient validation tool

  18. Copper(II)-selective membrane electrode based on a recently synthesized naphthol-derivative Schiff's base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, N.; Ershad, S. [Dept. of Chemistry, Tarbiat Moderres Univ., Tehran (Iran); Naeimi, H.; Sharghi, H. [Dept. of Chemistry, Shiraz Univ. (Iran); Shamsipur, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Razi Univ., Kermanshah (Iran)

    1999-11-01

    A PVC membrane electrode for copper(II) ions based on a recently synthesized naphthol-derivative Schiff's base as membrane carrier was prepared. The sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Cu{sup 2+} ions over a wide concentration range (5.0 x 10{sup -6}-5.0 x 10{sup -2} mol/L) with a detection limit of 3.1 x 10{sup -6} mol/L (0.2 {mu}g/mL). It has a very short response time of about 5 s and can be used for 3 months without any divergence in potential. The proposed electrode revealed good selectivities over a wide variety of other cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions and could be used in a pH range of 4.0-7.0. It was successfully applied to the direct determination and potentiometric titration of copper ion. (orig.)

  19. RECYCLING OF SCRAP AND WASTE OF COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a new casting and mechanical shop of unitary enterprise «Tsvetmet» in December 2015 has allowed to solve the complex problem of processing and utilization of scrap and wastes of copper and copper alloys in the Republic of Belarus. The technological processes of fire refinement of copper and manufacturing of copper rod from scrap and production of brass rod by hot pressing (extrusion of the continuously casted round billet have been mastered for the first time in the Republic of Belarus.

  20. Spray cast Al-Si base alloys for stiffness and fatigue strength requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, M.; Mocellin, A.

    1993-01-01

    Hypereutectic AlSiFe spray-cast alloys exhibit properties similar to those of metal-matrix composite (MMC's) : high Young's modulus and a low coefficient of thermal expansion. These physical properties can be adjusted by changing the Si content of the alloy. The refinement of the microstructure is produced by formation of a large amount of nuclei in the spray. Consolidation done by extrusion (bars, tubes or profiles) and/or forging leads to high mechanical properties, especially very good dynamic properties. High fatigue properties coupled with high modulus, good high temperature behaviour and low thermal expansion, allow their use for applications in the automotive industry. In opposition to MMC's, these materials present the advantage of easy recycling and easy machinability as it is the case for the conventional AlSi alloys. The low oxygen content allows quality joining with conventional arc welding techniques. (orig.)

  1. A fluorescent imaging assay of cast in renal disease based on graphene quantum dots and Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongneng; Ni, Danni; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Liqun; Liu, Linlin; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2016-02-15

    Renal disease has become a global public health problem. Cast is a useful disease marker of kidney injury and renal failure. Hence, a cast-targeted fluorescent imaging assay is developed for the laboratory diagnosis of renal disease. Firstly, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were stripped from graphene oxide sheets and amine-modified. Then, anti-human IgG antibody was conjugated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles to identify the cast in urine. Furthermore, the modified GQDs were linked onto the surface of Fe3O4/anti-IgG nanocomposites. Lastly, this Fe3O4/GQD fluorescent probe was added into the sample to detect the cast through fluorescent imaging. Preliminary application of this probe in clinical detection showed that the common types of casts in urine (including RBC, WBC, fatty and granular casts) could be detected by this fluorescent imaging assay. The method has the advantages of fast speed, high sensitivity (lowest detection limit to 2 casts/ml), good selectivity, and wide linear range (2-2000 casts/ml). Regression analysis also showed that there was a good linear relationship (y=0.9495×+10.974, R(2)=0.9879) between the fluorescent counts and the casts in urine. This cast-targeted fluorescent imaging assay may be a potential method for the laboratory diagnosis of renal disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Search for chameleons with an InGrid based X-ray detector at the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desch, Klaus; Kaminski, Jochen; Krieger, Christoph; Schmidt, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for axions and also other exotic particles emerging from the Sun. Chameleons, for example, are part of Dark Energy theories. Like Axions they can be converted into soft X-ray photons in a high magnetic field and should result in an X-ray spectrum peaking below 1 keV. Because of their low energy and weak coupling, detectors with low energy threshold and low background rates are mandatory. Both requirements are met by an X-ray detector based on the combination of a Micromegas gas amplification stage with a highly integrated pixel chip which allows to make full use of the Micromegas structure's granularity. It has been demonstrated that these devices can detect even single electrons. Thus, allowing for a topological background suppression as well as for detection of low energy X-ray photons creating only very few primary electrons. After the detection threshold had been evaluated to be low enough to allow for the detection of the carbon K{sub α} line at 277 eV, the detector was mounted at one of CAST's X-ray telescopes and installed along with its infrastructure in 2014. During data taking until end of 2015 background rates of less than 10{sup -4} keV/(cm{sup 2}.s) have been achieved below 2 keV. First preliminary results of the ongoing chameleon analysis and possibly an improved limit for solar chameleons are presented.

  3. Microstructure and phase morphology during thermochemical processing of {alpha}{sub 2}-based titanium aluminide castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, M. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Apgar, L.S. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Graduate Materials Engineering; Eylon, D. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Graduate Materials Engineering; Weiss, I. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Changes in the microstructure, volume fraction and distribution of phases during different stages of thermochemical processing of Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo (at.%) castings were investigated. Up to 14.5 at.% (0.35 wt.%) of hydrogen was introduced into the material by gas charging at temperatures between 650 and 980 C for times up to 20 h. The material was subsequently dehydrogenated by vacuum annealing at 650 C for 48 h. Investment cast Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo alloy, hot isostatically pressed (HIP) at 1175 C at 260 MPa for 6 h, was used as the starting material. The microstructure of the as-HIP material consists of {alpha}{sub 2}, B2 and orthorhombic phases. The {alpha}{sub 2} phase exists in equiaxed, Widmanstaeten and cellular morphologies. The B2 phase is observed mainly along {alpha}{sub 2}/{alpha}{sub 2} boundaries. Some {alpha}{sub 2} Widmanstaeten also contain very fine orthorhombic phase in a plate-like morphology. Hydrogenation of the material modified the microstructure; however, the morphology of the {alpha}{sub 2} and B2 phases did not change. Furthermore, hydride precipitation and a higher volume fraction of the orthorhombic phase were observed compared with the as-HIP material. Following dehydrogenation, the hydrogen level in the material was found to be less than 0.1 at.% (0.0025wt.%). Transmission electron microscopy of the dehydrogenated material did not reveal the presence of hydride precipitates; however, the high volume fraction of the orthorhombic phase was found to persist following dehydrogenation. (orig.)

  4. Oxidation of copper nanowire based transparent electrodes in ambient conditions and their stabilization by encapsulation: application to transparent film heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celle, Caroline; Cabos, Anthony; Fontecave, Thomas; Laguitton, Bruno; Benayad, Anass; Guettaz, Laure; Pélissier, Nathalie; Huong Nguyen, Viet; Bellet, Daniel; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Simonato, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Whereas the integration of silver nanowires in functional devices has reached a fair level of maturity, the integration of copper nanowires still remains difficult, mainly due to the intrinsic instability of copper nanowires in ambient conditions. In this paper, copper nanowire based transparent electrodes with good performances (33 Ω sq-1 associated with 88% transparency) were obtained, and their degradation in different conditions was monitored, in particular by electrical measurements, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. Several routes to stabilize the random networks of copper nanowires were evaluated. Encapsulation through laminated barrier film with optical clear adhesive and atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition were found to be efficient and were used for the fabrication of transparent film heaters.

  5. An investigation into the microstructure and weldability of a tantalum-containing cast cobalt-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazeri, Mojtaba; Ghaini, Farshid Malek; Farnia, Amirreza [Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2011-12-15

    The weld metal microstructures and the weldability of a tantalum-containing cast cobalt-based superalloy were investigated using gas tungsten arc welding. It was found that the tantalum carbides in the base metal have remained stable up to the fusion line. The results showed that the formation of Ta-rich carbides (TaC) is very sensitive to time and temperature; so the as-weld microstructure is unstable from a metallurgical aspect. The formation of fine precipitates due to the high cooling rate of the welding process resulted in a weld metal with an undesirable hardness and microstructure after autogenous welding, especially after post weld heat treatment. Further results revealed that using a filler metal containing significantly less carbon and tantalum has solved the mentioned problems and made acceptable welds after post weld heat treatment. (orig.)

  6. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun [Monroeville, PA

    2012-04-24

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  7. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  8. Neutron irradiation test of copper alloy/stainless steel joint materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hirokazu; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    As a study about the joint technology of copper alloy and stainless steel for utilization as cooling piping in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Al 2 O 3 -dispersed strengthened copper or CuCrZr was jointed to stainless steel by three kinds of joint methods (casting joint, brazing joint and friction welding method) for the evaluation of the neutron irradiation effect on joints. A neutron irradiation test was performed to three types of joints and each copper alloy. The average value of fast neutron fluence in this irradiation test was about 2 x 10 24 n/m 2 (E>1 MeV), and the irradiation temperature was about 130degC. As post-irradiation examinations, tensile tests, hardness tests and observation of fracture surface after the tensile tests were performed. All type joints changed to be brittle by the neutron irradiation effect like each copper alloy material, and no particular neutron irradiation effect due to the effect of joint process was observed. On the casting and friction welding, hardness of copper alloy near the joint boundary changed to be lower than that of each copper alloy by the effect of joint procedure. However, tensile strength of joints was almost the same as that of each copper alloy before/after neutron irradiation. On the other hand, tensile strength of joints by brazing changed to be much lower than CuAl-25 base material by the effect of joint process before/after neutron irradiation. Results in this study showed that the friction welding method and the casting would be able to apply to the joint method of piping in ITER. This report is based on the final report of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA). (author)

  9. Influences of processing parameters on microstructure during investment casting of nickel-base single crystal superalloy DD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Sifeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of solidification variables on the as-cast microstructures of nickel-base single crystal superalloy DD3 have been investigated by using the modified Bridgman apparatus. The experiments were performed under a thermal gradient of approximately 45 K·cm-1 and at withdrawal rates ranging from 30 to 200 m·s-1. The experimental results show that the primary and secondary dendritic arm spacings (PDAS and SDAS decrease when the withdrawal rate is increased. Compared with the theoretical models of PDAS, the results are in good agreement with Trivedi’s model. The relationships of PDAS and SDAS with withdrawal rates can be described as l1 = 649.7V -0.24±0.02 and l2 = 281V -0.32±0.03, respectively. In addition, the size of the γ′ phase significantly decreases with increasing withdrawal rate.

  10. Selective determination of trace copper(II) by cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry with a naphthol-derivative Schiff's base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Saeidi, Mahboubeh; Sharghi, Hashem; Naeimi, Hossein

    2003-01-01

    A selective and sensitive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of trace amounts of copper(II) with a recently synthesized naphthol-derivative Schiff's base (2,2'-[1,2-ethanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]bis(1-naphthalene)) is presented. The method is based on adsorptive accumulation of the resulting copper-Schiff's base complex on a hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by the stripping voltammetric measurement at the reduction current of adsorbed complex at -0.15 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The optimal conditions for the stripping analysis of copper include pH 5.5 to 6.5, 8 microM Schiff's base and an accumulation potential of -0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCI). The peak current is linearly proportional to the copper concentration over a range 2.3-50.8 ng ml(-1) with a limit of detection of 1.9 ng ml(-1). The accumulation time and RSD are 90 s and (3.2-3.5)%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of copper in some analytical grade salts, tap water, human serum and sheep's liver.

  11. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2015-11-01

    Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. We used data from a large population-based case-control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case-control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case-control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom) with 784 cases and 523 controls

  12. Synthesis and application of a highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin group

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangjie; Liu, Xiangli; Xu, Jinhe; Ji, Liguo; Yang, Linlin; Fan, Aiying; Wang, Songjun; Wang, Qingzhi

    2018-02-01

    A highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin-type Schiff base derivative 1 (probe) was produced by condensation reaction between coumarin carbohydrazide and 1H-indazole-3-carbaldehyde. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the maximum absorption peak of compound 1 appeared at 439 nm. In the presence of Cu2 + ions, the maximum peak decreased remarkably compared with other physiological important metal ions and a new absorption peak at 500 nm appeared. The job's plot experiments showed that complexes of 1:2 binding mode were formed in CH3CN:HEPES (3:2, v/v) solution. Compound 1 exhibited a strong blue fluorescence. Upon addition of copper ions, the fluorescence gradually decreased and reached a plateau with the fluorescence quenching rate up to 98.73%. The detection limit for Cu2 + ions was estimated to 0.384 ppm. Fluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that probe 1 had potential to be used to investigate biological processes involving Cu2 + ions within living cells.

  13. [Predicting copper toxicity to Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idellus based on biotic ligand model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Bin; Chen, Sha; Wu, Min; Zhao, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A series of 96 h copper acute toxicity experiments were conducted with Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix under different concentrations of DOC [ρ(DOC) 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mg · L(-1)]. Higher DOC resulted in a reduction of toxicity, which was in line with the concepts of the biotic ligand model (BLM). It was concluded that the mean absolute deviation (MAD) of LC50 with Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix was 591.2, 157.14 μg · L(-1) and 728.18, 91.24 μg x L(-1), respectively, by the prediction of copper BLM developed for Fathead minnow and Rainbow trout. Based on speciation analysis of biotic ligand model, it was shown that LA50 values of Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were 10.960 and 3.978 nmol · g(-1), respectively. Then the MAD values became 280.52 and 92.25 μg · L(-1) for Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix using the normalized LA50. Finally by searching toxicity data in literature, the MAD values on Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were 252.37 and 50.26 μg · L(-1), successively. This result verified that the toxicity prediction based on biotic ligand model was practical.

  14. Colorimetric detection of trace copper ions based on catalytic leaching of silver-coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tingting; Chen, Lingxin; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Yunqing; Chen, Ling; Li, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A colorimetric, label-free, and nonaggregation-based silver coated gold nanoparticles (Ag/Au NPs) probe has been developed for detection of trace Cu(2+) in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Cu(2+) can accelerate the leaching rate of Ag/Au NPs by thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(2-)). The leaching of Ag/Au NPs would lead to dramatic decrease in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption as the size of Ag/Au NPs decreased. This colorimetric strategy based on size-dependence of nanoparticles during their leaching process provided a highly sensitive (1.0 nM) and selective detection toward Cu(2+), with a wide linear detection range (5-800 nM) over nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The cost-effective probe allows rapid and sensitive detection of trace Cu(2+) ions in water samples, indicating its potential applicability for the determination of copper in real samples.

  15. Casting traceability with direct part marking using reconfigurable pin-type tooling based on paraffin–graphite actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    Green sand moulding machines for cast iron foundries are presently unable to uniquely identify individual castings. An insert tool concept is developed and tested via incremental mock-up development. The tool is part of the pattern plate and changes shape between each moulding, thus giving each...

  16. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased

  17. Chiral copper(II) complex based on natural product rosin derivative as promising antitumour agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bao-Li; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Wu-Shuang; Li, Dong-Dong; Lu, Yang; Gao, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qing-Bo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the biological preference of chiral drug candidates for molecular target DNA, the synthesis and characterization of a chiral copper(II) complex (2) of a chiral ligand N,N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) dehydroabietylamine (1) was carried out. The interactions of 1 and 2 with salmon sperm DNA were investigated by viscosity measurements, UV, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. Absorption spectral, emission spectral and viscosity analysis reveal that 1 and 2 interacted with DNA through intercalation and 2 exhibited a higher DNA binding ability. In the absence/presence of ascorbic acid, 1 and 2 cleaved supercoiled pBR322 DNA by single-strand and 2 displayed stronger DNA cleavage ability. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against HeLa, SiHa, HepG-2 and A431 cancer cell lines study show that they exhibited effective cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines, notably, 2 showed a superior cytotoxicity than the widely used drug cisplatin under identical conditions, indicating it has the potential to act as effective anticancer drug. Flow cytometry analysis indicates 2 produced death of HeLa cancer cells through an apoptotic pathway. Cell cycle analysis demonstrates that 2 mainly arrested HeLa cells at the S phase. The study represents the first step towards understanding the mode of the promising chiral rosin-derivative based copper complexes as chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting dermal penetration for ToxCast chemicals using in silico estimates for diffusion in combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicting dermal penetration for ToxCast chemicals using in silico estimates for diffusion in combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.Evans, M.V., Sawyer, M.E., Isaacs, K.K, and Wambaugh, J.With the development of efficient high-throughput (HT) in ...

  19. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  20. Coupled stress-strain and electrical resistivity measurements on copper based shape memory single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Cezar Henrique

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, electrical resistivity (ER measurements have been done during some thermomechanical tests in copper based shape memory alloys (SMA's. In this work, single crystals of Cu-based SMA's have been studied at different temperatures to analyse the relationship between stress (s and ER changes as a function of the strain (e. A good consistency between ER change values is observed in different experiments: thermal martensitic transformation, stress induced martensitic transformation and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants. During stress induced martensitic transformation (superelastic behaviour and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants, a linear relationship is obtained between ER and strain as well as the absence of hys teresis. In conclusion, the present results show a direct evidence of martensite electrical resistivity anisotropy.

  1. High sensitive detection of copper II ions using D-penicillamine-coated gold nanorods based on localized surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoochan; Jo, Seongjae; Park, Joohyung; Park, Jinsung; Yang, Jaemoon

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a nanoplasmonic biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect that enables a sensitive and selective recognition of copper II ions. First, we fabricated the nanoplasmonics as LSPR substrates using gold nanorods (GNR) and the nano-adsorption method. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoplasmonics was evaluated using various solvents with different refractive indexes. Subsequently, D-penicillamine (DPA)—a chelating agent of copper II ions—was conjugated to the surface of the GNR. The limit of detection (LOD) for the DPA-conjugated nanoplasmonics was 100 pM. Furthermore, selectivity tests were conducted using various divalent cations, and sensitivity tests were conducted on the nanoplasmonics under blood-like environments. Finally, the developed nanoplasmonic biosensor based on GNR shows great potential for the effective recognition of copper II ions, even in human blood conditions.

  2. The effect of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of casting Al-Cu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasijević Ivana I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is one of the main alloying elements for aluminum casting alloys. As an alloying element, copper significantly increases the tensile strength and toughness of alloys based on aluminum. The copper content in the industrial casting aluminum alloys ranges from 3,5 to 11 wt.%. However, despite the positive effect on the mechanical properties, copper has a negative influence on the corrosion resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In order to further improve the properties of Al-Cu alloys they are additional alloyed with elements such as zinc, magnesium and others. In this work experimental and analytical examination of the impact of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys was carried out. In order to determine the effect of the addition of zinc to the structure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys two alloys of Al-Cu-Zn system with selected compositions were prepared and then examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The experimental results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria.

  3. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY'85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Study of carbon and silicon loss through oxidation in cast iron base metal using rotary furnace for melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Olanrewaju OMOLE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The projection of loss of carbon and silicon through oxidation is uncertain phenomenon depending on the furnace used for melting, which affect the carbon equivalent value (CEV of cast iron produced. CEV enhances the fluidity of molten metal as well as having great effects on the mechanical properties of cast products. Study on the way elemental loss takes place during melting with rotary furnace will give idea of approach to minimize the loss. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the magnitude of the elemental loss with rotary furnace and means to minimize the loss. 60kg of grey cast iron scrap was charged into rotary furnace of 100kg capacity after preheating the furnace for 40 minutes. Graphite and ferrosilicon was added to the charge in order to obtain a theoretical composition of not less than 4.0% carbon and 2.0% silicon. Charges in the furnace were heated to obtain molten metal which was tapped at 1400°C. Tapping was done for casting at three different times. The castings solidified in sand mould and allowed to cool to room temperature in the mould. Castings were denoted as sample 1, 2 and 3. Final compositions of each casting were analyzed with optical light emission spectrometer. Sample 1 has 2.95% carbon and 1.82% silicon. Sample 2 has 2.88% carbon and 1.70% silicon and sample 3 has 2.75% carbon and 1.63% silicon.

  6. Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. D.; Baek, U. H.; Han, J. W.

    2012-09-01

    High-pressure die casting is the preferred process for manufacturing Mg-alloy components used for numerous applications. High-pressure die casting is suitable for mass production and has the advantage of also being suitable for accurately fashioning objects of complicated shapes. One disadvantage of high-speed die casting is the occurrence of defects such as shrinkage or air entrainment. Gating system design must be very effective in actual manufacturing facilities to avoid the occurrence of such defects. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for obtaining optimal designs of 4-cavity thin electronic component housings. The fluid behavior and amount of air entrainment caused by the overflows and air vent designs were analyzed using a computer fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator. The effectiveness of the proposed system was demonstrated through CFD simulations and experiments using an actual manufacturing process. Also, the effect of vacuum systems on the porosity and mechanical properties of the castings was studied. The volume of porosity in the casting was found to be significantly reduced using vacuum assistance during die casting. As a result, the tensile strength and the elongation of the die casting products are improved.

  7. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of copper by the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. exposed to various copper-based fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fátima; Soares, Maria Elisa; Oliveira, Ivo; Pereira, José Alberto; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Baptista, Paula

    2012-07-01

    This work evaluates for the first time the relationships between copper-tolerance, -solubilization and -bioaccumulation in the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana exposed to Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride or copper hydroxide. Bordeaux mixture was highly detrimental to fungus, by inhibiting the growth totally at the recommended dose (RD) and 2×RD. Copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride were found to be less toxic, reducing fungus growth, sporulation and conidial germination in an average of 29  %, 30 % and 58 %, respectively. These two copper forms were the easiest to solubilize, to precipitate and the most accumulated by B. bassiana, suggesting the involvement of all these processes on fungus copper-tolerance.

  8. Reconstructed image of human heart for total artificial heart implantation, based on MR image and cast silicone model of heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoda, Takashi; Maeta, Hajime; Uyama, Chikao.

    1991-01-01

    Based on transverse (TRN) and LV long axis (LAX) MR images of two cadaver hearts, three-dimensional (3-D) computer models of the connecting interface between remaining heart and total artificial heart, i.e., mitral and tricuspid valvular annuli (MVA and TVA), ascending aorta (Ao) and pulmonary artery (PA), were reconstructed to compare the shape and the size of MVA and those of TVA, the distance between the center of MVA and TVA (D G ), the angle between the plane of MVA and that of TVA (R T ), and the angles of Ao and PA, respectively, to the plane of MVA (R A , R P ), with those obtained in cast silicone models. It was found that based on LAX rather than TRN MR image, MVA and TVA might be more precisely reconstructed. The data obtained in 3-D images of MVA, TVA, Ao and PA based on silicone models of 32 hearts were as follows: D G (cm): 4.17±0.43, R T (degrees): 22.1±11.3, R A (degrees): 54.9±15.3, R P (degrees): 30.8±17.1. (author)

  9. Soil microbial toxicity assessment of a copper-based fungicide in two contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dober, Melanie; Deltedesco, Evi; Jöchlinger, Lisa; Schneider, Martin; Gorfer, Markus; Bruckner, Alexander; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Soja, Gerhard; Zehetner, Franz; Keiblinger, Katharina Maria

    2016-04-01

    The infestation with the fungus downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) causes dramatic losses in wine production. Copper (Cu) based fungicides have been used in viticulture since the end of the 19th century, and until today both conventional and organic viticulture strongly rely on Cu to prevent and reduce fungal diseases. Consequently, Cu has built up in many vineyard soils and it is still unclear how this affects soil functioning. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the soil microbial toxicity of Cu contamination. Two contrasting agricultural soils, an acidic sandy soil and a calcareous loamy soil, were sampled to conduct an eco-toxicological greenhouse pot experiment. The soils were spiked with a commonly used fungicide based on copper hydroxid in seven concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1500 and 5000 mg Cu kg-1 soil) and Lucerne (Medicago sativa L. cultivar. Plato) was grown in the pots for 3 months. Sampling was conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study period to test copper's soil microbial toxicity in total microbial biomass and basal respiration, as well as enzyme activities, such as exoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exochitinase, phosphatase, protease, phenol-, peroxidase and urease. Additionally, DOC, TN, Cmic, Nmic, NO3 and NH4 were determined to provide further insight into the carbon and nitrogen cycle. Microbial community structure was analysed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), and ergosterol as a fungal biomarker. In addition, molecular tools were applied by extracting soil DNA and performing real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and a metagenomic approach using 16S and ITS amplification and sequencing with MiSeq platform for the second sampling. Hydrolytic extracellular enzymes were not clearly affected by rising Cu concentrations, while a trend of increasing activity of oxidative enzymes (phenol- and peroxidase) was observed. Microbial respiration rate as well as the amount of Cmic and Nmic decreased with

  10. Optimization design of a gating system for sand casting aluminium A356 using a Taguchi method and multi-objective culture-based QPSO algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jong Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article combined Taguchi method and analysis of variance with the culture-based quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to determine the optimal models of gating system for aluminium (Al A356 sand casting part. First, the Taguchi method and analysis of variance were, respectively, applied to establish an L27(38 orthogonal array and determine significant process parameters, including riser diameter, pouring temperature, pouring speed, riser position and gating diameter. Subsequently, a response surface methodology was used to construct a second-order regression model, including filling time, solidification time and oxide ratio. Finally, the culture-based quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization was used to determine the multi-objective Pareto optimal solutions and identify corresponding process conditions. The results showed that the proposed method, compared with initial casting model, enabled reducing the filling time, solidification time and oxide ratio by 68.14%, 50.56% and 20.20%, respectively. A confirmation experiment was verified to be able to effectively reduce the defect of casting and improve the casting quality.

  11. Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory devices based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidan; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Cheng

    2012-05-01

    Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory device was demonstrated based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine (F16CuPc) single layer sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and Al cathode. The as fabricated device remains in ON state and it can be tuned to OFF state by applying a reverse bias. The ON/OFF current ratio of the device can reach up to 2.3 × 103. Simultaneously, the device shows long-term storage stability and long retention time in air. The ON/OFF transition is attributed to the formation and destruction of the interfacial dipole layer in the ITO/F16CuPc interface, and such a mechanism is different from previously reported ones.

  12. Effects of copper-based alloy on the synthesis of single-crystal diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Li Xue; Ma Hong An; Jia Xiao Peng; Wakatsuki, M; Zou Guang Tian

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic effects of copper-based alloys in diamond growth have been investigated. A single crystal of diamond has been obtained by the temperature gradient method (TGM), using Cu-Mn-Co and Cu-Co alloys as catalysts. It was found that the melted Cu-Mn-Co and Cu-Co alloys show low viscosity. The eutectic temperatures of these two alloys with graphite were between 1130 and 1150 deg. C, and the temperature of the transition to diamond was over 1300 deg. C at 5.5 GPa. High-quality diamond could not be obtained in Cu-Co alloy by the TGM. Our results suggest that adding Cu to a catalyst cannot decrease the reaction temperature for diamond growth.

  13. Effect of annealing on bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine and perylene derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on device performances of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N,N′-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C6). Blended films of CuPc and PTCDI-C6 with annealing at elevated temperature were characterized by measuring optical absorption, photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction. Enhanced molecular ordering and increments in domain sizes of donor and acceptor for the blended films were observed, and their influences on device performances were discussed. Annealing led to substantial improvements in photocurrent owing to enhanced molecular ordering and formation of percolation pathways. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Facile Fabrication of Durable Copper-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Pitchumani, R

    2018-03-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have myriad industrial applications, yet their practical utilization has been limited by their poor mechanical durability and longevity. We present a low-cost, facile process to develop superhydrophobic copper-based coatings via an electrodeposition route, that addresses this limitation. Through electrodeposition, a stable, multiscale, cauliflower shaped fractal morphology was obtained and upon modification by stearic acid, the prepared coatings show extreme water repellency with contact angle of 162 ± 2° and roll-off angle of about 3°. Systematic studies are presented on coatings fabricated under different processing conditions to demonstrate good durability, mechanical and underwater stability, corrosion resistance, and self-cleaning effect. The study also presents an approach for rejuvenation of slippery superhydrophobic nature (roll-off angle <10°) on the surfaces after long-term water immersion. The presented process can be scaled to larger, durable coatings with controllable wettability for diverse applications.

  15. Enhanced electrochemical performances with a copper/xylose-based carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisomboonchai, Suchada; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Nueangnoraj, Khanin; Zhang, Haibo; Wei, Lu; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Samart, Chanatip

    2018-04-01

    Copper/carbon (Cu/C) composites were prepared through the simple and environmentally benign hydrothermal carbonization of xylose in the presence of Cu2+ ions. The morphology, specific surface area, phase structure and chemical composition were investigated. Using a three-electrode system in 0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, the Cu/C composite (10 wt% Cu) heat-treated at 600 °C gave the highest specific capacitance (316.2 and 350.1 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 20 mV s-1, respectively). The addition of Cu was the major factor in improving the electrochemical performance, enhancing the specific capacitance more than 30 times that of the C without Cu. Therefore, the Cu/C composite presented promising results in improving biomass-based C electrodes for supercapacitors.

  16. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  17. Special thermite cast irons

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  18. Particulate Formation from a Copper Oxide-Based Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrition behavior and particle loss of a copper oxide-based oxygen carrier from a methane chemical looping combustion (CLC) process was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. The aerodynamic diameters of most elutriated particulates, after passing through a horizontal settling...

  19. Towards efficient solar-to-hydrogen conversion: Fundamentals and recent progress in copper-based chalcogenide photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yubin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting for hydrogen generation has been considered as a promising route to convert and store solar energy into chemical fuels. In terms of its large-scale application, seeking semiconductor photoelectrodes with high efficiency and good stability should be essential. Although an enormous number of materials have been explored for solar water splitting in the last several decades, challenges still remain for the practical application. P-type copper-based chalcogenides, such as Cu(In, GaSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have shown impressive performance in photovoltaics due to narrow bandgaps, high absorption coefficients, and good carrier transport properties. The obtained high efficiencies in photovoltaics have promoted the utilization of these materials into the field of PEC water splitting. A comprehensive review on copper-based chalcogenides for solar-to-hydrogen conversion would help advance the research in this expanding area. This review will cover the physicochemical properties of copper-based chalco-genides, developments of various photocathodes, strategies to enhance the PEC activity and stability, introductions of tandem PEC cells, and finally, prospects on their potential for the practical solar-to-hydrogen conversion. We believe this review article can provide some insights of fundamentals and applications of copper-based chalco-genide thin films for PEC water splitting.

  20. Aircast walking boot and below-knee walking cast for avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal: a comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohammad Kamran; Punwar, Shahid; Boulind, Caroline; Bannister, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Acute avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal are common and are treated in a variety of ways. The aims of this study were to compare pain, functional outcome, and time taken off work after treatment with a walking boot or a short-leg cast. Of 39 patients with acute avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal, 23 were treated with a short-leg cast and 16 with a walking boot, according to the preference of the consultant present at outpatient clinic. Functional outcome was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (VAS FA), pain, and other complaints on presentation and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after injury. The VAS FA scores were compared between the 2 groups by a paired Student t test. The mean time to return to the level of pain and function before injury was approximately 9 weeks after treatment in the walking boot group and 12 weeks with a short-leg cast. Patients with walking boots reported less pain between 3 and 12 weeks than did those with short-leg casts after 6 (P = .06), 9 (P = .020), and 12 weeks (P = .33). Function was significantly better with Aircast walking boots after 3 (P = .006), 6 (P = .002), and 9 weeks (P = .002) but not after 12 weeks (P = .09). Patients returned to their preinjury level of driving after 6 weeks with walking boots and 12 weeks with short-leg casts (P = .006). Employed patients took a mean of 35.8 days off work (range, 28-42 days), fewer with boots (31.5 days) than with short-leg casts (39.2 days). The walking boot was better treatment than a short-leg cast for avulsion fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal. Patients had an improved combined level of pain and function 3 weeks earlier, at 9 weeks post injury, when managed in a walking boot. Level II, prospective comparative series.

  1. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  2. Influence of Boron Carbide Reinforcement on Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Base Composite Prepared by Stir and Squeeze Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Fadhil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced by ceramic particles have a wide acceptance in engineering applications due to their mechanical and physical properties. The present work aims at investigating the effect of B4C particles ons ome mechanical and physical properties of Al –base matrix. All samples were prepared by two-step stir casting method with squeezing the melt during its solidification. Aluminum metal matrix samples of 2wt%Mg with (0,2,4,and 6wt% ofB4C particles were prepared. The effect of such additions of these particles on hardness, tensile properties were investigated, also the microstructures were analyzed using optical microscopic and (SEM-EDS analysis. The results showed a maximum increase of (53% in Brinel's hardness by adding 6% of boron carbide, while the yield stress, tensile strength and the modulus of elasticity were increased by 11%, 51% , and 51% respectively due to add 4% of boron carbide. The SEM-EDS analyses confirm the presence of B4C particles within the Al-base matrix. The microscopic tests indicated the homogenous dispersion of the addition of 4wt% B4C.

  3. 3D interconnect technology based on low temperature copper nanoparticle sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Carisey, Y.C.P.; Damian, A.; Poelma, R.H.; Zhang, G.Q.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Bi, Keyun; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Shengjun

    2016-01-01

    We explore a methodology for patterned copper nanoparticle paste for 3D interconnect applications in wafer to wafer (W2W) bonding. A novel fine pitch thermal compression bonding process (sintering) with coated copper nanoparticle paste was developed. Most of the particle size is between 10-30 nm.

  4. Analysis of copper-based metallic artifacts by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M.D.; Spalding, T.G.; Biers, J.C.; Cornman, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of the major elements in copper-alloyed artifacts by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis is reported. Copper, zinc, tin and lead were measured in several ancient Roman, Greek and Iranian objects. Good agreement was found in comparison with analysis of similar objects by destructive methods. (author)

  5. The Multifaceted Role of Plaster Casts in Contemporary Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Moyeda, Alissa Ann

    2017-01-01

    Plaster casts typically based on well known artworks were displayed in European and American museums and galleries prior to the twentieth century. Though popular, these plaster casts were never seen to be equivalent in value to the original, authentic pieces. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in plaster casts and many museums collections have been pulling casts out of storage to put on display. Current usage of casts in European and American museums is overwhelmingly for...

  6. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, V.K.; Pankiw, R.I.

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this program was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The higher strength H-Series of cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat-treating industry. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc. with research participation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies. Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) was also a partner in this project. Each team partner had well-defined roles. Duraloy Technologies led the team by identifying the base alloys that were to be improved from this research. Duraloy Technologies also provided an extensive creep data base on current alloys, provided creep-tested specimens of certain commercial alloys, and carried out centrifugal casting and component fabrication of newly designed alloys. Nucor Steel was the first partner company that installed the radiant burner tube assembly in their heat-treating furnace. Other steel companies participated in project review meetings and are currently working with Duraloy Technologies to obtain components of the new alloys. EIO is promoting the enhanced performance of the newly designed alloys to Ohio-based companies. The Timken Company is one of the Ohio companies being promoted by EIO. The project management and coordination plan is shown in Fig. 1.1. A related project at University of Texas-Arlington (UT-A) is described in Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired

  7. Laser-Assisted Reduction of Highly Conductive Circuits Based on Copper Nitrate for Flexible Printed Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi; Zhang, Shigang; Zhou, Weiping; Ma, Delong; Ma, Ying; Joshi, Pooran; Hu, Anming

    2017-10-01

    Stretchable electronic sensing devices are defining the path toward wearable electronics. High-performance flexible strain sensors attached on clothing or human skin are required for potential applications in the entertainment, health monitoring, and medical care sectors. In this work, conducting copper electrodes were fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane as sensitive stretchable microsensors by integrating laser direct writing and transfer printing approaches. The copper electrode was reduced from copper salt using laser writing rather than the general approach of printing with pre-synthesized copper or copper oxide nanoparticles. An electrical resistivity of 96 μΩ cm was achieved on 40-μm-thick Cu electrodes on flexible substrates. The motion sensing functionality successfully demonstrated a high sensitivity and mechanical robustness. This in situ fabrication method leads to a path toward electronic devices on flexible substrates.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Novel copper(II) complexes with hydrazides and heterocyclic bases: Synthesis, structure and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Drielly A; Marzano, Ivana M; Jaimes, Edgar H L; Pivatto, Marcos; Campos, Débora L; Pavan, Fernando R; Deflon, Victor M; Maia, Pedro Ivo da S; Da Costa Ferreira, Ana M; Uehara, Isadora A; Silva, Marcelo J B; Botelho, Françoise V; Pereira-Maia, Elene C; Guilardi, Silvana; Guerra, Wendell

    2017-07-01

    Five new copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(NO)(NN)(ClO 4 ) 2 ], in which NO=4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid hydrazide (4-FH) or 4-nitrobenzoic hydrazide (4-NH) and NN=1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4-4'-dimethoxy-2-2'-bipyridine (dmb) or 2,2-bipyridine (bipy) were synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. The X-ray structural analysis of one representative compound indicates that the geometry around the copper ion is distorted octahedron, in which the ion is coordinated to hydrazide via the terminal nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen, and to heterocyclic bases via their two nitrogen atoms. Two perchlorate anions occupy the apical positions, completing the coordination sphere. The cytotoxic activity of compounds was investigated in three tumor cell lines (K562, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). Concerning K562 cell line, the complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline exhibit high cytotoxic activity and are more active than carboplatin, free ligands and [Cu(phen) 2 ] 2+ . Considering the cytotoxicity results, further investigations for the compounds [Cu(4-FH)(phen)(ClO 4 ) 2 ] I and [Cu(4-NH)(phen)(ClO 4 ) 2 ]∙H 2 O III were performed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that these complexes induce apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB-231 cell line and bind to DNA with K values of 4.38×10 4 and 2.62×10 4 , respectively. These compounds were also evaluated against wild type Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ATCC 27294) and exhibited antimycobacterial activity, displayed MIC values lower than those of the corresponding free ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ antimicrobial behavior of materials having copper-based additives in a hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palza, Humberto; Nuñez, Mauricio; Bastías, Roberto; Delgado, Katherine

    2018-02-19

    Copper and its alloys are recognized as effective antimicrobial surface materials at the laboratory scale as well as in clinical trials. Copper has been used in the healthcare setting to reduce environmental contamination and thus prevent healthcare-associated infections, complementing traditional protocols. The addition of copper nanoparticles to polymer/plastic matrices can also produce antimicrobial materials as confirmed under laboratory conditions. However, there is a lack of studies validating the antimicrobial behavior of these nanocomposite materials in clinical trials. To satisfy this issue, plastic waiting room chairs having embedded metal copper nanoparticles, as well as metal hospital IV pools coated with an organic paint having nanostructured zeolite/copper particles, were produced and tested in a hospital environment. These prototypes were sampled once weekly for 10 weeks and the viable microorganisms were analyzed and compared to the materials not containing copper. In the waiting rooms, chairs with copper reduced around 73% the total viable micro-organisms present, showing activity regardless of the microorganism tested. Regarding the IV pools installed in operating rooms, despite the low amount of microorganisms present due to the rigorous hygiene protocols, samples with copper presented lower total viable microorganisms than unfilled materials. Although some results did not have statistical significance because of the low load of microorganisms, during at least three weeks the IV pools with copper were able to reduce with statistical significance by 50% the amount of micro-organisms. These findings show for the first time the feasibility of applying the antimicrobial property of copper t by adding nanosized fillers to other materials in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Copper-Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrid as an Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Distinguishing DNA Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu-Wen; Liu, Hai-Ling; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Feng-Bin; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2017-10-17

    An electrochemical sensor using ultralight and porous copper-nitrogen-doped graphene (CuNRGO) nanocomposite as the electrocatalyst has been constructed to simultaneously determine DNA bases such as guanine (G) and cytosine (C), adenine (A), and thymine (T). The nanocomposite is synthesized by thermally annealing an ice-templated structure of graphene oxide (GO) and Cu(phen) 2 . Because of the unique structure and the presence of Cu 2+ -N active sites, the CuNRGO exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of free DNA bases. After optimizing the experimental conditions, the CuNRGO-based electrochemical sensor shows good linear responses for the G, A, T, and C bases in the concentration ranges of 0.132-6.62 μM, 0.37-5.18 μM, 198.2-5551 μM, and 270.0-1575 μM, respectively. The results demonstrate that CuNRGO is a promising electrocatalyst for electrochemical sensing devices.

  11. Plume Tracer: Interactive Mapping of Atmospheric Plumes via GPU-based Volumetric Ray Casting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time quantification of volcanic gaseous and particulate releases from analysis of satellite-based Thermal Infrared (TIR) spectral imagery data Real-time...

  12. Microstructures and performance of CaO-based ceramic cores with different particle size distributions for investment casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, P. P.; Wu, G. Q.; Tao, Y.; Cheng, X.; Zhao, J. Q.; Nan, H.

    2018-02-01

    A series of calcium-based ceramic cores for casting titanium alloy were prepared by mixing different amounts of coarse and fine powders through injection molding. The effects of particle size on the microstructures and properties of the ceramic cores were investigated using quantitative and statistical analysis methods. It is found that the shrinkage and room-temperature strength of the ceramic cores were enhanced as increasing the contents of fine particles. Moreover, the creep resistance of the ceramic cores increased initially and then decreased. The increase in the fine particle content of the cores reduced the number and mean diameter of pores after sintering. The grain boundary density decreased firstly and then increased. The flexural strength of the ceramic cores at room temperature decreased with increasing porosity of ceramic cores, whereas the creep resistance increased with decreasing grain boundary density. A core exhibiting the optimal property was obtained when mixing 65 wt% of coarse powders (75-150 μm) and 35 wt% of fine powders (25-48 μm).

  13. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe Based Coatings by HVOF Sprayed on Gray Cast-Iron for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Priyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available FeSiNiCr and FeBCr alloy powders were designed with suitable compositions, gas atomized and then coated on gray cast-iron substrate. The microstructures of the feed stock Fe based alloy powders and the coatings were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In the present study, both the coating materials experienced two-body wear mechanisms. The results showed that for loads of 0.05 N, 0.1 N and 0.2 N, the wear resistance of FeBCr coating was less than FeSiNiCr by 44 %, 40 % and 31 %, respectively. The results indicated that the coated substrates exhibited lower corrosion current densities and lower corrosion rates, when placed in 20 wt.% H2SO4 solutions. In addition, the use of optimal spraying parameters/conditions gave improvements to the corrosion resistance of the substrates that had been treated with the crystalline coating.

  14. Operation of an InGrid based X-ray detector at the CAST experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger Christoph

    2018-01-01

    During operation at the experiment, background rates in the order of 10−5 keV−1 cm−2 s−1 have been achieved by application of a likelihood based method discriminating the non-photon background originating mostly from cosmic rays. For continued operation in 2016, an upgraded InGrid based detector is to be installed among other improvements including decoupling and sampling of the signal induced on the grid as well as a veto scintillator to further lower the observed background rates and improving sensitivity.

  15. Characterization of metal powder based rapid prototyping components under aluminium high pressure die casting process conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on tests performed on die component specimens grown on an EOS RP technology platform, as well as manufactured specimens machined out of preferred standard hot work steel DIN 1.2344. These specimens resemble typical components...

  16. Effects of copper ions on DNA binding and cytotoxic activity of a chiral salicylidene Schiff base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bao-Li; Xu, Wu-Shuang; Tao, Hui-Wen; Li, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Long, Jian-Ying; Liu, Qing-Bo; Xia, Bing; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2014-03-05

    A chiral Schiff base HL N-(5-bromo-salicylaldehyde)dehydroabietylamine (1) and its chiral dinuclear copper complex [Cu2L4]·4DMF (2) have been synthesized and fully characterized. The interactions of 1 and 2 with salmon sperm DNA have been investigated by viscosity measurements, UV, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. Absorption spectral (Kb=3.30 × 10(5)M(-)(1) (1), 6.63 × 10(5)M(-)(1)(2)), emission spectral (Ksv=7.58 × 10(3)M(-)(1) (1), 1.52 × 10(4)M(-)(1) (2)), and viscosity measurements reveal that 1 and 2 interact with DNA through intercalation and 2 exhibits a higher DNA binding ability. In addition, CD study indicates 2 cause a more evident perturbation on the base stacking and helicity of B-DNA upon binding to it. In fluorimetric studies, the enthalpy (ΔH>0) and entropy (ΔS>0) changes of the reactions between the compounds with DNA demonstrate hydrophobic interactions. 1 and 2 were also screened for their cytotoxic ability and 2 demonstrates higher growth inhibition of the selected cancer cells at concentration of 50 μM, this result is identical with their DNA binding ability order. All the experimental results show that the involvement of Cu (II) centers has some interesting effect on DNA binding ability and cytotoxicity of the chiral Schiff base. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper Nanowire-Based Aerogel with Tunable Pore Structure and Its Application as Flexible Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ranran; Nie, Pu; Cheng, Yin; Lu, Xiaoyu; Shi, Liangjing; Sun, Jing

    2017-04-26

    Aerogel is a kind of material with high porosity and low density. However, the research on metal-based aerogel with good conductivity is quite limited, which hinders its usage in electronic devices, such as flexible pressure sensors. In this work, we successfully fabricate copper nanowire (CuNW) based aerogel through a one-pot method, and the dynamics for the assembly of CuNWs into hydrogel is intensively investigated. The "bubble controlled assembly" mechanism is put forward for the first time, according to which tunable pore structures and densities (4.3-7.5 mg cm -3 ) of the nanowire aerogel is achieved. Subsequently, ultralight flexible pressure sensors with tunable sensitivities (0.02 kPa -1 to 0.7 kPa -1 ) are fabricated from the Cu NWs aerogels, and the negative correlation behavior of the sensitivity to the density of the aerogel sensors is disclosed systematically. This work provides a versatile strategy for the fabrication of nanowire-based aerogels, which greatly broadens their application potential.

  18. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Alan A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhao, Ji-Cheng [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Riggi, Adrienne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Joost, William [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide large amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.

  19. Synergetic effect of benzotriazole and non-ionic surfactant on copper chemical mechanical polishing in KIO{sub 4}-based slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); He, Yongyong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Niu, Xiangyu; Li, Yuzhuo [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Luo, Jianbin, E-mail: luojb@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-05-02

    Ruthenium will be integrated into copper interconnects as a barrier layer in the near future. During the chemical mechanical polishing process of the ruthenium barrier layer, copper polishing performance with barrier slurries is crucial to microchips' final performance. This paper mainly studies the synergetic effect of benzotriazole (BTA) and non-ionic surfactant on copper polishing performance using KIO{sub 4}-based barrier slurries. The results show that, the copper removal rate (RR) and static etching rate increase with increasing concentration of KIO{sub 4} due to the increasing proportion of the Cu–periodate and Cu–iodate compounds like Cu(IO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Cu(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} of the passivating film on the copper surface; the added BTA can further enhance the copper RR instead of suppressing it probably due to the formation of incomplete Cu–BTA thin film. It is demonstrated that the combination of BTA and non-ionic surfactant exhibits excellent performance in suppressing the copper RR to about 200 Å/min, realizing satisfactory copper surface quality and achieving desirable material removal rate selectivity among copper, ruthenium and low-κ dielectrics. The synergetic passivation mechanism of BTA and non-ionic surfactant on the copper surface was investigated. It is proposed that in the presence of KIO{sub 4} as an oxidizer, the added BTA and non-ionic surfactant can form a porous passivating film on the copper surface which is mainly composed of the Cu–BTA complex, the adsorbed non-ionic surfactant and the leftover insoluble copper compounds like Cu(IO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Cu(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and then the hydrophobic polypropylene oxide segments of non-ionic surfactant can be effectively absorbed on the hydrophobic Cu–BTA complex as a supplement. The above two parts are integrated into a complete passivating film to protect the copper surface from chemical dissolution and excessive mechanical abrasion. - Highlights: • The copper

  20. Study of formation of aluminium billet in casting mold during continuous casting and forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium billet formation and solidified skin thickness distribution along casting mold walls at different levels of liquid metal were investigated. The casting mold consisted of two rotating inclined walls in its upper part and two reciprocating vertical walls. The reduction of skin of casting proceeded in the upper part of mold. Based on the experimental results obtained the influence of metal level in a casting mold on billet formation is determined> The reduction degree needed for continuous process of casting and forging is also defined. The change in skin thickness with billet length under various crystallization conditions is established

  1. Carcass and physical meat characteristics of thin tail sheep (TTS based on calpastatin gene (CAST (Locus intron 5 – exon 6 genotypes variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sheep carcass is mostly determined by the total lean meat production, meat distribution on the carcass and the quality of meat. Calpastatin gene (CAST is known to have an association with carcass and meat quality traits. The objective of this research was to identify the association between CAST polymorphisms and carcass characteristics in Thin Tail Sheep (TTS. Thirty three heads of sheep representing three genotypes of CAST (CAST-11, CAST-12 and CAST-22 were identified for carcass and meat characterisation. There was no significant difference between CAST polymorphisms with meat tenderness, pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss, neither with carcass weight and dressing percentage among genotypes. Shoulder proportion of CAST-11 genotype was larger than that of CAST-12 or CAST-22, but the lean meat proportion of CAST-22 genotype in shoulder, rack and loin were higher than those of CAST-11 but not different from CAST-12. The fat percentage of CAST-11 was the highest among the genotypes. CAST-22 genotype has higher lean meat percentage than the CAST-11. Variation in CAST gene could be used as marker assisted selection in sheep for higher lean meat proportion.

  2. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  3. High Voltage Resistive Divider Based on Cast Microwire in Glass Insulation on 6–24 kV Alternating Current of Commercial Frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the analysis and description of the construction of the high voltage resistive divider on the base of cast microwire in glass insulation on 6–24 kV alternating current of commercial frequency. It is presented the procedure of compensation of frequency error during the process of fabrication of divides and results of tests of the sample model of the divider as well.

  4. Influence of cooling rate on y'morphology in cast Ni – base superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ni – base superalloys, which are combined an unique physical and mechanical properties, are used in aircraft industry for productionof aero engine most stressed parts, as are turbine blades. From this reason a dendrite arm spacing, carbides size and distribution, morphology,number and value of y'- phase are very important structural characteristics for blade lifetime prediction as well as aero engine its self. In this article are used methods of quantitative metallography (software LUCIA for carbides evaluation, measuring of secondary dendrite arm spacing and coherent testing grid for y' - phase evaluation for evaluation of structural characteristics mentioned above on experimental material – Ni base superalloy ŽS6K. The high temperature effect represented here by heat treatment at 800°C followed with holding time about 10 hours, and cooling rate, here represented by three various cooling mediums as water, air, and oil, on structural characteristics and application of quantitative methods evaluation are presented in this paper.

  5. Carbon Textiles Modified with Copper-Based Reactive Adsorbents as Efficient Media for Detoxification of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, Marc; Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Wallace, Rajiv; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2017-08-16

    Carbon textile swatch was oxidized and impregnated with copper hydroxynitrate. A subsample was then further heated at 280 °C to form copper oxide. The swatches preserved their integrity through the treatments. As final products, they exhibited remarkable detoxification properties for the nerve agent surrogate dimethyl chlorophosphate (DMCP). Based on the amount of reactive copper phases deposited on the fibers, their adsorption capacities were higher than those of the bulk powders. After 1 day exposure to DMCP (1:1 weight ratio adsorbent/DMCP), 99% of the initial amount of DMCP was eliminated. A synergistic effect of the composite components was clearly seen. GC-MS results showed that the main surface reaction product was chloromethane. Its formation indicated hydrolysis as a detoxification path. Surface analyses showed phosphate bonding to the fibers and formation of copper chloride. The appearance of the latter species results in a clear textile color change, which suggests the application of these fabrics not only as catalytic protection agents but also as sensors of nerve agents.

  6. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyendra [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Yadav, B.C., E-mail: balchandra_yadav@rediffmail.com [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Department of Applied Physics, School for Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Gupta, V.D. [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Dwivedi, Prabhat K. [DST Unit on Nanosciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, U.P. (India)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ► Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ► Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ► Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ► CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  7. An electron paramagnetic resonance study of the behaviour of copper (II) in ageing catechin-based model wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, M.; Scollary, G.R.; Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Hunter, C.A.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    This poster reports an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of copper in a model white wine. The model consists of a saturated 12% ethanol solution of potassium hydrogen tartrate solution (the 'wine base') containing copper and catechin as the oxidizable substrate. Ascorbic acid, as a supposed anti-oxidant, was added to some solutions. A Varian E-12 EPR spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz frequency) with quartz sample tubes was used and spectra were recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature to avoid polar water losses. Solutions were examined on four successive days whilst kept at room temperature and subsequently every third day when stored at 45 degree C. Variations in signal intensity, linewidth and form will be shown and the changes related to the degree of browning, as measured by visible absorption spectroscopy at 440 nm. The ESP spectra of the brown deposits reveal that the copper (II) ion is in a low symmetry site and a well defined free radical signal was also observed. No free radical signal was found in solutions containing copper and catechin, indicating that a high degree of polymerization of the oxidized catechin is required to stabilize the free radical species

  8. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kopitzke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  9. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  10. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino acid chains and heterocyclic bases: DNA binding, cytotoxic and cell apoptosis induction properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tieliang; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Yang, Yong; Liu, Yang; Ding, Weiliang; Zhu, Wenjiao; Chen, Ruhua; Ge, Zhijun; Tan, Yongfei; Jia, Lei; Zhu, Taofeng

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, chemotherapy is a common means of oncology. However, it is difficult to find excellent chemotherapy drugs. Here we reported three new ternary copper(II) complexes which have potential chemotherapy characteristics with reduced Schiff base ligand and heterocyclic bases (TBHP), [Cu(phen)(TBHP)]H2O (1), [Cu(dpz)(TBHP)]H2O (2) and [Cu(dppz)(TBHP)]H2O (3) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, dpz=dipyrido [3,2:2',3'-f]quinoxaline, dppz=dipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, H2TBHP=2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylamino)-2-benzyl-acetic acid). The DNA-binding properties of the complexes were investigated by spectrometric titrations, ethidium bromide displacement experiments and viscosity measurements. The results indicated that the three complexes, especially the complex 13, can strongly bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA). The intrinsic binding constants Kb of the ternary copper(II) complexes with CT-DNA were 1.37×10(5), 1.81×10(5) and 3.21×10(5) for 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Comparative cytotoxic activities of the copper(II) complexes were also determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that the ternary copper(II) complexes had significant cytotoxic activity against the human lung cancer (A549), human esophageal cancer (Eca109) and human gastric cancer (SGC7901) cell lines. Cell apoptosis were detected by AnnexinV/PI flow cytometry and by Western blotting with the protein expression of p53, Bax and Bcl-2. All the three copper complexes can effectively induce apoptosis of the three human tumor cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrothermally treated chitosan hydrogel loaded with copper and zinc particles as a potential micro-nutrient based antimicrobial feed additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban eRajasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that re-arranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml and zinc (800 μg/ml reduced the load of model gut-bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof of concept study, we show

  12. Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghiţă, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases

  13. Fabrication of Chitosan Silk-based Tracheal Scaffold Using Freeze-Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Zeinab; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali; Seyedsalehi, Amir; Mohammad-Behgam, Shadmehr; Ghorbani, Fariba; Mirahmadi, Fereshte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Since the treatments of long tracheal lesions are associated with some limitations, tissue engineered trachea is considered as an alternative option. This study aimed at preparing a composite scaffold, based on natural and synthetic materials for tracheal tissue engineering. Methods: Nine chitosan silk-based scaffolds were fabricated using three freezing rates (0.5, 1, and 2°C/min) and glutaraldehyde (GA) concentrations (0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%). Samples were characterized, and scaffolds having mechanical properties compatible with those of human trachea and proper biodegradability were selected for chondrocyte cell seeding and subsequent biological assessments. Results: The pore sizes were highly influenced by the freezing rate and varied from 135.3×372.1 to 37.8×83.4 µm. Swelling and biodegradability behaviors were more affected by GA rather than freezing rate. Tensile strength raised from 120 kPa to 350 kPa by an increment of freezing rate and GA concentration. In addition, marked stiffening was demonstrated by increasing elastic modulus from 1.5 MPa to 12.2 MPa. Samples having 1 and 2°C/min of freezing rate and 0.8 wt% GA concentration made a non-toxic, porous structure with tensile strength and elastic modulus in the range of human trachea, facilitating the chondrocyte proliferation. The results of 21-day cell culture indicated that glycosaminoglycans content was significantly higher for the rate of 2°C/min (12.04 µg/min) rather than the other (9.6 µg/min). Conclusion: A homogenous porous structure was created by freeze drying. This allows the fabrication of a chitosan silk scaffold cross-linked by GA for cartilage tissue regeneration with application in tracheal regeneration. PMID:28131109

  14. TiB2 reinforced aluminum based in situ composites fabricated by stir casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Zongning; Mao, Feng; Wang, Tongmin; Cao, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new technique involving mechanical stirring at the salts/aluminum interface was developed to fabricate TiB 2 particulate reinforced aluminum based in situ composites with improved particle distribution. Processing parameters in terms of stirring intensity, stirring duration and stirring start time were optimized according to the microstructure and mechanical properties evaluation. The results show that, the first and last 15 min of the entire 60 min holding are of prime importance to the particle distribution of the final composites. When applying 180 rpm (revolutions per minute) stirring at the salts/aluminum interface in these two intervals, a more uniform microstructure can be achieved and the Al-4 wt% TiB 2 composite thus produced exhibits superior mechanical performance. Synchrotron radiation X-ray computed tomography (SR-CT) was used to give a full-scale imaging of the particle distribution. From the SR-CT results, the in situ Al–xTiB 2 composites (x=1, 4 and 7, all in wt%) fabricated by the present technique are characterized by fine and clean TiB 2 particles distributed uniformly throughout the Al matrix. These composites not only have higher yield strength (σ 0.2 ) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), but also exhibit superior ductility, with respect to the Al–TiB 2 composites fabricated by the conventional process. The σ 0.2 and UTS of the Al–7TiB 2 composite in the present work, are 260% and 180% higher than those of the matrix. A combined mechanism was also presented to interpret the improvements in yield strength of the composites as influenced by their microstructures and processing history. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental results, strongly supporting the strengthening mechanism we proposed. Fractography reveals that the composites thus fabricated, follow ductile fracture mechanism in spite of the presence of stiff reinforcements

  15. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  16. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  17. Microstructural characteristics of new type γ-γ` Co-9Al-9W cobalt-based superalloys in as-cast state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tomaszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented deals primary with the structure characteristics of a new type of cobalt-based superalloys Co-9Al-9W type, casted via induction melting process with partially dosing of Common problems described in literature are focused on difficulties in obtaining uniform distribution of tungsten, particularly in interdendritic areas. That was the reason for the modified casting process to be applied. The method of tungsten dosing into liquid melts of Co and Al allows to obtain microstructure characterized by considerably decreased microsegregation. The material obtained was analyzed by standard methods such as light and scanning microscopy with analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas. Additionally, the detailed analysis of the sub-grain level was made by S/TEM on thin foils collected from equiaxed grains zone of the ingot.

  18. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  19. Synthesis of copper/nickel nanoparticles using newly synthesized Schiff-base metals complexes and their cytotoxicity/catalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazam, Elham S; El-Said, Waleed Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Transition metal complexes compounds with Schiff bases ligand representing an important class of compounds that could be used to develop new metal-based anticancer agents and as precursors of metal NPs. Herein, 2,3-bis-[(3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]but-2-enedinitrile Schiff base ligand and its corresponding copper/nickel complexes were synthesized. Also, we reported a facile and rapid method for synthesis nickel/copper nanoparticles based on thermal reduction of their complexes. Free ligand, its metal complexes and metals nanoparticles have been characterized based on elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements and by various spectroscopic (UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, GC-MS) techniques. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of free ligand and its complexes compounds were assessed against two cancer cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 cells)and one healthy cell line (HEK293 cell). The copper complex was found to be active against these cancer cell lines at very low LD50 than the free ligand, while nickel complex did not show any anticancer activity against these cell lines. Also, the antibacterial activity of as-prepared copper nanoparticles were screened against Escherichia coli, which demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values lower than those values of the commercial Cu NPs as well as the previous reported values. Moreover, the synthesized nickel nanoparticles demonstrated remarkable catalytic performance toward hydrogenation of nitrobenzene that producing clean aniline with high selectivity (98%). This reactivity could be attributed to the high degree of dispersion of Ni nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a new composite based on copper (II) and octa (aminopropil)silsesquioxane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magossi, M.S. de; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new compound based silsesquioxane and nitroprusside of copper was prepared starting from octa (aminopropyl)silsesquioxane following a new route of synthesis. The composite prepared as described ACCuN was preliminarily characterized by spectroscopic techniques, such as Infrared Spectroscopy in the Region of the Fourier transform (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (VC). The FTIR spectra showed absorption bands at 1106 cm -1 due to stretching Si-O-Si (νSi-O-Si) characteristic of the structure of octa(aminopropylsilsesquioxane and absorption bands at 2063 cm -1 ascribed to the stretching NO (νN-O ) and 2192 cm -1 attributed to the stretching C≡N (ν≡ N ) . SEM and EDX observed cluster of cubic particles with an average size of approximately 241 nm, containing Si, O, N, Cu and Fe. Cyclic voltammogram of the material (ACCuN) showed a redox couple with average potential Eθ '= 0.73 V. (author)

  1. Numerical Analysis of Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide-Based Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ouédraogo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a one-dimensional simulation program Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator in 1 Dimension (SCAPS-1D to investigate Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide- (CIGS- based solar cells properties. Starting with a conventional ZnO-B/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS structure, we simulated the parameters of current-voltage characteristics and showed how the absorber layer thickness, hole density, and band gap influence the short-circuit current density (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and efficiency of solar cell. Our simulation results showed that all electrical parameters are greatly affected by the absorber thickness (w below 1000 nm, due to the increase of back-contact recombination and very poor absorption. Increasing hole density (p or absorber band gap (Eg improves Voc and leads to high efficiency, which equals value of 16.1% when p = 1016 cm−3 and Eg=1.2 eV. In order to reduce back-contact recombination, the effect of a very thin layer with high band gap inserted near the back contact and acting as electrons reflector, the so-called back-electron reflector (EBR, has been investigated. The performances of the solar cells are significantly improved, when ultrathin absorbers (w < 500 nm are used; the corresponding gain of Jsc due to the EBR is 3 mA/cm2. Our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature from experiments.

  2. Synchrotron-based measurements of the electronic structure of the organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is a prototypical molecular organic semiconductor that is currently used in the construction of many organic electronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Although the material is currently being used, and despite many experimental and theoretical studies, it's detailed electronic structure is still not completely understood. This is likely due to two key factors. Firstly, the interaction of the Cu 3d and phthalocyanine ligand 2p electrons leads to the formation of a complex arrangement of localized and delocalized states near the Fermi level. Secondly, thin films of the material are subject to damage by the photon beam used to make measurements of their electronic structure. Using the synchrotron-based techniques of soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), we have measured the detailed electronic structure of in-situ grown thin film samples of CuPc. Beam damage was minimized by continuous translation of the sample during data acquisition. The results obtained differ significantly from previous XES and ultraviolet photoemission measurements, but are in excellent agreement with recent density functional calculations. The reasons for these discrepancies will be explained, and their implications for future measurements on similar materials will be explored

  3. Quantitative serine protease assays based on formation of copper(II)-oligopeptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaokang; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2015-01-07

    A quantitative protease assay based on the formation of a copper-oligopeptide complex is developed. In this assay, when a tripeptide GGH fragment is cleaved from an oligopeptide chain by serine proteases, the tripeptide quickly forms a pink GGH/Cu(2+) complex whose concentration can be determined quantitatively by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Therefore, activities of serine proteases can be determined from the formation rate of the GGH/Cu(2+) complex. This principle can be used to detect the presence of serine protease in a real-time manner, or measure proteolytic activities of serine protease cleaving different oligopeptide substrates. For example, by using this assay, we demonstrate that trypsin, a model serine protease, is able to cleave two oligopeptides GGGGKGGH () and GGGGRGGH (). However, the specificity constant (kcat/Km) for is higher than that of (6.4 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)vs. 1.3 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)). This result shows that trypsin is more specific toward arginine (R) than lysine (K) in the oligopeptide sequence.

  4. Chemical-Gene Interactions from ToxCast Bioactivity Data Expands Universe of Literature Network-Based Associations (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing the effects of chemicals in biological systems is often summarized by chemical-gene interactions, which have sparse coverage in the literature. The ToxCast chemical screening program has produced bioactivity data for nearly 2000 chemicals and over 450 gene targets....

  5. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Sanborn, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    This is a working report drafted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, describing statistical models of passives component reliabilities. The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). The methodology emerging from the RISMC pathway is not a conventional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)-based one; rather, it relies on a reactor systems simulation framework in which physical conditions of normal reactor operations, as well as accident environments, are explicitly modeled subject to uncertainty characterization. RELAP 7 (R7) is the platform being developed at Idaho National Laboratory to model these physical conditions. Adverse effects of aging systems could be particularly significant in those SSCs for which management options are limited; that is, components for which replacement, refurbishment, or other means of rejuvenation are least practical. These include various passive SSCs, such as piping components. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing passive component reliability models intended to be compatible with the R7 framework. In the R7 paradigm, component reliability must be characterized in the context of the physical environments that R7 predicts. So, while conventional reliability models are parametric, relying on the statistical analysis of service data, RISMC reliability models must be physics-based and driven by the physical boundary conditions that R7 provides, thus allowing full integration of passives into the R7 multi-physics environment. The model must also be cast in a form compatible with the cumulative damage framework that R7

  6. Copper(II) complex of new non-innocent O-aminophenol-based ligand as biomimetic model for galactose oxidase enzyme in aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Elham; Bahrami, Hadiseh; Pevec, Andrej; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Jagličić, Zvonko

    2017-04-01

    Mononuclear copper(II) complex of tetra-dentate o-aminophenol-based ligand (H2LBAPP) has been synthesized and characterized. The three dentate precursor (HLBAP) of the final ligand was synthesized first, while the title four-dentate copper bound ligand was synthesized in situ, isolated only in the final copper species [CuLBAPP]. This copper coordination complex reveals a distorted square-planar geometry around the copper(II) centre by one oxygen and three nitrogen atoms from the coordinating ligand. The ligand is thus twice deprotonated via hydroxy and amine groups. The complex is red, non-typical for copper(II), but the effective magnetic moment of 1.86 B M. and a single isotropic symmetry EPR signal with g 2.059 confirm a S = 1/2 diluted spin system, without copper-copper magnetic coupling. Electrochemical oxidation of this complex yields the corresponding Cu(II)-phenyl radical species. Finally, the title complex CuLBAPP has shown good and selective catalytic activity towards alcohol to aldehyde oxidation, at aerobic room temperature conditions, for a set of different alcohols.

  7. Based on database and asp.net technologies, a web platform of scientific data in the casting forces on the mold-fi lling behavior of titanium melts in vertically rotating molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Daming

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vertical centrifugal-casting technique is widely used in the manufacture of various irregularlyshaped castings of advanced structural alloys with thin walls, complex shapes and/or large sizes. These castings are used in the increasing applications in aero-space/aviation industries, human teeth/bone repairs with nearnet shaped components, etc. In a vertically rotating casting system, the mold-filling processes of alloy melts, coupled with solidifi cation-heat transfer, may be much more complicated, because they are driven simultaneously by gravity, centrifugal and Coriolis forces. In the present work, an N-S/VOF-equations-based model, solved using a SOLA-VOF algorithm, under a rotating coordinate system was applied to numerically investigate the impacts of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on metallic melt mold-fi lling processes in different vertical centrifugal-casting configurations with different mold-rotation rates using an authors’ computer-codes system. The computational results show that the Coriolis force may cause remarkable variations in the fl ow patterns in the casting-part-cavities of a large horizontal-section area and directly connected to the sprue via a short ingate in a vertical centrifugalcasting process. A “turn-back” mold-filling technique, which only takes advantage of the centrifugal force in a transient rotating melt system, has been confi rmed to be a rational centrifugal-casting process in order to achieve smooth and layer-by-layer casting-cavities-fi lling control. The simulated mold-fi lling processes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy melt, in a vertical centrifugal-casting system with horizontally-connected plate-casting cavities, show reasonable agreement with experimental results from the literature.

  8. Casting and Splinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    article /80165-technigue Self Evaluation Is injured extremity in desired position? »- Empty can position »- Wrist extension 20° );;>- MCP Oexion...periodically throughout the day If cast feels tight despite elevation seek medical assistance Do not scratch under cast; do not get cast wet Get

  9. Antibacterial properties of copper iodide-doped glass ionomer-based materials and effect of copper iodide nanoparticles on collagen degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renné, Walter G; Lindner, Amanda; Mennito, Anthony S; Agee, Kelli A; Pashley, David H; Willett, Daniel; Sentelle, David; Defee, Michael; Schmidt, Michael; Sabatini, Camila

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial properties and micro-hardness of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated copper iodide (CuI) nanoparticles incorporated into glass ionomer-based materials, and the effect of PAA-CuI on collagen degradation. PAA-CuI nanoparticles were incorporated into glass ionomer (GI), Ionofil Molar AC, and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), Vitrebond, at 0.263 wt%. The antibacterial properties against Streptococcus mutans (n = 6/group) and surface micro-hardness (n = 5/group) were evaluated. Twenty dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10 wt% phosphoric acid and equally divided in two groups (n = 10/group) for incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF) or SBF containing 1 mg/ml PAA-CuI. The amount of dry mass loss and hydroxyproline (HYP) released were quantified. Kruskal-Wallis, Student's t test, two-way ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney were used to analyze the antibacterial, micro-hardness, dry mass, and HYP release data, respectively (p glass ionomer matrix yielded significant reduction (99.999 %) in the concentration of bacteria relative to the control groups. While micro-hardness values of PAA-CuI-doped GI were no different from its control, PAA-CuI-doped RMGI demonstrated significantly higher values than its control. A significant decrease in dry mass weight was shown only for the control beams (10.53 %, p = 0.04). Significantly less HYP was released from beams incubated in PAA-CuI relative to the control beams (p glass ionomer-based materials as they greatly enhance their antibacterial properties and reduce collagen degradation without an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. The use of copper-doped glass ionomer-based materials under composite restorations may contribute to an increased longevity of adhesive restorations, because of their enhanced antibacterial properties and reduced collagen degradation.

  10. Alternative bases to 4-tert-butylpyridine for dye-sensitized solar cells employing copper redox mediator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferdowsi, P.; Saygili, Y.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Mokhtari, J.; Grätzel, M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 265, MAR 1 (2018), s. 194-201 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrolytes * efficient * cathodes * shuttle * Dye-sensitized solar cells * Copper(II/I) redox mediators * Pyridine bases * Electrochemical characterization Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells , batteries, fuel cells , corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  11. Untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharinin Artem Igorevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Untouchable Castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined in this article. This region is one of the most populated in India. Also it is one of the most social mixed-composed in whole State. That’s why main conclusions which were made on this material can be extrapolated to all social space of country. The authors choose four ethno-caste groups, which represent the majority in untouchables and the three smallest in jaties. Their positions in regional hierarchy and economic specialization are analyzed in detail. There are a lot of information about their number, social structure, literacy rating, endogamy, day-to-day practices, customs and other features. Special accents were pointed on mind orientation of their elites toward integration in modern society or, conversely, toward the conservation of traditional forms of existence. The issues of origin and social evolution of untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined. There is assessment of castes’ sanskritization or other forms of social selfdevelopment. The quality of “scheduled” castes social environment is analyzed. As a marks of its positiveness the data about discrimination untouchables from other social groups and degree of political representativeness of “scheduled” castes, accessibility of education and labour were chosen. The conclusions were made about development degree of some castes. The factors that play role in positive changes in contemporary conditions were determined. The authors put forward their own hypothesis of future development of untouchable castes in Uttar Pradesh. Empiric base of this article was established on sources that have Indian origin and historical and social research of outstanding western indologies.

  12. A new copper(II) Schiff base complex containing asymmetrical tetradentate N2O2 Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivani, Gholamhossein; Baghan, Sara Husseinzadeh; Vakili, Mohammad; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Tahmasebi, Vida; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2015-02-01

    A new copper (II) Schiff base complex, CuL1, was prepared from the reaction of asymmetrical Schiff base ligand of L1 and Cu(OAC)2 (L1 = salicylidene imino-ethylimino-pentan-2-one). The Schiff base ligand, L1, and its copper (II) complex, CuL1, have been characterized by elemental analysis (CHN) and FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, 1H NMR was employed for characterization of the ligand. Thermogrametric analysis of the CuL1 reveals its thermal stability and its decomposition pattern shows that it is finally decomposed to the copper oxide (CuO). The crystal structure of CuL1 was determined by the single crystal X-ray analysis. The CuL1 complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, with space group P21/n and distorted square planar coordination around the metal ion. The Schiff base ligand of L1 acts as a chelating ligand and coordinates via two nitrogen and two oxygen atoms to the copper (II) ion with C1 symmetry. The structure of the CuL1 complex was also studied theoretically at different levels of DFT and basis sets. According to calculated results the Csbnd O bond length of the salicylate fragment is slightly higher than that in the acetylacetonate fragment of ligand, which could be interpreted by resonance increasing between phenyl and chelated rings in ligand in relative to the acetylacetonate fragment.

  13. Macroemulsion-based dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction for preconcentration and determination of copper(II) in gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Francisco Antônio S; Ferreira, Danilo Tadeu S; Andrade, Willy C R; Fernandes, Julys Pablo A; Lyra, Wellington S; Pessoa, Amália G G; de Araujo, Mario Cesar Ugulino

    2018-01-10

    A new method referred to as microemulsion-based Dispersive Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction (MDM-SPE) is presented for use in the extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from complex organic matrices. MDM-SPE combines the features of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and microemulsions. It was successfully applied to the extraction of copper(II) from gasoline prior to its determination by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS). The material for use in MDM-SPE was obtained by first functionalizing MNPs of the type Fe 3 O 4 @Al 2 O 3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelator 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) dispersed in 1-propanol. The resulting functionalized magnetic MNPs were dispersed in a microemulsion prepared from gasoline, buffer, and 1-propanol. After waiting for 5 s (during which the formation of the copper complex on the MNPs is complete), the MNPs are magnetically separated. The complex was then eluted with 2 mol L -1 HNO 3 , and the eluate submitted to GF-AAS. Various parameters were optimized. Copper(II) can be quantified by this method over a linear range that extends from 2.0 to 10.0 μg·L -1 . Other figures of merit include (a) a 37 ng·L -1 detection limit, (b) a repeatability of 1.1%, (c) a reproducibility of 2.1%, and (d) an enrichment factor of nine. The high surface-to-volume ratio of the microemulsion containing the dispersed magnetic sorbent warrants an efficient contact for reaction between copper(II) and the complexing agent, and this results in fast (about 40 s) extraction and pre-concentration of copper(II). MDM-SPE is accurate, precise and efficient. Microemulsions do not break down, and phase separation, heating, laborious, and time-consuming sample preparation, and incorporation of impurities into the graphite furnace (which can generate inaccuracies in GF-AAS analysis) are not needed. Graphical abstract Schematic of a new method for Microemulsion-based Dispersive Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction (MDMSPE

  14. Intensified removal of copper from waste water using activated watermelon based biosorbent in the presence of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metals having significant effects on the living organisms and hence effective removal of copper from waste water is crucial. The current work investigates the application of activated watermelon shell based biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The effect of activation using calcium hydroxide and citric acid as well as the effect of operating parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, pH, initial concentration and ultrasonic power on the extent of removal has been investigated. Experiments performed in the presence of ultrasound to investigate the degree of intensification as compared to the conventional agitation based treatment revealed that the adsorption rate significantly increases in the presence of ultrasound and also the time required for reaching the equilibrium reduces from 60 min in conventional approach to only 20 min in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of adsorption of Cu(II) on adsorbents was found to increase with an increase in the operating pH till an optimum value of 5. The extent of adsorption also increased with a decrease in the initial concentration and particle size as well as with an increase in ultrasonic power till an optimum. Kinetics and isotherm study revealed that all the experimental data was found to best fit the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 31.25mg/g for watermelon treated with calcium hydroxide and 27.027 mg/g for watermelon treated with citric acid. Overall present study established that activated watermelon is an environmentally friendly, low cost and highly efficient biosorbent that can be successfully applied for the removal of copper from aqueous solution with intensification benefits based on the ultrasound assisted approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of casting solvents and filler quantity on the preparation and physiochemical properties of PVC-bentonite based composite polymeric membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.; Mukhtar, A.; Ghauri, M. S.; Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two series of Composite Polymeric Membranes (CPMs) based on Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) and inorganic filler were prepared by solvent casting method, using Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and a mixture of THF and Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The different percentages (5-35 %) of Bentonite clay (79-89 mesh, ASTM) filler were used. The physicochemical parameters of the CPMs i.e. degree of perpendicular swelling, liquid uptake (water, methanol and ethanol), density, ion adsorption capacity (IAC), porosities, electrical resistivity and conductivities were evaluated. The Type-B CPMs cast with THF and DMSO mixture have greater values of the above parameters except density than the Type-A CPMs cast with THF only. The CPMs having more filler show more liquid uptake. The uptake of Water, ethyl alcohol (EtOH), 5M methanol and methanol (MeOH) in Type-B CPMs was found 8-11, 10.12-12.83, 3.40-10.88 and 11.37-15.25 times more than Type-A CPMs. Proton ion adsorption capacity of Type-B CPMs was calculated 2.83 to 8.4 times more than Type-A CPMs. The porosity range of Type-A CPMs was observed 0.0377 to 0.093, 0.0227 to 0.0909, 0.02 to 0.0408 and 0.0476 to 0.1112; whereas porosity range in Type-B CPMs were noted 0.1955 to 0.4919, 0.1477 to 0.4835, 0.115 to 0.2554 and 0.1177 to 0.4447 in deionized water, EtOH, 5M MeOH and MeOH respectively. The conductivity of Type-B CPMs was 150-333 times greater than Type-A CPMs. These all characteristics were compared with pure Poly (Vinyl Chloride) membrane (prepared and studied by same method) cast with DMSO and without DMSO. (author)

  16. Thermal and IR studies on copper doped polyvinyl alcohol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    polymer films were prepared by casting process. Thermal transitions and thermal degradation of samples with respect to copper concentration were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Increase in glass transition temperature as a function of copper ...

  17. Copper-based alloys, crystallographic and crystallochemical parameters of alloys in binary systems Cu-Me (Me=Co, Rh, Ir, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porobova, Svetlana, E-mail: porobova.sveta@yandex.ru; Loskutov, Oleg, E-mail: lom58@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Russia, Tomsk, 2 Solyanaya sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Markova, Tat’jana, E-mail: patriot-rf@mail.ru [Siberian State Industrial University. 42 Kirov St., Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, Vladimir, E-mail: vdklopotov@mail.ru [Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, Anatoliy, E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Russia, Tomsk, 2 Solyanaya sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vlasov, Viktor, E-mail: vik@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Russia, Tomsk, 2 Solyanaya sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The article presents the results of the analysis of phase equilibrium of ordered phases in binary systems based on copper Cu- Me (where Me - Co, Rh, Ir, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt) to find correlations of crystallochemical and crystallographic factors. It is established that the packing index in disordered solid solutions in binary systems based on copper is close to the value of 0.74 against the background of an insignificant deviation of atomic volumes from the Zen’s law.

  18. Inhibition of copper corrosion by the formation of Schiff base self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zheng; Han, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Shi-Liang; Chen, Zhencheng

    2016-12-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4-((2-thiophenecarboxylic acid hydrazide) methylene) benzoic acid (HD2) (denoted as HD2-SAMs) were formed on copper surface. The SAMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Polarization curve and weight loss methods indicated that the highest inhibition efficiency was 93.9% for CO2-saturated simulative oilfield water at a self-assembled time of 3 h. Potential-time curve, electrochemical impedance tests showed that HD2-SAMs on copper surface exhibited excellent inhibition effect at 30 °C. The adsorption behavior of HD2-SAMs on the copper surface followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, which was indicative of typically chemical adsorption. Quantum chemistry calculation showed that O and N atoms can interact with Cu atoms by coordination bonds which were the mainly active area of the adsorption of HD2 molecules.

  19. Local deposition of Copper on Aluminum based MWT Back Contact Foil using Cold Spray Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    MWT cell and module technology has been shown to result in modules with up to 5% higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this study, the use of a low cost conductive back-sheet with aluminium as the current carrier in combination with locally applied copper (5 to 30 {mu}m) using the cold spray method is benchmarked against a standard PVF-PET-copper foil in 2 x 2 cell modules. Cell to module losses and reliability during climate chamber tests according to IEC61215 ed. 2, are comparable to module made with the standard foil. Optimizing the cold spray process can result in a cost reduction of more than a factor 10 of the current carrying component, when compared to a full copper conductive back-sheet foil.

  20. A Nanoarchitecture Based on Silver and Copper Oxide with an Exceptional Response in the Chlorine-Promoted Epoxidation of Ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian; Hueso, Jose L; Suarez, Hugo; Mallada, Reyes; Ibarra, Alfonso; Irusta, Silvia; Santamaria, Jesus

    2016-09-05

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide is highly challenging as a result of competing reaction pathways leading to the deep oxidation of both ethylene and ethylene oxide. Herein we present a novel catalyst based on silver and copper oxide with an excellent response in the selective oxidation pathway towards ethylene epoxide. The catalyst is composed of different silver nanostructures dispersed on a tubular copper oxide matrix. This type of hybrid nanoarchitecture seems to facilitate the accommodation of chlorine promoters, leading to high yields at low reaction temperatures. The stability after the addition of chlorine promoters implies a substantial improvement over the industrial practice: a single pretreatment step at ambient pressure suffices in contrast with the common practice of continuously feeding organochlorinated precursors during the reaction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Slip Casting of {alpha}-Sialon/AlN/BN Powder Carbothermally Prepared by Boron-rich Slag-based Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Junbin; Xue Xiangxin; Jiang Tao; Zhang Qing [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2011-10-29

    With boron-rich slag, silica fume, bauxite chalmette and carbon black as starting materials, {alpha}-Sialon/AlN/BN powder was prepared by carbothermal reduction-nitridation. The powder was attrition milled to submicron size and suspended in water. The effects of yttrium oxide as a sintering aid, pH, and addition of deflocculant on the suspensions were study. Optimum slip casting properties, i.e. lowest viscosity values, the highest absolute zeta potential values, the smallest floc size and sediment volume were found at pH 10 for the powder. The suspensions were used to slip cast discs which were sintered in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1700 deg. C for 2h. The strength was about 230MPa, the toughness 3.6 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2} and the hardness about 13.8GPa.

  2. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G. (Murali); Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  3. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in large zirconia based refractory bricks produced by electro-fusion and casting

    OpenAIRE

    ÖRS , Taylan; Gouraud , Fanny; Guinebretière , René; HUGER , Marc; Michel , Vincent; Castelnau , Olivier

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Electro-fusion and casting is used to produce large refractory bricks (∼250 kg) containing a high amount of ZrO2. These bricks are used in glass-making furnaces where good mechanical performance is required at very high temperatures (>1500 °C). During the manufacturing procedure, they develop large residual stresses as a result of the cooling conditions and structural phase transformations they underwent. This leads to stress concentration and crack formation at differ...

  4. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in large zirconia based refractory bricks produced by electro-fusion and casting

    OpenAIRE

    ÖRS, Taylan; GOURAUD, Fanny; GUINEBRETIÈRE, René; HUGER, Marc; MICHEL, Vincent; CASTELNAU, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Electro-fusion and casting is used to produce large refractory bricks (∼250 kg) containing a high amount of ZrO2. These bricks are used in glass-making furnaces where good mechanical performance is required at very high temperatures (>1500 °C). During the manufacturing procedure, they develop large residual stresses as a result of the cooling conditions and structural phase transformations they underwent. This leads to stress concentration and crack formation at different length scales. In or...

  5. Comparison of Preparation Methods of Copper Based PGMFree Diesel-Soot Oxidation Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available CuO-CeO2 systems have been proposed as a promising catalyst for low temperature diesel-soot oxidation. CuO-CeO2 catalysts prepared by various methods were examined for air oxidation of the soot in a semi batch tubular flow reactor. The air oxidation of soot was carried out under tight contact with soot/catalyst ratio of 1/10. Air flow rate was 150 ml/min, soot-catalyst mixture was 110 mg, heating rate was 5 0C/min. Prepared catalysts were calcined at 500 0C and their stability was examined by further heating to 800 0C for 4 hours. It was found that the selectivity of all the catalysts was nearly 100% to CO2 production. It was observed that the activity and stability of the catalysts greatly influenced by the preparation methods. The strong interaction between CuO and CeO2 is closely related to the preparation route that plays a crucial role in the soot oxidation over the CuO-CeO2 catalysts. The ranking order of the preparation methods of the catalysts in the soot oxidation performance is as follows: sol-gel > urea nitrate combustion > Urea gelation method > thermal decomposition > co-precipitation. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 27th June 2010, Revised: 7th August 2010; Accepted: 13rd October 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2011. Comparison of Preparation Methods of Copper Based PGMFree Diesel-Soot Oxidation Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 15-21. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.822.15-21][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.822.15-21 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/822 | View in 

  6. Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

  7. Inhibition of copper corrosion by the formation of Schiff base self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Liu, Zheng, E-mail: lisa4.6@163.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Han, Guo-Cheng, E-mail: hangc1981@163.com [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Chen, Shi-Liang [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Chen, Zhencheng [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The highest inhibition efficiency was 93.9% for CO{sub 2}-saturated simulative oilfield water. • HD2-SAMs on copper surface exhibited excellent inhibition effect at 30 °C. • The adsorption behavior of HD2-SAM followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • The adsorption behavior of HD2-SAM is a typically chemical adsorption. - Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4-((2-thiophenecarboxylic acid hydrazide) methylene) benzoic acid (HD2) (denoted as HD2-SAMs) were formed on copper surface. The SAMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Polarization curve and weight loss methods indicated that the highest inhibition efficiency was 93.9% for CO{sub 2}-saturated simulative oilfield water at a self-assembled time of 3 h. Potential-time curve, electrochemical impedance tests showed that HD2-SAMs on copper surface exhibited excellent inhibition effect at 30 °C. The adsorption behavior of HD2-SAMs on the copper surface followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, which was indicative of typically chemical adsorption. Quantum chemistry calculation showed that O and N atoms can interact with Cu atoms by coordination bonds which were the mainly active area of the adsorption of HD2 molecules.

  8. CopperCore: a service based approach towards implementing the IMS Learning Design specification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a service developed by the Open University of the Netherlands, called CopperCore which implements an IMS Learning Design engine as service. The overall architecture is described including a detailed description of the web service application programming interfaces.

  9. A sensitive and selective colorimetric method for detection of copper ions based on anti-aggregation of unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Abbasi-Moayed, Samira

    2014-11-01

    A highly sensitive and selective colorimetric method for detection of copper ions, based on anti-aggregation of D-penicillamine (D-PC) induced aggregated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed. Copper ions can hinder the aggregation of AuNPs induced by D-PC, through formation of mixed-valence complex with D-PC that is a selective copper chelator. In the presence of a fixed amount of D-PC, the aggregation of AuNPs decreases with increasing concentrations of Cu(2+) along with a color change from blue to red in AuNPs solution and an increase in the absorption ratio (A520/A650). Under the optimum experimental conditions (pH 7, [AuNPs] =3.0 nmol L(-1) and [NaCl]=25 mmol L(-1)), a linear calibration curve for Cu(2+) was obtained within the range of 0.05-1.85 µmol L(-1) with a limit of detection (3Sb) of 30 nmol L(-1). Excellent selectivity toward Cu(2+) was observed among various metal ions due to a specific complex formation between Cu(2+) and D-PC. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the detection of Cu(2+) in various real samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Synthesis of a Coumarin Carbohydrazide Dinuclear Copper Complex Based Fluorescence Probe and Its Detection of Thiols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjie He

    Full Text Available Small-molecule thiols, such as cysteine (CYS and glutathione (GSH, are essential for maintaining the cellular redox environment and play important roles in regulating various cellular physiological functions. A fluorescence probe (compound 1-Cu2+ for thiols based on coumarin carbohydrazide dinuclear copper complex was developed. Compound 1 was synthesized from the reaction of 7-(diethylamino-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide with 4-tert-butyl-2,6- diformylphenol. Accordingly, the copper complex (compound 1-Cu2+ was prepared by mixing compound 1 with 2 equivalents copper ions. Compound 1 had strong fluorescence while compound 1-Cu2+ hardly possessed fluorescence owing to the quenching nature of paramagnetism Cu2+ to the fluorescence molecule excited state. However, the fluorescence intensity of compound 1-Cu2+ was increased dramatically after the addition of thiol-containing amino acids, but not the other non-sulfhydryl amino acids. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra indicated that compound 1-Cu2+ had good selectivity and sensitivity for thiols such as glutathione in CH3CN:H2O (3:2, v/v PBS solution. The fluorescence imaging experiments implied that compound 1-Cu2+ has potential application in thiol-containing amino acids detection in living cells.

  11. Application of a cold spray technique to the fabrication of a copper canister for the geological disposal of CANDU spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A new method was proposed for the manufacture of a copper-cast iron canister for the spent fuel disposal based on the cold spray coating technique. The thickness of a copper shell could be fabricated to be as thin as 10 mm with the new method. Around 6 tons of copper could be saved with a 10 mm thick canister compared with a 50 mm thick canister. The electrochemical properties of the cold sprayed copper layer and forged copper were measured through a polarization test. The two copper layers showed very similar electrochemical properties. The lifetime of a 10 mm copper canister was estimated with a mathematical model based on the mass transport of sulfide ions through the buffer. The results showed that the canister lifetime was more than 140,000 years under the Korean granite groundwater condition. The thermal analysis with a current pre-conceptual design of a CANDU spent fuel canister showed that the maximum temperature between the canister and the saturated buffer was below the thermal criteria, 100 {sup o}C. Finally, the mechanical stability of the copper canister was confirmed with a computer program, ABAQUS, under the rock movement scenario.

  12. Study on hardness and microstructural characteristics of sand cast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    –Si–Cu alloy system has great importance in casting industry. Copper is a potent precipitation-strengthening agent in aluminium. Cu addi- tions up to about 5% lead to alloys with very high strength and good toughness when subject to natural ...

  13. Extraction of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions with a methimazole-based ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-González, Juan M; Torriero, Angel A J; Siriwardana, Amal I; Burgar, Iko M; Bond, Alan M

    2010-09-15

    The recently synthesized ionic liquid (IL) 2-butylthiolonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, [mimSBu][NTf(2)], has been used for the extraction of copper(II) from aqueous solution. The pH of the aqueous phase decreases upon addition of [mimSBu](+), which is attributed to partial release of the hydrogen attached to the N(3) nitrogen atom of the imidazolium ring. The presence of sparingly soluble water in [mimSBu][NTf(2)] also is required in solvent extraction studies to promote the incorporation of Cu(II) into the [mimSBu][NTf(2)] ionic liquid phase. The labile copper(II) system formed by interacting with both the water and the IL cation component has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry as well as UV-vis, Raman, and (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR spectroscopies. The extraction process does not require the addition of a complexing agent or pH control of the aqueous phase. [mimSBu][NTf(2)] can be recovered from the labile copper-water-IL interacting system by washing with a strong acid. High selectivity of copper(II) extraction is achieved relative to that of other divalent cobalt(II), iron(II), and nickel(II) transition-metal cations. The course of microextraction of Cu(2+) from aqueous media into the [mimSBu][NTf(2)] IL phase was monitored in situ by cyclic voltammetry using a well-defined process in which specific interaction with copper is believed to switch from the ionic liquid cation component, [mimSBu], to the [NTf(2)] anion during the course of electrochemical reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I). The microextraction-voltammetry technique provides a fast and convenient method to determine whether an IL is able to extract electroactive metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  14. Spatial Bimetallic Castings Manufactured from Iron Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conception for manufacturing method of skeleton castings with composite features was shown. Main application of such castings are the working organs of machines subjected to intensive abrasive and erosive wear. Skeleton geometry was based on three-dimensional cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian co-ordinate system. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. For bimetallic castings preparation two Fe based alloys were used: L25SHMN cast steel for skeleton substrate and ZlCr15NiMo cast iron for working part of the casting. In presented work obtained structure was analyzed with indication of characteristic regions. Authors described phenomena occurring at the alloys interface and phases in transition zone. A thesis was formulated concerning localization of transition zone at the cast iron matrix – cast steel reinforcement interface. Direction of further studies were indicated.

  15. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    . As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak...... hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  16. CopperCore 3.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie

    2008-01-01

    CopperCore version 3.1 release notes (2006-20-09) ================================================= 2007-27-03 ADDED: added support for MySQL 2006-12-12 FIXED: referencing to a global personal property from within the unit of earning defining it caused a class cast execption. 2006-12-05 FIXED:

  17. Biocompatibility effects of indirect exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to a human-derived three-dimensional oral mucosal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Emma Louise; Moran, Gary P; Fleming, Garry J P

    2013-11-01

    The study employed a three-dimensional (3D) human-derived oral mucosal model to assess the biocompatibility of base-metal dental casting alloys ubiquitous in fixed prosthodontic and orthodontic dentistry. Oral mucosal models were generated using primary human oral keratinocyte and gingival fibroblast cells seeded onto human de-epidermidised dermal scaffolds. Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) base-metal alloy immersion solutions were exposed to oral mucosal models for increasing time periods (2-72h). Analysis methodologies (histology, viable cell counts, oxidative stress, cytokine expression and toxicity) were performed following exposure. Ni-based alloy immersion solutions elicited significantly decreased cell viability (Palloy immersion solutions did not elicit adverse oxidative stress (P>0.4755) or cellular toxicity (Pmetal alloy immersion solutions elicited significantly detrimental effects to the oral mucosal models, it was possible to distinguish between Ni-Cr alloys using the approach employed. The study employed a 3D human-derived full-thickness differentiated oral mucosal model suitable for biocompatibility assessment of base-metal dental casting alloys through discriminatory experimental parameters. Increasing incidences of Ni hypersensitivity in the general population warrants serious consideration from dental practitioners and patients alike where fixed prosthodontic/orthodontic dental treatments are the treatment modality involved. The novel and analytical oral mucosal model has the potential to significantly contribute to the advancement of reproducible dental medical device and dental material appraisals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expandable pattern casting research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001-0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

  19. Ferrous ion as a reducing agent in the generation of antibiofilm nitric oxide from a copper-based catalytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonoputri, Vita; Gunawan, Cindy; Liu, Sanly; Barraud, Nicolas; Yee, Lachlan H; Lim, May; Amal, Rose

    2018-01-31

    The work found that the electron-donating properties of ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) can be used for the conversion of nitrite (NO 2 - ) into the biofilm-dispersing signal nitric oxide (NO) by a copper(II) complex (CuDTTCT) catalyst, a potentially applicable biofilm control technology for the water industries. The availability of Fe 2+ varied depending on the characteristics of the aqueous systems (phosphate- and carbonate-containing nitrifying bacteria growth medium, NBGM and phosphate buffered saline, PBS at pH 6 to 8, to simulate conditions typically present in the water industries) and was found to affect the production of NO from nitrite by CuDTTCT (casted into PVC). Greater amounts of NO were generated from the CuDTTCT-nitrite-Fe 2+ systems in PBS compared to those in NBGM, which was associated with the reduced extent of Fe 2+ -to-Fe 3+ autoxidation by the iron-precipitating moieties phosphates and carbonate in the former system. Further, acidic conditions at pH 6.0 were found to favor NO production from the catalytic system in both PBS and NBGM compared to neutral or basic pH (pH 7.0 or 8.0). Lower pH was shown to stabilize Fe 2+ and reduce its autoxidation to Fe 3+ . These findings will be beneficial for the potential implementation of the NO-generating catalytic technology and indeed, a 'non-killing' biofilm dispersal activity of CuDTTCT-nitrite-Fe 2+ was observed on nitrifying bacteria biofilms in PBS at pH 6. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caste and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste......–ideological field, the concept of caste-hierarchy seems to continue as an influencing factor, even in the operation of leftist politics....

  1. Modelling of Filling, Microstructure Formation, Local Mechanical Properties and Stress – Strain Development in High-Pressure Die Cast Aluminium Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    .e. whether the casting is based on cast iron- or aluminium-alloys. The distribution of local properties in a casting might vary substantially which makes it complex to optimize the casting with good accuracy. Often, mechanical simulations of the load situation are based on the assumption that the cast...... in an aluminium alloy is considered including simulation of the entire casting process with emphasis on microstructure formation related to mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength and elongation as well as residual stresses. Subsequently, the casting is subjected to service...

  2. Copper (II) ion selective liquid membrane electrode based on new Schiff base carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Vardini, Mohammad Taghi; Naeimi, Hossein

    2006-01-01

    Cu2+ selective PVC membrane electrode based on new Schiff base 2, 2'-[1,9 nonanediyl bis (nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-(1-naphthol) as a selective carrier was constructed. The electrode exhibited a linear potential response within the activity range of 1.0 x 10(-6) - 5.0 x 10(-3) moll(-1) with a Nernstian slope of 29 +/- 1 mV decade(-1) of Cu2+ activity and a limit of detection 8.0 x 10(-7) mol l(-1). The response time of the electrode was fast, 10 s, and stable potentials were obtained within the pH range of 3.5- 6.5. The potentiometric selectivity coefficients were evaluated using two solution method and revealed no important interferences except for Ag+ ion. The proposed electrode was applied as an indicator electrode to potentiometric titration of Cu2+ ions and determination of Cu2+ content in real samples such as black tea leaves and multivitamin capsule.

  3. Is Casting for Non-Displaced Simple Scaphoid Waist Fracture Effective? A CT Based Assessment of Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Ruby; Suh, Nina; MacDermid, Joy C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the union rate and time to union for acute non-displaced scaphoid waist fractures treated with a short arm thumb spica cast. A database was searched (2006-2013) to identify acute undisplaced scaphoid waist fractures. Cases that were not given a trial of casting were excluded (n=33). X-rays, CT scans and health records for each patient were reviewed to extract data. 172 patients met inclusion criteria. There were 138 males, 34 females, the mean age was 30 ± 16 years. The union rate was 99.4% (1 nonunion/172 subjects). The mean time to union was approximately 7.5 weeks (53 ± 37 days). Energy of injury, age or gender did not affect union rates or time to union. Cysts did not affect the union rate (p=0.73) but patients with cystic resorption along the fracture line required approximately 10 weeks for union (69 ± 60 days) compared to 7 weeks (51 ± 34 days) for those without cysts (p=0.05). Diabetes did not affect the union rate (p=0.81) but was found to increase the risk of delayed union (p=0.05). There was a weak, but statistically significant correlation between the number of days before the fracture was casted and the length of time needed to achieve union (r=0.27, p=0.001). Non-displaced scaphoid waist fractures have a high healing rate with appropriate identification and immobilization. Follow-up CT scans to assess healing can identify union within a shorter time frame (~7 weeks) than previously reported in the literature.

  4. The present status of dental titanium casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Toru; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Watanabe, Ikuya; Okuno, Osamu; Takada, Yukyo

    1998-09-01

    Experimentation in all aspects of titanium casting at universities and industries throughout the world for the last 20 years has made titanium and titanium-alloy casting nearly feasible for fabricating sound cast dental prostheses, including crowns, inlays, and partial and complete dentures. Titanium casting in dentistry has now almost reached the stage where it can seriously be considered as a new method to compete with dental casting using conventional noble and base-metal alloys. More than anything else, the strength of titanium’s appeal lies in its excellent biocompatibility, coupled with its comparatively low price and abundant supply. Research efforts to overcome some problems associated with this method, including studies on the development of new titanium alloys suitable for dental use, will continue at many research sites internationally.

  5. Numerical simulation on semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite based on orthogonal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; He, Xiongwei; Guo, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Three factors (pouring temperature, injection speed and mold temperature) were selected to do three levels L9 (33)orthogonal experiment, then simulate processing of semi-solid die-casting of magnesium matrix composite by Flow-3D software. The stress distribution, temperature field and defect distribution of filling process were analyzed to find the optimized processing parameter with the help of orthogonal experiment. The results showed that semi-solid has some advantages of well-proportioned stress and temperature field, less defect concentrated in the surface. The results of simulation were the same as the experimental results.

  6. Engineering design of centrifugal casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnowo, Roni; Gunara, Sophiadi

    2017-06-01

    Centrifugal casting is a metal casting process in which metal liquid is poured into a rotating mold at a specific temperature. Given round will generate a centrifugal force that will affect the outcome of the casting. Casting method is suitable in the manufacture of the casting cylinder to obtain better results. This research was performed to design a prototype machine by using the concept of centrifugal casting. The design method was a step-by-step systematic approach in the process of thinking to achieve the desired goal of realizing the idea and build bridges between idea and the product. Design process was commenced by the conceptual design phase and followed by the embodiment design stage and detailed design stage. With an engineering design process based on the method developed by G. E. Dieter, draft prototype of centrifugal casting machine with dimension of 550×450×400 mm, ¼ HP motor power, pulley and belt mechanism, diameter of 120-150mm, simultaneously with the characteristics of simple casting product, easy manufacture and maintenance, and relatively inexpensive, was generated.

  7. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. In range of studies was made cast steel test castings withcomposite surface layer, which usability for industrial applications was estimated by criterion of hardness and aberasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral and quality of joint cast steel – (Fe-Cr-C. Based on conducted studies a thesis, that composite surface layer arise from liquid state, was formulated. Moreover, possible is control of composite layer thickness and its hardness by suitable selection of parameters i.e. thickness of insert, pouring temperature and solidification modulus of casting. Possibility of technology application of composite surface layer in manufacture of cast steel slide bush for combined cutter loader is presented.

  8. Evolution of halictine castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, Gerd

    1980-03-01

    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  9. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1) the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc.), and (2) the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  10. REMOVAL OF COPPER IONS USING ALIQUAT 336/TBP BASED SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad Medjahed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of copper (II present in an aqueous media using a supported liquid membrane (SLM by chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium (Aliquat 336 and Tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP from molar ratio 1:1, with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a membrane support was studied. The effects of various parameters as initial pH, KSCN concentration and ammonium acetate concentration on the extraction yield were carried out. By a calculation program using CHEAQS V. L20.1, the determination of the percentages of the present species before and after extraction were given, in aqueous medium and on the membrane to be able to determine the relation between the nature of the extracted species and the extraction yield. The 23 factorial design achieve the best conditions of recovery procedure. The recovery of copper (II is almost quantitative (94 %, in one step.

  11. Thermoeconomic analysis of a copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle for nuclear-based hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, Mehmet F.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Thermochemical water splitting with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is a promising process that could be linked with nuclear reactors to decompose water into its constituents, oxygen and hydrogen, through intermediate copper and chlorine compounds. In this paper, a comprehensive exergoeconomic analysis of the Cu-Cl cycle is reported to evaluate the production costs as a function of the amount and quality of the energy used for hydrogen production, as well as the costs of the exergy losses and the exergoeconomic improvement potential of the equipment used in the process. An additional objective is to determine changes in the design parameters of the Cu-Cl cycle that improve the cost effectiveness of the overall system. (orig.)

  12. Resistive Ammonia Gas Sensor Based on Non-Stoichiometric Copper Sulfide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay A. Sagade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistive ammonia gas sensor is fabricated by using solution growth technique deposited copper sulfide (Cu1.8S thin films. Structural and opto-electronic properties of the films are studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, optical absorbance and electrical resistance. Ammonia gas sensor response measured from 20 to 500 ppm concentration at room temperature (300 K. The sensor response is increases with gas concentration.

  13. Anti-cancer activity and mutagenic potential of novel copper(II) quinolinone Schiff base complexes in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Brian; Thangella, Venkat Reddy; Creaven, Bernadette S; Walsh, Maureen; Egan, Denise A

    2012-08-15

    This study determined the cytotoxic, cyto-selective and mutagenic potential of novel quinolinone Schiff base ligands and their corresponding copper(II) complexes in human-derived hepatic carcinoma cells (Hep-G2) and non-malignant human-derived hepatic cells (Chang). Results indicated that complexation of quinolinone Schiff bases with copper served to significantly enhance cytotoxicity. Here, the complex of (7E)-7-(3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzylideamino)-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (TV117-FM) exhibited the lowest IC(50) value (17.9 μM) following 96 h continuous exposure, which was comparable to cisplatin (15.0 μM). However, results revealed that TV117-FM lacked cytoselectivity over non-malignant cells. Additionally, the complex was minimally effluxed from cells via Pglycoprotein (P-gp) and was shown to be non-mutagenic in the Standard Ames test. Furthermore, BrdU incorporation assays showed that it was capable of inhibiting DNA synthesis in a concentrationand time-dependent manner. However, inhibition was not as a consequence of DNA intercalation, as illustrated in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Interestingly, it was shown that the ligand was capable of inhibiting the action of topoisomerase II, but this was lost following complexation. This indicated that the mechanism of action of the novel copper(II) complex was different from that of the parent ligand and suggests that TV117-FM may have a therapeutic role to play in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies are currently underway to elucidate the exact in vitro mechanism of action of this novel, metal-based anti-cancer agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation of stray grain formation at the platform during Ni-base single crystal superalloy DD403 casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-feng Gao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of stray grain formation at the platform of turbine blade simulator and the effect of withdrawal rate (V on the stray grain phenomenon have been investigated using a macro-scale ProCAST coupled with a 3D Cellular Automaton Finite Element (CAFE model. The results indicate that the stray grains nucleate at the edges of platform at V =150 μm·s-1 and 200 μm·s-1. Using ProCAST computer simulation software, it was proven that the stray grain formation is significantly dependent on the undercooling and the temperature field distribution in the platform. The macroscopic curvature of the liquidus isotherm becomes markedly concave with an increase in the withdrawal rate. The probability of stray grain formation at the edges of platform can be increased by increasing the withdrawal rate in the range of 70 μm·s-1 to 200 μm·s-1.

  15. Chemical bonding in copper-based transparent conducting oxides: CuMO{sub 2} (M = In, Ga, Sc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, K G; Morgan, B J; Allen, J P; Scanlon, D O; Watson, G W, E-mail: scanloda@tcd.ie, E-mail: watsong@tcd.ie [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-08-24

    The geometry and electronic structure of copper-based p-type delafossite transparent conducting oxides, CuMO{sub 2} (M = In, Ga, Sc), are studied using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (GGA + U). The bonding and valence band compositions of these materials are investigated, and the origins of changes in the valence band features between group 3 and group 13 cations are discussed. Analysis of the effective masses at the valence and conduction band edge explains the experimentally reported conductivity trends.

  16. An image-brightness amplifier based on copper bromide vapor for operation at increased superradiance pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigub, M. V.; Vlasov, V. V.; Torgaev, S. N.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    We present data on the development and application of an image-brightness amplifier based on copper bromide vapor intended for the visualization of objects occurring at distances above 5 m from the detecting equipment. An increase in the superradiance (gain) pulse duration was achieved by decreasing the repetition frequency of pumping pulses (to 3 kHz) and increasing the capacitance of the capacitor bank (up to 3.4 nF) so as to increase the deposited pulse energy. The basic possibility of creating active optical systems with brightness amplifiers (laser monitors) for the visualization of objects and processes occurring at large distances from a registration system is demonstrated.

  17. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Yu, Baihong; Lv, Yutao; Li, Bin

    2017-10-14

    A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe) cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS), and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM) is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa) and temperatures (180~250 °C). With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL), the cast iron liner enters into a "polish wear" stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs.

  18. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS, and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa and temperatures (180~250 °C. With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL, the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs.

  19. Microstructure and High Temperature Plastic Deformation Behavior of Al-12Si Based Alloy Fabricated by an Electromagnetic Casting and Stirring Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Kyung-Soo; Roh, Heung-Ryeol; Kim, Mok-Soon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Joon-Pyo [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    An as-received EMC/S (electromagnetic casting and stirring)-processed Al-12Si based alloy billet was homogenized to examine its microstructure and high temperature plastic deformation behavior, using compressive tests over the temperature range from 623 to 743 K and a strain rate range from 1.0×10{sup -3} to 1.0×10{sup 0}s{sup -1}. The results were compared with samples processed by the direct chill casting (DC) method. The fraction of equiaxed structure for the as-received EMC/S billet(41%) was much higher than that of the as-received DC billet(6 %). All true stress – true strain curves acquired from the compressive tests exhibited a peak stress at the initial stage of plastic deformation. Flow stress showed a steady state region after the appearance of peak stress with increasing strain. The peak stress decreased with increasing temperature at a given strain rate and a decreasing strain rate at a given temperature. A constitutive equation was made for each alloy, which could be used to predict the peak stress. A recrystallized grain structure was observed in all the deformed specimens, indicating that dynamic recrystallization is the predominant mechanism during high temperature plastic deformation of both the homogenized EMC/S and DC-processed Al-12Si based alloys.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Urease Inhibition of Schiff Bases Derived from Isoniazid and Fluorinated Benzaldehydes and of Their Copper(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Habala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of substitution on biological properties of Schiff bases and their metal complexes, a series of differently substituted fluorine-containing Schiff bases starting from the drug isoniazid (isonicotinylhydrazide were prepared and their structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Also, four copper(II complexes of these Schiff bases were synthesized. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and urease inhibition. Two of the Schiff bases exerted activity against C. albicans. All copper(II complexes showed excellent inhibitory properties against jack bean urease, considerably better than that of the standard inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid.

  1. Conjugation of a new series of dithiocarbazate Schiff base Copper(II) complexes with vectors selected to enhance antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, May Lee; Maigre, Laure; Dorlet, Pierre; Guillot, Régis; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Crouse, Karen A; Policar, Clotilde; Delsuc, Nicolas

    2014-12-17

    A new series of six Schiff bases derived from S-methyldithiocarbazate (SMDTC) and S-benzyldithiocarbazate (SBDTC) with methyl levulinate (SMML, SBML), levulinic acid (SMLA, SBLA), and 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (SM4CB, SB4CB) were reacted with copper(II), producing complexes of general formula ML2 (M = Cu(II), L = ligand). All compounds were characterized using established physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Crystal structures were determined for three Schiff bases (SMML, SBML, SBLA) and two Cu(II) complexes (Cu(SMML)2 and Cu(SMLA)2). In order to provide more insight into the behavior of the complexes in solution, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electrochemical experiments were performed. The parent ligands and their respective copper(II) complexes exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The most active ligand (SB4CB) and its analogous S-methyl derivative (SM4CB) were conjugated with various vector moieties: polyarginines (R1, R4, R9, and RW9), oligoethylene glycol (OEG), and an efflux pump blocker, phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Nonaarginine (R9) derivatives showed the most encouraging synergistic effects upon conjugation and complexation with copper ion including enhanced water solubility, bacteria cell membrane permeability, and bioactivity. These Cu(II)-R9 derivatives display remarkable antibacterial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and, in particular, are highly efficacious against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.5-1 μM. This pioneer study clearly indicates that the conjugation of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to dithiocarbazate compounds greatly enhances their therapeutic potential.

  2. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  3. Cool Cast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleeve to protect it in the bath or shower. A splint does the same thing as a cast: It keeps the broken or injured bone from moving so it can heal. It also usually has a soft layer of cotton inside. A splint can be made from the same materials as a cast or may be a pre- ...

  4. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology] [comp.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  5. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  6. A robust segmentation approach based on analysis of features for defect detection in X-ray images of aluminium castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecomte, G.; Kaftandjian, V.; Cendre, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    A robust image processing algorithm has been developed for detection of small and low contrasted defects, adapted to X-ray images of castings having a non-uniform background. The sensitivity to small defects is obtained at the expense of a high false alarm rate. We present in this paper a feature...... extraction approach to complement the image processing, reducing the false alarms rate, while keeping a high defect detection rate, which is impossible by image processing techniques alone. ROC curves show a very good performance by using a new feature parameter, called 'Defect Confidence Index', combining...... three parameters and taking into account the fact that X-ray grey-levels follow a statistical normal law. Results are shown on a set of 684 images, involving 59 defects, on which we obtained a 100% detection rate without any false alarm....

  7. Project Based Learning on Casting of Aluminium Tensile Test Specimen for Mechanical Engineering Students, State Polytechnic of Malang on Odd Semester of Academic Year 2016/2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem faced by students is the difficulty of understanding on metal casting topic in the lesson of Materials Technology which is conducted by lectures only. The research objective is to find out the improvement of score on metal casting topic for 1G students from Mechanical Engineering Department, State Polytechnic of Malang (Polinema in odd Semester, Academic Year 2016/2017. Research method were facilitation of applied metal casting through pretest of metal casting, added a description of the design and modification of metal mould for Aluminium, visit to a home industry of Aluminium casting, students practice of Aluminium casting in a home industry, student groups presentation and discussion in the subtopics of (1 design and mould manufacture, (2 Aluminium casting practice, and (3 tensile testing with cast Aluminium specimen, as well as posttest on metal casting. The research result is an increasing in average score from 46.56 to 53.6 (22% that means by adding the practice to the theory involved is increase a significant impact on understanding of Aluminium casting for students.

  8. Caste-based social inequalities and childhood anemia in India: results from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Jaglan, Ajay; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-06-05

    Caste is one of the traditional measures of social segregation in India and differs from other indicators as it is both, endogamous and hereditary. Evidence suggests that belonging to lower castes exposes one to social inequalities and affects health adversely. We examined the association of caste with childhood anemia in India and explored the effect modifying role of adult education and household wealth. A cross-sectional analysis of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data of 43,484 children aged 6-59 months was performed. Poisson regression analysis was conducted to study the association between caste and childhood anemia accounting for various maternal, child, and household related variables. Caste was categorized as "other caste" (least disadvantageous), "other backward caste", "scheduled tribe" and "scheduled caste" (most disadvantageous). Anemia was defined as mild (hemoglobin level 7-11 g/dL), moderate (hemoglobin level 5-7 g/dL) and severe (hemoglobin level childhood anemia in India. The level of adult education and household wealth did not modify the association between caste and childhood anemia. The findings may be used for countering childhood anemia and it may be beneficial to target future public health actions towards disadvantageous castes in India.

  9. A fast and efficient adaptive parallel ray tracing based model for thermally coupled surface radiation in casting and heat treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, J.; Schaefer, W.

    2015-06-01

    A new algorithm for heat exchange between thermally coupled diffusely radiating interfaces is presented, which can be applied for closed and half open transparent radiating cavities. Interfaces between opaque and transparent materials are automatically detected and subdivided into elementary radiation surfaces named tiles. Contrary to the classical view factor method, the fixed unit sphere area subdivision oriented along the normal tile direction is projected onto the surrounding radiation mesh and not vice versa. Then, the total incident radiating flux of the receiver is approximated as a direct sum of radiation intensities of representative “senders” with the same weight factor. A hierarchical scheme for the space angle subdivision is selected in order to minimize the total memory and the computational demands during thermal calculations. Direct visibility is tested by means of a voxel-based ray tracing method accelerated by means of the anisotropic Chebyshev distance method, which reuses the computational grid as a Chebyshev one. The ray tracing algorithm is fully parallelized using MPI and takes advantage of the balanced distribution of all available tiles among all CPU's. This approach allows tracing of each particular ray without any communication. The algorithm has been implemented in a commercial casting process simulation software. The accuracy and computational performance of the new radiation model for heat treatment, investment and ingot casting applications is illustrated using industrial examples.

  10. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1 the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc., and (2 the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  11. Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled to a Paper-Based Technique for Trace Copper in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Casey W; Cate, David; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel; Reilly, Thomas; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2018-02-22

    Metal contamination of natural and drinking water systems poses hazards to public and environmental health. Quantifying metal concentrations in water typically requires sample collection in the field followed by expensive laboratory analysis that can take days to weeks to obtain results. The objective of this work was to develop a low-cost, field-deployable method to quantify trace levels of copper in drinking water by coupling solid-phase extraction/preconcentration with a microfluidic paper-based analytical device. This method has the advantages of being hand-powered (instrument-free) and using a simple 'read by eye' quantification motif (based on color distance). Tap water samples collected across Fort Collins, CO were tested with this method and validated against ICP-MS. We demonstrate the ability to quantify the copper content of tap-water within 30% of a reference technique at levels ranging from 20 to 3500 ppb. The application of this technology, which should be sufficient as a rapid screening tool, can lead to faster, more cost-effective detection of soluble metals in water systems.

  12. Phenyl and ionic liquid based bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica supported copper: An efficient nanocatalyst for clean production of polyhydroquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamifar, Dawood; Ardeshirfard, Hakimeh

    2017-11-01

    A novel phenyl and ionic liquid based bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica supported copper (Cu@BPMO-Ph-IL) is prepared, characterized and its catalytic application is developed in the clean production of polyhydroquinolines. The Cu@BPMO-Ph-IL was prepared via chemical grafting of ionic liquid groups onto phenyl-based PMO followed by treatment with copper acetate. This nanocatalyst was characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTs), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), nitrogen-sorption and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. This was successfully applied in the one-pot Hantzsch condensation of aldehydes, ammonium acetate, alkylacetoacetates and dimedone to prepare a set of different derivatives of polyhydroquinolines in high yields and selectivity. The catalyst was effectively recovered and reused several times without important decrease in efficiency. The recovered catalyst was also characterized with TEM analysis to study its stability and durability under applied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Salicylate ion-selective electrode based on new tetranuclear copper complexes of O-vannlin-methionine as neutral carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guangrong; Chai, Yaqin; Ruo, Yuan; Zhou, Lu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lina

    2007-02-01

    A new salicylate-selective PVC membrane electrode based on a new Schiff base tetranuclear copper complex of O-vannlin-methionine (Cu(II)(4)-TVM) as a neutral carrier is described. This electrode displays a preferential potentiometric response to salicylate and an anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence in the following order: Sal(-) > ClO(4)(-) > SCN(-) > I(-) > NO(2)(-) > NO(3)(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > SO(3)(2-) > SO(4)(2-) > H(2)PO(4)(-). The electrode exhibits near-Nernstian potential linear range of 1.5 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-1) M with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-7) M and a slope of -56.3 mV/decade in pH 3.0-8.0 of phosphorate buffer solution at 20 degrees C. Thanks to the tetranuclear copper(II) in the carrier, the electrode has the advantages of simplicity, fast response, fair stability and reproducibility and low detection limit. The response mechanism to the electrodes is discussed by the a.c. impedance technique and the UV spectroscopy technique. The electrode can be applied to analyses of medicine and the results obtained are in fair agreement with the results given by a standard method.

  14. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  15. Corrosion Rate of Copper and Iron in Seawater Based on Resistance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmanto, W.H; Gunawan,; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2002-01-01

    Copper and iron metal wire corrosion in artificial sea water have been investigated in three corrosion systems, in the (i) closed bath, (ii) opened or air exposed bath, and (iii) aerated bath. The aim of our investigation is to determine the effect of oxygen contained in the air to the metals' corrosivity. Artificial sea water was prepared by dissolving 173.59 g sodium chloride and 4.91 g potassium chloride in 7.00 kg of water at 230C.The corrosion experiment was carried out under the const...

  16. CAST with its micromegas detector installed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) uses a prototype LHC dipole magnet to search for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. The magnet converts the solar axions to photons which are then detected by an X-ray detector based on Micromegas technology. CAST's Micromegas detector has now been installed. Photos 01 02: General view of the CAST experiment with the Micromegas detector in place. Photo 03: Close-up of the micromegas set-up.

  17. Leaching of Copper Ore by Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, John; Biaha, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative laboratory exercise based upon the procedures copper manufacturers employ to increase copper production is described. The role of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in biogeologic process is emphasized. Safety considerations when working with bacteria are included. (KR)

  18. Temporal trends of copper-bearing intrauterine device discontinuation: a population-based birth-cohort study of contraceptive use among rural married women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Tan, Xiaodong; Song, Xiangjing; Zhang, Kaining; Fang, Jing; Peng, Lin; Qi, Wencai; Nie, Zonghui; Li, Ming; Deng, Rui; Yan, Chaofang

    2015-03-01

    Copper-bearing intrauterine device (IUD) insertion for long-term contraceptive use is high in China, but there has been evidence that first-year discontinuation rate of copper-bearing IUD has also increased rapidly in recent years especially among rural married women. To investigate long-term use of copper-bearing IUD, the authors examined the 7-year temporal trends of copper-bearing IUD discontinuation in a population-based birth-cohort study among 720 rural married women in China, from 2004 to 2012. Women requesting contraception were followed-up twice per year after the insertion of IUD. The gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates were calculated for each of the main reasons for discontinuation as well as for all reasons combined. By the end of 7 years, 384 discontinuations were observed. With a stepped-up trend, the gross cumulative life table rate for discontinuation increased from 10.06 (95% confidence interval = 7.86-12.27) per 100 women by the first year to 52.69 (95% confidence interval = 48.94-56.44) per 100 women by the end of 7 years, which increased rapidly in the first 2 years after copper-bearing IUD insertion, flattened out gradually in the following 2 years, then increased again in the last 3 years. Among reported method failure, expulsion and side effects were the main reasons for discontinuation of the copper-bearing IUD but not pregnancy. Personal reasons, such as renewal by personal will had influenced copper-bearing IUD use since the second year and should not be neglected. Based on this study, the temporal trends of copper-bearing IUD discontinuation was in a stepped-up trend in 7 years after insertion. Both reported method failure (expulsion and side effect) and personal reason had effect on the discontinuation of copper-bearing IUD, but pregnancy was no more the most important reason affecting the use of copper-bearing IUD. © 2014 APJPH.

  19. The Effects of Secondary Oxides on Copper-Based Catalysts for Green Methanol Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, James S; Smith, Paul J; Kondrat, Simon A; Bowker, Michael; Hutchings, Graham J

    2017-05-10

    Catalysts for methanol synthesis from CO 2 and H 2 have been produced by two main methods: co-precipitation and supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) precipitation. These two methods are compared, along with the behaviour of copper supported on Zn, Mg, Mn, and Ce oxides. Although the SAS method produces initially active material with high Cu specific surface area, they appear to be unstable during reaction losing significant amounts of surface area and hence activity. The CuZn catalysts prepared by co-precipitation, however, showed much greater thermal and reactive stability than the other materials. There appeared to be the usual near-linear dependence of activity upon Cu specific area, though the initial performance relationship was different from that post-reaction, after some loss of surface area. The formation of the malachite precursor, as reported before, is important for good activity and stability, whereas if copper oxides are formed during the synthesis and ageing process, then a detrimental effect on these properties is seen.

  20. Molecular recognition between DNA and a copper-based anticancer complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Ruíz-Azuara, Lena; Moreno-Esparza, Rafael; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2012-11-28

    The aim of this work is to describe the specific recognition site between DNA and an anticancer copper complex by means of computational methods. Molecular dynamics were used to find the preferred site of binding between selected DNA chains and [Cu(2,2'-bipyridine)(acetylacetonate)(H(2)O)](+) (Cas). Full DFT optimizations of selected geometries extracted from simulations, followed by a topological analysis of electron density allowed us to define the specific interactions inside the recognition site. Cas links deoxyribose-phosphate by a coordination bond between metal and the phosphate group. There are several C-H···π, O···π(C) and O···π(N) interactions between the sugar group and the aromatic ligand of Cas. The results indicate that the adduct Cas-deoxyribose-phosphate may be an initial step toward the hydrolysis of DNA chains. Overall, this study provides insights into the initial step of the action mechanism of copper complexes as apoptosis-inducing agents and provides guidelines for the design of this kind of drugs.

  1. Modelling the Cast Component Weight in Hot Chamber Die Casting using Combined Taguchi and Buckingham's π Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder

    2018-02-01

    Hot chamber (HC) die casting process is one of the most widely used commercial processes for the casting of low temperature metals and alloys. This process gives near-net shape product with high dimensional accuracy. However in actual field environment the best settings of input parameters is often conflicting as the shape and size of the casting changes and one have to trade off among various output parameters like hardness, dimensional accuracy, casting defects, microstructure etc. So for online inspection of the cast components properties (without affecting the production line) the weight measurement has been established as one of the cost effective method (as the difference in weight of sound and unsound casting reflects the possible casting defects) in field environment. In the present work at first stage the effect of three input process parameters (namely: pressure at 2nd phase in HC die casting; metal pouring temperature and die opening time) has been studied for optimizing the cast component weight `W' as output parameter in form of macro model based upon Taguchi L9 OA. After this Buckingham's π approach has been applied on Taguchi based macro model for the development of micro model. This study highlights the Taguchi-Buckingham based combined approach as a case study (for conversion of macro model into micro model) by identification of optimum levels of input parameters (based on Taguchi approach) and development of mathematical model (based on Buckingham's π approach). Finally developed mathematical model can be used for predicting W in HC die casting process with more flexibility. The results of study highlights second degree polynomial equation for predicting cast component weight in HC die casting and suggest that pressure at 2nd stage is one of the most contributing factors for controlling the casting defect/weight of casting.

  2. SIMULATIONS OF DISTRIBUTIONS OF SHRINKAGE DEFECTS IN THE CASTING WITH THE PROFITS BASED ON THE NAVIER-STOKES AND FOURIER-KIRCHHOFF EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the process of obtaining a cast steel of bearing cases were performed for two options of technical processing. Three-dimensional motion dynamics ofsteel was calculated in the gate-casting system, three-dimensional temperature fields and densities in the process of casting were calculated as well. The possibilities of computer simulation were shown in order to find the best technical processing in the foundry production.

  3. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  4. Linear arrangements of nano-scale ferromagnetic particles spontaneously formed in a copper-base Cu–Ni–Co alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Hibiki; Kim, Jun-Seop; Takeda, Mahoto

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of magnetic interactions on the microstructural evolution of nano-scale granular precipitates formed spontaneously in an annealed Cu-20at%Ni-5at%Co alloy and the associated changes of magnetic properties. The techniques used included transmission electron microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, magneto-thermogravimetry (MTG), and first-principles calculations based on the method of Koster–Korringa–Rostker with the coherent potential approximation. Our work has revealed that the nano-scale spherical and cubic precipitates which formed on annealing at 873 K and 973 K comprise mainly cobalt and nickel with a small amount of copper, and are arranged in the 〈1 0 0〉 direction of the copper matrix. The SQUID and MTG measurements suggest that magnetic properties such as coercivity and Curie temperature are closely correlated with the microstructure. The combination of results suggests that magnetic interactions between precipitates during annealing can explain consistently the observed precipitation phenomena.

  5. Impedimetric Thiourea Sensing in Copper Electrorefining Bath based on DC Magnetron Sputtered Nanosilver as Highly Uniform Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, S.A.; Amoli, H. Salar; Simorgh, S.; Rahmanian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of a novel disposable impedimetric thiourea sensor based on nanostructured Ag film transducer. • Exploiting sputtering as a high-tech method for preparation of highly uniform nanostructured Ag film. • A wonderful combination of nanostructured Ag film and carbon paper substrate as remarkably stable and reproducible sensor for thiourea detection in copper electrorefining bath. • Application of impedimetric assessment for thiourea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability. - Abstract: Highly uniform sputtered nanostructured silver (Nano-Ag) film on the conductive carbon paper (CP) substrate (Nano-Ag/CP) was applied as a novel approach for thiourea (TU) measurement in copper electrorefining bath. Nano-Ag film was achieved by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system at the optimized instrumental deposition conditions. Characterization of the surface structure of Nano-Ag film by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), exhibits uniform Nano-Ag film as an effective transducer for TU sensing. Step by step monitoring of Nano-Ag/CP electrode fabrication were performed using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Fabricated Nano-Ag/CP electrode was used for TU determination using EIS assessment. The impedimetric results show high sensitivity for TU sensing within 2.0–250 ppm.

  6. The influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing and alternate heat treatment on the structure and properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    A development program has been conducted to improve the cyclic properties of the PWA 1480 single-crystal superalloy by reducing or entirely eliminating casting porosity at fatigue-initiation sites, through the use of improved casting process parameters and HIPing; potential mechanical property improvements in a high-pressure hydrogen environment were also sought in alternatives to the standard coating and heat-treatment cycle. High thermal gradient casting was found to yield a reduction in overall casting porosity density and pore sizes. The most dramatic mechanical property improvement resulted from HIPing.

  7. Copper Oxide Thin Films through Solution Based Methods for Electrical Energy Conversion and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changqiong

    Copper oxides (Cu2O and CuO), composed of non-toxic and earth abundant elements, are promising materials for electrical energy generation and storage devices. Solution based techniques for creating thin films of these materials, such as electrodeposition, are important to understand and develop because of their potential for realizing substantial energy savings compared to traditional fabrication methods. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), with its direct band gap, is a p-type semiconductor that is well suited for creating solution-processed photovoltaic devices (solar cells); several key advancements made toward this application are the primary focus of this thesis. Electrodeposition of single-phase, crystalline Cu2O thin films is demonstrated using previously unexplored, acidic lactate/Cu2+ solutions, which has provided additional understanding of the impacts of growth solution chemistry on film formation. The influence of pH on the resulting Cu2O thin film properties is revealed by using the same ligand (sodium lactate) at various solution pH values. Cu2O films grown from acidic lactate solutions can exhibit a distinctive flowerlike, dendritic morphology, in contrast to the faceted, dense films obtained using alkaline lactate solutions. Relative speciation distributions of the various metal complex ions present under different growth conditions are calculated using reported equilibrium association constants and experimentally supported by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Dependence of thin film morphology on the lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio and applied potential is described. Cu2O/eutectic gallium-indium Schottky junction devices are formed and devices are tested under monochromatic green LED illumination. Further surface examination of the Cu2O films using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the fact that films grown from acidic lactate solution with a small lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio, which exhibit improved photovoltaic performance compared to films grown from

  8. DNA cleavage, structural elucidation and anti-microbial studies of three novel mixed ligand Schiff base complexes of copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new copper complexes of mixed ligands derived from Schiff bases (condensation of p-aminoacetanilide and substituted benzaldehydes with 1,10-phenanthroline have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV–Vis, magnetic moments, conductivity and electrochemical measurements. The spectral techniques suggest that all the copper complexes exhibit octahedral geometry. The low electrical conductance of the complexes supports their neutral nature. The monomeric nature of the complexes was assessed from their magnetic susceptibility values. The in vitro biological screening effects of the investigated compounds were tested against the bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi and the fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Candida albicans by the serial dilution method. A comparative study of the MIC values of the Schiff bases and their copper complexes indicates that the metal complexes exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the free ligands. The DNA cleavage ability of the complexes was monitored by the gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that electron withdrawing group substituted copper complex had higher DNA cleavage activity than the other copper complexes.

  9. A Time-Variant Reliability Model for Copper Bending Pipe under Seawater-Active Corrosion Based on the Stochastic Degradation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Liao, Baopeng; Li, Mengmeng; Ren, Yi; Feng, Qiang; Yang, Dezhen

    2018-03-27

    In the degradation process, the randomness and multiplicity of variables are difficult to describe by mathematical models. However, they are common in engineering and cannot be neglected, so it is necessary to study this issue in depth. In this paper, the copper bending pipe in seawater piping systems is taken as the analysis object, and the time-variant reliability is calculated by solving the interference of limit strength and maximum stress. We did degradation experiments and tensile experiments on copper material, and obtained the limit strength at each time. In addition, degradation experiments on copper bending pipe were done and the thickness at each time has been obtained, then the response of maximum stress was calculated by simulation. Further, with the help of one kind of Monte Carlo method we propose, the time-variant reliability of copper bending pipe was calculated based on the stochastic degradation process and interference theory. Compared with traditional methods and verified by maintenance records, the results show that the time-variant reliability model based on the stochastic degradation process proposed in this paper has better applicability in the reliability analysis, and it can be more convenient and accurate to predict the replacement cycle of copper bending pipe under seawater-active corrosion.

  10. A Time-Variant Reliability Model for Copper Bending Pipe under Seawater-Active Corrosion Based on the Stochastic Degradation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the degradation process, the randomness and multiplicity of variables are difficult to describe by mathematical models. However, they are common in engineering and cannot be neglected, so it is necessary to study this issue in depth. In this paper, the copper bending pipe in seawater piping systems is taken as the analysis object, and the time-variant reliability is calculated by solving the interference of limit strength and maximum stress. We did degradation experiments and tensile experiments on copper material, and obtained the limit strength at each time. In addition, degradation experiments on copper bending pipe were done and the thickness at each time has been obtained, then the response of maximum stress was calculated by simulation. Further, with the help of one kind of Monte Carlo method we propose, the time-variant reliability of copper bending pipe was calculated based on the stochastic degradation process and interference theory. Compared with traditional methods and verified by maintenance records, the results show that the time-variant reliability model based on the stochastic degradation process proposed in this paper has better applicability in the reliability analysis, and it can be more convenient and accurate to predict the replacement cycle of copper bending pipe under seawater-active corrosion.

  11. Effect of Copper and Zirconium Addition on Properties of Fe-Co-Si-B-Nb Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Haris; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Akmal, Muhammad; Abbas, Zameer

    2017-07-01

    In this research work, iron-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have been fabricated, characterized and compared with Fe-Si alloy. BMG alloys of composition ((Fe0.6Co0.4)0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4) were synthesized by suction casting technique using chilled copper die. Effect of copper and zirconium addition on magnetic, mechanical, thermal and electrochemical behavior of ((Fe0.6Co0.4)0.75B0.20Si0.05)96Nb4 BMGs was investigated. Furthermore, effect of annealing on nano-crystallization and subsequently on magnetic and mechanical behavior was also analyzed. Amorphousness of structure was evidenced by XRD analysis and microscopic visualization, whereas nano-crystallization behavior was identified by peak broadening of XRD patterns. Magnetic properties, measured by vibrating sample magnetometer, were found to be improved for as-cast BMG alloys by copper addition and further enhanced by nano-crystallization after annealing. Mechanical properties were observed to be increased by zirconium addition while slightly declined by copper addition. Potentiodynamic polarization analysis manifested the positive role of zirconium in enhancing corrosion resistance of BMGs in acidic, basic and brine mediums. Moreover, mechanical properties and corrosion analysis results affirmed the superiority of BMG alloys over Fe-Si alloy.

  12. Selective EPR Detection of Primary Amines in Water with a Calix[6]azacryptand-Based Copper(II) Funnel Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthasot, Alex; Le Poul, Nicolas; Luhmer, Michel; Colasson, Benoit; Jabin, Ivan; Reinaud, Olivia

    2018-04-02

    A water-soluble calix[6]arene-based azacryptand was synthesized. The corresponding tren [tris(2-aminoethyl)amine] cap grafted at the small rim coordinates strongly a copper(II) ion over a wide range of pH. The host-guest properties of the complex were explored by EPR spectroscopy. Due to second coordination sphere effects and the hydrophobic effect ascribed to the calixarene cavity, this funnel complex selectively binds neutral molecules (alcohols, nitriles, amines) versus anions in water near physiological pH. Among the coordinating guests, hydrophobic primary amines are preferentially recognized thanks to the combined effect of the better metal-ligand interaction and hydrogen bonding to the oxygen atoms present at the small rim. Hence, this Cu(II) calix[6]arene-based funnel complex behaves as a sensitive and selective EPR probe for primary amines, including biologically important molecules such as tyramine and tryptamine, in water, over a large pH window.

  13. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process: horizontal squeeze casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peijie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC, horizontal squeeze casting (HSC is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity filling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. Furthermore, numerical simulation is used to analyze the three fundamental characteristics of HSC: slow cavity filling, squeeze feeding and slow sleeve filling. From this, a selection principle is given based on the three related critical casting parameters: cavity filling velocity, gate size and sleeve filling velocity. Finally, two specific applications of HSC are introduced, and the future direction of HSC development is discussed.

  14. Computer-based production of comparison overlays from 3D-scanned dental casts for bite mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-de las Heras, Stella; Valenzuela, Aurora; Ogayar, Carlos; Valverde, A Javier; Torres, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Bite mark analysis assumes the uniqueness of the dentition can be accurately recorded on skin or an object. However, biting is a dynamic procedure involving three moving systems, the maxilla, the mandible, and the victim's reaction. Moreover, bite marks can be distorted by the anatomic location of the injury or the elasticity of the skin tissue. Therefore, the same dentition can produce bite marks that exhibit variations in appearance. The complexity of this source of evidence emphasizes the need for new 3D imaging technologies in bite mark analysis. This article presents a new software package, DentalPrint (2004, University of Granada, Department of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Odontology, Granada, Spain) that generates different comparison overlays from 3D dental cast images depending on the pressure of the bite or the distortion caused by victim-biter interaction. The procedure for generating comparison overlays is entirely automatic, thus avoiding observer bias. Moreover, the software presented here makes it impossible for third parties to manipulate or alter the 3D images, making DentalPrint suitable for bite mark analyses to be used in court proceedings.

  15. HFIR Fuel Casting Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gibbs, Paul Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Process exploration for fuel production for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using cast LEU-10wt.%Mo as an initial processing step has just begun. This project represents the first trials concerned with casting design and quality. The studies carried out over the course of this year and information contained in this report address the initial mold development to be used as a starting point for future operations. In broad terms, the final billet design is that of a solid rolling blank with an irregular octagonal cross section. The work covered here is a comprehensive view of the initial attempts to produce a sound casting. This report covers the efforts to simulate, predict, cast, inspect, and revise the initial mold design.

  16. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-07-14

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  17. Superconductivity in a copper(II)-based coordination polymer with perfect kagome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xing; Liu, Liyao; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Shuai [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Lei [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Chen, Genfu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-02

    A highly crystalline copper(II) benzenehexathiolate coordination polymer (Cu-BHT) has been prepared. The two-dimensional kagome structure has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared sample exhibits bulk superconductivity at about 0.25 K, which is confirmed by the zero resistivity, AC magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. Another diamagnetic transition at about 3 K suggests that there is a second superconducting phase that may be associated with a single layer or few layers of Cu-BHT. It is the first time that superconductivity has been observed in a coordination polymer. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Influence of technological parameters on the geometry of single-track laser clad nickel based alloy on grey cast iron substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, D. S.; Lyukhter, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    On the example of glass forming equipment, the surfaces of which must have high wear resistance during repeated contacts with molten glass, a study was made of laser cladding of nickel based alloys on a substrate of gray cast iron. In study the shapes of individual tracks are investigated with varying laser radiation power, processing speed and powder feed rate. The influence of technological parameters on the width and height of the clad is shown. A similarity is found between the two principles of measuring the dilution through linear dimensions and the areas of track in cross section. A high correlation between dilution and laser radiation power over a wide range of speeds has been established, which has made it possible to develop a scheme of control laser cladding process with achieving a low level of dilution in order to minimize the heat effect zone (HAZ).

  19. The Bauschinger Effect in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L .M.; Stobbs, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the Bauschinger effect in pure copper shows that by comparison with dispersion hardened copper the effect is very small and independent of temperature. This suggests that the obstacles to flow are deformable. A simple composite model based on this principle accounts for the data semi...

  20. Selective electrochemical sensor for copper (II) ion based on chelating ionophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Mehtab, Sameena; Jain, Ajay Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Plasticized membranes using 3-(2-pyridinyl)-2H-pyrido[1,2,-a]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(3H)-dithione (L 1 ) and acetoacetanilide (L 2 ) have been prepared and explored as Cu 2+ -selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers, viz. chloronaphthalene (China), benzyl acetate (BA), o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE), and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and oleic acid (OA) was studied in detail and improved performance was observed at several instances. Optimum performance was observed with dithione derivative (L 1 ) having a membrane composition of L 1 (5):PVC (120):o-NPOE (240):OA (10). The sensor works satisfactorily in the concentration range 5.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -2 M (detection limit 4.0 x 10 -8 M) with a Nernstian slope of 29.5 mV decade -1 of activity. Wide pH range (3.0-9.5), fast response time (12 s), non-aqueous tolerance (up to 20%) and adequate shelf life (4 months) indicate the vital utility of the proposed sensor. The potentiometric selectivity coefficient values as determined by match potential method (MPM) indicate good response for Cu 2+ in presence of interfering ions. The proposed electrode comparatively shows good selectivity with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, transition and some rare earth metals ions. The electrode was used for the determination of copper in different milk powder, water samples and as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of copper ion with EDTA

  1. Selective electrochemical sensor for copper (II) ion based on chelating ionophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology at Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)]. E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Mehtab, Sameena [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology at Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Jain, Ajay Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology at Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2006-08-04

    Plasticized membranes using 3-(2-pyridinyl)-2H-pyrido[1,2,-a]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(3H)-dithione (L {sub 1}) and acetoacetanilide (L {sub 2}) have been prepared and explored as Cu{sup 2+}-selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers, viz. chloronaphthalene (China), benzyl acetate (BA), o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE), and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and oleic acid (OA) was studied in detail and improved performance was observed at several instances. Optimum performance was observed with dithione derivative (L {sub 1}) having a membrane composition of L {sub 1} (5):PVC (120):o-NPOE (240):OA (10). The sensor works satisfactorily in the concentration range 5.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -2} M (detection limit 4.0 x 10{sup -8} M) with a Nernstian slope of 29.5 mV decade{sup -1} of activity. Wide pH range (3.0-9.5), fast response time (12 s), non-aqueous tolerance (up to 20%) and adequate shelf life (4 months) indicate the vital utility of the proposed sensor. The potentiometric selectivity coefficient values as determined by match potential method (MPM) indicate good response for Cu{sup 2+} in presence of interfering ions. The proposed electrode comparatively shows good selectivity with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, transition and some rare earth metals ions. The electrode was used for the determination of copper in different milk powder, water samples and as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of copper ion with EDTA.

  2. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2018-03-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  3. Influence of copper content on microstructure development of AlSi9Cu3 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodarac Zovko Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure development and possible interaction of present elements have been determined in charge material of EN AlSi9Cu3 quality. Literature review enables prediction of solidification sequence. Modelling of equilibrium phase diagram for examined chemical composition has been performed, which enables determination of equilibrium solidification sequence. Microstructural investigation indicated distribution and morphology of particular phase. Metallographic analysis tools enable exact determination of microstructural constituents: matrix αAl, eutectic αAl+βSi, iron base intermetallic phase - Al5FeSi, Alx(Fe,MnyCuuSiw and/or Alx(Fe,MnyMgzCuuSiw and copper base phases in ternary eutectic morphology Al-Al2Cu-Si and in complex intermetallic ramified morphology Alx(Fe,MnyMgzSiuCuw. Microstructure development examination reveals potential differences due to copper content which is prerequisite for high values of final mechanical, physical and technological properties of cast products.

  4. Effect of chemical structure of S-nitrosothiols on nitric oxide release mediated by the copper sites of a metal organic framework based environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Edinbyrd, Kiara; Li, Tanping; Kumar, Revati

    2017-05-17

    The effect of chemical structure of different biologically compatible S-nitrosothiols on the solvation environment at catalytic copper sites in a metal organic framework (MOF) suspended in a solution of ethanol is probed using computational methods. The use of a copper based MOF as a storage vehicle and catalyst (copper sites of the MOF) in the controlled and sustained release of chemically stored nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosocysteine has been shown to occur both experimentally and computationally [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 3330-3333; Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 23403]. Previous studies on a copper based MOF, namely HKUST-1, concluded that modifications in the R-group of s-nitrosothiols and/or organic linkers of MOFs led to a method capable of modulating NO release. In order to test the hypothesis that larger R-groups slow down NO release, four different RSNOs (R = cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine or glutathione) of varying size were investigated, which in turn required the use of a larger copper based MOF. Due to its desirable copper centers and more extensive framework, MOF-143, an analog of HKUST-1 was chosen to further explore both the effect of different RSNOs as well as MOF environments on NO release. Condensed phase classical molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to study the effect of the complex MOF environment as well as the chemical structure and size of the RSNO on the species on the catalytic reaction. The results indicate that in addition to the size of the RSNO species and the organic linkers within the MOF, the reaction rates can be modulated by the molecular structure of the RSNO and furthermore combining different RSNO species can also be used to tune the rate of NO release.

  5. Effect of Casting Parameters on the Microstructural and Mechanical Behavior of Magnesium AZ31-B Alloy Strips Cast on a Single Belt Casting Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Changizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strips of magnesium alloy AZ31-B were cast on a simulator of a horizontal single belt caster incorporating a moving mold system. Mixtures of CO2 and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gases were used as protective atmosphere during melting and casting. The castability of the AZ31-B strips was investigated for a smooth, low carbon steel substrate, and six copper substrates with various textures and roughnesses. Graphite powder was used to coat the substrates. The correlation between strip thickness and heat flux was investigated. It was found that the heat flux from the forming strip to the copper substrate was higher than that to the steel substrate, while coated substrates registered lower heat fluxes than uncoated substrates. The highest heat flux from the strip was recorded for casting on macrotextured copper substrates with 0.15 mm grooves. As the thickness of the strip decreased, the net heat flux decreased. As the heat flux increased, the grain sizes of the strips were reduced, and the SDAS decreased. The mechanical properties were improved when the heat flux increased. The black layers which formed on the strips’ surfaces were analyzed and identified as nanoscale MgO particles. Nano-Scale particles act as light traps and appeared black.

  6. Caste-based social inequalities and childhood anemia in India : results from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vart, Priya; Jaglan, Ajay; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caste is one of the traditional measures of social segregation in India and differs from other indicators as it is both, endogamous and hereditary. Evidence suggests that belonging to lower castes exposes one to social inequalities and affects health adversely. We examined the

  7. Electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with nanosheets of copper-doped copper(II) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haiyan; Ma, Chaohong; You, Liyan; Cheng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xinhui; Yin, Baishuang; Zhang, Keqin; Ni, Yongnian

    2015-01-01

    A new electrochemical sensor for H 2 O 2 was constructed by depositing copper doped CuO nanosheets on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The morphology and composition of the modified electrode were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied in 100 mM NaOH solution via differential pulse voltammetry and revealed the sensor to display significantly improved electrocatalytic activity with respect to the analysis of the H 2 O 2 in comparison to a plain GCE or a GCE modified with copper only. The response to H 2 O 2 at a working voltage of −0.46 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) is linear in the 0.003 – 8 mM concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.21 mM (at an S/N ratio of 3). Satisfactory results were obtained in the analysis of tap, rain and river waters spiked with H 2 O 2 . The analytical performance of this electrode compares favorably to the results obtained with other commonly used techniques for analysis of H 2 O 2 . (author)

  8. Fabrication of white light-emitting diodes based on solvothermally synthesized copper indium sulfide quantum dots as color converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Seuk; Yang, Heesun

    2012-04-01

    A facile, large-scalable solvothermal synthesis of copper indium sulfide (CIS) quantum dots (QDs) and their application to the fabrication of QD-based white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported. Depending on CIS QD growth time of 2 versus 5 h, the core/shell structured QDs of CIS/ZnS exhibit tunable emissions of yellow-orange with excellent quantum yields of 55%-91%. A white QD-LED is realized by applying CIS (2 h)/ZnS QD as a blue-to-yellow color converter. Furthermore, a white QD-LED having a blend of yellow and orange QDs is fabricated to improve a color rendering property through spectral extension, and its electroluminescent properties are evaluated.

  9. Surface grafting of a dense and rigid coordination polymer based on tri-para-carboxy-polychlorotriphenylmethyl radical and copper acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Mugnaini, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The step-by-step method is here presented as suitable to anchor on appropriately functionalized gold surfaces a metal-organic coordination polymer based on a non-planar trigonal tri-para-carboxy-polychlorotriphenylmethyl radical derivative and copper acetate. The structural characteristics of the grafted coordination polymer are derived during the step-wise growth from the real time changes in refractive index and oscillation frequency. The film thickness, as measured by scanning force microscopy, combined with the mass uptake value from the quartz crystal microbalance, are used to estimate an average density of the grafted metal-organic coordination polymer that suggests the formation of a dense and rather rigid thin film. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Corrosion processes of austenitic stainless steels and copper-based materials in gamma-irradiated aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    The US Department of Energy is evaluating a site located at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, as a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The rock at the proposed repository horizon (above the water table) is densely welded, devitrified tuff, and the fluid environment in the repository is expected to be primarily air-steam. A more severe environment would be present in the unlikely case of intrusion of vadose groundwater into the repository site. For this repository location, austenitic stainless steels and copper-based materials are under consideration for waste container fabrication. This study focuses on the effects of gamma irradiation on the electrochemical mechanisms of corrosion for the prospective waste container materials. The radiolytic production of such species as hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid are shown to exert an influence on corrosion mechanisms and kinetics

  11. Application of response surface methodology for the implementation, optimization and characterization of a new radiation sensor based on commercial glass doped with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzi, Ines

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize a dosimeter based on a silica glass doped with copper and detecting low doses, we used the method of ion exchange and studied the influence of various parameters of doping: the percentage of CuSO4, temperature and heating time in the oven. Our results showed that the doped glass can be used as a dosimeter for gamma radiation in the range of doses of 1 Gy to 100kGy. To optimize the experimental conditions of doping the glass with copper, we used a central composite design (CCD).

  12. Suppression of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), on solanaceous crops with a copper-based fungicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Field experiments were carried out to determine if a copper-based fungicide known to deter feeding by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in the laboratory, could suppress the growth of L. decemlineata populations in the field when used regularly for plant disease protection on tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplants. Larval densities on plants treated with a fungicide formulated with copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)/sub 2/) were between 44 and 100% lower than on untreated control plants or plants treated with a more commonly used fungicide, mancozeb. The greatest reductions occurred on tomatoes, the least suitable host of the three for L. decemlineata growth and survival.

  13. The Control of Solidification Kinetics of the Vacuum-cast Thin-wall Nickel-based Superalloys by Changing the Geometrical Characteristics of the Ceramic Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cygan R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of experimental research and results of investment casting process. Temperature field in a ceramic mold is one of the problems during numerical simulation. Reducing the costs of production in precision casting involves the reduction of scraps, which is one of the fundamental problems of the foundry industry. Reducing these costs is associated with optimization of precision casting technology of aircraft engines critical parts, including control of the solidification front in thin-walled castings of nickel super alloys cast in a vacuum. It is achieved by changing the geometrical characteristics of the ceramic mold. The results of the tests were used to optimize the industrial production of aircraft components in Precision Foundry of WSK Rzeszów. Temperature distribution gained in the conducted tests allowed verification and optimization of computer simulations.

  14. Adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base electroplated in conditions of external stimulation by laser irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dudkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The investigation of laser irradiance influence on the adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base and the research of initial stages of crystallization for nickel and zinc films. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel and zinc films from the standard sulphate electrolyte solutions was carried out on the laser-electrolytic installations, built on the basis of gas discharge CO2-laser and solid ruby laser KVANT-12. The adhesion strength of metal coatings with copper base are defined not only qualitatively using the method of meshing and by means of multiple bending, but also quantitatively by means of indention of diamond pyramid into the border line between coating and base of the side section. Spectrum microanalysis of the element composition of the border line “film and base” is carried out using the electronic microscope REMMA-102-02. Findings. Laser irradiance application of the cathode region in the process of electroplating of metal coatings enables the adhesion strength improvement of coating with the base. Experimental results of adhesive strength of the films and the spectrum analysis of the element composition for the border line between film and base showed that during laser-assisted electroplating the diffusion interaction between coating elements and the base metal surface takes place. As a result of this interaction the coating metal diffuses into the base metal, forming transition diffused layer, which enhances the improvement of adhesion strength of the coatings with the base. Originality. It is found out that ion energy increase in the double electric layer during interaction with laser irradiance affects cathode supersaturation at the stage of crystallization. Hence, it also affects the penetration depth of electroplated material ions into the base metal, which leads to the adhesion strength enhancement. Practical value. On the basis of research results obtained during the laser

  15. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to

  16. Copper(II) complex of methionine conjugated bis-pyrazole based ligand promotes dual pathway for DNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Sarkar, Amrita; Dey, Suman Kr; Jose, Gregor P; Mukherjee, Arindam; Sengupta, Tapas K

    2013-08-28

    Three Cu(II) complexes of bis-pyrazole based ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. One of the ligand (L2) contains a methionine ester conjugated to a bis-pyrazole carboxylate through an amide linkage. The binding constant for complexes 1-3 with CT DNA are of the order of 10(4) M(-1). The crystal structure suggests that the axial Cu-O bonds (ca. 2.31(4) Å) are relatively labile and hence during the redox cycle with ascorbic acid and oxygen one or both the axial Cu-O bonds might open to promote copper oxygen reaction and generate ROS. The chemical nuclease activity of complexes 1-3 in dark, show complete relaxation of supercoiled DNA at 100 μM concentration in presence of ascorbic acid (H2A). The mechanistic investigation suggests that the complexes 1 and 2 show involvement of peroxo species whereas 3 shows involvement of both singlet oxygen and peroxo species in DNA cleavage. The singlet oxygen formation in dark is otherwise unfavourable but the presence of methionine as pendant arm in L2 might activate the generation of singlet oxygen from the metal generated peroxo species. The results of DNA cleavage studies suggest that methionine based copper(II) complexes can promote dual pathway for DNA cleavage. Probing the cytotoxic activity of these complexes on MCF-7, human breast cancer cell line shows that 3 is the most effective one with an IC50 of 70(2) μM.

  17. A Predictive Framework for Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of High Silicon Molybdenum Ductile Cast Iron Based on Considerations of Strain Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Katherine R.

    Isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and anisothermal thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a high silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) cast iron for temperatures up to 1073K. LCF and out-of-phase (OP) TMF lives were significantly reduced when the temperature was near 673K due to an embrittlement phenomenon which decreases the ductility of HiSiMo at this temperature. In this case, intergranular fracture was predominant, and magnesium was observed at the fracture surface. When the thermal cycle did not include 673K, the failure mode was predominantly transgranular, and magnesium was not present on the fracture surface. The in-phase (IP) TMF lives were unaffected when the thermal cycle included 673K, and the predominant failure mode was found to be transgranular fracture, regardless of the temperature. No magnesium was present on the IP TMF fracture surfaces. Thus, the embrittlement phenomenon was found to contribute to fatigue damage only when the temperature was near 673K and a tensile stress was present. To account for the temperature- and stress-dependence of the embrittlement phenomenon on the TMF life of HiSiMo cast iron, an original model based on the cyclic inelastic energy dissipation is proposed which accounts for temperature-dependent differences in the rate of fatigue damage accumulation in tension and compression. The proposed model has few empirical parameters. Despite the simplicity of the model, the predicted fatigue life shows good agreement with more than 130 uniaxial low cycle and thermomechanical fatigue tests, cyclic creep tests, and tests conducted at slow strain rates and with hold times. The proposed model was implemented in a multiaxial formulation and applied to the fatigue life prediction of an exhaust manifold subjected to severe thermal cycles. The simulation results show good agreement with the failure locations and number of cycles to failure observed in a component-level experiment.

  18. Supramolecular-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Dispersion Solidification Liquid-Liquid Microextraction of Copper and Cobalt Prior to Their Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Ebrahimi, Foroogh

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, a simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly method was proposed for the simultaneous preconcentration and determination of minute quantities of copper and cobalt in water samples and serum by a supramolecular-based ultrasonic-assisted dispersion solidification liquid-liquid microextraction (DSLLME) procedure coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure is based on the DSLLME of copper and cobalt with decanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) in the presence of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, as the complexing agent. SUPRAS is a nanostructured liquid generated from amphiphiles through a sequential self-assembly process occurring on two scales, molecular and nano. Several variables that affect the extraction efficiency-including pH, concentration of complexing agent, volume of the extraction and dispersive solvents (volume of SUPRAS), sonication time, and ionic strength-were investigated and optimized. The method provided enrichment factors of 23.31 and 22.38 for copper and cobalt, respectively. The preconcentration factor for the two analytes was 20.00. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 5.00-700.00 ng/mL for copper and 5.00-500.00 ng/mL for cobalt, with correlations of determination of 0.9973 and 0.9981. The precision of the method were expressed as RSDs for six replicate measurements and LODs and found to be ±4.10 and ±2.30% for copper and 2.90 and 3.50 ng/mL for cobalt. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of trace copper and cobalt in real water samples and serum with satisfactory results.

  19. Tyrosinase and catechol oxidase activity of copper(I) complexes supported by imidazole-based ligands: structure-reactivity correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Franziska; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Four new imidazole-based ligands, 4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydrooxyzole (L OL 1), 4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-2-(tert-butyl)-4,5-dihydrooxyzole (L OL 2), 4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-2-methyl-4,5-dihydrooxyzole (L OL 3), and N-(2,2-dimethylpropylidene)-2-(1-trityl-1H-imidazol-4-yl-)ethyl amine (L imz 1), have been synthesized. The corresponding copper(I) complexes [Cu(I)(L OL 1)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuL OL 1), [Cu(I)(L OL 2)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuL OL 2), [Cu(I)(L OL 3)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuL OL 3), [Cu(I)(L imz 1)(CH3CN)2]PF6 (CuL imz 1) as well as the Cu(I) complex derived from the known ligand bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)methane (BIMZ), [Cu(I)(BIMZ)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuBIMZ), are screened as catalysts for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC-H2) to 3,5-di-tert-butylquinone (3,5-DTBQ). The primary reaction product of these oxidations is 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinone (3,5-DTBSQ) which slowly converts to 3,5-DTBQ. Saturation kinetic studies reveal a trend of catalytic activity in the order CuL OL 3 ≈ CuL OL 1 > CuBIMZ > CuL OL 2 > CuL imz 1. Additionally, the catalytic activity of the copper(I) complexes towards the oxygenation of monophenols is investigated. As substrates 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-DTBP-H), 3-tert-butylphenol (3-TBP-H), 4-methoxyphenol (4-MeOP-H), N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester monohydrate (NATEE) and 8-hydroxyquinoline are employed. The oxygenation products are identified and characterized with the help of UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence measurements. Whereas the copper complexes with ligands containing combinations of imidazole and imine functions or two imidazole units (CuL imz 1 and CuBIMZ) are found to exhibit catalytic tyrosinase activity, the systems with ligands containing oxazoline just mediate a stoichiometric conversion. Correlations between the structures of the complexes and their reactivities are discussed.

  20. Determining Prehistoric Mining Practices in Southeastern Europe Using Copper Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Wayne; Mathur, Ryan; Bankoff, H. Arthur; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav

    2017-04-01

    Copper was first smelted from malachite at 5000 BCE in Serbia. There the Eneolithic (Copper Age) began with the production of small jewelry pieces and progressed to the casting of massive copper tools near its end, approximately 2000 years later. However, copper metallurgy in southeastern Europe ceased or significantly decreased in the later third millennium, several centuries before the Bronze Age began. Whether this metallurgical hiatus was the result a cultural shift or depletion of natural resources remains an ongoing subject of debate. It has been speculated that the marked reduction in metal production at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age transition was due to the exhaustion of surficial weathered oxide ores and the technical inability to smelt the underlying sulfide minerals. The behavior of copper isotopes in near-surface environments allows us to differentiate highly weathered oxide ores that occur at Earth's surface from non-weathered sulfide ores that occur at greater depth. The oxidation of copper generates fluids and associated minerals that are enriched in the 65Cu isotope. Thus, oxidative weathering of sulfide ores leads to the development of three stratified isotopic reservoirs for copper: 1) oxides above the water table that are enriched in 65Cu; 2) residual weathered sulfides minerals at the water table that are depleted in 65Cu; and 3) non-fractionated, non-weathered sulfide ore below the water table. And so, the transformative shift to sulfide-based metallurgy will be delineated by a significant decrease in δ65Cu in copper artifacts corresponding to the first use of 65Cu-depleted residual ore. The degree of variability of primary ore composition from numerable ore deposits would likely result in the overlap of copper isotope composition between populations of artifacts. Therefore, shifts in the mean copper isotope values and associated standard deviations would best reflect changes in ores use. A baseline value of -0.2‰ ±0.5 (1) was determined

  1. High-mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaure, Nandu B [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Cammidge, Andrew N; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cook, Michael J [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cain, Markys G; Murphy, Craig E [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Pal, Chandana; Ray, Asim K, E-mail: Asim.Ray@brunel.ac.uk [The Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Solution-processed films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(hexyl) copper phthalocyanine (CuPc{sub 6}) were utilized as an active semiconducting layer in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the bottom-gate configurations using chemical vapour deposited silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) as gate dielectrics. The surface treatment of the gate dielectric with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) resulted in values of 4x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 10{sup 6} for saturation mobility and on/off current ratio, respectively. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in the threshold voltage from 3 V for untreated devices to -2 V for OTS treated devices. The trap density at the interface between the gate dielectric and semiconductor decreased by about one order of magnitude after the surface treatment. The transistors with the OTS treated gate dielectrics were more stable over a 30-day period in air than untreated ones.

  2. High-mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu B Chaure, Andrew N Cammidge, Isabelle Chambrier, Michael J Cook, Markys G Cain, Craig E Murphy, Chandana Pal and Asim K Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(hexyl copper phthalocyanine (CuPc6 were utilized as an active semiconducting layer in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs in the bottom-gate configurations using chemical vapour deposited silicon dioxide (SiO2 as gate dielectrics. The surface treatment of the gate dielectric with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS resulted in values of 4×10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 106 for saturation mobility and on/off current ratio, respectively. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in the threshold voltage from 3 V for untreated devices to -2 V for OTS treated devices. The trap density at the interface between the gate dielectric and semiconductor decreased by about one order of magnitude after the surface treatment. The transistors with the OTS treated gate dielectrics were more stable over a 30-day period in air than untreated ones.

  3. Structural and compositional analysis of a casting mold sherd from ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Lang, Jianfeng; Chen, Xuexiang; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Duan, Xiulan; Li, Nannan; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    Casting had symbolic significance and was strictly controlled in the Shang dynasty of ancient China. Vessel casting was mainly distributed around the Shang capital, Yin Ruins, which indicates a rigorous centralization of authority. Thus, for a casting mold to be excavated far from the capital region is rare. In addition to some bronze vessel molds excavated at the Buyao Village site, another key discovery of a bronze vessel mold occurred at Daxinzhuang. The Daxinzhuang site was a core area in the east of Shang state and is an important site to study the eastward expansion of the Shang. Here, combining synchrotron X-rays and other physicochemical analysis methods, nondestructive three-dimensional structure imaging and different elemental analyses were conducted on this mold sherd. Through high penetration X-ray tomography, we obtained insights on the internal structure and discovered some pores. We infer that the generation of pores inside the casting mold sherd was used to enhance air permeability during casting. Furthermore, we suppose that the decorative patterns on the surface were carved and not pasted onto it. Considering the previous compositional studies of bronze vessels, the copper and iron elements were analyzed by different methods. Unexpectedly, a larger amount of iron than of copper was detected on the surface. According to the data analysis and archaeological context, the source of iron on the casting mold sherd could be attributed to local soil contamination. A refined compositional analysis confirms that this casting mold was fabricated locally and used for bronze casting.

  4. ESD coating of copper with TiC and TiB2 based ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, S.; Mertgenç, E.; Gökçe, B.

    2016-08-01

    In automotive industry, the spot welding is a general practice to join smaller sections of a car. This welding is specifically carried out in short time and in an elevated number with certain pressure applied on copper electrodes. In addition, copper electrodes are expected to endure against cyclic mechanical pressure and temperature that is released during the passage of the current. The deformation and oxidation behaviour of copper electrodes during service appear with increasing temperature of medium and they also need to be cleaned and cooled or replaced for the continuation of joining process. The coating of copper electrodes with ceramic matrix composites can provide alternative excellent high temperature strength and ensures both economic and efficient use of resources. This study shows that the ESD coating of copper electrodes with a continuous film of ceramic phase ensures an improved resistance to thermal effects during the service and the change in content of film may be critical for cyclic alloying.

  5. Novel homo- and hetero-nuclear copper(II) complexes of tetradentate Schiff bases: synthesis, characterization, solvent-extraction and catalase-like activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Bülent; Karipcin, Fatma; Cengiz, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Twelve homo- and hetero-nuclear copper(II) complexes of tetradentate Schiff base ligands containing N(4) donor sets have been prepared by employing several steps. The characterization and nature of bonding of the complexes have been deduced from elemental analysis, FT-IR, molar conductivity, magnetic moment measurements and thermal analysis. The three Schiff base ligands were further identified using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. All copper(II) complexes are 1:2 electrolytes as shown by their molar conductivities (Lambda(M)) in DMF and paramagnetic. The subnormal magnetic moment values of the di- and tri-nuclear complexes explained by a very strong anti-ferromagnetic interaction. The extraction ability of the ligands has been examined by the liquid-liquid extraction of selected transition metal (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+)) cations. The ligands show strong binding ability toward copper(II) ion. Furthermore the homo- and hetero-nuclear copper(II) complexes were each tested for their ability to catalyse the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the added base imidazole.

  6. Metallurgical and mechanical examinations of steel–copper joints arc welded using bronze and nickel-base superalloy filler materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velu, M.; Bhat, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optical and scanning electron microscopy show defect free weld interfaces. ► Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows low dilution level of the weld by Fe. ► XRD studies show no brittle intermetallic phases in the weld interfaces. ► Weld interfaces did not fail during tensile, transverse bending and impact tests. ► The joint exhibits superior strength properties than that of bronze filler. - Abstract: The paper presents metallurgical and mechanical examinations of joints between dissimilar metals viz. copper (UNSC11000) and alloy steel (En31) obtained by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) using two different filler materials, bronze and nickel-base super alloy. The weld bead of the joint with bronze-filler displayed porosity, while that with nickel-filler did not. In tension tests, the weldments with bronze-filler fractured in the centre of the weld, while those with nickel-filler fractured in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of copper. Since the latter exhibited higher strength than the former, all the major tests were undertaken over the joints with nickel-filler alone. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) indicated corrugated weld interfaces and favorable elemental diffusions across them. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies around the weld interfaces did not reveal any detrimental intermetallic compounds. Transverse bending tests showed that flexural strengths of the weldments were higher than the tensile strengths. Transverse side bend tests confirmed good ductility of the joints. Shear strength of the weld-interface (Cu–Ni or Ni–steel) was higher than the yield strength of weaker metal. Microhardness and Charpy impact values were measured at all the important zones across the weldment

  7. Digital management technology and its application to investment casting enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yuan Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Industry 4.0, more and more investment casting enterprises are implementing production manufacturing systems, especially in the last two years. This paper summarizes three new common requirements of the digital management aspect in precision casting enterprises, and puts forward three corresponding techniques. They are: the production process tracking card technology based on the main-sub card mode; the workshop site production process processing technology based on the barcode; and the equipment data integration technology. Then, this paper discusses in detail the principle, application and effect of these technologies; to provide the reference for enterprises to move towards digital casting and intelligent casting.

  8. Ammonia leaching of copper smelter dust and precipitation as copper sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A.; Hevia, J. F.; Cifuentes, G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ammonia on the leaching of copper smelter dust and copper precipitation from these solutions as sulphide using sulfur and sulfur dioxide was studied. The precipitation was done in ammoniacal media because this solution produced more satisfactory results at room temperature that a sulphuric media. A solid was precipitated containing 60 % of copper of the dust smelter. The other waste generated contained around 80 % of the arsenic of the original copper smelter dust. Based on the preliminary results obtained in this work it will propose a procedure for the recovery of copper as sulphide from copper smelter dust with parallel confinement of arsenic. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. Atomistic mechanisms of copper filament formation and composition in Al2O3-based conductive bridge random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, C.; Blaise, P.; Molas, G.; Bernard, M.; Roule, A.; Toffoli, A.; Perniola, L.; Vallée, C.

    2017-07-01

    Conductive filament formation and composition in Oxide-based Conductive Bridge Random Access Memory (CBRAM) are investigated. To this end, Al2O3/Cu-based CBRAM is electrically characterized and studied. Current-voltage characteristics exhibit different forming behaviors depending on device polarization exposing the charged species involved during the forming process. In order to get more insights at the microscopic level, ion diffusion is investigated in depth by first-principles calculations. We study different point defects in Al2O3 which can come either from the post-process of the material itself or after top electrode deposition or during device operation. Since the role of Oxygen Vacancies (VO) and Copper (Cu) ions is core to the switching mechanism, ab initio calculations focus on their displacements. For different charge states in Al2O3, we extract the thermodynamic and activation energies of Cu, Te, Al, and O related point defects. The results reveal that Cu is not the only ion diffusing in the Al2O3-based CBRAM switching mechanism while Te ions appear unfavorable. A Cu/VO based hybrid filament model is proposed, and the impact of Aluminum Vacancies (VAl) on the forming process is demonstrated.

  10. Analysis on the Performance of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Based Photovoltaic Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the efficiency improvement of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Photovoltaic (PV and also solar thermal collector. Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T can improve overall efficiency for PV and also solve the problem of limited roof space at urban area. Objective of this study is to clarify the effect of mass flow rate on the efficiency of the PV/T system. A CIGS solar cell is used with rated output power 65 W and 1.18 m2 of area. 4 set of experiments were carried out, which were: thermal collector with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate and PV. It was found that PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate had the highest electrical efficiency, 2.92 %. PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate had the lowest electrical efficiency, 2.68 %. It also had 2 % higher overall efficiency. The efficiency gained is low due to several factors. The rated output power of the PV is low for the area of 1.18 m2. The packing factor of the PV also need to be considered as it may not be operated at the optimal packing factor. Furthermore, aluminium sheet of the PV may affect the PV temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Further study on more values of mass flow rate and also other parameters that affect the efficiency of the PV/T is necessary.

  11. DNA binding, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity of a mixed-ligand copper(II) complex with taurine Schiff base and imidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; kong, Lin Lin; Gou, Yi; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    A novel binuclear copper(II) complex (complex 1) with taurine Schiff base and imidazole has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Single-crystal analysis revealed that 1 displays the sulfonate-bridged dinuclear copper(II) centers. Both copper atoms are five-coordinated and exhibit slightly distorted square pyramidal geometries. Each of copper atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from different taurine Schiff base ligands, and one nitrogen atom from one imidazole ligand. The interaction between 1 and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results indicated that 1 could bind to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode and show efficient cleavage activity. In addition, 1 showed an antitumor effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MGC-803 cells were arrested in the S phase after treatment with 1. Fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that 1 could induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells.

  12. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  13. A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stein

    al., [7]. The modules are made of low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC tapes with an embedded lead zirconate titanate (PZT plate and are manufactured in multilayer technique. For joining conducting copper (Cu wires with the electrode structure of the LPM, a novel laser drop on demand wire bonding method (LDB is applied, which is based on the melting of a spherical CuSn12 braze preform with a liquidus temperature Tliquid of 989.9 °C (Deutsches Kupfer-Institut Düsseldorf, [8] providing sufficient thermal stability for a subsequent casting process. Keywords: Active noise reduction, Laser assisted wire bonding, Smart structures, Piezoelectric transducers, Die casting, Lightweight design

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of the Ligand Based on Benzimidazole and Its Copper Complex: DNA Binding and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Huilu; Kou, Fan; Jia, Fei; Liu, Bin; Yuan, Jingkun; Bai, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A new copper(II) complex with formulae of [Cu(buobb)2](pic)2, where buobb stands for the ligand of 1,3-bis(1- butylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxopropane and pic represents 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, IR, UV-Vis spectra measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. The crystal structure of the copper(II) complex has been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The coordination environment around each copper(II) atom can be d...

  15. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei; Hou, Changjun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10 −14 to 1.0 × 10 −8 M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10 −15 M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high selectivity to

  16. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hou, Changjun, E-mail: houcj@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huo, Danqun [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fa, Huanbao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10{sup −14} to 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10{sup −15} M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high

  17. Evaluation and improvement in the accuracy of a charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer for temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haicheng; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hu, Zhenwei

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a radiometric high-temperature field measurement model based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD). According to the model, an intelligent CCD pyrometer with a digital signal processor as the core is developed and its non-uniformity correction algorithm for reducing the differences in accuracy between individual pixel sensors is established. By means of self-adaptive adjustment for the light-integration time, the dynamic range of the CCD is extended and its accuracy in low-temperature range is improved. The non-uniformity correction algorithm effectively reduces the accuracy differences between different pixel sensors. The performance of the system is evaluated through a blackbody furnace and an integrating sphere, the results of which show that the dynamic range of 400 K is obtained and the accuracy in low temperature range is increased by 7 times compared with the traditional method based on the fixed light-integration time. In addition, the differences of accuracy between the on-axis pixel and the most peripheral pixels are decreased from 19.1 K to 2.8 K. Therefore, this CCD pyrometer ensures that the measuring results of all pixels tend to be equal-accuracy distribution across the entire measuring ranges. This pyrometric system has been successfully applied to the temperature field measurements in continuous casting billets.

  18. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Figure 55 Die casting machine. Shot sleeve at S, melt furnace at M, ladle preheat at L. Figure 56 Aluminum die casting top surface. Risers removed... ladle and transferred to the shot sleeve. Upon pouring the metal, the ram is actuated and the casting made. To test the mechanical operation of...mnui i .MI iiiiiuH ’ -84- Figure 55. Die casting machine. Shot sleeve at S, melt furnace at M, ladle preheat at L. ■ ■ wmmm*mm

  19. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    are also available (Moore 1984; Ohnaka 1988; Flemings 1990; Roy et al 1992; Ghosh. 1997). In addition, some recent research papers will also be referred to as required. Original references of earlier studies are omitted for the sake of brevity. The basic principles of formation of microsegregation in castings and ingots were.

  20. ToxCast Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ToxCast Dashboard helps users examine high-throughput assay data to inform chemical safety decisions. To date, it has data on over 9,000 chemicals and information from more than 1,000 high-throughput assay endpoint components.

  1. Synthesis of mononuclear copper(II) complexes of acyclic Schiff's base ligands: Spectral, structural, electrochemical, antibacterial, DNA binding and cleavage activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Arumugam; Thamilarasan, Vijayan; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Kang, Sung Kwon; Kim, Young-Inn; Ganesan, Vengatesan

    2014-03-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes (1&2) of ligands L1 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl)piperazine] or L2 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl) piperazine] have been synthesized and characterised. The single crystal X-ray study had shown that ligands L1 and L2 crystallize in a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c space group. The mononuclear copper(II) complexes show one quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response near cathodic region (-0.77 to -0.85 V) in DMF assignable to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. Binding interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) investigated by absorption studies and fluorescence spectral studies show good binding affinity to CT DNA, which imply both the copper(II) complexes can strongly interact with DNA efficiently. The copper(II) complexes showed efficient oxidative cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as reducing agent through a mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species. The Schiff bases and their Cu(II) complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities which indicates that the complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands.

  2. Significant enhancement of optical absorption through nano-structuring of copper based oxide semiconductors: possible future materials for solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Anagh; Shearin, Austin M; Patel, Rishi; Ghosh, Kartik

    2014-06-14

    The optical absorption coefficient is a crucial parameter in determining solar cell efficiency under operational conditions. It is well known that inorganic nanocrystals are a benchmark model for solar cell nanotechnology, given that the tunability of optical properties and stabilization of specific phases are uniquely possible at the nanoscale. A hydrothermal method was employed to fabricate nanostructured copper oxides where the shape, size and phase were tailored by altering the growth parameters, namely the base media used, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The nano crystalline structures, phases, morphology, molecular vibrational modes, and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis spectroscopy. A significantly large optical absorption coefficient, of the order of twice that of Si in the visible range, was observed in a particular phase mixture of nanostructured copper oxides. An optical absorption coefficient of 7.05 10(+5) cm(-1) at 525 nm was observed in a particular nanostructured phase mixture of copper oxides which is appreciably larger than commercially pure CuO (1.19 10(+5) cm(-1)) and Si (1.72 10(+5) cm(-1)). A possible mechanism of formation of phase mixtures and morphology of copper oxides has also been discussed, which opens up a roadmap in synthesis of similar morphology nanostructures for efficient solar cells.

  3. CdS-based p-i-n diodes using indium and copper doped CdS films by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Como, N; Berrellez-Reyes, F; Mizquez-Corona, R; Ramirez-Esquivel, O; Mejia, I; Quevedo-Lopez, M

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report a method to dope cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films using pulsed laser deposition. Doping is achieved during film growth at substrate temperatures of 100 °C by sequential deposition of the CdS and the dopant material. Indium sulfide and copper disulfide targets were used as the dopant sources for n-type and p-type doping, respectively. Film resistivities as low as 0.2 and 1 Ω cm were achieved for indium and copper doped films, respectively. Hall effect measurements demonstrated the change in conductivity type from n-type to p-type when the copper dopants are incorporated into the film. The controlled incorporation of indium or copper, in the undoped CdS film, results in substitutional defects in the CdS, which increases the electron and hole concentration up to 4 × 10 18 cm −3 and 3 × 10 20 cm −3 , respectively. The results observed with CdS doping can be expanded to other chalcogenides material compounds by just selecting different targets. With the optimized doped films, CdS-based p-i-n diodes were fabricated yielding an ideality factor of 4, a saturation current density of 2 × 10 −6 A cm −2 and a rectification ratio of three orders of magnitude at ±3 V. (paper)

  4. Effect of spent mushroom substrate applied to vineyard soil on the behaviour of copper-based fungicide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Hernández, E; Andrades, M S; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2011-07-01

    The effect of the addition of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) to the soil as an amendment on the distribution and/or fate of copper from a copper-based fungicide applied to a vineyard soil in La Rioja (N. Spain) was studied. The study was carried out on experimental plots amended or not with SMS at rates of 40 and 100 t ha(-1). The variation in total Cu content in the topsoil (0-10 cm) and in the soil profile (0-50 cm), and the distribution of Cu in different fractions of the topsoil were studied as a function of the dose of Cu added (5 and 10 kg ha(-1)) and of the time elapsed since application (0-12 months). In addition, the changes in the chemical properties (solid organic carbon (OC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH) of the soils were studied. A greater capacity for Cu retention by the amended soils than by the unamended one was observed only when the fungicide was applied at the high dose. No effect of the amendment rate was noted on this retention capacity. The metal content in the topsoil decreased over time in step with the disappearance of the OC in the amended soil due to its oxidation, mineralization and/or leaching. This decrease in total Cu content was possibly due to the formation of soluble Cu complexes with the DOC, which facilitated its transport through the soil. A re-distribution of Cu in the different soil fractions was also observed over time, mainly from the organic to the residual fraction. The results obtained indicate that the increase in OC due to the application of SMS at the rates used does not lead to any significant increase in the persistence of Cu in the soil over time. Of greater interest would be the assessment of the risk for groundwater quality, owing to possible leaching of the fungicide enhanced by the SMS when SMS and Cu-based fungicides are jointly applied to vineyard soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel aminonaphthoquinone mannich bases derived from lawsone and their copper(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Amanda P.; Barbosa, Claudia C.; Greco, Sandro J.; Vargas, Maria D. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Visentin, Lorenzo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pinheiro, Carlos B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Mangrich, Antonio S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa, Jussara P.; Costa, Gisela L. da [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A series of novel Mannich bases (HL1-HL13) derived from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone), substituted benzaldehydes [C{sub 6}H{sub 2}R{sup 1}R{sup 2}R{sup 3}C(O)H] and various primary amines (NH{sub 2}R{sup 4}, R{sup 4} = n-butyl, benzyl, allyl, 2-furfuryl), and their Cu{sup 2+} complexes, [Cu(L1){sub 2}]-[Cu(L13){sub 2}], have been synthesized and fully characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods. The structures of complexes 1 (R{sup 1} R{sup 2} = R{sup 3} = H; R{sup 4} = Bu), 2 (R{sup 1} = R{sup 3} = H; R{sup 2} = NO{sub 2}; R{sup 4}= Bu) and 7 (R{sup 1} OH; R{sup 2} = R{sup 3} = H; R{sup 4}= Bu) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. All complexes crystallize in centrosymmetric space groups, with a copper atom in the inversion centre. Two L. coordinate through the naphthalen-2-olate oxygen and secondary amine-N atoms, forming six membered chelate rings around the copper atom in a trans-N{sub 2}O{sub 2} environment; spectroscopic data confirm that the other complexes exhibit similar molecular arrangement. The antimicrobial activity of all compounds has been tested on seven different strains of bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In general, Mannich bases were more active than complexes, HL11 (R{sup 1} = OH; R{sup 2} =H; R{sup 3} = Me; R{sup 4}= Bn) and HL13 (R{sup 1} = OH; R{sup 2} = H; R{sup 3} = Br; R{sup 4}= Bn) being the most potent inhibitors. The MIC for the most active compound HL11 against S. Coli was 20 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (8 {mu}g mL{sup -1}), better than Chloramphenicol (90 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) and well below most values reported for other naphthoquinones. (author)

  6. Wear resistance of cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  7. Development of CPV solar receiver based on insulated metal substrate (IMS): Comparison with receiver based on the direct bonded copper substrate (DBC) - A reliability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabille, Loïc; Mangeant, Christophe; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2012-10-01

    Most of the CPV solar receivers are based on III-V multijunction cells die-attached to a direct bonded copper (DBC) substrate. An alternative to DBC resides in the insulated metal substrate (IMS). This paper presents the behavior of IMS and DBC receivers when tested under accelerated aging conditions such as described in the IEC 62108. Characterization tools involved in the monitoring of potential degradation are electroluminescence (EL), dark-I (V) (DIV), spectral response (EQE), diode factor measurements (VIM), RX tomography (RX-T), and, of course, illuminated I (V) under various concentration factors. Based on EL, DIV and EQE first results, IMS and DBC age in a similar way. Study is ongoing.

  8. Optimization of squeeze casting parameters for non symmetrical AC2A aluminium alloy castings through Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, P.; Amirthagadeswaran, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a research in which an attempt was made to prepare AC2A aluminium alloy castings of a non symmetrical component through squeeze casting process. The primary objective was to investigate the influence of process parameters on mechanical properties of the castings. Experiments were conducted based on orthogonal array suggested in Taguchi's offline quality control concept. The experimental results showed that squeeze pressure, die preheating temperature and compression holding time were the parameters making significant improvement in mechanical properties. The optimal squeeze casting condition was found and mathematical models were also developed for the process

  9. Effect of Copper on Fatty Acid Profiles in Non- and Semifermented Teas Analyzed by LC-MS-Based Nontargeted Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Stolze, Klaus; Jirsa, Franz; Gille, Lars; Goodman, Bernard A; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-30

    Unsaturated fatty acids are well-known precursors of aroma compounds, which are considered important for green tea quality. Due to the known copper-induced oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and the broad variability of the amount of copper present in tea infusions, this paper investigates the influence of copper, added at a nontoxic concentration (300 μM) to non- and semifermented teas, on the degradation of fatty acids and fatty acid hydroperoxides thereof. The abundance of fatty acids in green and oolong tea was determined by means of a nontargeted approach applying high-resolution MS/MS. As a result, most of the fatty acids in green and oolong tea were already oxidized prior to copper addition. Addition of 300 μM CuSO4 to the oolong tea sample resulted in a decrease of 13-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid, an important flavor precursor, from 0.12 ± 0.02 to 0.05 ± 0.01 μM (p = 0.035), and other oxidized fatty acids decreased as well. However, copper-induced degradation of oxidized fatty acids was less pronounced in green tea compared to oolong tea, most likely due to the formation of copper complexes with low-molecular-weight compounds as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  10. Design of a Nickel-Based Bond-Coat Alloy for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Copper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Fiedler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To increase the lifetime of rocket combustion chambers, thermal barrier coatings (TBC may be applied on the copper chamber wall. Since standard TBC systems used in gas turbines are not suitable for rocket-engine application and fail at the interface between the substrate and bond coat, a new bond-coat material has to be designed. This bond-coat material has to be chemically compatible to the copper substrate to improve the adhesion and needs a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of copper to reduce thermal stresses. One approach to achieve this is to modify the standard NiCrAlY alloy used in gas turbines by adding copper. In this work, the influence of copper on the microstructure of NiCrAlY-alloys is investigated with thermodynamical calculations, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and calorimetry. Adding copper leads to the formation of a significant amount of \\(\\beta\\ and \\(\\alpha\\ Reducing the aluminum and chromium content leads furthermore to a two-phase fcc microstructure.

  11. Influence of adjuvants on the properties of underwater cast concrete on base of cement (HRS 32.5 N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouis Mohamed Jamel

    2014-04-01

    *The characterization tests of concrete in the hardened state including destructive and non destructive tests performed on specimens made in concrete (based on portland cement, with varying dosages and adjuvants at different times (28d and 90d.

  12. Hydrogen in oxygen-free, phosphorus-doped copper - Charging techniques, hydrogen contents and modelling of hydrogen diffusion and depth profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Aasa [Swerea KIMAB, Kista (Sweden); Sandstroem, Rolf [Swerea KIMAB, Kista (Sweden); Div. of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lilja, Christina [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    In Sweden spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of by encapsulating in cast iron inserts protected by a copper shell. The copper can be exposed to hydrogen released during corrosion processes in the inserts. If the hydrogen is taken up by the copper, it could lead to hydrogen embrittlement. Specimens from oxygen-free copper have been hydrogen charged using two different methods. The purpose was to investigate how hydrogen could be introduced into copper in a controlled way. The thermal charging method resulted in a reduction of the initial hydrogen content. After electrochemical charging of cylindrical specimens, the measured hydrogen content was 2.6 wt. ppm which should compared with 0.6 wt. ppm before charging. The retained hydrogen after two weeks was reduced by nearly 40%. Recently the paper 'Hydrogen depth profile in phosphorus-doped, oxygen-free copper after cathodic charging' (Martinsson and Sandstrom, 2012) has been published. The paper describes experimental results for bulk specimens as well as presenting a model. Almost all the hydrogen is found to be located less than 100 {mu}m from the surface. This model is used to interpret the experimental results on foils in the present report. Since the model is fully based on fundamental equations, it can be used to analyse what happens in new situations. In this report the effect of the charging intensity, the grain size, the critical nucleus size for hydrogen bubble formation as well as the charging time are analysed.

  13. Architectural optimization of an epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo-Gutiérrez, N.V., E-mail: murillo@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse UPS-INP-CNRS, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, Toulouse (France); Ansart, F.; Bonino, J-P. [Université de Toulouse UPS-INP-CNRS, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, Toulouse (France); Kunst, S.R.; Malfatti, C.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Sul, Laboratory of Corrosion Research (LAPEC), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    An epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating was prepared in various architectural configurations has been studied for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy. The creation of a single layer of this coating presents defects consisting of macro-pores and protuberances, which opens access for corrosive species to reach the metallic substrate. These defects are suspected to result from the high reactivity of the substrate, as well as to the irregular topography of the substrate disrupted by the microstructure of the own magnesium alloy. Hence, a sol–gel coating in bilayer architecture is proposed, where the first layer would “inert” the surface of the magnesium substrate, and the second layer would cover the defects of the first layer and also thickening the coating. The morphological characteristics of the sol–gel coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their corrosion behavior was evaluated by OCP (open circuit potential) monitoring and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride media. It is shown that both the architectural arrangement and the individual thickness of the first and second layers have an important influence on the anticorrosion performances of the protective system, just as much as its global thickness.

  14. A randomized controlled trial comparing interim acrylic prostheses with and without cast metal base for immediate loading of dental implants in the edentulous mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Eloana; Lee, Hyung Joo; Sartori, Ivete Aparecida de Mattias; Trevisan, Roseli Latenek; Luiz, Jaques; Tiossi, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial used resonance frequency analysis (RFA) to assess the effects of the presence or absence of a cast rigid bar splinting multiple implants in the stability of immediately loaded implants. Twenty-nine edentulous patients were randomly divided into two groups: G1 with full-arch implant-fixed prostheses and G2 with multiple implant splinting via acrylic resin denture bases. All implants were immediately loaded. RFA measurements assessed implant stability at three different times (T0--at baseline, T1--4 months, and T2--8 months. Wilcoxon and Friedman tests and a multivariate model with repeated measures for longitudinal data were used for statistical comparison (α = 0.05). Twenty-nine patients were assessed (G1 = 15 and G2 = 14). Implant and prostheses survival rates were 100% for both groups after the 8-month observation period and no significant differences in the mean ISQ values were found at the different implant stability assessment times (P > 0.05). The different splinting protocols did not appear to affect implant stability during the 8-month observation period. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of stir-cast Zn–27Al based composites reinforced with rice husk ash, silicon carbide, and graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kanayo Alaneme

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn–27Al based composites reinforced with rice husk ash (RHA, silicon carbide (SiC, and graphite (Cg particles have been investigated. The Zn–27Al composites consisting of varied weight ratios of the reinforcing materials were produced using the stir casting process. Hardness test, tensile properties evaluation, fracture toughness determination, and microstructural examination, were used to characterize the composites produced. Results show that the microstructures of the composites are similar, consisting of the dendritic structure of the Zn–27Al alloy matrix with fine dispersion of the reinforcing particles. The hardness of the composites decreased with increase in the weight percent of RHA (and corresponding decrease in SiC weight percent in the reinforcement. The tensile strength and yield strength decreased slightly with increase in the weight ratio of RHA in the composites with a maximum of 8.5% and 9.6% reductions respectively observed for as much as 40% RHA (corresponding to 40% reduction in SiC in the hybrid reinforcement. Although some of the composite compositions containing RHA had slightly higher % elongation values compared with those without RHA, it was generally observed that the % elongation was invariant to the composite RHA content. The fracture toughness of the composites increases with increase in the weight percent of RHA with as much as a 20% increase obtained for as much as 40% RHA (corresponding to 40% reduction in SiC in the hybrid reinforcement.

  16. Architectural optimization of an epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo-Gutiérrez, N.V.; Ansart, F.; Bonino, J-P.; Kunst, S.R.; Malfatti, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    An epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating was prepared in various architectural configurations has been studied for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy. The creation of a single layer of this coating presents defects consisting of macro-pores and protuberances, which opens access for corrosive species to reach the metallic substrate. These defects are suspected to result from the high reactivity of the substrate, as well as to the irregular topography of the substrate disrupted by the microstructure of the own magnesium alloy. Hence, a sol–gel coating in bilayer architecture is proposed, where the first layer would “inert” the surface of the magnesium substrate, and the second layer would cover the defects of the first layer and also thickening the coating. The morphological characteristics of the sol–gel coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their corrosion behavior was evaluated by OCP (open circuit potential) monitoring and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride media. It is shown that both the architectural arrangement and the individual thickness of the first and second layers have an important influence on the anticorrosion performances of the protective system, just as much as its global thickness.

  17. A casting based process to fabricate 3D alginate scaffolds and to investigate the influence of heat transfer on pore architecture during fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, W.M.; Guo, Y.B.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds is a competitive approach to engineered tissues. An ideal tissue scaffold must be highly porous, biocompatible, biodegradable, easily processed and cost-effective, and have adequate mechanical properties. A casting based process has been developed in this study to fabricate 3D alginate tissue scaffolds. The alginate/calcium gluconate hydrogel was quenched in a glass mold and freeze dried to form a highly porous tissue scaffold whose tiny pores retain the shape of the ice crystals during quenching. Knowing that the water in the alginate hydrogel would form ice crystals if frozen and that different cooling conditions may dramatically influence the pore architecture, the speed and direction of the heat transfer in freeze drying hydrogel were examined with regard to pore size and orientation. The pore architecture at the different locations of the fabricated scaffolds was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated scaffolds consist of pores that are highly interconnected, with a diameter about 200 μm (average diameter of a capillary) to permit blood vessel penetration. It also has been found that the pore size, orientation, and uniformity are significantly affected by the condition of heat transfer during freeze drying. Tailoring the pore architecture of the scaffolds is feasible by controlling heat transfer. This study provides an insight on pore architecture formation and control by altered process parameters

  18. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, R; Pieniz, S; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09'53.92″S and 51°31'39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29'43.48″S and 53'32'37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L(-1) in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  19. Tribological properties of Cu based composite materials strengthened with Al2O3 particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaczmar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work copper was strenghtened with 20 and 30 vol. % of alumina particles characterized by diameter of 3-6μm. The copperbased composite materials were manufactured by the squeeze casting method. Preheated preforms made from Al2O3 particles were placedin the desired place in the heated cast die and the squeeze casting process with liquid copper was performed applying the infiltrationpressure of 90MPa and pressure was kept for 10-15s until solidification was complete. The microstructure and physical properties: Brinell hardness (HBW and density were characterized. Metallografic examinations showed that alumina particles were uniformly distributed in the copper matrix. Hardness of 208 HBW for composite materials containing 30 vol.% of particles was achieved. Wear investigations were performed applying the tribological pin-on-disc tester. Friction forces between copper based composite materials containing 20 and 30 vol. % of Al2O3 particles and cast iron were registered and wear was determined on the base of the specimen mass loss after 1.0, 3.5 and 8.5 km friction distance.

  20. Effect of electric arc, gas oxygen torch and induction melting techniques on the marginal accuracy of cast base-metal and noble metal-ceramic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cogolludo, Pablo; Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; Lynch, Christopher D; Suárez-García, María-Jesús

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate alloy composition and melting technique by evaluating the marginal accuracy of cast metal-ceramic crowns. Seventy standardised stainless-steel abutments were prepared to receive metal-ceramic crowns and were randomly divided into four alloy groups: Group 1: palladium-gold (Pd-Au), Group 2: nickel-chromium-titanium (Ni-Cr-Ti), Group 3: nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and Group 4: titanium (Ti). Groups 1, 2 and 3 were in turn subdivided to be melted and cast using: (a) gas oxygen torch and centrifugal casting machine (TC) or (b) induction and centrifugal casting machine (IC). Group 4 was melted and cast using electric arc and vacuum/pressure machine (EV). All of the metal-ceramic crowns were luted with glass-ionomer cement. The marginal fit was measured under an optical microscope before and after cementation using image analysis software. All data was subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Duncan's multiple range test was run for post-hoc comparisons. The Student's t-test was used to investigate the influence of cementation (α=0.05). Uncemented Pd-Au/TC samples achieved the best marginal adaptation, while the worst fit corresponded to the luted Ti/EV crowns. Pd-Au/TC, Ni-Cr and Ti restorations demonstrated significantly increased misfit after cementation. The Ni-Cr-Ti alloy was the most predictable in terms of differences in misfit when either torch or induction was applied before or after cementation. Cemented titanium crowns exceeded the clinically acceptable limit of 120μm. The combination of alloy composition, melting technique, casting method and luting process influences the vertical seal of cast metal-ceramic crowns. An accurate use of the gas oxygen torch may overcome the results attained with the induction system concerning the marginal adaptation of fixed dental prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrometallurgy of copper refinery anode slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    High-selenium copper refinery anode slimes form two separate and dynamically evolving series of compounds with increasing electrolysis time. In one, silver is progressively added to non-stoichiometric copper selenides, both those originally present in the anode and those formed subsequently in the slime layer, and in the other, silver-poor copper selenides undergo a dis-continuous crystallographic sequence of anodic-oxidative transformations. The silver-to-selenium molar ratio in the as-cast anode and the current density of electrorefining can be used to construct predominance diagrams for both series and, thus, to predict the final bulk “mineralogy” of the slimes. Although totally incorrect in detail, these bulk data are sufficiently accurate to provide explanations for several processing problems which have been experienced by Kidd Creek Division, Falconbridge Ltd., in its commercial tankhouse. They form the basis for a computer model which predicts final cathode quality from chemical analyses of smelter feed.

  2. Investigate the Possibility of Tekcast Methods Used for Casting Polymeric Resin Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäsiar H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contribution gives an overview of knowledge about the method of centrifugal casting with orientate on Tekcast system. Company Tekcast Industries has developed a device for centrifugal casting, extending the area of production of castings or prototyping of metal or plastic. Materials suitable for the centrifugal casting with flexible operating parameters may include non-ferrous metal alloy based on zinc or aluminum or non-metallic materials such as polyester resins, polyurethane resins, epoxy resins, waxes and the like. The casting process is particularly suitable for a wide range of commercial castings and decorative objects.

  3. Copper-based nanocatalysts for 2-butanol dehydrogenation: Screening and optimization of preparation parameters by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geravand, Elham; Shariatinia, Geravand; Yaripour, Fereydoon [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahebdelfar, Saeed [National Iranian Petrochemical Company, P. O. Box 1493, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Two types of copper-based dehydrogenation nanocatalysts (Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/SiO{sub 2}) were prepared from various precursors by impregnation (IM), sol-gel (SG) and co precipitation (COPRE) methods. The structures of samples were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, XRF, TPR, N{sub 2}O-Titration, FT-IR, FE-SEM and TEM techniques. The catalytic performance tests in vapor-phase dehydrogenation of 2-butanol to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 260 .deg. C under atmospheric pressure and LHSV of 4mL/(h·g cat). The experimental results indicated that (i) the copper oxide over the COPRE nanocatalyst was reduced at a lower temperature (222 .deg. C) in comparison with the CuO reduced on the SG and IM samples (243 and 327 .deg. C, respectively). Also, the percentage of reduction of CuO species on COPRE catalyst was the highest (98.8%) in comparison with the two other samples, (ii) the COPRE nanocatalyst exhibited the highest activity for the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol to MEK, and (iii) co-precipitation method was selected as an optimum method for preparation of nanocatalyst. The central composite experimental design method was applied for investigation of the effects of four critical preparation factors on the MEK selectivity of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst. The results showed that Cu/Zn molar ratio and precipitation pH are the most effective factors on the response and the optimum conditions for synthesis of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst with maximum selectivity of MEK were T(pre)=67.5 .deg. C, T(aging)=68.8 .deg. C, pH(pre)=7.27 and Cu/Zn molar ratio=1.38. The performance of the prepared nanocatalyst at the optimum conditions was comparable to the commercially available nanocatalyst.

  4. Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Muralidhar L; Hegde, Pavana M; Holthauzen, Luis M F; Hazra, Tapas K; Rao, K S Jagannatha; Mitra, Sankar

    2010-09-10

    Dyshomeostasis of transition metals iron and copper as well as accumulation of oxidative DNA damage have been implicated in multitude of human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. These metals oxidize DNA bases by generating reactive oxygen species. Most oxidized bases in mammalian genomes are repaired via the base excision repair pathway, initiated with one of four major DNA glycosylases: NTH1 or OGG1 (of the Nth family) or NEIL1 or NEIL2 (of the Nei family). Here we show that Fe(II/III) and Cu(II) at physiological levels bind to NEIL1 and NEIL2 to alter their secondary structure and strongly inhibit repair of mutagenic 5-hydroxyuracil, a common cytosine oxidation product, both in vitro and in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell extract by affecting the base excision and AP lyase activities of NEILs. The specificity of iron/copper inhibition of NEILs is indicated by a lack of similar inhibition of OGG1, which also indicated that the inhibition is due to metal binding to the enzymes and not DNA. Fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance studies show submicromolar binding of copper/iron to NEILs but not OGG1. Furthermore, Fe(II) inhibits the interaction of NEIL1 with downstream base excision repair proteins DNA polymerase beta and flap endonuclease-1 by 4-6-fold. These results indicate that iron/copper overload in the neurodegenerative diseases could act as a double-edged sword by both increasing oxidative genome damage and preventing their repair. Interestingly, specific chelators, including the natural chemopreventive compound curcumin, reverse the inhibition of NEILs both in vitro and in cells, suggesting their therapeutic potential.

  5. Simulation of the injection casting of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tomokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1989-01-01

    For the fabrication of metallic fuel pins, injection casting is a preferable process because the simplicity of the process is suitable for remote operation. In this process, the molten metal in the crucible is injected into evacuated molds (suspended above the crucible) by pressurizing the casting furnace. Argonne National Laboratory has already adopted this process in the Integral Fast Reactor program. To obtain fuel pins with good quality, the casting parameters, such as the molten metal temperature, the magnitude of the pressure applied, the pressurizing rate, the cooling time, etc., must be optimized. Otherwise, bad-quality castings (short castings, rough surfaces, shrinkage cavities, mold fracture) may result. Therefore, it is very important in designing the casting equipment and optimizing the operation conditions to be able to predict the fluid and thermal behavior of the castings. This paper describes methods to simulate the heat and mass transfer in the molds and molten metallic fuel during injection casting. The results obtained by simulation are compared with experimental ones. Also, appropriate casting conditions for the uranium-plutonium-zirconium alloy are discussed based on the simulated results

  6. Response of microbial growth to orthophosphate and organic carbon influx in copper and plastic based plumbing water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Kwan; Choi, Sung-Chan

    2008-07-01

    Consequences of orthophosphate addition for corrosion control in water distribution pipes with respect to microbial growth were investigated using batch and dynamic tests. Batch tests showed that the release of copper in either low or high organic carbon content water was decreased by 69% and 56% with addition 206 microg PO(4)-P, respectively. Dosing of orthophosphate against corrosion did not increase microbial growth potential in the water and in the biofilm in both corroded and uncorroded systems receiving tap water with a low content of organic carbon and of biodegradable organic fraction. However, in tap water having a high concentration of organic carbon from acetate addition, orthophosphate addition promoted the growth of bacteria, allowed more bacteria to assemble on corroded and uncorroded surfaces, and increased the consumption of organic carbon. Orthophosphate consumption did not exceed 1% of the amount of easily biodegradable organic carbon required for microbial growth, and the orthophosphate demand for corrosion control greatly exceeded the nutritional requirement of microbial growth. The results of the dynamic tests demonstrated that there was a significant effect of interaction between biodegradable organic carbon and orthophosphate on biofilm growth, whereby the effect of orthophosphate flux on microbial growth was dependent on the levels of biodegradable organic carbon. Controlling an easily biodegradable organic carbon would be therefore necessary to minimize the microbial growth potential induced by orthophosphate-based anticorrosion treatment.

  7. A curcumin-based TPA four-branched copper(II) complex probe for in vivo early tumor detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Zongxin [Department of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230001 (China); Wang, Jiafeng; Jiang, Bo [Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038 (China); Cheng, Gang [Department of Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230001 (China); Zhou, Shuangsheng, E-mail: zshuangsheng@126.com [Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038 (China); Center of Modern Experimental Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230038 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A multibranched Cu(II) complex CuL{sub 2} curcumin-based was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The photophysical properties of the complex have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results show that the target complex exhibits higher quantum yield and larger two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section in the near infrared (NIR) region compared with its free ligand. The cell imaging studies in vitro and in vivo reveal that the complex shows good photostability and excellent tumor targeting capability to tested cancerous cells, which can be potentially used for early tumor detection. - Graphical abstract: A multibranched Cu(II) complex was prepared from curcumin. The photophysical properties of the obtained complex have been investigated. The results exhibit that the complex has high capability to test cancerous cells and can distinguish between the cancerous and noncancerous cells, which should be potentially used for early tumor detection. - Highlights: • A novel multi-branched copper complex was synthesized. • The obtained compounds exhibited obvious TPA in high polar solvents. • The complex is a low toxicity at low-micromolar concentrations. • The complex exhibits larger TPA cross-section and brighter TPF imaging. • The complex has excellent targeting capability to tested cancerous cells.

  8. Electrosynthesis of Copper-Tetracyanoquinodimethane Based on the Coupling Charge Transfer across Water/1,2-Dichloroethane Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Li; Li, Pei; Pamphile, Ndagijimana; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Zhan, Dongping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Organic semiconductor CuTCNQ is synthesized through electrochemistry of liquid/liquid interface. • A coupling charge transfer (CCT) mechanism is proposed for organic electrosynthesis. • The obtained CuTCNQ has good electrochemical and electronic properties. - Abstract: The organic salt Copper-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (CuTCNQ) is an important semiconductor used in electronics for field-effect transistors, switches and memory devices. Here we present a novel electrosynthetic method of CuTCNQ microneedles based on the coupling charge transfer across water/1,2-dichloroethane (W/1,2-DCE) interface. A HOPG electrode is covered by a small volume of 1,2-DCE solution, which is further covered by an aqueous solution to construct the W/1,2-DCE interface. When TCNQ in 1,2-DCE phase is reduced on HOPG, Cu 2+ in the aqueous solution will transfer across the W/1,2-DCE interface in order to maintain the electric neutrality. Therein CuTCNQ microneedles are formed which have good solid-state electrochemical and electronic properties. This coupling charge transfer mechanism is valuable and broadens the applications of liquid/liquid interface in organic electrosynthesis

  9. Decontamination of laundry at low temperature with CuWB50, a novel copper-based biocidal compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tony J; Wren, Michael W D; Jeanes, Annette; Gant, Vanya A

    2009-08-01

    Traditional laundry decontamination relies on thermal disinfection that degrades textiles. We investigated the ability of a novel copper-based biocidal compound, CuWB50, to assist in the decontamination of swatches purposely contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter during "real-life" low-temperature machine washing with and without 2 commercial detergents. Contaminated and noncontaminated swatches were attached to ballast sheets and washed in cold water for 15 minutes in an industrial Electrolux machine. We assessed colony-forming units (cfu) on the swatches and in the postwash water. Low-temperature machine washing produced only partial reductions in viable methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii counts on swatches and resulted in cross contamination of other swatches in the same wash. Washing with CuWB50 alone at high concentration (100 mg/L), however, resulted in superior decontamination compared with water alone, whereas washing with a combination of detergent and CuWB50 at low concentration (5 mg/L) yielded synergistic and complete decontamination of swatches and postwash water. Our results show highly effective laundry decontamination using CuWB50 with detergent at low temperature and are timely both in terms of rising energy costs and textile degradation issues.

  10. Mesogenic copper (II) complexes with [1, 2, 3]-triazole-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first mesogenic Cu(II) complex with [1,2,3]-triazole-based bidentate Schiff bases with flexible terminal alkyl chain, CnH2n+1 (even parity of n = 10-18) has been successfully synthesized. The heterocyclic triazole core was introduced into the target compound through the click reaction between azidoalkane and propargyl ...

  11. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Assay Predicts Developmental Toxicity Potential of ToxCast Chemicals (ACT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide initiatives to screen for toxicity potential among the thousands of chemicals currently in use require inexpensive and high-throughput in vitro models to meet their goals. The devTOX quickPredict platform is an in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-based assay used to as...

  12. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  13. Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsch, J.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides needed information on the amount of interconnected pore space potentially available for operation of matrix diffusion as a transport process within the fractured carbonate rock. A second aspect of this study is to compare effective porosity data based on modern petrophysical techniques to effective porosity data determined earlier by Goldstrand et al. (1995) with a different technique. An added bonus of the study is quantitative data on the bulk density and grain density of dolostone and limestone of the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite which might find use for geophysical modeling on the ORR

  14. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  15. The x-ray telescope of CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuninger, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has been in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting x-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type x-ray mirror system. With the x-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders of magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} < 1 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}.

  16. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warne, Michael St.J.; Heemsbergen, Diane; McLaughlin, Mike; Bell, Mike; Broos, Kris; Whatmuff, Mark; Barry, Glenn; Nash, David; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field

  17. Atmospheric corrosion effects on copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franey, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Studies have been performed on the naturally formed patina on various copper samples. Samples have been obtained from structures at AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (40,2,1 and <1 yr) and the Statue of Liberty (100 yr). The samples show a distinct layering effect, that is, the copper base material shows separate oxide and basic sulfate layers on all samples, indicating that patina is not a homogeneous mixture of oxides and basic sulfates

  18. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  20. Modeling and Optimization of Direct Chill Casting to Reduce Ingot Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Subodh K.

    2006-01-09

    reheating-cooling method (RCM), was developed and validated for measuring mechanical properties in the nonequilibrium mushy zones of alloys. The new method captures the brittle nature of aluminum alloys at temperatures close to the nonequilibrium solidus temperature, while specimens tested using the reheating method exhibit significant ductility. The RCM has been used for determining the mechanical properties of alloys at nonequilibrium mushy zone temperatures. Accurate data obtained during this project show that the metal becomes more brittle at high temperatures and high strain rates. (4) The elevated-temperature mechanical properties of the alloy were determined. Constitutive models relating the stress and strain relationship at elevated temperatures were also developed. The experimental data fit the model well. (5) An integrated 3D DC casting model has been used to simulate heat transfer, fluid flow, solidification, and thermally induced stress-strain during casting. A temperature-dependent HTC between the cooling water and the ingot surface, cooling water flow rate, and air gap were coupled in this model. An elasto-viscoplastic model based on high-temperature mechanical testing was used to calculate the stress during casting. The 3D integrated model can be used for the prediction of temperature, fluid flow, stress, and strain distribution in DC cast ingots. (6) The cracking propensity of DC cast ingots can be predicted using the 3D integrated model as well as thermodynamic models. Thus, an ingot cracking index based on the ratio of local stress to local alloy strength was established. Simulation results indicate that cracking propensity increases with increasing casting speed. The composition of the ingots also has a major effect on cracking formation. It was found that copper and zinc increase the cracking propensity of DC cast ingots. The goal of this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project was to assist the aluminum industry in reducing the incidence of stress