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Sample records for cassava food product

  1. The microbiota of Lafun, an african traditional cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, Sègla Wilfrid; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a com...

  2. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue.

  3. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  4. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  5. The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfrid Padonou, Sègla; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Thorsen, Line; Nago, Mathurin C; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-07-31

    Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from 6-7 log(10) CFU/g at the beginning to 9 log(10) CFU/g at the end. Similarly, the number of LAB increased from 5 log(10) CFU/g to 9 log(10) CFU/g during the process while the yeast load increased from 3 log(10) CFU/g at the onset of the fermentation to 5-6 log(10) CFU/g at the end of the fermentation. A total of 168 isolates (31 AB, 88 LAB, and 49 yeasts) were isolated and identified by means of phenotypic tests, PCR-based methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The aerobic bacteria were mostly identified as belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (71%). The B. cereus isolates lacked the genetic determinant specific for cereulide producers but harboured several genes encoding the heat-labile toxins hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin as detected by PCR. The other aerobic bacteria isolated were Gram negative and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pantoea agglomerans. The dominant LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (42% of LAB isolates) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (30%) and Weissella confusa (18%). Seven isolates remained unidentified and constitute probably a novel LAB species. The predominant yeast species associated with Lafun fermentation were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (22% of yeast isolates), Pichia scutulata (20%), Kluyveromyces marxianus (18%), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (12%), Pichia rhodanensis (8%) and Candida glabrata (8%) as well as Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon asahii at lower incidence (<5% each).

  6. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

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    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  7. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

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    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  8. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures...... and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...

  9. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested...

  10. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  11. Sustaining World Food Security with Improved Cassava Processing Technology: The Nigeria Experience

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    Peter O. Kolawole

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a very important food crop that is capable of providing food security. However, a lot of problems prevent the development and use of modern equipment for its production. Most of the cassava produced still comes from peasant farmers who depend on manual tools for their field operations and these farmers have made Nigeria the world’s largest producer of the crop. An increase in production of cassava to sustain the world food security needs improved machinery to allow its continuous cultivation and processing. Reasons for the low success recorded in the mechanization of cassava harvesting and processing were traced, and the attempts that have been made in the recent past by various engineers in Nigeria researching towards achieving mechanized harvesting and processing of cassava are well explained. The machinery required for cassava production in Africa, the development of new machines, and the need for more research and development in harvesting and processing machineries, which can reduce poverty worldwide and make food available and accessible for all, are also discussed. Research efforts made and the challenges facing the engineers, farmers, scientists and food processors towards achieving mechanical harvesting and processing of cassava are presented. Breeding a cassava variety with a regular shape for easy mechanization is one solution that could help the engineers worldwide.

  12. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  13. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  14. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  15. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.

  16. Use of indigenous technology for the production of High Quality Cassava Flour with similar food qualities as wheat flour

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    Ogbonnaya Chinedum Eleazu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the paper was to compare the food qualities of 2 varieties (SME 1 and 2 of high quality cassava flour (HQCF produced from indigenous technology and that of some commercially sold wheat/HQCF samples. Material and methods. The pH, proximate, phytochemical, antioxidant, functional properties and starch yield of the flours were carried out using standard techniques. Results. The wheat flours had higher bulk densities and lipids than the HQCF samples while the oil absorption capacity of the HQCF (SME 2 was higher than other fl our samples investigated. The antioxidant assays of the flours showed that they contained considerable levels of antioxidants with the HQCF sample from DAT having higher antioxidants than other flour samples studied. The HQCF (SME 1 had signifi cantly higher (P < 0.05 starch content among the flour samples. The bacteria counts of the HQCF samples ranged from 0 to 1.4 × 104 cfu/ml while the fungal count ranged from 0 to 2 × 10-3 with the unbranded wheat fl our having the highest microbial load compared with other flour samples studied. Conclusion. The use of this indigenous technology produces HQCF with lower lipids, microbial contamination but higher flavour retaining ability, flavonoids and starch contents than wheat flour. The signifi cant positive correlation (R2 = 0.872 between reducing power of the samples and their DPPH antioxidant activity indicate that either could be used to assay for the total antioxidant activity of cassava and wheat flour. The study underscores the need to buy flour from branded companies to reduce the risks of microbial contamination.

  17. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

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    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  18. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

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    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  19. The sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Bruun, Thilde Bech;

    2015-01-01

    The demand for biofuels has been rising, which has led developing countries to focus on production of feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. This has caused concerns for the impacts on food security, food prices and environmental sustainability. This paper examines a hypothetical case...... of cassava-based bioethanol production in southern Mali, assessing its environmental, economic and social sustainability. Results demonstrate that environmental sustainability of cassava-based bioethanol production depends on the ‘baseline’ chosen: Compared to the situation before the decline in cotton...... of labour input. Analysis of the significance of current cassava production for food security shows that bioethanol production should be based on the attiéké variety of cassava, thereby avoiding interference with the important role of the bonouma in assuring food security in northern Mali. The key factor...

  20. Study of Products Distilled Spirits with Cassava Dregs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG le; WANG Jun-gao; LIU Wen-long

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Cassava dregs are an outgrowth produced during starchy production which uses cassava as raw material. It is usually dropped out or used as cheap feedstuff. In order to make the best use of cassava dregs, increase industries' benefits and reduce castoff this study developed a new technique which used cassava dregs as raw material to produce distilled spirits based on cassava dregs characteristics. The technique adopt solid-ferment procedure. At first, the ferment is processed by solid-state distilling, and then rectification extra care refinement: at last the tequila was produced with characteristics of simple and elegant fragrance and mellow-tasting.

  1. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, Kodjovi Senam

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in s

  2. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  3. Analysis of the cost and return to management of small scale cassava production in the humid zone of Nigeria

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    Guobadia, E.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a major staple food in Nigeria. Available literature showed that not much work had been done on the return to management (RTM of this crop particularly in recent times. Crop production variables of capital, hired labour, family labour and fertilizer-use were studied. Costs and returns of cassava production in the study area were computed. The study showed that the average cost of producing an hectare of cassava irf N 10, 343.99. The total return was valued at N 45, 165.57 with an average RTM of N 34, 821.58. The study also revealed that labour and fertilizer are crucial variables to productivity of the farm-firm in terms of output per hectare. It was concluded that cassava production is a profitable venture and comparable to any Government Service which the unemployed and young school leavers should be encouraged to go into.

  4. AGROECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION OF PARAÍBA RURAL AREA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BIOGRAM

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    Valdenildo Pedro da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture modernization resulting from green revolution occurred through means of diverse technological innovations as soluble fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery and genetically modified seeds, aimed at increasing food production. However, the indiscriminate use of these innovations by farmers has been highlighted numerous environmental problems, affecting the productive agricultural system. This technological innovations reality and environmental obstacles, is also been experienced by cassava production in Paraíba rural area. Therefore, this study tried to assess the agroecosystems sustainability of cassava production (Manihot esculenta Crantz of Paraíba Rural Mesoregion, using Sustainable Development Index (S³ method, and its graphical representation, the Biogram. The results showed sustainability differences between the agroecosystems of investigated municipalities, of which Araçagi showed stable levels of sustainability, Araruna and Bananeiras demonstrated unstable levels, and Puxinanã showed the most critical sustainably level. It was concluded that, even the agroecosystems of Araçagi municipality showing better levels of sustainability, when compared with other municipalities assessed, cassava production showed unsustainability situations regarding its technological innovation levels, average yield of cassava production, land in erosion process, water scarcity and lack of social participation.

  5. Bulk H analysis using neutrons for routine quality control of cassava and products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, S.A., E-mail: jonahsa2001@yahoo.co [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okunade, I.O. [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Abolude, O. [Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Onyike, E.; Inuwa, I.M. [Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-07-15

    Nuclear and related techniques are useful in addressing the issues of food security and safety facing the world today, via quality control of raw materials and products. In this work, experimental investigations were performed to assess the use of total hydrogen content in cassava and products as a quality control indicator of starch and cyanide contents. The work was carried out using a neutron reflection facility at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Cassava samples and products were obtained from retail outlets of Ibadan, Umudike and Zaria, representing three major regions of Nigeria. In general, data obtained indicate a total hydrogen content range of 4.47{+-}0.11-10.71{+-}0.27 wt% for the various samples, including raw, dry and processed cassava. Results show that samples having low hydrogen content are generally rich in cyanide compounds and demonstrate an inverse relationship between hydrogen content and cyanide content. The implication of this is that the neutron reflection facility can be used as a quality control setup for routine determination of hydrogen as an indicator of the cyanide content in cassava and products.

  6. Wuak Piuak Organoleptic Study of Traditional Food Modified Using Cassava (Manihot Utilissima

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    Mimi Harni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wuak piuak is a kind of traditional food comes from Kapur IX, Limapuluh Kota Regency. It is usually presented in local traditional events. The Existence of this food unfortunately started to be disappeared and slowly not recognized by young generations.. It is expected by modifying this kind of food using cassava will make it known back. Complete Randomly Design (CRD was used in this case by five treatments and three replications for organoleptic test. The test be assessed by asking which kind of most preferred product from some treatments of texture, colour, aroma, taste, appearance. The high value stated the most preferred product whereas the lowest value was most un-preferred one.   Advanced test from data was done by using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT at 5 % significance level.  The result showed that the treatment by adding 100% of cassava was the most preferred and had high value of texture, aroma, colour and taste.

  7. Cassava-soy weaning food: biological evaluation and effects on rat organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babajide, J M; Babajide, S O; Uzochukwu, S V

    2001-01-01

    Weaning food was formulated using a cassava product, 'Tapioca' (TAP), supplemented with roasted-sprouted soybeans (SS), with and without additional (10%) malted sorghum flour (MS). Biological evaluation was carried out on the formulations using 4-5 week old weanling albino rats, with Cerelac (a commercial maize-milk weaning food) as the control diet. There were increases in growth rate of rats fed with both the test and control diets. There were no significant (p >0.05) differences between the test diets and control diet in true digestibility values. The biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) values for the formulated diets were above the recommended minimum values. The weight of organs (small intestine, pancreas, liver and heart) of rats fed TAP + SS and TAP + SS + MS based diets were not higher than those of organs of rats fed Cerelac. It was concluded that cassava products could potentially be employed successfully in the preparation of weaning foods of comparable quality to available commercial brands.

  8. Life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorapipatana, Chumnong; Yoosin, Suthamma [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Tungkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    To increase the security of energy supply, lessen dependence on crude oil import and buffer against the impacts of large change in crude oil prices, the Thai government initiated and officially announced the national ethanol fuel program in year 2000. Since then, domestic ethanol demand has grown rapidly. Presently, all commercial ethanol in Thailand is produced from molasses as Thai law prohibits producing it from sugar cane directly. This is likely to limit ethanol supply in the near future. One possible solution is to supply more ethanol from cassava which is widely cultivated in this country. However, its production cost has not yet been known for certain. The objective of this study is to estimate the life cycle cost of ethanol production from cassava and to assess its economic competitiveness with gasoline in the Thai fuel market. Based on the record of cassava prices during the years 2002-2005, it was found that using it as feedstock would share more than 50% of the ethanol from cassava total production cost. It was also found that a bio-ethanol plant, with a capacity of 150,000 l/day, can produce ethanol from cassava in a range of ex-factory costs from 16.42 to 20.83 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (excluding all taxes), with an average cost of 18.15 baht/l of gasoline equivalent (41, 52 and 45 US cents/l gasoline equivalent respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate). In the same years, the range of 95-octane gasoline prices in Thailand varied from 6.18 baht to 20.86 baht/l, with an average price of 11.50 baht/l (15, 52 and 29 US cents/l respectively, based on 2005 exchange rate) which were much cheaper than the costs of ethanol made from cassava. Thus, we conclude that under the scenario of low to normal crude oil price, ethanol from cassava is not competitive with gasoline. The gasoline price has to rise consistently above 18.15 baht (45 US cents)/l before ethanol made from cassava can be commercially competitive with gasoline. (author)

  9. Extracellular enzyme activities during cassava fermentation for 'fufu' production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, O B; Odunfa, S A

    1992-01-01

    Amylase and pectin methyl esterase activities increased rapidly during the early period of the fermentation of cassava for 'fufu' production, attaining their peak activities after 12 and 24h, respectively. Cellulase activity was lower and approximately constant for most of the fermentation period.

  10. Robust transformation procedure for the production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Ima M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent progress in cassava transformation has allowed the robust production of transgenic cassava even under suboptimal plant tissue culture conditions. The transformation protocol has so far been used mostly for the cassava model cultivar 60444 because of its good regeneration capacity of embryogenic tissues. However, for deployment and adoption of transgenic cassava in the field it is important to develop robust transformation methods for farmer- and industry-preferred landraces and cultivars. Because dynamics of multiplication and regeneration of embryogenic tissues differ between cassava genotypes, it was necessary to adapt the efficient cv. 60444 transformation protocol to genotypes that are more recalcitrant to transformation. Here we demonstrate that an improved cassava transformation protocol for cv. 60444 could be successfully modified for production of transgenic farmer-preferred cassava landraces. The modified transformation method reports on procedures for optimization and is likely transferable to other cassava genotypes reportedly recalcitrant to transformation provided production of high quality FEC. Because the three farmer-preferred cassava landraces selected in this study have been identified as resistant or tolerant to cassava mosaic disease (CMD, the adapted protocol will be essential to mobilize improved traits into cassava genotypes suitable for regions where CMD limits production.

  11. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  12. Dangerous assumptions : the agroecology and ethnobiology of traditional polyculture cassava systems in rural Cameroon and implications of green revolution technologies for sustainability, food security, and rural welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nchang Ntumngia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Alliance for a New Green Revolution in Africa and African government and CGIAR programmes oriented toward improving cassava production through intensification and the use of external inputs have the ultimate goals to improve food production, promote market integration, and increase incomes of

  13. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  14. Determinants Of Export-Led Cassava Production Intensification Among Small-Holder Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoja, F. O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of export-led cassava production intensification among small-holder farmers were investigated. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from randomly selected 60 respondents, were analysed using appropriate statistics. The result showed a slow increasing trend in response to export opportunities. Farm size, credit availability, cassava product domestic prices, labour and frequency of extension contact had positive effect on cassava output while existence of efficient marketing system has negative effect on cassava output. Inadequate finance and high cost of labour were the problems facing cassava production intensification. Policy instrument on cassava production intensification should capture the significant determinants identified in the study.

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava waste for ethanol production

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    C. Pothiraj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of enzymatic and microbial saccharification of cassava waste for ethanol production was investigated and the effective parameters were optimized. The mixture of amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG resulted in a significantly higher rate of saccharification (79.6% than the amylase alone (68.7%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF yielded 6.2 g L-1 ethanol representing 64.5% of the theoretical yield. Saccharification and fermentation using pure and co-cultures of fungal isolates including Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus terreus, Saccharomyces diastaticus and Zymomonas mobilis revealed that the co-culture system involving S. diastaticus and Z. mobilis was highly suitable for the bio-conversion of cassava waste into ethanol, resulting in 20.4 g L-1 in 36 h (91.3% of the theoretical yield.

  16. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

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    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  17. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  18. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digest...

  19. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  20. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  1. Strategies for elimination of cyanogens from cassava for reducing toxicity and improving food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Bala

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of cassava arises due to the presence of the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin which are hydrolysed by endogenous enzyme linamarase to acetonecyanohydrin (ACN) and cyanide (CN) which are toxic. Major research efforts to eliminate/reduce cyanoglucosides have focused on (i) development of acyanogenic cassava varieties by breeding; (ii) controlling its metabolism; and (iii) processing to remove cyanogens. The cyanoglucoside (CNG) content in cassava is genetically controlled and cultivars may be classified as low (100 μg CN eq./g) varieties. Molecular techniques for reducing tuber CNG have focused on development of transgenic plants with reduced expression of cyt P 450 in leaves, or increased expression of hydroxynitrilelyase in tuber. For immediate solution, CNG content can be reduced using several processing methods. Traditional methods used for processing include boiling, drying, parboiling and drying, baking, steaming, frying and preparation of flour. These processes result in CN losses ranging from 25% to 98%. The cyanogen level in the final product is influenced both by the tuber CNG and the method of processing. In order to achieve safe levels of 10 μg/g in cassava products, new methods of processing, especially for cassava containing more than 250 μg CN eq./g, remains a challenging problem.

  2. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production.

  3. Interactive effects of temperature and drought on cassava growth and toxicity: implications for food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alicia L; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Gleadow, Ros; Miller, Rebecca E

    2016-10-01

    Cassava is an important dietary component for over 1 billion people, and its ability to yield under drought has led to it being promoted as an important crop for food security under climate change. Despite its known photosynthetic plasticity in response to temperature, little is known about how temperature affects plant toxicity or about interactions between temperature and drought, which is important because cassava tissues contain high levels of toxic cyanogenic glucosides, a major health and food safety concern. In a controlled glasshouse experiment, plants were grown at 2 daytime temperatures (23 °C and 34 °C), and either well-watered or subject to a 1 month drought prior to harvest at 6 months. The objective was to determine the separate and interactive effects of temperature and drought on growth and toxicity. Both temperature and drought affected cassava physiology and chemistry. While temperature alone drove differences in plant height and above-ground biomass, drought and temperature × drought interactions most affected tuber yield, as well as foliar and tuber chemistry, including C : N, nitrogen and cyanide potential (CNp; total cyanide released from cyanogenic glucosides). Conditions that most stimulated growth and yield (well-watered × high temperature) effected a reduction in tuber toxicity, whereas drought inhibited growth and yield, and was associated with increased foliar and tuber toxicity. The magnitude of drought effects on tuber yield and toxicity were greater at high temperature; thus, increases in tuber CNp were not merely a consequence of reduced tuber biomass. Findings confirm that cassava is adaptable to forecast temperature increases, particularly in areas of adequate or increasing rainfall; however, in regions forecast for increased incidence of drought, the effects of drought on both food quality (tuber toxicity) and yield are a greater threat to future food security and indicate an increasing necessity for processing of

  4. Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSMIYATI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kusmiyati (2010 Comparasion of iles-iles and cassava tubers as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae substrate fermentation for bioethanol production. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 7-13. The production of bioethanol increase rapidly because it is renewable energy that can be used to solve energy crisis caused by the depleting of fossil oil. The large scale production bioethanol in industry generally use feedstock such as sugarcane, corn, and cassava that are also required as food resouces. Therefore, many studies on the bioethanol process concerned with the use raw materials that were not competing with food supply. One of the alternative feedstock able to utilize for bioethanol production is the starchy material that available locally namely iles-iles (Amorphophallus mueller Blum. The contain of carbohydrate in the iles-iles tubers is around 71.12 % which is slightly lower as compared to cassava tuber (83,47%. The effect of various starting material, starch concentration, pH, fermentation time were studied. The conversion of starchy material to ethanol have three steps, liquefaction and saccharification were conducted using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase then fermentation by yeast S.cerevisiaie. The highest bioethanol was obtained at following variables starch:water ratio=1:4 ;liquefaction with 0.40 mL α-amylase (4h; saccharification with 0.40 mL amyloglucosidase (40h; fermentation with 10 mL S.cerevisiae (72h producing bioethanol 69,81 g/L from cassava while 53,49 g/L from iles-iles tuber. At the optimum condition, total sugar produced was 33,431 g/L from cassava while 16,175 g/L from iles-iles tuber. The effect of pH revealed that the best ethanol produced was obtained at pH 5.5 during fermentation occurred for both cassava and iles-iles tubers. From the results studied shows that iles-iles tuber is promising feedstock because it is producing bioethanol almost similarly compared to cassava.

  5. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti), a threat to food security for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Ota, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations). We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675), correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature.

  6. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  7. Quality Improvement of Cassava Flour of Local Variety of Ternate Through Fermentation Method (Application on Traditional Food of North Maluku “Sagu lempeng”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidin Rasulu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is utilized as one of the main food substances in North Maluku society and it has potential for food diversification due to its special quality compare to other products. Cassava commodity can be processed into composite flours with fermentation methods and it is as prominent of food resources and has low of Cyanide content (HCN. This research used two phases of Program Random Completes; it used fermentation period of cassava with 5 levels: 24,36,48,60, and 72 hours. And the utilization phases of composite flours the making of sagu lempeng. The result of this research showed that with long period of fermentation had produce cassava flours with cyanide content of 16, 41–56, 93 ppm with initial content of cyanide as big as 109,02 ppm. The highest cyanide content was found with fermentation period of 24 hours and lower fermentation of 72 hours. The characteristic of sagu lempeng  with chocolate and orange taste has 0.72 and 0.55 g total fats, 1.05 and 0.57 g protein, 86.9 and 86.28 g total carbohydrate, 2.86 and 1.35 g rough standard fiber.

  8. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ON CASSAVA PRODUCTIVITY IN KOGI STATE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilemona Adofu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the economic impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity in Kogi State, Nigeria. The results are drawn from a household survey covering the agricultural season of 2009/2010. The data obtained from interview schedule was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics for this study include frequency, percentages and means. The hypothesis was tested using chisquare. The result shows that 79.33% of the respondents adopt the use of improved variety within the period under study. The analysis done on the revenue of the respondents before and after the adoption of the improved agricultural technology shows that revenue of farmers after the adoption of innovations are better off than revenue generated before adoption by N27,750 on the average per farmer. This result shows that the impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity is positive. Additionally, the results attest to the importance of increasing agricultural productivity in tandem with improvements on the adoption and use of improved agricultural technologies and its availability to the reach of farmers with the farmers’ ability to store food. This findings is consistence with Idachaba and Ayoola, (1995 who observed that improved agricultural helped in increasing agricultural productivity.

  9. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from cassava powder by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yang, Chunyu; Yu, Bo; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-10-01

    Cassava is one of the most efficient and rich crops in terms of carbohydrate production, which is a tropical perennial plant that grows on poor or depleted soils. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. L-Lactic acid was efficiently produced from cassava powder by a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CASL. The fermentation properties of cassava powder were compared with those of glucose and corn powder. The efficiencies of various fermentation strategies for L-lactic acid production from cassava powder, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), two-step fermentation (TSF) and simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF), were investigated. The high L-lactic acid concentration (175.4 g/l) was obtained using 275 g/l of cassava powder concentration (total sugar of 222.5 g/l) in SSF batch fermentation. This is the highest L-lactic acid concentration reported, from cassava source, and it provides an efficient L-lactic acid production process with cheap raw bioresources, such as cassava powder.

  10. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li;

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon pro...

  11. THE USE OF MICROORGANISMS OF CASSAVA RETTING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINOLYTIC ENZYMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonagnon H. S. Kouhoundé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinolytic enzymes are used in the food industry for the extraction, clarification and filtration of fruit juice and wine. Depending on their mode of action, these enzymes are classified into two major groups, namely: esterases (methylesterase and depolymerases (polygalacturonase and lyase. Among the methods for their preparation, fermentation is the most used, and its application depends upon knowledge of the strain’s requirements; many parameters are taken into consideration most of which relate to the strain used. Knowledge and control of these parameters are required for optimal production of these enzymes. Many microorganisms (Aspergillus niger; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Trichoderma viride BITRS-1001; Bacillus licheniformis; Saccharomyces pastorianus etc. have already been studied and we suggested that there is a possibility of producing these enzymes using the microorganisms employed for the retting of cassava. This review provides a wealth of knowledge on the production of pectinolytic enzymes, using different substrates and microorganisms.

  12. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

    2010-05-01

    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips.

  13. Sustainable energy crop: An analysis of ethanol production from cassava in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubolsook, Aerwadee

    The first essay formulates a dynamic general equilibrium optimal control model of an energy crop as part of a country's planned resource use over a period of time. The model attempts to allocate consumption, production, and factors of production to achieve the country's sustainable development goal. A Cobb-Douglas specification is used for both utility and production functions in the model. We calibrate the model with Thailand data. The selected model is used to generate the stationary state solution and to simulate the optimal policy function and optimal time paths. Two methods are used: a linear approximation method and the Runke-Kutta reverse shooting method. The model provides numerical results that can be used as information for decision makers and stakeholders to devise an economic plan to achieve sustainable development goals. The second essay studies the effect of international trade and changes in labor supply, land supply, and the price of imported energy on energy crop production for bio fuel and food, as well as impacts on social welfare. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model to describe two baseline scenarios, a closed economy and an open economy. We find that international trade increases welfare and decreases the energy price. Furthermore, resources are allocated to produce more food under the open economy scenario than the quantities produced under a closed economy assumption. An increase in labor supply and land supply result in an increase in social welfare. An increase in imported energy price leads to a welfare loss, higher energy production, and lower food production. The third essay develops a partial equilibrium econometric model to project the impacts of an increase in ethanol production on the Thai agriculture sector over the next ten years. The model is applied to three scenarios for analyzing the effect of government ethanol production targets. The results from the baseline model and scenario analysis indicate that an expansion

  14. Utilisation of dried caged-hen manure and cassava peels for intensive sheep production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeudo, N J; Adegbola, A A

    1993-11-01

    Twenty grower ewes with an average weight of 14.3 +/- 3.7 kg were allotted to 5 dietary treatments. The diets contained 0, 13, 25, 35 and 45% dried caged-hen manure which replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the conventional protein supplements. The animals were fed 55.0 g/w0.75 kg/day of the concentrate food during a 104 days growth study. Air dried cassava peels and water were also provided ad libitum. The differences in average total dry matter intake were not statistically significant. The higher the manure content in the diets, the lower the energy content and the higher the cassava peels intake. No statistical differences were found in growth rates. The efficiency of food conversion decreased progressively though insignificantly. It was concluded that sheep can be fed caged-hen manure as the sole protein supplement in cassava peel based diets.

  15. Cassava Processing: Safety and Protein Fortification

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important and cheap source of carbohydrate in tropical regions, particularly in Sub-Sahara Africa. Cassava as a human food is a good source of energy as it has a comparable high energy density of about 610 kJ/100 g fresh root. The crop has growth advantages and production can take place in soil where other crops such as maize, sorghum and sweet potatoes cannot grow. In the region, cassava is used mainly by the farmers themselves as a subsistence crop b...

  16. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is co

  17. Conversion of cassava wastes for biofertilizer production using phosphate solubilizing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Frank C

    2010-06-01

    Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), AlPO(4) and FePO(4) in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (p<.05) improved the growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not.

  18. Cassava Genetic Transformation and its Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Qijie Zheng; Qiuxiang Ma; Kranthi Kumar Gadidasu; Peng Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As a major source of food, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Latin America, and serves as raw material for the production of starches and bioethanol in tropical Asia. Cassava improvement through genetic engineering not only overcomes the high heterozygosity and serious trait separation that occurs in its traditional breeding, but also quickly achieves improved target traits. Since the first report on genetic transformation in cassava in 1996, the technology has gradually matured over almost 15 years of development and has overcome cassava genotype constraints, changing from mode cultivars to farmer-preferred ones.Significant progress has been made in terms of an increased resistance to pests and diseases, biofortification, and improved starch quality,building on the fundamental knowledge and technologies related to planting, nutrition, and the processing of this important food crop that has often been neglected. Therefore, cassava has great potential in food security and bioenergy development worldwide.

  19. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben;

    The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind...

  20. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integrated in the cropping system as a form of rotation, cassava contributes significantly to maintenance of soil fertility, and thus large scale production of cassava for industrial use can contribute to poverty reduction in an environmentally responsive way. This paper discusses the role of cassava cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability and industrialization.

  1. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amon

  2. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability.

  3. Use of Cassava Peel as Carbon Source for Production of Amylolytic Enzymes by Aspergillus niveus

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Tony Marcio; ALARCON, Ricardo Fernandes; DAMASIO, Andre Ricardo de Lima; Michelin, Michele; Maller, Alexandre; Douglas C. Masui; TERENZI, Hector Francisco; Jorge, Joao Atilio; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus niveus produced high levels of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase in submerged fermentation using the agricultural residue cassava peel as a carbon source. In static conditions, the amylase production was substantially greater than in the agitated condition. The optimized culture conditions were initially at pH 5.0, 35 degrees C during 48 hours. Amylolytic activity was still improved (50%) with a mixture of cassava peel and soluble starch in the proportion 1:1 (w/w). The crude extract...

  4. Cassava starch effluent treatment with concomitant SCP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1991-03-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like organisms were chosen for the aerobic treatment of cassava starch factory effluent. A mixed culture of Candida utills and Endomycopsis fibuliger efficiently and rapidly utilized both starch and free sugars. After 28 h fermentation the protein content of the biomass was 22% (w/w), which remained unchanged during the remainder of the fermentation (60 h). This treatment removed 94% of the COD and 91% of the BOD.

  5. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  6. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  7. Production of multiple extracellular enzyme activities by novel submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii for ethanol production from raw cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Makita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Koutaro; Shoji, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Cassava is a starch-containing root crop that is widely used as a raw material in a variety of industrial applications, most recently in the production of fuel ethanol. In the present study, ethanol production from raw (uncooked) cassava flour by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using a preparation consisting of multiple enzyme activities from Aspergillus kawachii FS005 was investigated. The multi-activity preparation was obtained from a novel submerged fermentation broth of A. kawachii FS005 grown on unmilled crude barley as a carbon source. The preparation was found to consist of glucoamylase, acid-stable α-amylase, acid carboxypeptidase, acid protease, cellulase and xylanase activities, and exhibited glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) production rates of 37.7 and 118.7 mg/l/h, respectively, during A. kawachii FS005-mediated saccharification of uncooked raw cassava flour. Ethanol production from 18.2% (w/v) dry uncooked solids of raw cassava flour by SSF with the multi-activity enzyme preparation yielded 9.0% (v/v) of ethanol and 92.3% fermentation efficiency. A feasibility study for ethanol production by SSF with a two-step mash using raw cassava flour and the multi-activity enzyme preparation manufactured on-site was verified on a pilot plant scale. The enzyme preparation obtained from the A. kawachii FS005 culture broth exhibited glucose and FAN production rates of 41.1 and 135.5 mg/l/h, respectively. SSF performed in a mash volume of about 1,612 l containing 20.6% (w/v) dry raw cassava solids and 106 l of on-site manufactured A. kawachii FS005 culture broth yielded 10.3% (v/v) ethanol and a fermentation efficiency of 92.7%.

  8. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  9. Consuming cassava as a staple food places children 2-5 years old at risk for inadequate protein intake, an observational study in Kenya and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Simon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate protein intake is known to be deleterious in animals. Using WHO consensus documents for human nutrient requirements, the protein:energy ratio (P:E of an adequate diet is > 5%. Cassava has a very low protein content. This study tested the hypothesis that Nigerian and Kenyan children consuming cassava as their staple food are at greater risk for inadequate dietary protein intake than those children who consume less cassava. Methods A 24 hour dietary recall was used to determine the food and nutrient intake of 656 Nigerian and 449 Kenyan children aged 2-5 years residing in areas where cassava is a staple food. Anthropometric measurements were conducted. Diets were scored for diversity using a 12 point score. Pearson's Correlation Coefficients were calculated to relate the fraction of dietary energy obtained from cassava with protein intake, P:E, and dietary diversity. Results The fraction of dietary energy obtained from cassava was > 25% in 35% of Nigerian children and 89% of Kenyan children. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.0 in Nigerian children and 4.5 in Kenyan children, although the mean number of different foods consumed on the survey day in Nigeria was greater than Kenya, 7.0 compared to 4.6. 13% of Nigerian and 53% of Kenyan children surveyed had inadequate protein intake. The fraction of dietary energy derived from cassava was negatively correlated with protein intake, P:E, and dietary diversity. Height-for age z score was directly associated with protein intake and negatively associated with cassava consumption using regression modeling that controlled for energy and zinc intake. Conclusions Inadequate protein intake was found in the diets of Nigerian and Kenyan children consuming cassava as a staple food. Inadequate dietary protein intake is associated with stunting in this population. Interventions to increase protein intake in this vulnerable population should be the focus of future work.

  10. Effects of Climate Change on the Production and Profitability of Cassava in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Ajayi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is the single largest producer of cassava in the world with the bulk of the cassava coming out from the Niger Delta region. Human, economic and agricultural activities are currently threatened in the region by vagaries in climatic factors. These vagaries affect the production and profitability of cassava. The study was therefore conducted to assess the effects of climate change on the production and profitability of cassava in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study made use of a multi-stage sampling technique to select three hundred and sixty respondents across the three highest cassava-producing states (Awka Ibom, Cross Rivers and Ondo in the region. Data for the study were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression model. The determinants of cassava profitability were farm size, farmers’ experience in cassava cultivation, farmers’ experience in adopting climate change coping strategies, number of climate change coping strategies adopted, costs of input materials in Naira and labour cost in Naira.

  11. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars Estabilidade de alimento em barra à base de farinha de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.A farinha de mandioca apresenta redução de consumo por não se adequar ao estilo de vida moderno. Para inverter esta tendência, novos produtos poderão ser desenvolvidos e direcionados a mercados valorizados. As barras de cereais destacam-se como fast food de bom perfil nutricional. Uma fórmula foi usada para mimetizar as barras de cereais, usando uma mistura de farinha de mandioca, gordura vegetal, bananas secas, castanha de caju e xarope de glicose. As barras prensadas foram secas por 1 hora a 65 °C, embaladas em filmes e armazenadas em condição ambiente. A estabilidade do produto foi acompanhada

  12. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (pproduction was highest (pproduction, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.

  13. Analysis of Cassava Product (Garri Marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasore Abiodun Amos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is on analysis of cassava product (garri marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 150 respondents from the target group using a two-stage sampling procedure and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve. Gini Coefficient for all cassava product traders was estimated to be 0.624 or 62.4%. The estimated Gini Coefficient show high degree of inequality in the sales/income distribution. The Lorenz Curve plotted further revealed sales/income inequality among the traders. A wide gap between line of inequality and the plotted Lorenz Curve showed that there is a high inequality in the distribution of income among traders.

  14. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  15. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap. Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid altitud

  16. Food production and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H C

    1993-07-01

    Governments have frequently ignored the issue of population consumption exceeding the rates of renewal of natural resources. At the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the issue of population growth was ignored in the agenda and action plan. In 1974, the UN World Population Conference suggested population stability would be possible if standards of living were raised. Industrialized nations spent half a century of active interference with the stability of global populations and failed to slow growth. 27 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical zones, have an average cereal yield of under 1 ton per hectare, when improved seed and basic minimum fertilizer could yield 2 tons per hectare. Efforts to increase yields by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural research in 13 international centers resulted in global annual increases of about 50 million tons of grain (wheat and rice). Rainfed agriculture did not benefit as much because of climatic conditions. Where varieties of triticale, sorghum, millet, groundnuts, chick peas, cowpeas, beans, and cassava have helped increase food production, population growth has outstripped the gains. Agricultural fertilizers have been unfairly blamed for soil nutrient losses. Because of the age structure of population, the expected population growth can only be addressed through development of higher yields, new strains resistant to disease, and fertilizers. Slow release phosphates for tropical soils are needed. Shortages of domestic fuel divert much needed farmyard manure and composted crop residues. About 400 million tons of dung are thus wasted annually; food grain harvests are thus reduced by 14 million tons. About 50% of the 1133 million poorest people will live in Asia and another 25% will live in Sub-Saharan Africa, living on a total degraded area of 1219 million hectares. Imbalance between food supply and population need to be addressed on an effective international scale.

  17. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Armando U.O. SABAA-SRUR; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  18. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

  19. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food st...

  20. Optimization of thermal-dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment for enhancement of methane production from cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Jiang, Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the pretreatment of cassava residues by thermal-dilute sulfuric acid (TDSA) hydrolysis was investigated by means of a statistically designed set of experiments. A three-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to identify the optimum pretreatment condition of cassava residues for methane production. The individual and interactive effects of temperature, H(2)SO(4) concentration and reaction time on increase of methane yield (IMY) were evaluated by applying response surface methodology (RSM). After optimization, the resulting optimum pretreatment condition was 157.84°C, utilizing 2.99% (w/w TS) H(2)SO(4) for 20.15 min, where the maximum methane yield (248 mL/g VS) was 56.96% higher than the control (158 mL/g VS), which was very close to the predict value 56.53%. These results indicate the model obtained through RSM analysis is suit to predict the optimum pretreatment condition and there is great potential of using TDSA pretreatment of cassava residues to enhance methane yield.

  1. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  2. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For meat, poultry, and egg products under the jurisdiction of the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), ... the door. [ Top of Page ] Bar Codes A Universal Product Code (UPC) is a type of barcode ...

  3. On the biomarkers and mechanisms of konzo, a distinct upper motor neuron disease associated with food (cassava) cyanogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Roman M; Kasensa, Nyamabo L; Monterroso, Victor H; Kayton, Robert J; Klimek, John E; David, Larry L; Lunganza, Kalala R; Kayembe, Kazadi T; Bentivoglio, Marina; Juliano, Sharon L; Tshala-Katumbay, Desire D

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a self-limiting central motor-system disease associated with food dependency on cassava and low dietary intake of sulfur amino acids (SAA). Under conditions of SAA-deficiency, ingested cassava cyanogens yield metabolites that include thiocyanate and cyanate, a protein-carbamoylating agent. We studied the physical and biochemical modifications of rat serum and spinal cord proteins arising from intoxication of young adult rats with 50-200mg/kg linamarin, or 200mg/kg sodium cyanate (NaOCN), or vehicle (saline) and fed either a normal amino acid- or SAA-deficient diet for up to 2 weeks. Animals under SAA-deficient diet and treatment with linamarin or NaOCN developed hind limb tremors or motor weakness, respectively. LC/MS-MS analysis revealed differential albumin carbamoylation in animals treated with NaOCN, vs. linamarin/SAA-deficient diet, or vehicle. 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/MS-MS analysis of the spinal cord proteome showed differential expression of proteins involved in oxidative mechanisms (e.g. peroxiredoxin 6), endocytic vesicular trafficking (e.g. dynamin 1), protein folding (e.g. protein disulfide isomerase), and maintenance of the cytoskeleton integrity (e.g. α-spectrin). Studies are needed to elucidate the role of the aformentioned modifications in the pathogenesis of cassava-associated motor-system disease.

  4. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  5. Middlemen and Smallholder Farmers in Cassava Marketing in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income in Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing is therefore a very important determinant of consumers living cost and producers' income. Exploitation of one marketing agent by another in the course of product distribution could contribute to increased marketing costs and hence inefficiency. The paper examines the extent to which the widely held view that middlemen exploit farmers through monopsony purchases and usury apply to cassava farmers. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. The result of the analysis fails to support the view that middlemen generally engage in monopsony purchases of cassava products, because farmers had on average, higher volume of cassava products for sale in the market than middlemen. Prices of cassava products appeared more stable in Nigeria than in the other countries, because of the more elaborate involvement of middlemen, which encouraged competition. The intermediaries between the farmer and the consumer were at most three in each of the countries – the processor, the semi-wholesaler and the retailer. Cassava farmers and traders combined the role of the processor apparently because of the low development stage of mechanized processing technology. For both farmers and middlemen, transactions in cash were the predominant practice, followed by delayed payments. Advanced payment was non-existent except in Uganda. Marketing margins, though generally high, decline with good market access conditions. And the margins for granules were substantially lower than those of dried roots not only because of substantial differences in processing resource demand but also because of differences in marketing costs. This suggests that investments towards improving market access conditions, and in cost saving processing technologies for the production of granules are needed for the improvement

  6. Cassava's ethanol productive potential and its spatial distribution in China%中国木薯乙醇的资源潜力及其空间分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞; 谢高地; 徐增让; 盖力强; 陈龙; 成升魁

    2011-01-01

    利用气候、土壤、地形和土壤等数据,运用ArcGIS的空间叠加分析功能,分析了中国木薯乙醇的分布生产潜力及空间分布.结果表明:中国适宜木薯分布的区域主要在广西、广东、福建、云南、江西和海南等广大南部地区,这些地区的木薯乙醇生产潜力也最高;适宜木薯种植的未利用地面积较少,仅有1.53×104hm2,其乙醇生产潜力仅能满足目前中国E10汽油约1.0%的乙醇需求量;要满足中国目前E10汽油的全部乙醇需求,需要扩大目前木薯总种植耕地面积的4.4~5.7倍,而中国的粮食安全需求则限制了该目标的实现;中国木薯乙醇满足未来生物乙醇的需求前景不容乐观,中国木薯乙醇企业的发展规划要充分考虑原料的可获性,切不可盲目扩大生产.%In this paper, the cassava ’ s ethanol productive potential and its spatial distribution in China were analyzed, based on the climatic, topographic and soil data, and by the method of ArcGIS 9. 2 spatial analysis. In this country, the regions suitable for planting cassava and with the highest cassava ’ s ethanol productive potential mainly distributed in the southern provinces such as Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Yunnan, Jiangxi, and Hainan. However, the suitable but unused lands for cassava in these regions were quite small, only 1. 53×104 hm2 , and the cassava’ s ethanol productive potential from these lands could only satisfy 1. 0% of the China total demand for E10 ethanol gasoline. To fully satisfy the present demand for E10 ethanol gasoline in China, the total area for planting cassava would be expanded 4. 7-5. 7 times, which is hard to achieve, considering China’ s food security. Therefore, the prospect that the present cassava ’s ethanol production in China could meet the future demand for bioethanol of the country would be not optimistic. It was suggested that in the development planning of cassava ethanol, our related

  7. Recent advances in cassava pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, A C; Smith, L; Lapointe, S L

    1999-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) occupies a uniquely important position as a food security crop for smallholder farmers in ares of the tropics where climate, soils, or societal stresses constrain production. Given its reliability and productivity, cassava is the most important locally produced food in a third of the world's low-income, food-deficit countries. It is the fourth most important source of carbohydrates for human consumption in the tropics, after rice, sugar, and maize. World production of cassava from 1994-1996 averaged 166 million tons/year grown on 16.6 million hectares (ha), for an average yield of 9.9 tons/ha. Approximately 57% is used for human consumption, 32% for animal feed and industrial purposes, and 11% is waste. Africa accounts for 51.3% of the production; Asia, 29.4%; and Latin America, 19.3%. The area planted to cassava in Africa, Asia, and Latin America is 10.3, 3.7, and 2.6 million ha, respectively.

  8. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  9. Summarization of Cassava Starch Deep Processing Products%木薯淀粉深加工产品概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丹; 梁智

    2012-01-01

    木薯是广西的一大经济作物,是"三薯"作物之一。木薯的块茎是做淀粉的主要原料,木薯淀粉以其特有的特性,制淀粉和深加工制变性淀粉,具有优势,应用也十分广泛。除此之外,其它衍生物产品应用广泛,不断研究出新的产品。%Cassava is one important economic crop in Guangxi,one of three main tuber crops(cassava,potato and sweet potato) in the world.Tuber of cassava is key raw material for production of starch.Native starch and modified starch made from cassava possess great advantages and can be applied in a wide variety of fields.Moreover,derivatives of cassava starch can be used for many aims and new products keep emerging from continuous research.

  10. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  11. Analysis on the Temporal-spatial Changes of Cassava Production in the World Based on GIS%基于GIS的世界木薯生产时空变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海亮; 刘恩平; 胡盛红; 刘海清; 戴声佩

    2012-01-01

    为了全面分析世界木薯生产情况,为木薯生产提供参考信息,采用属性数据空间化的方法,将地理信息系统(GIS)引入世界木薯生产的时空变化分析,利用联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)提供的木薯生 产统计数据,分析了1969-2009年世界木薯生产的空间变化、对序变化及变化趋势.结果表明,世界木 薯的收获面积1、总产量和单位面积产量均具有明显的空间差异;在时序变化上,世界木薯生产整体上呈 稳步增长的态势,木薯主要种植大洲及主产国的生产变化各具不同的特点;在空间变异趋势上,木薯单 位面积产量的南北方向变化规律最为明显,赤道往北单位面积产量随纬度的增高而增加,赤道往南单位 面积产量随纬度增高而下降.GIS是一种研究木薯生产时空变化的新手段,通过研究中的分析,世界木 薯的发展应采取合作交流、互助支持的发展模式,融合利用全球的土地资源、气候资源和科技资源,根据 全球范围内的木薯生产潜能合理开发世界木薯资源,走木薯产业的可持续发展道路.%For comprehensive analysis and provide reference information of the world cassava production, the GIS (geographic information system) was used to analyze the temporal-spatial changes and change trend of the world cassava production from 1969 to 2009 based on the cassava production statistics provided by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). The results showed that, the spatial distribution of area harvested, total output and per unit area yield bad a significant geographical differences. In the changing of the time series, the whole world production of cassava rising steadily, cassava production changes of the main producing continents and countries had different characteristics. In the space variation trend, the rules that north and south direction altering of the per unit area yield of cassava was the most obvious; the per unit area yield of

  12. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local level based on a survey of 315 farmers/processors and 105 marketers from Delta State. The results revealed that several policies and programmes were implemented to develop the cassava sector with mixed outcomes. Although cassava productivity grew at 1.5% per annum (p.a. during the post-structural adjustment programme period (1993–2013, its real price declined at a rate of 3.5% p.a. The effect of yield is the main source of growth in production, contributing 76.4% of the total growth followed by the area effect (28.2%. The cassava sector is constrained by inadequate market infrastructure, processing facilities, and lack of information and unstable prices at the local level. The widespread diffusion of improved tropical manioc selection technologies and investments in market and marketing infrastructure, processing technologies, irrigation/water provision and information dissemination are recommended to enhance the potential of the cassava sector to support agricultural growth in Nigeria.

  13. Vertical Differentiation of Cassava Marketing Channels in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are inherently risky because they are fundamentally dependent on vagaries of weather. Sub-Saharan Africa is also a region in crises; poverty, civil strife and HIV/AIDS. Attention must therefore be focused on improving the production and marketing of crops that could thrive under these circumstances. Because of its tolerance of extreme drought and low input use conditions, Cassava is perhaps the best candidate in this regard. And cassava is a basic food staple and a major source of farm income for the people of the region. Efficiency in cassava marketing is a very important determinant of both consumers' living cost and producers' income in Africa. Vertical differentiation of marketing channels improves marketing efficiency. Identified in this paper are factors that drive vertical differentiation of cassava marketing channels. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa. High population density, good market access conditions, availability of mechanized cassava processing technology and cassava price information stimulate vertical differentiation of the marketing channels.

  14. Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-02-15

    The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

  15. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance

  16. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding.

  17. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  18. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarso, S.; B Budiyono; Siswo Sumardiono

    2010-01-01

    IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, ...

  19. An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onumadu F.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examined the male and female level of access and ownership to land for cassava production in Abia state. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents determine the differences in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female farmers. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used select 218 respondents. Questionnaire was used for data collection while frequency counts mean percentages and Z-test were used in analyzing the data generated. The result shows that the mean age for male and the female were 52.7 and 46.2 years respectively. 94.5 of the male and 97.2 of the female had one form of formal education. The mean household size of the male and the female were 8 and 7 persons per house. The mean farming experiences of the male and female were 16.54 years and 13.26 years respectively. Mean income generated from cassava stand to be 54882.57 and 126082.60 respectively for both male and female. The Z- test analysis result shows that mean farm sizes of the respondents were 2.91 hectares and 2.45 hectares respectively for both male and female. The analysis also showed that there was significant difference between access to farmland of male and the female farmers at t -2.613 at 5 significant level and cassava output of male and the female at t -4.764 at 1 significant level. It was therefore recommended that a micro- credit scheme be established by government and nongovernmental organization target mainly on female cassava farmers for purchase of resources for cassava production.

  20. Expanding the Application of Cassava Value Chain Technologies Through UPoCA Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braima Dama James

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava can play a key role in rural economic growth in Africa, but are we there yet? Cassava varieties with 50% more yielding potential and technologies to boost processing and marketing of cassava are available. However, the sub-sector is constrained by low productivity and marketing difficulties. In 2008, USAID and IITA initiated the project “Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Response to Food Price Crisis (UPOCA as a multi-country and inter-institutional partnership enabling cassava sub-sectors to realize their full potential in rural economies. By end 2009, small holder beneficiaries associated with 55 partner organizations and 11 agricultural related firms established 306 community cassava stem multiplication sites and root production farms totalling 10,097ha with 58 improved varieties. Through experiential learning, 345 men and 142 women learnt improved techniques in cassava production, processing, product development, and packaging/labelling. The evolving achievements show that a longer-term cassava R4D partnership platform of this nature will enable the sub-sector to contribute significantly to rural economic growth in Africa.

  1. The economic performance of Jatropha, cassava and Eucalyptus production systems for energy in an East Africal smallholder setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, J.A.J. van; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential economic feasibility of three smallholder energy crop production systems (jatropha, cassava and eucalyptus) under typical semi-arid conditions in Eastern Africa. This feasibility is determined by assessing net present values (NPV), internal rates of return (IRR), b

  2. Effect of fermentation conditions on biohydrogen production from cassava starch by anaerobic mixed cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Hai M.; Le, Kien A.; Tran, An T.; Le, Phung K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, fermentation time, and inoculums ratio to hydrogen production using cassava starch as a substrate. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that the significant effects for the fermentation yield were the main effect of temperature, pH and inoculums ratio. It was fouund that the suitable fermentation conditions of biohydrogen production should be at temperature 40 ° C; pH 6.5, inoculums to medium ratio 10 % and COD operation at 4800 g/mL. The maximum value of hydrogen volume produced was 76.22 mL. These affected has been evaluated and the result can be used as an reference for the pilot or industrial biohydrogen production.

  3. Cassava: The Drought, War and Famine Crop in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burns

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and larger-scale plantations due to its low requirement for nutrients, ability to tolerate dry conditions and easy low-cost propagation. It is sometimes referred to as the “drought, war and famine crop of the developing world” and reliance upon this crop is expected to increase in the coming years as the global climate changes. As with all crops, cassava presents some challenges which need to be addressed, especially if its production is to continue to expand. We highlight here a number of key issues around the continued and increased reliance upon cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava contains cyanogenic glycosides that release hydrogen cyanide and many cultivars are toxic if not processed before consumption. The degree of toxicity is altered by plant breeding, agricultural practice, environmental conditions and methods of food preparation. We conclude that use of cassava has the potential to help many countries achieve food security in a sustainable manner, in the face of significant environmental change, but that its introduction should be accompanied by appropriate education about its toxicity.

  4. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  5. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  6. Comparison of the Suitability of Contiguous Fallow-forest Lands for Cassava, Yam, Cocoyam and Sweet Potato Production in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadu Charles L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis compared the suitability of contiguous fallow-forest lands for cassava, yam, cocoyam and sweet potato production in Nsukka, south-eastern Nigeria. The fallow plots were brought into cultivation in 1998 under the IITA-UNN long-term collaborative research. The sole cassava plots were grown to cassava only continuously for five years and then left to fallow. Soil samples were collected from 0-20 cm depth in triplicates using an auger and core sampler from the seven representative fallow plots previously grown to sole cassava from 1998–2003 and under fallow till date as well as the adjacent forest land. The objective was to use the soil qualities as recovered during the fallow period and those from the original adjacent forest to determine their current suitability for the production of the four crops. Using the FAO’s principle of limiting conditions revealed that after 13 yrs of fallow, the plots grown to sole cassava was classified as highly suitable (S1 for sweet potato production but moderately suitable (S2 for cassava, yam and cocoyam production. The remnant forest land was highly suitable for sweet potato production but moderately suitable for cassava, yam and cocoyam production. The dominant soil limitations are organic matter, low cation exchange capacity and exchangeable potassium for both cassava and yam production. The major limitations to cocoyam production are low available phosphorous, base saturation and soil pH. If these constraints are addressed adequately by soil nutrient management programmes all the plots will scale up to S1 class for the four crops.

  7. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

  8. TEKNOLOGI MODIFIKASI TEPUNG KASAVA Modified Cassava Flour Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Haryadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava productivity is very potential to support food security. Processing of cassava into flour makes the food more durable, less voluminous and easier to handle, and flexible to cook. To extend the use of cassava flour, it is necessary to develop technology to produce quality cassava flour suitable for various food purposes. A certain flour finess is desired to free the starch granules and to allow the granule’s cooking characteristics to express significantly. Modification of cassava flour technology may involve physical, biological, chemical aspects, as well as combination of the aspects. ABSTRAK Potensi produksi kasava sangat besar untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai pendukung ketahanan pangan. Pengolahannya men­ jadi tepung memungkinkan lebih awet, lebih ringkas dan lebih mudah diangkut, serta lebih luwes untuk diolah. Untuk memperluas penggunaan tepung kasava, perlu pengembangan teknologi produksi tepung bermutu yang dapat diman­ faatkan dalam berbagai olahan makanan. Tepung dikehendaki pada kelembutan tertentu, sehingga granula-granula pati terlepas dari jaringan awalnya, dan selanjutnya ciri-ciri granula dalam pemasakan menjadi nyata. Modifikasi pembuatan tepung kasava dapat dilakukan secara fisik, biologis maupun kimiawi, ataupun gabungan dari aspek-aspek tersebut.

  9. Fuzzy-Rule-Based Approach for Modeling Sensory Acceptabitity of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of product acceptability is often an additive effect of individual fuzzy impressions developed by a consumer on certain underlying attributes characteristic of the product. In this paper, we present the development of a data-driven fuzzy-rule-based approach for predicting the overall sensory acceptability of food products, in this case composite cassava-wheat bread. The model was formulated using the Takagi-Sugeno and Kang (TSK fuzzy modeling approach. Experiments with the model derived from sampled data were simulated on Windows 2000XP running on Intel 2Gh environment. The fuzzy membership function for the sensory scores is implemented in MATLAB 6.0 using the fuzzy logic toolkit, and weights of each linguistic attribute were obtained using a Correlation Coefficient formula. The results obtained are compared to those of human judgments. Overall assessments suggest that, if implemented, this approach will facilitate a better acceptability of cassava bread as well as nutritionally improved food.

  10. Manganese peroxidase production from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation and its decolorization of indigo carmine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huixing Li; Ruijing Zhang; Lei Tang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhonggui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to higher value products through fungal fermentation has economic and ecological benefits. In this study, to develop an effective strategy for production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation, the stimulators of MnP produc-tion were screened and their concentrations were optimized by one-at-a-time experiment and Box–Behnken design. The maximum MnP activity of 186.38 nkat·g−1 dry mass of the sample was achieved after 6 days of fer-mentation with the supplement of 79.5 mmol·L−1·kg−1 acetic acid, 3.21 ml·kg−1 soybean oil, and 28.5 g·kg−1 alkaline lignin, indicating that cassava residue is a promising substrate for MnP production in solid state fermen-tation. Meanwhile, in vitro decolorization of indigo carmine by the crude MnP was also carried out, attaining the ratio of 90.18%after 6 h of incubation. An oxidative mechanism of indigo carmine decolorization by MnP was pro-posed based on the analysis of intermediate metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Using the crude MnP produced from cassava residue for indigo carmine decolorization gives an effective approach to treat dyeing effluents.

  11. Water Quality Changes Associated with Cassava Production: Case Study of White Volta Bain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Bediako, Michael Asare; Harris, Emmanuel; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2016-08-01

    The outcome reveal that as the land use in the catchment areas change from mixed agricultural to cassava cultivation, the simulated loads and concentrations of nitrogen species from cassava land-use scenario recorded reduction. The resultant concentrations of nitrate and nitrite for both current and future land-use scenarios are all below the daily limit suggested by the WHO, (World Health Organization). For the phosphate concentration, an increase of 4.21% was depicted under cassava land-use scenario. The results show that SWAT is a reliable water quality model, capable of simulating accurate information for developing environmental management plans.

  12. Technical Regulations for Edible Cassava Production%食用木薯生产技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洁

    2014-01-01

    The regulation provided the edible cassava production technology of climate condition, producing area condition, variety selection, planting techniques, management of water and fertilization, pest control, harvesting, preservation etc.%规定食用木薯生产技术的气候条件、产地条件、品种选择、种植技术、水肥管理、病虫害防控、收获、保鲜等内容。

  13. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    , which represent two major agro-ecological environments in the Soudan-zone in Mali. The results reveal that farmers are experienced cassava producers and are interested in an expansion of cassava cultivation for bioethanol production and that suitable areas are available, especially for an expansion...

  14. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  15. Enhanced butanol production from cassava with Clostridium acetobutylicum by genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bo; Qian, Yi; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Mou-Ming; Pang, Zong-Wen

    2016-04-01

    To obtain strains exhibiting high levels of solvent tolerance and butanol production, wild type strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum butanol-producing strain GX01 and Lactobacillus mucosae butanol-tolerant strain M26 were subjected to mutagenesis combining N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction with genome shuffling. After four successive rounds of genome shuffling, the C. acetobutylicum shuffled strain GS4-3 showing greater levels of fermentation performances (such as secreting a higher level of amylase, improving the thermal stability, and possessing greater environmental robustness) compared to the wild type strains was isolated. As a result, after optimization of culture conditions, mutant GS4-3 produced 32.6 g/L of total solvent, 20.1 g/L of butanol production, and 0.35 g/L/h of butanol productivity, which were, respectively, increased by 23.5, 23.3, and 40.0 % than the wild-type strain GX01, in a 10 L bioreactor. The enhanced production of butanol and tolerance of solvent of mutant associated with GS4-3 make it promising for acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation from cassava (Manihot esculenta).

  16. Biohydrogen production from cassava wastewater in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. S. Amorim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT and organic loading rate (OLR on biological hydrogen production was assessed using an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor fed with cassava wastewater. The HRT of this reactor ranged from 8 to 1 h (28 to 161 kg COD/m³-d. The inoculum was obtained from a facultative pond sludge derived from swine wastewater treatment. The effluent pH was approximately 5.00, while the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD measured 4000 mg COD/L. The hydrogen yield production increased from 0.13 to 1.91 mol H2/mol glucose as the HRT decreased from 8 to 2 h. The hydrogen production rate significantly increased from 0.20 to 2.04 L/h/L when the HRT decreased from 8 to 1 h. The main soluble metabolites were ethanol (1.87-100%, acetic acid (0.00-84.80%, butyric acid (0.00-66.78% and propionic acid (0.00-50.14%. Overall, we conclude that the best hydrogen yield production was obtained at an HRT of 2 h.

  17. An atlas of cassava in Africa : historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Fresco, L.O.; Jones, P.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 6 chapters covering: the dynamics of cassava in Africa; the introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa; current distribution of cassava in Africa; the relationship of cassava distribution to environment and population; distribution and change in cassava production in Nigeria,

  18. Extending Cassava Root Shelf Life via Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2012-01-01

    One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

  19. Pretreatment on Anaerobic Sludge for Enhancement of Biohydrogen Production from Cassava Processing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele do Carmo Lamaison

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the enrichment of an anaerobic sludge with H2-producing bacteria have been compared by using cassava processing wastewater as substrate.The sludge was submitted to three different pretreatments: 1 heat pretreatment by boiling at 98 °C for 15 min., 2 heat pretreatment followed by sludge washout in a Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR operated at a dilution rate (D of 0.021 h-1, and 3 sludge washout as the sole enrichment method. The pretreated sludge and the sludge without pretreatment (control were employed in the seeding of 4 batch bioreactors, in order to verify the volume and composition of the generated biogas. Maximum H2 production rates (Rm from the pretreated sludges, were estimated by the modified Gompertz model. Compared to the control, H2 production was ca. 4 times higher for the sludge submitted to the heat pretreatment only and for the sludge subjected to heat pretreatment combined with washout, and 10 times higher for washout. These findings demonstrated that the use of sludge washout as the sole sludge pretreatment method was the most effective in terms of H2 production, as compared to the heat and to the combined heat and washout pretreatments.

  20. Biologic treatment of wastewater from cassava flour production using vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce T Correia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimate cassava production in Brazil in 2007 was of 25 million tons (= 15% of the world production and most of it is used in the production of flour. During its processing, waste that can cause environmental inequality is generated, if discharged inappropriately. One of the liquid waste generated, manipueira, is characterized by its high level of organic matter. The anaerobic treatment that uses a vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR inoculated with granulated sludge, is one of the ways of treating this effluent. The anaerobic biodigestion phases are separated in this kind of reactor, allowing greater stability and resistance to load shocks. The VABR was built with a width/height rate of 1:2. The pH, acidity, alkalinity, turbidity and COD removal were analyzed in 6 different regions of the reactor, which was operated with an increasing feeding from ? 2000 to ? 10000 mg COD L?¹ and HRT between 6.0 and 2.5 days. The VABR showed decreasing acidity and turbidity, an increase in alkalinity and pH, and 96% efficiency in COD removal with 3-day HRT and feeding of 3800 mg COD L?¹.

  1. Natural food pigments application in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Janiszewska-Turak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural pigments, food compounds, are responsible for the colour of the products. These additives can impart, to deepen or renew the colour of the product, if it has been lost while processing. They also improve the taste of the product and facilitate its identification. It is hard to imagine today’s food industry without the use of pigments. Presently, more and more conscious con­sumers are demanding products to be coloured with natural pigments or any pigment added to the final product. Artificial pigments are considered to be harmful and undesirable so food manufacturers focus on the use of natural colour substances. 16 natural pigments are presently permitted to be used. These compounds are: betalains – betanin, quinones – cochineal, flavonoids – anthocyan­ins, isoprenoids – carotene, annatto (bixin, norbixin, paprika extract, lutein, canthaxanthin, porphyrins – chlorophylls and chlorophyllins and copper complexes of these compounds, and others: caramels, curcumin, or plant coal.

  2. Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R C

    2004-10-01

    The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s).

  3. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that

  4. Understanding consumers of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order for food businesses, scientists and policy makers to develop successful products, services and policies, it is essential that they understand food consumers and how they decide which products to buy. Food consumer behaviour is the result of various factors, including the motivations of diff

  5. [Application of ICP-MS to detection of mineral elements and heavy metals in Cassava's byproducts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hai-Teng; Zhang, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Lüi, Fei-Jie; Tai, Jian-Xiang; Li, Kai-Mian

    2009-07-01

    Cassava is a main cultivated tropical crop in China, its rich starch roots are often used to produce fuel ethanol in recent years, so it's a kind of hot biomass energy crops. But cassava's byproducts such as leaves, stems and peels are regarded as waste, and are not fully utilized. Cassava's byproducts contain many nutrients, and can be used to process high value food products. The contents of mineral elements and heavy metals in cassava's byproducts were studied by ICP-MS. The results showed that cassava's byproducts contained many elements necessary to human health, the sequence of macroelements was K>Ca>P> Mg>S>Mn>Zn>Na>Fe>B>Cu, particularly, the contents of Fe, Mn, Zn and B ranged from 10 to 800 microg x g(-1) (DW), while the contents of microelements including Mo, Co, Se and Ge ranged from 0.01 to 0.2 microg x g(-1) (DW), which are important to human health. Besides macroelements and microelements, the contents of heavy metals (As, Cr, Pb and Hg) were also important to identify the quality of farm products, and the results showed that cassava's byproducts contained little heavy metals except Pb (2.19 microg x g(-1) (DW) in stalk peels). All the data showed that cassava's byproducts accorded with the national hygiene standards.

  6. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics.

  7. Material Storage for Cassava Based Fuel Ethanol Production%木薯燃料乙醇的原料储藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅永刚; 张丙龙

    2012-01-01

    Cassava accumulates during harvest period which is unsuitable for the requirement of continuous production of fuel ethanol manufacturing enterprises. Therefore, the storage of cassava material is necessary. The efficient solutions of this problem are safe material water maintenance, suitable storage container, scientific storage method, and proper trouble shooting method which ensure the long storage of cassava.%木薯收获期集中,不适应车用燃料乙醇企业的连续生产要求,因此进行木薯原料的储藏十分必要。安全的原料储藏水分、符合要求的仓储设施、科学合理的储藏方法、及时正确的问题防治保证了木薯燃料乙醇原料的长期储藏,从而有效解决了“原料集中供应”和“企业连续生产”之间的矛盾。

  8. Effect of resistant starch on the cooking quality of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) based paste products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges

    2013-06-01

    Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 μm) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak.

  9. Productivity and drought tolerance of cassava cultivars in the Coastal Tablelands of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques de Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ten cassava cultivars were grown in the field and evaluated to identify the most adapted to the Coastal Tablelands of northeast Brazil. The cultivars showed differences in proline and chlorophyll contents, plant height, number of leaves and branches, canopy area and root production, however they did not differ on photosynthetic rates. Cultivars 'Tianguá' and '9783-13' presented lower root yield, whereas 'BRS Tapioqueira' and 'Irará' had the highest root yield. Few leaves coupled with the highest water use efficiency for CO2 assimilation was found in 'BRS Kiriris' in contrast to 'BRS Jarina' and '9783-13'. 'BRS Caipira' had high proline content in both Umbaúba and Frei Paulo areas, traits usually associated to drought tolerance, that contribute to the adaptation. It is also important to consider that cultivar 'BRS Caipira' was the first to present increase in chlorophyll content after extended period of drought, that indicates a faster recovery after dry season. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most adapted cultivars for cultivation in this area are 'Irará', 'BRS Tapioqueira', 'BRS Kiriris' and 'BRS Caipira'.

  10. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  11. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  12. Diversity and technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava used for the preparation of Gari, a traditional African food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, Melanie; Specht, Ingrid; Edward, Vinodh A; Schillinger, Ulrich; Hertel, Christian; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2005-08-01

    Traditional fermentation of cassava is dominated by a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population. Fermentation is important for improving product flavour and aroma as well as safety, especially by reduction of its toxic cyanogenic glucosides. The production of Gari from cassava in Benin typically occurs on a household or small industrial scale, and consequently suffers from inconsistent product quality and may not always be safe for consumption. Therefore, the diversity of LAB from a typical cassava fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods such as rep-PCR and RAPD-PCR. DNA-DNA hybridisation and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes were done for selected strains. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundantly isolated species (54.6% of isolates), followed by Leuconostoc fallax (22.3%) and Lactobacillus fermentum (18.0%). Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Weissella paramesenteroides were sporadically isolated. The L. plantarum strains were shown to be better acid producers and capable of faster acid production than the L. fallax or L. fermentum strains. The incidence of beta-glucosidase (linamarase) activity was also highest among strains of this species. Production of antagonistic substances such as H2O2 and bacteriocins, however, was more common among L. fallax and L. fermentum strains. Strains of all three species were capable of utilising the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose. Therefore, a starter culture containing a mixture of strains from all three species was recommended.

  13. 碳化木薯原料乙醇发酵的生产研究%Ethanol Production by Carbonated Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓峰; 李莉; 徐新

    2016-01-01

    Carbonated cassava and normal cassava were used respectively for ethanol production under the same technical conditions (flask shaking fermentation adopted). Their ethanol production results were compared. The results suggested that, there were great difference in rip-ened mash and ethanol production between carbonated cassava and normal cassava. This study provided useful reference for the purchase and the storage of cassava.%以碳化木薯和正常木薯为原料,在相同工艺条件下,采用摇瓶发酵法,进行酒精发酵效果的初步研究,探讨了碳化木薯的酒精发酵效果。结果表明,碳化木薯干的成熟醪酒分和发酵效果与正常木薯酒精发酵差别较大,为采购木薯和木薯储存提供参考。

  14. Production of raw cassava starch-degrading enzyme by Penicillium and its use in conversion of raw cassava flour to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-Juan; Xian, Liang; Zhang, Qiu-Jiang; Luo, Xue-Mei; Xu, Qiang-Sheng; Yang, Qi; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Liang; Tang, Ji-Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2011-06-01

    A newly isolated strain Penicillium sp. GXU20 produced a raw starch-degrading enzyme which showed optimum activity towards raw cassava starch at pH 4.5 and 50 °C. Maximum raw cassava starch-degrading enzyme (RCSDE) activity of 20 U/ml was achieved when GXU20 was cultivated under optimized conditions using wheat bran (3.0% w/v) and soybean meal (2.5% w/v) as carbon and nitrogen sources at pH 5.0 and 28 °C. This represented about a sixfold increment as compared with the activity obtained under basal conditions. Starch hydrolysis degree of 95% of raw cassava flour (150 g/l) was achieved after 72 h of digestion by crude RCSDE (30 U/g flour). Ethanol yield reached 53.3 g/l with fermentation efficiency of 92% after 48 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw cassava flour at 150 g/l using the RCSDE (30 U/g flour), carried out at pH 4.0 and 40 °C. This strain and its RCSDE have potential applications in processing of raw cassava starch to ethanol.

  15. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  16. The processing parameters of cassava leaf puffing food%木薯叶膨化食品加工参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超; 吕飞杰; 台建祥; 陈晓明; 李开绵; 陆小静; 张国治

    2011-01-01

    The effects of varying water volume added in materials, feed quantity, screw speed and barrel temperature on the quality of cassava leaf puffing food of materials comprised of cassava leaf and grist were studied by using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. According to the results of single factor experiment, the best process parameters were conducted by orthogonal experiment and analysis. The best process parameters were as follow: Added water was 8%, feed quantity was 15 L/min, screw speed was 120 r/min and barrel temperature(III zone) was 130℃. The experimental result played an important role in improving the comprehensive utilization degree of cassava leaves and promoting the healthy development of cassava industry.%通过实验研究了木薯叶和谷物类混合物料为原料时,物料加水量、物料进料量、双螺杆挤压机的螺杆转速和机筒温度4种加工参数对木薯叶膨化食品品质的影响。依据单因素实验结果,通过正交实验设计分析,得出了最优的加工参数为:加水量8%,进料量15L/min,螺杆转速120r/min,III区温度130℃。实验研究结果对于提高木薯的综合利用程度,促进木薯产业的健康发展有着重要的作用。

  17. Efficient production of transgenic plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.M.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible method was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of cassava. LBA4404(pTOK233), containing the nptII, hph and gus marker genes, was used in the experiments. Chemical selection by means of kanamycin was used to establish 10

  18. Cultivation of oyster mushrooms on cassava waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Obodai, M.; Asagbra, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is a major food crop for approximately 700 million people, especially in African countries. A large quantity of waste is produced during processing of cassava, mainly consisting of tuber peels. Although previous research has shown that these peels can be an ingredient for substrate to cultiv

  19. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  20. Market impact on cassava's development potential in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of markets on agricultural development was analyzed by means of a case study on cassava in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia. In the development process, the demand for agricultural products changes considerably. Traditional food products, such as roots and tubers, face a decreasing d

  1. Working Group VII: Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Midtvedt, Tore

    2011-01-01

    The working group recognised that many international and national organisations had developed strategies for evaluating the safety of new food products produced by the application of genetic modification. These strategies were necessarily fairly general and the group agreed that it should focus its attention on the pathogenicity and toxicity of live microorganisms used in food.

  2. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30 g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9 g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44 g/g reducing sugar and 34.3 wt% of fatty acids and 48.6 wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0 wt% and a titer of 5.83 g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4 wt% and yield of 0.22 g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production.

  3. Ethanol production at high temperature from cassava pulp by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, TISTR 5925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR 5925, isolated from rotten fruit in Thailand, can ferment at pH 3 at temperatures between 42 and 45 ℃. Bioethanol production from cassava pulp using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was evaluated and compared with the separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using K. marxianus TISTR 5925. The ethanol concentrations obtained from the SSF process were higher than those from the SHF process. The optimum conditions for ethanol production were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM based on a five level central composite design involving the following variables: enzyme dilution (times, temperature (℃ and fermentation time (h. Cassava pulp was pretreated by boiling for 10 min, treated with a mixture of enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, α-amylase and glucoamylase, then fermented by K. marxianus TISTR 5925. Data obtained from the RSM were subjected to analysis of variance and fit to a second order polynomial equation. At optimum enzyme dilution (0.1 times, temperature (41 ℃ and fermentation time (27 h, the maximum obtained concentration of ethanol was 5.0% (w/v, which is very close to the predicted ethanol concentration of 5.3% (w/v.

  4. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida; Siagian, M.; Tarigan, P.

    2016-04-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment.

  5. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  6. Butanol production from cassava fermentation%木薯发酵产丁醇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋钢; 郑璞; 倪晔; 王云; 孙珊; 孙志浩

    2012-01-01

    Butanol was produced by fermentation of cassava by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The effects of nitrogen sources, cassava content, α-amylase loading, and initial pH of medium were investigated. The optimal conditions were obtained as follows; fermentation medium composing of 120 g/L cassava and 6 g/L ammonium acetate; the cassava hydrolyzed at 90 ℃ for 60 min with high-temperature amylase of 20 U/g and gelatinized for 30 min; and initial fermentation pH 6. 0. When fermentation was carried out in 5-L fermentor under these conditions for 96 h, the concentrations of butanol and total solvents reached 13. 5 g/L and 22. 8 g/L, respectively.%对丙酮丁醇梭菌发酵木薯产溶剂进行研究,分别考察了N源、木薯含量、酶处理条件和培养基pH对发酵产丁醇的影响.结果表明:最佳的产丁醇发酵培养基为木薯粉120 g/L,乙酸铵6g/L;木薯粉先用高温淀粉酶按酶量20 U/g、90℃水解60 min,再糊化30 min;发酵初始pH为6.0,发酵96 h.在此条件下,5L发酵罐中丁醇产量达到13.5 g/L,总溶剂达到22.8 g/L.

  7. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  8. Towards sustainable food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie

    2011-01-01

    allocation of pork supply chain activities in Europe. Supply chain production and distribution activities are optimized in various scenarios based on economic and sustainability performance indicators. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which includes piglet production, fattening, slaughtering......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production...

  9. Claiming health in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Health-related information is increasingly used on food products to convey their benefits. Health claims as a subcategory of these messages link the beneficial component, functions or health outcomes with specific products. For consumers, health claims seem to carry the message of increased...... healthiness, but not necessarily making the product more appealing. The wording of the claim seems to have little impact on claim perception, yet the health image of carrier products is important. From consumer-related factors the relevance and attitudes towards functional foods play a role, whereas socio......-demographic factors have only minor impact and the impact seems to be case-dependent. Familiarity with claims and functional foods increase perceived healthiness and acceptance of these products. Apparently consumers make rather rational interpretations of claims and their benefits when forced to assess...

  10. Amylase production by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 in solid-state fermentation for hydrolysis of Cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Chi, Zhe; Li, Mei

    2010-09-01

    The optimization of process parameters for high amylase production by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 in solid-state fermentation was carried out using central composite design. Finally, the optimal parameters obtained with the response surface methodology (RSM) were moisture 610.0 ml/kg, inoculum 30.0 ml (OD(600 nm) = 20.0)/kg, the amount ratio of wheat bran to rice husk 0.42, cassava starch concentration 20.0 g/kg, temperature 28 degrees C, and natural pH. Under the optimized conditions, 4,296 U/g of dry substrate of amylase activity was reached in the solid-state fermentation culture of the yeast strain A11 within 160 h, whereas the predicted maximum amylase activity of 4,222 U/g of dry substrate of amylase activity was derived from the RSM regression. It was found that cassava starch can be actively converted into monosaccharides and oligosaccharides by the crude amylase.

  11. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown in sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aires da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas oleovorans were grown on sugary cassava extracts supplemented with andiroba oil for the synthesis of a mediumchain- length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA MCL. The concentration of total sugars in the extract was approximately: 40 g/L in culture 1, 15 g/L in cultures 2 and 3, and 10 g/L in culture 4. Supplementation with 1% andiroba oil and 0.2 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed 6.5 hours after growth in culture 3, and supplementation with the same amount of andiroba oil and 2.4 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed at the beginning of growth in culture 4. The synthesis resulted mainly in 3-hydroxy-decanoate and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoate units; 3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-hydroxy-hexanoate; and 3-hydroxy-octanoate monomers were also produced but in smaller proportions. P. oleovorans significantly accumulated PHA MCL in the deceleration phase of growth with an oxygen limitation but with sufficient nitrogen concentration to maintain cell growth. The sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil proved to be a potential substrate for PHA MCL production.

  12. Gene expression of beta carotene genes in transgenic biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Telengech, P. K.; Maling’a, J. N.; Nyende, A. B.; Gichuki, S. T.; Wanjala, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is an important food for millions of people around the world. However, cassava is deficient in protein, iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Cassava biofortified with pro-vitamin A can help reduce Vitamin A Deficiency among the undernourished communities that rely upon it for sustenance. BioCassava Plus project has developed transgenic cassava that expresses beta carotene in roots using root specific patatin promoter. This study aimed at confirming expression of nptII, crtB and DX...

  13. Neurotoxic effect of linamarin in rats associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a plant widely used for food consumption in different processed products in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Cassava is a good source of carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, if it is not adequately processed or the consumer has nutritional deficiencies, then its cyanogenic glycoside (i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin) content makes it potentially neurotoxic. In the present study, the neurotoxic effects of different concentrations of linamarin (0.075, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mg/kg) contained in cassava juice were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor alterations in adult male Wistar rats. The linamarin concentration in cassava juice was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the juice was administered intraesophageally for 28 days. The results suggested that the consumption of linamarin in cassava juice increased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field test and caused behavioral deficiency, reflected by lateral swimming, in the swim test on days 21 and 28 of treatment. These alterations are possibly related to neuronal damage caused by linamarin in cassava juice in structures of the central nervous system involved in motor processing.

  14. Molecular analysis of differentially expressed genes during postharvest deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tuberous roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems for cassava is the rapid deterioration after harvesting cassava tuberous roots, which limits the possibilities for production and distribution of cassava in the world. Postharvest deterioration is an inherent problem for cassava since wounding and mechanical damage of the t

  15. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    Executive Summary 1. Innovation intensity varies by several orders of magnitude across economic sectors. According to the evidence presented in Chapter 1, this is mainly due to differences in the demand for innovation. Thus, the relatively low levels of product orientated R & D for the food sectors...... of most countries are consistent with the comparatively long penetration periods and low success rates experienced with many new food products. 2. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the demand for innovation within the food sector is positively related to the degree of processing. 3. The constitutive......, the economic rationale of the marketing cooperative is to maximize its demand for the output of its membership, subject to the equal-treatment constraint. 5. This basic logic has serious consequences for the choice of product strategy. This may be discussed in terms of four dimensions of product strategy...

  16. Water Footprint and Impact of Water Consumption for Food, Feed, Fuel Crops Production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of food, feed and biofuels demands promises to increase pressure on water competition and stress, particularly for Thailand, which has a large agricultural base. This study assesses the water footprint of ten staple crops grown in different regions across the country and evaluates the impact of crop water use in different regions/watersheds by the water stress index and the indication of water deprivation potential. The ten crops include major rice, second rice, maize, soybean, mungbean, peanut, cassava, sugarcane, pineapple and oil palm. The water stress index of the 25 major watersheds in Thailand has been evaluated. The results show that there are high variations of crop water requirements grown in different regions due to many factors. However, based on the current cropping systems, the Northeastern region has the highest water requirement for both green water (or rain water and blue water (or irrigation water. Rice (paddy farming requires the highest amount of irrigation water, i.e., around 10,489 million m3/year followed by the maize, sugarcane, oil palm and cassava. Major rice cultivation induces the highest water deprivation, i.e., 1862 million m3H2Oeq/year; followed by sugarcane, second rice and cassava. The watersheds that have high risk on water competition due to increase in production of the ten crops considered are the Mun, Chi and Chao Phraya watersheds. The main contribution is from the second rice cultivation. Recommendations have been proposed for sustainable crops production in the future.

  17. Product quality driven food process design

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is seldom considered as a starting point for the design of production systems. The objective of this thesis is to advance food process innovation by procedures for food process design which start from the ...

  18. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriburi Pensiri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%w/w total solid and relative humidity (34 and 54%RH on the mechanical properties of the films. Additionally, intermolecular interactions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, melting temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Water solubility of the films was also determined. Increasing concentration of CMC increased tensile strength, reduced elongation at break, and decreased water solubility of the blended films. FT-IR spectra indicated intermolecular interactions between cassava starch and CMC in blended films by shifting of carboxyl (C = O and OH groups. DSC thermograms and SEM micrographs confirmed homogeneity of cassava starch-CMC films. Conclusion The addition of CMC to the cassava starch films increased tensile strength and reduced elongation at break of the blended films. This was ascribed to the good interaction between cassava starch and CMC. Cassava starch-CMC composite films have the potential to replace conventional packaging, and the films developed in this work are suggested to be suitable for low moisture food and pharmaceutical products.

  19. Evaluation of Income and Employment Generation from Cassava Value Chain in the Nigerian Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oni Timothy Olukunle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Population in poverty and related statistics such as unemployment and income inequality in Nigeria is quite unacceptably high. In 2012, the country has unemployment of 23.9 per cent broken down to 17.1 per cent in the rural areas and 25.6 per cent in the urban centres. Cassava is now one of the priority crops to be used as a springboard to wriggle out of the menace of unemployment in the country. While cassava production is increasing at 3per cent every year, the country continues to import various industrial products that can be made from the crop. Therefore the paper analyzed the capacity of cassava value chain to create new jobs and generate increased income and employment in the economy. Framework of analysis of collected primary data was based on the concept of value chain. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages and measures of central tendency were employed in the analysis and presentation of results. Results showed that in the cassava value chain, increased income and employment can be generated through development of the chain especially at the stages of production, processing and industrial utilization. The implication is that increased generation of employment which is required for growth lies with increased industrial processing and utilisation of cassava for expanded production of non-food and non-traditional industrial products of cassava that are competitive to penetrate export markets. In this way, opportunities to generate increased income and employment will be enormous and diversified. Policy recommendations towards development of the cassava chain included efficient investment in infrastructure in the rural sector.

  20. Product quality driven food process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is seldo

  1. Response surface optimisation for acetone-butanol-ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of Clostridium butylicum and Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production from cassava starch was enhanced by a syntrophic co-culture of Clostridium butylicum TISTR 1032 and high amylase producing Bacillus subtilis WD 161 without anaerobic pretreatment. The production of amylase and ABE using this co-culture were respectively 16 and 6 times higher than those using the pure culture of C. butylicum TISTR 1032. The effect of the medium components on the performance of the co-culture was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Among the investigated components, cassava starch and ammonium nitrate contributed a significant effect on the production of amylase and ABE, while yeast extract had less effect. Based on the optimum strategy using RSM, the ABE production by the co-culture was improved 2.2-fold compared with that obtained from the initial condition and with a minimum requirement of nitrogen source.

  2. Enhancement of methane production from cassava residues by biological pretreatment using a constructed microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; He, Jiang; Tian, Min; Mao, Zhonggui; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian

    2011-10-01

    In the study, a stable thermophilic microbial consortium with high cellulose-degradation ability was successfully constructed. That several species of microbes coexisted in this consortium was proved by DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequence analysis. The cooperation and symbiosis of these microbes in this consortium enhanced their cellulose-degradation ability. The pretreatment of cassava residues mixing with distillery wastewater prior to anaerobic digestion was investigated by using this microbial consortium as inoculums in batch bioreactors at 55 °C. The experimental results showed that the maximum methane yield (259.46 mL/g-VS) of cassava residues was obtained through 12h of pretreatment by this microbial consortium, which was 96.63% higher than the control (131.95 mL/g-VS). In addition, it was also found that the maximum methane yield is obtained when the highest filter paper cellulase (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase activity and soluble COD (sCOD) are produced.

  3. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-10-10

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology.

  4. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiatou Ba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain. The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91% and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%. Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  5. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Rafiatou; Alfa, Teou; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Novidzro, Kosi Mawuéna; Dotse, Kokouvi; Koudouvo, Koffi; Houngue, Ursula; Donou Hounsode, Marcel T.; Koumaglo, Kossi Honoré; Ameyapoh, Yaovi

    2017-01-01

    The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize. PMID:28197207

  6. Principles of food product labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Krysztofiak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the label of the food product is to provide information on ingredients and additionally on its origin, production method, storage conditions, date tagging, as well as to enable to identify the producer or distributor of this product. Legal regulations precisely give instructions on the range and the way of the presentation of these data, so they could be clear and understandable for the average consumer. Since 25th of November 2005, the information about allergens’ presence must be placed on the label, regardless of their content in the product (Directive 2003/89/WE... 2003 – Off. J. L 308: 15-18. The Regulation (WE No 1924/2006 about placing the nutritional information and medicinal claims concerning foods (Regulation (WE No 1924/2006... 2006 a is valid in all countries of European Union since 1st of July 2007 (Off. J. L 404: 9-25. It coordinates the legislative, executive and administrative regulations connected with this labelling. According to these regulations, “nutritional information” states, suggests or gives to understand that the food product has special properties concerning its ingredients. Those statements are of type: “the source of...”, “no... content”, “high content of...”, “low content of...”, “reduced content of...” with reference to calorie or selected ingredients’ content. “Medicinal claims” state, suggest or give to understand, that there is a connection between the food product or one of its ingredients and the health condition of the consumer. First type of these medicinal claims refers to the influence of the ingredient on the physiology. Such a statement is based on generally accepted scientific conclusions and could be properly understood by the average consumer, e.g. “calcium takes part in the process of building of strong bones”. “Statements about decreasing the risk of a disease” give information, that food product or one of its ingredients efficiently

  7. Efficient production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava by a fermentation-pervaporation coupled process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Zhang, Yuming; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-10-01

    Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava was investigated with a fermentation-pervaporation (PV) coupled process. ABE products were in situ removed from fermentation broth to alleviate the toxicity of solvent to the Clostridium acetobutylicum DP217. Compared to the batch fermentation without PV, glucose consumption rate and solvent productivity increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, in batch fermentation-PV coupled process, while in continuous fermentation-PV coupled process running for 304 h, the substrate consumption rate, solvent productivity and yield increased by 58%, 81% and 15%, reaching 2.02 g/Lh, 0.76 g/Lh and 0.38 g/g, respectively. Silicalite-1 filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane modules ensured media recycle without significant fouling, steadily generating a highly concentrated ABE solution containing 201.8 g/L ABE with 122.4 g/L butanol. After phase separation, a final product containing 574.3g/L ABE with 501.1g/L butanol was obtained. Therefore, the fermentation-PV coupled process has the potential to decrease the cost in ABE production.

  8. Optimization of single-cell-protein production from cassava starch using Schwanniomyces castellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongpattarakere, T; H-Kittikun, A

    1995-11-01

    Schwanniomyces castellii B5285 grew faster and produced greater biomass and higher protein yield than either S. alluvius ATCC 26074 or S. alluvius 81Y when these amylolytic yeasts were grown with 2% (w/v) cassava starch as sole C source. With 0.5% (w/v) glutamate as N source, S. castellii reached 7.12 g cell dry mass/l, with a protein yield of 6.4 g/100 g starch. The optimal agitation speed, aeration rate and pH for growth of this yeast in a fermenter were 400 rev/min, 1.67 vol./vol.min. and 5.0, respectively. Tween 80 at 0.1% increased cell dry mass to 8.90 g/l, cell yield to 44 g/100 g starch and protein yield to 7.4 g/100 g starch.

  9. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production in fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed cassava flour by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and solvent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépiz-Aguilar, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Arias, María Laura; Lutz, Giselle

    2013-08-01

    Cassava constitutes an abundant substrate in tropical regions. The production of butanol in ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using cassava flour (CF) was scaled-up to bioreactor level (5 L). Optimized fermentation conditions were applied; that is, 40℃, 60 g/l CF, and enzymatic pretreatment of the substrate. The batch fermentation profile presented an acidogenic phase for the first 24 h and a solventogenic phase afterwards. An average of 37.01 g/l ABE was produced after 83 h, with a productivity of 0.446 g/l/h. Butanol production was 25.71 g/l with a productivity of 0.310 g/l/h, high or similar to analogous batch processes described for other substrates. Solvent separation by different combinations of fractioned and azeotropic distillation and liquid-liquid separation were assessed to evaluate energetic and economic costs in downstream processing. Results suggest that the use of cassava as a substrate in ABE fermentation could be a cost-effective way of producing butanol in tropical regions.

  10. Energetic analysis of the ethanol production systems of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); Analise energetica de sistemas de producao de etanol de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salla, Diones A. [Secretaria de Extensao Agroflorestal e Producao Familiar (SEAPROF), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil)], email: diones.salla@gmail.com; Furlaneto, Fernanda P.B.; Kanthack, Ricardo A.D. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA) Medio Paranapanema, Assis, SP (Brazil)], emails: fernandafurlaneto@apta.sp.gov.br, kanthack@apta.sp.gov.br; Cabello, Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP/CERAT), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes e Amidos Topicais], email: dircerat@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the energetic consumption of the ethanol production system, using the cassava as carbohydrates source. The researches were carried out from the field in the mid region of Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo state, during the period January to December, 2007. The energy consumption referring to the phases of crop production and industrial processing were appraised. It was verified that the total energetic cost of the crop production corresponded to 9,528.33 MJ ha{sup -1}, and the most onerous item was the inputs (35.72%). In the industrial step, the energetic consumption was equivalent to 2,208.28 MJ t{sup -1}. The operations of hydrolysis/saccharification/ treatment of the juice represented 56.72% of the total energetic expenditure. The cassava crop presented an energetic cost of 1.54 MJ L{sup -1} in relation to the ethanol produced in the main agronomic operations crop production, and 11.76 MJ L{sup -1} in the industrial processing. The energy efficiency observed in the cultivation and industrialization of the cassava was of 1.76. (author)

  11. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  12. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  13. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses.

  14. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the leaf production pattern and dry matter distribution in cassava during the second plant cycle. The completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used, with five cultivars in the main plots and ten harvest times in the sub-plots. Foliage production was affected by plant age, being higher in hot periods. Leaf blades and petioles dry matter content presented a linear increase due to a progressive decrease in the amount of young leaves and ontogenetic factors. The stems provided, temporarily, carbohydrates to the plant re-growth, delaying the availability and use of storage roots dry matter. The dry matter content in the storage roots was lower during the vegetative and higher during rest period. The storage roots diameter increased considerably when the amount of leaves was higher, indicating the importance of leaf area in the cassava plant production.O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999, no Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de produção de folhas e distribuição de massa seca em 5 cultivares de mandioca, durante o segundo ciclo vegetativo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, estando as cultivares nas parcelas e as épocas de colheita nas subparcelas. A produção de folhas foi afetada pela idade das plantas, sendo maior nos períodos de temperatura elevada. Os teores de massa seca nos limbos foliares e pecíolos aumentaram linearmente com a idade das plantas, devido à menor proporção de folhas jovens e a fatores ontogênicos inerentes à planta. As hastes proporcionaram, temporariamente, os assimilados necessários para a reestruturação vegetativa das plantas, protelando a disponibilidade e uso dos carboidratos armazenados nas raízes. O teor de massa seca nas raízes foi menor durante o período de crescimento vegetativo e maior

  15. Research on Combination of Ethanol and Biogas Production with Cassava%木薯联合产乙醇和产沼气的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宇; 黄文荣; 刘士清; 胡械科; 张无敌; 尹芳; 陈玉保; 柳静; 赵兴玲

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To find a way to use cassava as a resource. [ Method] Through optimizing ethanol fermentation technology, the ethanol production rate of cassava was improved; and using ethanol fermentation waste to produce biogas and making the waste become resource. [Result] The ethanol production rate increase 2% through adding complex enzyme and adjusting some process parameters; the cassava fermentation waste which will result in pollution become clear fuel biogas and organic fertilizer through anaerobic fermentation. [ Conclusion] It is a good way that converting cassava to clear fuel through combination of ethanol and biogas fermentation.%[目的]找到一种木薯的资源化利用途径.[方法]通过优化现有工艺,提高木薯乙醇的出酒率;同时对酒精废醪液进行沼气发酵,达到资源化利用的效果.[结果]通过添加复合酶制剂以及对各工段进行优化,最终出酒率比现有工艺提高约2个百分点.酒精废醪液发酵产生的沼气能替代酒精生产中的一部分煤,产生的沼液、沼渣可做有机肥,节约成本的同时减轻对环境的污染.[结论]木薯通过发酵产乙醇,产生的废醪液再进行沼气发酵是一种较好的资源化利用途径.

  16. Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by mixed anaerobic microflora: Effects of temperature and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Jing-Yuan (School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N1-01b-45, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage was conducted to investigate the influences of temperature (37 C, 60 C, 70 C) and initial pH (4-10) in batch experiments. Although the seed sludge was mesophilic anaerobic sludge, maximum hydrogen yield (53.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS) was obtained under thermophilic condition (60 C), 53.5% and 198% higher than the values under mesophilic (37 C) and extreme-thermophilic (70 C) conditions respectively. The difference was mainly due to the different VFA and ethanol distributions. Higher hydrogen production corresponded with higher ratios of butyrate/acetate and butyrate/propionate. Similar hydrogen yields of 66.3 and 67.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS were obtained at initial pH 5 and 6 respectively under thermophilic condition. The total amount of VFA and ethanol increased from 3536 to 7899 mg/l with the increase of initial pH from 4 to 10. Initial pH 6 was considered as the optimal pH due to its 19% higher total VFA and ethanol concentration than that of pH 5. Homoacetogenesis and methonogenesis were very dependent on the initial pH and temperature even when the inoculum was heat-pretreated. Moreover, a difference between measured and theoretical hydrogen was observed in this study, which could be attributed to homoacetogenesis, methanogenesis and the degradation of protein. (author)

  17. Production of raw starch-degrading enzyme by Aspergillus sp. and its use in conversion of inedible wild cassava flour to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, Gashaw; Önnby, Linda; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2016-04-01

    The major bottlenecks in achieving competitive bioethanol fuel are the high cost of feedstock, energy and enzymes employed in pretreatment prior to fermentation. Lignocellulosic biomass has been proposed as an alternative feedstock, but because of its complexity, economic viability is yet to be realized. Therefore, research around non-conventional feedstocks and deployment of bioconversion approaches that downsize the cost of energy and enzymes is justified. In this study, a non-conventional feedstock, inedible wild cassava was used for bioethanol production. Bioconversion of raw starch from the wild cassava to bioethanol at low temperature was investigated using both a co-culture of Aspergillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a monoculture of the later with enzyme preparation from the former. A newly isolated strain of Aspergillus sp. MZA-3 produced raw starch-degrading enzyme which displayed highest activity of 3.3 U/mL towards raw starch from wild cassava at 50°C, pH 5.5. A co-culture of MZA-3 and S. cerevisiae; and a monoculture of S. cerevisiae and MZA-3 enzyme (both supplemented with glucoamylase) resulted into bioethanol yield (percentage of the theoretical yield) of 91 and 95 at efficiency (percentage) of 84 and 96, respectively. Direct bioconversion of raw starch to bioethanol was achieved at 30°C through the co-culture approach. This could be attractive since it may significantly downsize energy expenses.

  18. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These genes can be

  19. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Franci Polonio Navacchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.

  20. Effect of acetic acid in recycling water on ethanol production for cassava in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process has been studied to prevent wastewater pollution. However, when the anaerobic digestion reaction runs poorly, acetic acid will accumulate in the recycling water. In this paper, we studied the effect of low concentration of acetic acid (≤25 mM) on ethanol fermentation at different initial pH values (4.2, 5.2 or 6.2). At an initial pH of 4.2, ethanol yields increased by 3.0% and glycerol yields decreased by 33.6% as the acetic acid concentration was increased from 0 to 25 mM. Raising the concentration of acetic acid to 25 mM increased the buffering capacity of the medium without obvious effects on biomass production in the cassava medium. Acetic acid was metabolized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the reason that the final concentration of acetic acid was 38.17% lower than initial concentration at pH 5.2 when 25 mM acetic acid was added. These results confirmed that a low concentration of acetic acid in the process stimulated ethanol fermentation. Thus, reducing the acetic acid concentration to a controlled low level is more advantageous than completely removing it.

  1. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  2. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

    2016-03-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput 'omics' technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety.

  3. RNAi-mediated resistance to Cassava brown streak Uganda virus in transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jitender S; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Wagaba, Henry; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Alicai, Titus; Gaitan-Solis, Eliana; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M

    2011-09-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is of new epidemic importance to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in East Africa, and an emerging threat to the crop in Central and West Africa. This study demonstrates that at least one of these two ipomoviruses, CBSUV, can be efficiently controlled using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in cassava. An RNAi construct targeting the near full-length coat protein (FL-CP) of CBSUV was expressed constitutively as a hairpin construct in cassava. Transgenic cassava lines expressing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against this sequence showed 100% resistance to CBSUV across replicated graft inoculation experiments. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of CBSUV in leaves and some tuberous roots from challenged controls, but not in the same tissues from transgenic plants. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-mediated resistance to the ipomovirus CBSUV in cassava.

  4. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  5. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY...

  6. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan N Narayanan

    Full Text Available Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  7. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  8. Sistemas de preparo do solo, plantas de cobertura e produtividade da cultura da mandioca Soil tillage systems, cover crops and productivity in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auro Akio Otsubo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso de plantas de cobertura e de sistemas de preparo do solo, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. O trabalho foi conduzido em Argissolo Vermelho, sob sistema convencional de preparo do solo, e em cultivo mínimo sobre palhada de mucuna-cinza (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorgo granífero [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] e milheto [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Aos dezoito meses após o plantio da mandioca, foram avaliados: altura de plantas, produção de massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, número de raízes tuberosas, produtividade, percentagem de matéria seca e de amido nas raízes tuberosas e índice de colheita. Observou-se que o sistema convencional de preparo do solo pode ser substituído, na cultura da mandioca, pela prática do cultivo mínimo, associada ao uso de coberturas vegetais, por promover incrementos significativos na produtividade da cultura, especialmente, quando se utiliza o milheto como planta de cobertura. O uso de plantas de cobertura no pré-cultivo de mandioca, em sistema de preparo mínimo do solo, representa uma alternativa eficiente para um melhor manejo dessa cultura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops and soil tillage systems in the development and yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. The experiment was carried out in an Arenic Hapludult under conventional tillage, and in a minimum tillage system over mucuna (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] and millet straw [Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum.]. Eighteen months after cassava planting, the following variables were evaluated: plant height, shoot dry matter production, number of roots, yield, dry matter and starch content on storage roots, and harvest index. It was observed that conventional tillage could be replaced by minimum tillage in cassava crop, when associated

  9. Involvement of miR160/miR393 and their targets in cassava responses to anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinweha, Nattaya; Asvarak, Thipa; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2015-02-01

    Cassava is a starchy root crop for food and industrial applications in many countries around the world. Among the factors that affect cassava production, diseases remain the major cause of yield loss. Cassava anthracnose disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Severe anthracnose attacks can cause tip die-backs and stem cankers, which can affect the availability of planting materials especially in large-scale production systems. Recent studies indicate that plants over- or under-express certain microRNAs (miRNAs) to cope with various stresses. Understanding how a disease-resistant plant protects itself from pathogens should help to uncover the role of miRNAs in the plant immune system. In this study, the disease severity assay revealed different response to C. gloeosporioides infection in two cassava cultivars. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis uncovered the differential expression of the two miRNAs and their target genes in the two cassava cultivars that were subjected to fungal infection. The more resistant cultivar revealed the up-regulation of miR160 and miR393, and consequently led to low transcript levels in their targets, ARF10 and TIR1, respectively. The more susceptible cultivar exhibited the opposite pattern. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to defense and stress responsiveness, fungal elicitor responsiveness and hormonal responses were the most prevalent present in the miRNAs gene promoter regions. The possible dual role of these specific miRNAs and their target genes associated with cassava responses to C. gloeosporioides is discussed. This is the first study to address the molecular events by which miRNAs which might play a role in fungal-infected cassava. A better understanding of the functions of miRNAs target genes should greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanism underlying susceptibility and lead to new strategies to enhance disease tolerance in this economically important crop.

  10. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  11. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P Carcass fat (P carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  12. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were...... analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly different (p

  13. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gregoria Mitropoulou; Viktor Nedovic; Arun Goyal; Yiannis Kourkoutas

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their poten...

  14. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  15. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of f

  16. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  17. Food and farm products surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  18. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassav...

  19. Saccharification of cassava starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera YCY1 isolated from Loog-Pang (rice cake starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to select amylolytic yeasts from Loog-Pang, a traditional starter culture for production of alcoholic foods and drinks in southern Thailand, and to optimize the saccharification of cassava starch to reducing sugar by the selected yeast isolate. Seventy-four yeast isolates were obtained from ten samples of Loog-Pang. The isolates were tested for amylolytic activity on Yeast-Peptone Cassava medium (YPC contained 30 g/l of cassava starch.Only three isolates showed amylolytic activity which produced clear zone on the YPC agar. The best amylolytic strain with clear zone of 8 mm was identified by 26s rDNA as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. The optimum medium for saccharification by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. YCY1 was only 50 g/l of cassava starch in distilled water without nitrogen sources added and pH adjustment. The optimal saccharification conditions were 200 ml cassava starch (50 g/l in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask, shaking at 100 rpm and 37oC. Under these conditions, the highest reducing sugar was obtained 46±0.53 g/l after 120 h cultivation (84% of the theoretical yield.

  20. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Enete, AA.; Igbokwe, EM.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of p...

  1. A feasibility study on using cassava stems for the production of bioenergy in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,China%广西木薯茎秆资源的能源利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶光灿; 谢光辉; H(a)kan (O)rberg; 熊韶峻

    2011-01-01

    文章分析了广西木薯茎秆资源可获得性及燃料性状,进而讨论了开发木薯茎秆资源的可行性及商业价值,证明木薯茎秆是优秀的生物质原材料,具有开发固体成型燃料及热电联产的价值.%Based on the evaluate of the resource availability and combustion characteristic of cassava stems in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, this paper focused on the feasibility of pelletizing and commercial value of cassava stens as a biomass feedstock. Cassava stems were proved a promising biofuel, and can be produced as pellets/briquettes, then production of electricity, heat and pellets/briquettes.

  2. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...

  3. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr‑1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr‑1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  4. Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Prado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB. Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caused by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

  5. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills.

  6. Enhanced isopropanol and n-butanol production by supplying exogenous acetic acid via co-culturing two clostridium strains from cassava bagasse hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Qu, Chunyun; Huang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yukai; Liao, Zhengping; Wang, Jufang

    2016-07-01

    The focus of this study was to produce isopropanol and butanol (IB) from dilute sulfuric acid treated cassava bagasse hydrolysate (SACBH), and improve IB production by co-culturing Clostridium beijerinckii (C. beijerinckii) with Clostridium tyrobutyricum (C. tyrobutyricum) in an immobilized-cell fermentation system. Concentrated SACBH could be converted to solvents efficiently by immobilized pure culture of C. beijerinckii. Considerable solvent concentrations of 6.19 g/L isopropanol and 12.32 g/L butanol were obtained from batch fermentation, and the total solvent yield and volumetric productivity were 0.42 g/g and 0.30 g/L/h, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of isopropanol and butanol increased to 7.63 and 13.26 g/L, respectively, under the immobilized co-culture conditions when concentrated SACBH was used as the carbon source. The concentrations of isopropanol and butanol from the immobilized co-culture fermentation were, respectively, 42.62 and 25.45 % higher than the production resulting from pure culture fermentation. The total solvent yield and volumetric productivity increased to 0.51 g/g and 0.44 g/L/h when co-culture conditions were utilized. Our results indicated that SACBH could be used as an economically favorable carbon source or substrate for IB production using immobilized fermentation. Additionally, IB production could be significantly improved by co-culture immobilization, which provides extracellular acetic acid to C. beijerinckii from C. tyrobutyricum. This study provided a technically feasible and cost-efficient way for IB production using cassava bagasse, which may be suitable for industrial solvent production.

  7. The Post-Genomic Era of Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics era revolutionized our efficiency at gathering and disseminating scientific information required for advancing our understanding of plant biology. In the case of cassava, the genomics revolution has not kept pace with other staple food and fiber crops important to global economies. As a...

  8. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  9. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  10. Effect of cassava mosaic disease, soil fertility, plant spacing and their interactions on cassava yields in Zanzibar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spittel, M.C.; Huis, van A.

    2000-01-01

    Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and low soil fertility are limiting factors for the production of the preferred cassava varWiety Kibiriti mwekundu on the northern part of the island of Pemba in Zanzibar. Because CMD severity, assessed 7 months after planting in shifting cultivation fields at wide spaci

  11. DNA Markers for Food Products Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Scarano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Media constantly refer of unscrupulous producers that adulterate, alter or replace premium products in food chains with the goal to maximize illegally profits. Food traceability is a central issue for the identification of improper labeling of processed food and feed and there are rules aimed to protect consumers and producers against fraudulent substitution of quality products in food chain, but the tools available are not always appropriate. DNA-based markers proved very effective for fresh and processed food molecular authentication. In this review, we illustrate potential and limits of different DNA markers focusing on low, medium and high-throughput markers, in order to monitor the genetic identity of food components in meat, fish and plants net-chains.

  12. Eleven years of breeding efforts to combat cassava brown streak disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawuki, Robert Sezi; Kaweesi, Tadeo; Esuma, Williams; Pariyo, Anthony; Kayondo, Ismail Siraj; Ozimati, Alfred; Kyaligonza, Vincent; Abaca, Alex; Orone, Joseph; Tumuhimbise, Robooni; Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Abidrabo, Philip; Amuge, Teddy; Ogwok, Emmanuel; Okao, Geoffrey; Wagaba, Henry; Adiga, Gerald; Alicai, Titus; Omongo, Christopher; Bua, Anton; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Baguma, Yona

    2016-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production is currently under threat from cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), a disease that is among the seven most serious obstacles to world's food security. Three issues are of significance for CBSD. Firstly, the virus associated with CBSD, has co-evolved with cassava outside its center of origin for at least 90 years. Secondly, that for the last 74 years, CBSD was only limited to the low lands. Thirdly, that most research has largely focused on CBSD epidemiology and virus diversity. Accordingly, this paper focuses on CBSD genetics and/or breeding and hence, presents empirical data generated in the past 11 years of cassava breeding in Uganda. Specifically, this paper provides: 1) empirical data on CBSD resistance screening efforts to identify sources of resistance and/or tolerance; 2) an update on CBSD resistance population development comprising of full-sibs, half-sibs and S1 families and their respective field performances; and 3) insights into chromosomal regions and genes involved in CBSD resistance based on genome wide association analysis. It is expected that this information will provide a foundation for harmonizing on-going CBSD breeding efforts and consequently, inform the future breeding interventions aimed at combating CBSD.

  13. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide.

  14. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  15. Optimization of Cassava Waste from Bioethanol Post-Production through Bioactivity Process Consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Suryani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The result of laboratory analysis on bioethanol waste shows nutritional and anti-nutritional content (HCN. Based on it, in order to prevent environment damage then performed a bioconversion of bioethanol waste for base material of sheep forage by fermented previously using consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger to eliminate the waste anti-nutritional content and increase nutritional content. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD factorial pattern with two factors and three replications. The first factor was inoculum dose (D and the second factor was variation of tested microorganisms (M. The variables measured were HCN content and nutrient content of fermented products, that were water content, protein content and crude fiber content by proximate analysis. Furthermore, the data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, and was there significant difference analyzed further by Duncan's multiple range test of 5% level. Nutritional compositions of bioethanol waste from cassava that had been fermented by consortium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus niger experienced changes compared to before fermentation. The results showed an increase in protein level, while fiber content, water content, and HCN content were decrease. Bioethanol waste from cassava fermented by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (k3 with 2% inoculum dose had the highest protein content increase from 11.79% to 25.41% and had the lowest crude fiber content decrease from 16.4% to 12.84 %. The highest HCN decrease obtained from the fermentation of consortium Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride.

  16. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...

  17. Careers in Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  18. Innovation of food production systems : product quality and consumer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1998-01-01

    he quality of food products, as perceived by consumers, is a main driving force behind today's innovations in the food industry. Product development represents large investments of companies both in money and human resources and has to be accomplished in a highly competitive market situation. Conseq

  19. Rice Breeding and World Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the relation of technology to the green revolution, the role of plant breeders in inducing change in stagnant agriculture and the tools required by production scientists to increase yields of basic food crops in developing countries. (BR)

  20. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; López, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production. We analyze complex plant-pathogen interactions to profit from such knowledge to help cassava fight bacterial diseases and look at candidate genes possibly involved in resistance to viruses and whiteflies-the two most important traits of cassava. The review also covers the analyses of main achievements in transgenic-mediated nutritional improvement and mass production of healthy plants by tissue culture and synthetic seeds. Finally, the perspectives of using genome editing and the challenges associated to climate change for further improving the crop are discussed. During the last 30 yr, great advances have been made in cassava using biotechnology, but they need to scale out of the proof of concept to the fields of cassava growers.

  1. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  2. QFood - Optimal design of food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Engelund, Erling; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    of Quality is described with special reference to the development of food products. 5. An MDS-based model for use in the evaluation of an optimal product is developed. The model is based on the profit function from classical micro-economic theory. The imputed price is defined as a function of a Customer...

  3. Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokko, Y; Anderson, J V; Rudd, S; Raji, A; Horvath, D; Mikel, M A; Kim, R; Liu, L; Hernandez, A; Dixon, A G O; Ingelbrecht, I L

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal soils. To increase the tools for understanding and manipulating drought tolerance in cassava, we generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from normalized cDNA libraries prepared from dehydration-stressed and control well-watered tissues. Analysis of a total of 18,166 ESTs resulted in the identification of 8,577 unique gene clusters (5,383 singletons and 3,194 clusters). Functional categories could be assigned to 63% of the unigenes, while another approximately 11% were homologous to hypothetical genes with unclear functions. The remaining approximately 26% were not significantly homologous to sequences in public databases suggesting that some may be novel and putatively specific to cassava. The dehydration-stressed library uncovered numerous ESTs with recognized roles in drought-responses, including those that encode late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins thought to confer osmoprotective functions during water stress, transcription factors, heat-shock proteins as well as proteins involved in signal transduction and oxidative stress. The unigene clusters were screened for short tandem repeats for further development as microsatellite markers. A total of 592 clusters contained 646 repeats, representing 3.3% of the ESTs queried. The ESTs presented here are the first dehydration stress transcriptome of cassava and can be utilized for the development of microarrays and gene-derived molecular markers to further dissect the molecular basis of drought tolerance in cassava.

  4. Analysis of ingredient lists of commercially available gluten-free and gluten-containing food products using the text mining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Amanda Bagolin; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; Dos Anjos, Adilson; Teixeira, Evanilda

    2013-03-01

    Ingredients mentioned on the labels of commercially available packaged gluten-free and similar gluten-containing food products were analyzed and compared, using the text mining technique. A total of 324 products' labels were analyzed for content (162 from gluten-free products), and ingredient diversity in gluten-free products was 28% lower. Raw materials used as ingredients of gluten-free products were limited to five varieties: rice, cassava, corn, soy, and potato. Sugar was the most frequently mentioned ingredient on both types of products' labels. Salt and sodium also were among these ingredients. Presence of hydrocolloids, enzymes or raw materials of high nutritional content such as pseudocereals, suggested by academic studies as alternatives to improve nutritional and sensorial quality of gluten-free food products, was not identified in the present study. Nutritional quality of gluten-free diets and health of celiac patients may be compromised.

  5. Resistance to Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in Genetically Engineered Cassava cv. KU50 through RNA Silencing

    KAUST Repository

    Ntui, Valentine Otang

    2015-04-22

    Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  6. Resistance to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV in genetically engineered cassava cv. KU50 through RNA silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Otang Ntui

    Full Text Available Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV. The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  7. Resistance to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) in genetically engineered cassava cv. KU50 through RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kong, Kynet; Khan, Raham Sher; Igawa, Tomoko; Janavi, Gnanaguru Janaky; Rabindran, Ramalingam; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  8. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  9. LABELLING OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nestorowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The manifestation of sustainable consumption on the food market is the consumer is choice of products originating from fair trade and/or organic farming. This paper presents the level of knowledge of Fairtrade signs and organic food logo of the EU. The author describes the importance of these signs by purchasing decisions and the relationship between these factors and the declared level ofknowledge about fair trade. In November 2013 research was conducted by the Department of Marketing Strategies at the Poznań University of Economics and Polish Scientifi c Association of Marketing (PNTM. We interviewed 444 people responsible for food shopping in their households. There were structured interviews in 3 Polish cities: Poznań, Szczecin and Lublin. The results confi rm low awareness of Polish consumers in respect of Fairtrade determinations and slightly higher in the case of organic products. Information regarding the origin of the product (fair trade or organic is not important to consumers when choosing food products. With increasing knowledge on products originating from fair trade derives knowledge of both organic foods and Fairtrade signs, but not the impact of these markings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Still, people who attach importance to this type of information are niche on the Polish market.

  10. Production and evaluation of Ighu from selected cassava varieties using a motorized shredder—a response surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwe, Madu O; Agiriga, Ann N

    2013-01-01

    Cassava varieties, TME419, TMS30572, and TMS98/0505, were planted and harvested at 3-month intervals of 10, 13, and 16 months, respectively. A central composite response surface design was used to study the effects of the variables cassava variety, harvesting time, and shredding aperture on selected physicochemical properties of Ighu samples. Regression models showed that the experimental variables had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the hydrogen cyanide, moisture content, thickness, and width of dry Ighu. Minimum values obtainable for the physicochemical properties were 8.1195 mg/kg (10-month, 3-mm shredding aperture from TMS98/0505), 7.58% (13-month, 3-mm shredding aperture from TME419), 0.19 mm (13-month, 3-mm shredding aperture and from TMS30572), and 0.99 mm (16-month, 3-mm shredding aperture from TME419) for hydrogen cyanide, moisture content, thickness, and width, respectively. In addition, Ighu produced from 3-mm shredding aperture (TMS30572) at 10-month harvest was the most preferred of all the samples. PMID:24804057

  11. Production and evaluation of Ighu from selected cassava varieties using a motorized shredder-a response surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwe, Madu O; Agiriga, Ann N

    2013-11-01

    Cassava varieties, TME419, TMS30572, and TMS98/0505, were planted and harvested at 3-month intervals of 10, 13, and 16 months, respectively. A central composite response surface design was used to study the effects of the variables cassava variety, harvesting time, and shredding aperture on selected physicochemical properties of Ighu samples. Regression models showed that the experimental variables had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the hydrogen cyanide, moisture content, thickness, and width of dry Ighu. Minimum values obtainable for the physicochemical properties were 8.1195 mg/kg (10-month, 3-mm shredding aperture from TMS98/0505), 7.58% (13-month, 3-mm shredding aperture from TME419), 0.19 mm (13-month, 3-mm shredding aperture and from TMS30572), and 0.99 mm (16-month, 3-mm shredding aperture from TME419) for hydrogen cyanide, moisture content, thickness, and width, respectively. In addition, Ighu produced from 3-mm shredding aperture (TMS30572) at 10-month harvest was the most preferred of all the samples.

  12. Process and assessment of organic substrate production by cassava stalk compost%木薯茎秆基质化的堆肥工艺及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光义; 李勤奋; 张晶元

    2011-01-01

    In this study cassava stalk as main material, was used to transform into organic substrate with auxiliaries of chicken manure, sugarcane bagasse and fermenting bacteria of organic waste. The experiment was conducted aimed at probing the best process of fermentation and evaluating the quality of substrate. The results indicated that the main indexes of substrate, including composting temperature, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), value of TC divided TN, pH, total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), and electrical conductivity (EC) showed some regular changing trends. Physical and chemical properties of substrate were suitable for cultivation. Treatment 2 (stalk of cassava + fermenting bacteria of organic waste + chicken manure) and treatment 3 (stalk of cassava + fermenting bacteria of organic waste + chicken manure + sugarcane bagasse) were more appropriate for organic substrate production considering the effect on composting temperature, composting duration and physical chemistry indexes of soilless planting substrate.%该研究以木薯茎秆为主要原料,鸡粪、蔗渣、有机废物发酵菌曲为辅料将其堆肥基质化处理,旨在探讨木薯茎秆堆肥基质化处理的最佳发酵工艺及评价不同处理腐熟后的品质.研究结果表明,基质发酵过程中,其主要理化指标堆温、总碳(TC)、总氮(TN)、碳氮比(C/N)、pH值、全K(TK)、全P(TP)、电导率(EC)等随堆制时间呈现一定的变化规律.基质腐熟后的各项理化指标基本达到栽培基质的要求.综合基质的发酵温度、腐熟周期及无土栽培基质对基质各项理化性质的要求,处理2(木薯茎秆+菌+鸡粪)、处理3(木薯茎秆+菌+鸡粪+甘蔗渣)更适合木薯茎秆堆肥基质化处理.

  13. Expression of Cry1Aa in cassava improves its insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jia; Ling, Erjun; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Lepidopteran insects affect cassava production globally, especially in intercropping system. The expression of Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests, leading to a significant reduction in chemical insecticide usage. Helicoverpa armigera is a Lepidopteran pest that feeds on a wide range of plants like cotton and cassava. In the present study, transgenic cassava plants over-expressing Cry1Aa, which we named as Bt cassava, were developed and used to evaluate its efficacy against H. armigera as a model. Insect feeding assays were carried out to test the effects of Bt cassava leaves on the development and survival of H. armigera. Significant reduction (P cassava leaves in comparison with those fed with wild-type cassava leaves. The higher expression of Cry1Aa in transgenic cassava caused the lethal effect in larvae, in contrast to the normal growth and development of adults and pupation observed when fed with wild-type leaves. Morphological observation on the larval midguts showed that the consumption of Bt cassava affected the gut integrity of H. armigera. The columnar cells of the midgut epithelium were dramatically damaged and showed loose or disordered structure. Their cytoplasms become highly vacuolated and contained disorganized microvilli. Our study demonstrated that the transgenic cassava expressing the Cry1Aa is effective in controlling H. armigera. Our Bt transgenic cassava plant would provide a long-term beneficial effect on all crops in intercropping system, which in-turn, will be profitable to the farmers.

  14. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  15. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-09

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff.

  16. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  17. Microbial degradation and utilization of cassava peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuya, C O; Nwajiuba, C J

    1990-06-01

    Cassava peel was readily degraded and utilized by a strain ofRhizopus growing in a solid-state fermentation. Growth was maximal at 45°C and was proportional to the degree of hydrolysis of the peel. The yield of biomass, as weight of dry mycellum from the reducing sugars of the peel, was 51%. After 72 h fermentation, the peel contained 76% moisture, 6% cellulose, 7% hemicellulose and 0.4% ash and the protein content had increased from 5.6% to 16%. These results suggest a possible economic value of cassava peel in the production of fungal biomass and feedstock.

  18. 木薯块根的营养价值及消化性能%Nutritional Value and Digestibility of Cassava Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧敏; 谢彩锋; 古碧; 丘春平

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of three major potatoes in the world, mainly used for feed, food and industrial raw materials, understanding the nutritional value and digestibility of cassava may be conducive to the development of cassava products, this review focuses on the nutritional content, anti-nutritional characteristics and its digestibility of cassava root. The properties described here may provide a reference for cassava processing and utilization.%木薯是世界三大薯类之一,目前主要用于饲料、粮食和工业原料,了解木薯的营养价值及其消化性能有利于木薯产品的开发和利用,本文着重介绍了木薯块根的营养成分、抗营养特性及其消化性能等,为木薯的加工利用提供参考。

  19. Caracterização de amidos de mandioca nativos e modificados e utilização em produtos panificados Characterization of native and modified cassava starches and their use in baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischina Singer Aplevicz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O amido de mandioca é utilizado como ingrediente principal na fabricação de biscoitos e pão de queijo. O polvilho azedo é um produto artesanal, sem padrão de qualidade estabelecido, com problemas de higiene em seu processamento e de oferta. O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar amidos de mandioca nativos e modificados e testá-los na elaboração de pão de queijo e biscoito de polvilho. As principais características que diferem o polvilho azedo do amido de mandioca nativo, também denominado polvilho doce são: acidez, grau de expansão, viscosidade, claridade de pasta, sinérese e poder redutor. Foram aplicados nos produtos panificados quatro tipos de amidos, sendo polvilho doce, azedo, amido modificado com peróxido de hidrogênio e amido modificado comercial Expandex® 160003. Obtidos os produtos panificados, foi determinada a composição físico-química e observado que os tipos de amidos influenciaram nas características internas, externas e no sabor. Os produtos panificados foram submetidos à análise sensorial de aceitabilidade, utilizando-se a escala hedônica de nove pontos, com provadores não-treinados. As amostras de pão de queijo contendo amido modificado oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio foram as que apresentaram o melhor resultado entre as formulações. Para as amostras de biscoito de polvilho, as elaboradas com polvilho azedo e com Expandex® 160003 foram superiores e não diferiram estatisticamente.Cassava starch is used as the main ingredient in the production of biscuits and Brazilian cheese bread. The processing and sale of sour cassava starch - an artisanal product with no established standard of quality - is marked by hygiene problems and its commercial availability is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to characterize native and modified cassava starches and test them in cheese bread and cassava starch biscuit recipes. The main characteristics that differentiate sour starch from native cassava

  20. Produção de snacks funcionais à base de farinha de soja e polvilho azedo Production of functional snacks from soybean flour and sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão e da porcentagem de farinha de soja sobre a expansão (IE, o índice de absorção de água (IAA, o índice de solubilidade em água (ISA, a cor (L*, a* e b* e a dureza de biscoitos extrusados. O processo de extrusão seguiu o delineamento central composto rotacional para dois fatores, totalizando 11 tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a temperatura e a porcentagem de farinha de soja tiveram efeitos significativos sobre as propriedades físicas dos produtos. Nas condições intermediárias de temperatura e baixa porcentagem de farinha de soja (10%, é possível obter biscoitos funcionais de mandioca com elevada expansão, índices intermediários de absorção e solubilidade em água, cor clara e baixa dureza.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the extrusion temperature and the percentage of soybean flour in mixes on the expansion index (EI, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index(WSI; color (L *, a *, b * and hardness of extruded sour cassava snacks. The extrusion process followed the rotational central composite design for two factors, totalizing 11 treatments. The results showed that the extrusion temperature and percentage of soybean flour in mixes had significant effects on the physical properties of products. Under the conditions of intermediate temperature and low percentage of soybean meal is possible to obtain function cassava snacks with high expansion, intermediate index of absorption and solubility in water, light color and low hardness.

  1. Soya--the medicine food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moţa, Maria; Gârgavu, Sigina; Popa, Simona; Schiopu, Simona; Panduru, N M; Moţa, E

    2007-01-01

    Soya, cultivated for more than 3000 years, is both a drug and a food product. It has numerous nutritional benefits, given by its content of isoflavones, essential amino acids, fibers, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The use of soy reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases: it has an antioxidant effect, reduces cholesterol levels and modulates the endothelial function; the soy foods, rich in isoflavones, reduce the risk of breast cancer; men with heredocolateral cancer antecedents or with minimal increase of prostate antigen must consider the consumption of soy and soy foods. Soy and soy foods play an important role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and controlling the pre- and postmenopausal symptoms; the soy ingestion has benefic metabolic effects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and overweight. Taking into consideration the nutritional profile of soy, the nutritionists should encourage the population to consume more soy and soy foods. Nevertheless, long term studies are needed to discover a possible "dark side" of soy consumption. Among the most popular soy foods we mention: soymilk, soy cheese (tofu), soy meat (pie, salami, textured soy in granule form). Most of the products are soy flour derivatives, while tofu is obtained by curdling soymilk.

  2. Genetic mapping using genotyping-by-sequencing in the clonally-propagated cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) is one of the most important food crops in the tropics, but yields are far below their potential. The gene-pool of cassava contains natural genetic diversity relevant to many important breeding goals, but breeding progress has been slow, partly due to insufficient geno...

  3. The Cassava Genome: Current Progress, Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnik, Simon; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Desany, Brian; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rodriguez, Fausto; Fauquet, Claude; Tohme, Joseph; Harkins, Timothy; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Rounsley, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The starchy swollen roots of cassava provide an essential food source for nearly a billion people, as well as possibilities for bioenergy, yet improvements to nutritional content and resistance to threatening diseases are currently impeded. A 454-based whole genome shotgun sequence has been assembled, which covers 69% of the predicted genome size and 96% of protein-coding gene space, with genome finishing underway. The predicted 30,666 genes and 3,485 alternate splice forms are supported by 1.4 M expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Maps based on simple sequence repeat (SSR)-, and EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already exist. Thanks to the genome sequence, a high-density linkage map is currently being developed from a cross between two diverse cassava cultivars: one susceptible to cassava brown streak disease; the other resistant. An efficient genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach is being developed to catalog SNPs both within the mapping population and among diverse African farmer-preferred varieties of cassava. These resources will accelerate marker-assisted breeding programs, allowing improvements in disease-resistance and nutrition, and will help us understand the genetic basis for disease resistance.

  4. Produção de diferentes variedades de mandioca em sistema agroecológico Growth and production of different cassava varieties in an agroeological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alineaurea F. Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, conduzido na comunidade de Morro Alto, município de Acauã, PI, localizada na Serra da Parreira, situada a 620 m de altitude, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento e a produção da mandioca em cultivo consorciado com guandu, sorgo, caupi, algodão e girassol, em sistema agroecológico de produção. A altura, retenção foliar e sobrevivência das plantas de mandioca, não apresentaram diferenças significativas, considerando-se os tipos de consórcio. Observou-se diferença apenas entre variedades na sobrevivência das plantas, sendo que a variedade Do Céu (BGM 537 apresentou a maior porcentagem de sobrevivência. As espécies consorciadas mantiveram diferentes teores de umidade do solo destacando-se o guandu como a cultura onde se encontrou maior teor de umidade do solo. Por outro lado, a produção por hectare variou de 13 a 26 t, dependendo da variedade utilizada. Esta produtividade, considerada acima da média da região (12 t ha-1, mostra que o cultivo consorciado, principalmente com leguminosas como o feijão caupi e guandu, pode melhorar não só o rendimento da cultura mas também as características do solo, em áreas dependentes de chuva.This study was conducted in the Morro Alto community, municipal district of Acauã (PI, located in Serra da Parreira, 620 m altitude. The objective was to evaluate the growth and production of the cassava in the intercropping with guandu, sorgo, caupi, cotton and sunflower in an agroecological production system. The height, foliar retention and survival of the cassava plants did not present significant differences considering the consortium types. A difference was only observed among varieties in relation to the survival of the plants, the variety "Do Céu" (BGM 537 showing the greatest survival percentage. The species intercropping maintained different soil humidity contents, guandu standing out as the crop that maintained the largest soil humidity content (10%, even so the consortium

  5. Anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage for hydrogen and methane production in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under high organic loading rate (OLR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shim, Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Anaerobic hydrogen and methane production from cassava stillage in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the heat-pretreatment of inoculum did not enhance hydrogen yield compared to raw inoculum under mesophilic condition after continuous operation. However, the hydrogen yield increased from about 14 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under mesophilic condition to 69.6 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under thermophilic condition due to the decrease of propionate concentration and inhibition of homoacetogens. Therefore, temperature was demonstrated to be more important than pretreatment of inoculum to enhance the hydrogen production. Under high organic loading rate (OLR) (>10 gVS/(L.d)), the two-phase thermophilic CSTR for hydrogen and methane production was stable with hydrogen and methane yields of 56.6 mlH{sub 2}/gVS and 249 mlCH{sub 4}/gVS. The one-phase thermophilic CSTR for methane production failed due to the accumulation of both acetate and propionate, leading to the pH lower than 6. Instead of propionate alone, the accumulations of both acetate and propionate were found to be related to the breakdown of methane reactor. (author)

  6. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  7. Research Progress on the Comprehensive Utilization of Cassava Waste%木薯废弃物综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 刘光华; 李月仙; 严炜; 娄予强; 郭容琦; 张林辉; 段春芳

    2012-01-01

    木薯在种植、收获、加工过程中会产生木薯叶、木薯杆、木薯渣、术薯皮等废弃物,其中,木薯叶可食用、饲用;木薯杆、小薯渣均可作为栽培食用菌的基质,木薯杆还可粉碎还田作为肥料,木薯渣也可生产肥料、饲料、沼气:木薯皮则能制成表面活性炭或作为有机生态无土栽培的主要基质。%Cassava waste materials such as cassava leaf, cassava stem, cassava bagasse, cassava bark, etc. resulted from cassava planting, harvesting and processing. Comprehensive utilization of cassava waste materials was discussed in this paper. Cassava leaf can be used for food and feed. Cassava stem, cassava bagasse can be used for matrix of cultivating edible fungi. Crushed cassava stem also can be used as fertilizer. Fertilizer, feed and biogas can be produced from cassava bagasse. Cassava bark can be used for surface active carbon and matrix of eco-organic type soiUess culture system.

  8. Production and characterization of thermoplastic cassava starch, functionalized poly(lactic acid), and their reactive compatibilized blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detyothin, Sukeewan

    Cassava starch was blended with glycerol using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE). Thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) at a ratio of 70/30 by weight of cassava/glycerol was selected and further blended with other polymers. TPCS sheets made from compression molding had low tensile strength (0.45 +/- 0.05 MPa) and Young's modulus (1.24 +/- 0.58 MPa), but moderate elongation at break (83.0 +/- 0.18.6%), medium level of oxygen permeability, and high water vapor permeability with a very high rate of water absorption. TPCS was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at various ratios by using a TSE. The blend resins exhibited good properties such as increased thermal stability (Tmax) and crystallinity of PLA, and improved water sensitivity and processability of TPCS. PLA and TPCS exhibited a high interfacial tension between the two phases of 7.9 mJ·m -2, indicating the formation of an incompatible, immiscible blend. SEM micrographs showed a non-homogeneous distribution of TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase. TEM micrographs of the blend films made by cast-film extrusion showed coalescence of the TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase of the blend, indicating that the compatibility between the polymer pair needs to be improved. A response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to analyze the effects of maleic anhydride (MA) and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox or L101) contents, and TSE screw speed on the degree of grafted MA and number average molecular weight (Mn) of functionalized PLA (PLA-g-MA), a reactive compatibilizer. PLA-g- MA made by reactive extrusion had an array of colors depending on the content of L101 and MA used. New FTIR peaks suggested that MA was grafted onto the PLA backbone and oligomeric MA may occur. Increasing L101 increased the degree of grafting and decreased Mn, but the Mn of the PLA-g-MA's produced with a high amount of L101 was stable during storage. MA exhibited an optimum concentration for maximizing the

  9. Kinetic Activity of Commercial Native Linamarase (CNLIN and Engineered <&beta-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Cassava Linamarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Kwagh-Har Ikya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Commercial Native Linamarase (CNLIN and Engineered Linamarase (GELIN extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hydrolyse cassava linamarin was challenged. CNLIN acting as control was used together with GELIN extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate the kinetic data for test enzymes at pH 3.5, 6.8 and 10.5, respectively and ambient temperature (35°C. Data obtained from the varying activity versus substrate concentrations were fitted with the Michaelis-Menten plots and Lineweaver-Burk model to obtain maximum velocity (Vmax, affinity coefficient (Km, physiological efficiency (Vmax/Km and r2 (linear regressing coefficient. The results indicated that the engineered linamarase conferred different enzyme kinetic data showing degradation of cassava linamarin by CNLIN and GELIN from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the optimum pH and temperature. The relation was best described by the characteristic sigmoid Michaelis-Menten plots and Lineweaver-Burk model evidence from the high coefficient of linear regression (r2>0.976. Vmax and Km derived from the Lineweaver-Burk model varied from 10.0 to 13.0 µmol/min and 0.5 to 0.9 &muM respectively for engineered enzymes and 0.0-10.0 mol/min and 0.0 to 0.9 &muM respectively for CNLIN. The kinetics profiles of the studied enzymes showed their actions on cassava linamarin were influenced by degree of genetic manipulation, purification and pH at ambient temperature. The wide pH tolerance in the degradation of linamarin suggests a possible use of the engineered linamarase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in detoxifying linamarin in cassava for the production of cyanide-free cassava-based food products.

  10. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  11. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  12. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For insta

  13. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    OpenAIRE

    Thonart P.; Destain J.; Tine E.; Ngom A.; Diop MB.; Dubois-Dauphin R.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identifi ed from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by L...

  14. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávera Camargo Prado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

  15. Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL and Cassava Wastewater (CW on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL and cassava wastewater (CW established using a 22 full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL, the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL. Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 103 Da. Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.

  16. A study of the super-abundant Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cassava Mosaic disease pandemic areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajebe, Lensa Sefera

    are conferred with increased fitness. Only by understanding the vector better can we design integrated pest management strategies to stop the spread of the severe CMD pandemic that continues to threaten the food security of several millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa. This work was the first study...... (Manihot esculenta Crantz) – one of the most important food security crops in sub-Saharan Africa. After the outbreak and spread of a severe form of CMD from Uganda to several East and African countries, the production of cassava has been impaired causing severe yield loss resulting in food shortages...... the use of field survey and molecular approaches aimed to fill the knowledge gap to this effect and sought (i) to assess the genetic diversity and distribution of cassava-associated B. tabaci in CMD pandemicaffected areas in Tanzania and to establish the association of a distinct B. tabaci genotype...

  17. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  18. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, J.S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept ah

  19. Genome-wide association and prediction analysis in African cassava (Manihot esculenta) reveals the genetic architecture of resistance to cassava mosaic disease and prospects for rapid genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a crucial, under-researched crop feeding millions worldwide, especially in Africa. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) has plagued production in Africa for over a century. Bi-parental mapping studies suggest primarily a single major gene mediates resistance. To be certain and...

  20. Effect of genotype and genotype by environment interaction on total cyanide content, fresh root, and starch yield in farmer-preferred cassava landraces in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtunguja, Mariam K; Laswai, Henry S; Kanju, Edward; Ndunguru, Joseph; Muzanila, Yasinta C

    2016-11-01

    High starch yield is the most important trait for commercialized cassava starch production. Furthermore, cyanide present in cassava roots poses a health challenge in the use of cassava for food. Cassava genotypes have varying maturity periods that are also environmental dependent. This study aimed at identifying suitable cultivars and optimum time of harvest to maximize starch production across three environments. The study found significant difference between genotypes, locations, harvest period, and all the interactions (P ≤ 0.001) for all traits analyzed. Kiroba recorded high starch yields of 17.4, 12.7, and 8.2 t ha(-1) at Chambezi, Amani, and Magadu, respectively. Kilusungu recorded highest cyanide content of 300-400 ppm across all locations but Kiroba recorded highest values of 800 ppm, 15 months after planting at Chambezi. Genotype by environment (GGE) biplot analysis revealed that Kiroba was a superior cultivar in terms of starch yield. Kilusungu recorded highest cyanide content and average starch yield, therefore suitable for use in starch production. The study confirmed effect of genotype and genotype by environment interaction, Kiroba cultivar was superior in terms of starch yield and maximum starch yield was obtained at 9 months after planting. Nyamkagile and Kibandameno had the lowest cyanide content across all environments.

  1. The Potency and Utilization of Cassava and Sweet Potato Leaves as Feed Resources for Small Ruminant

    OpenAIRE

    Juniar Sirait; K Simanihuruk

    2010-01-01

    Cassava and sweet potato leaves are agricultural byproducts which are potential to be utilized as feed for small ruminants. In year 2009, it is assumed that dry matter productions of cassava and sweet potato leaves are 2,590,929 and 348,008 tons, respectively. Cassava and sweet potato leaves, both contain high level of protein (> 20%) so that they are good protein sources for goats. Cassava leaves, however, contain cyanide acid (HCN) that varied depended on the age and require wilting process...

  2. Food Safety Detection Methods Applied to National Special Rectification of Product Quality and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Afour-month period of national special rectification for product quality and food safety officially started on August 25, and was focused on eight fields, including those of agricultural products and processed foods.

  3. Ninety-Day Oral Toxicity Assessment of an Alternative Biopolymer for Controlled Release Drug Delivery Systems Obtained from Cassava Starch Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rossi Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large consumption of biodegradable films from cassava starch acetate (FCSA as ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products requires the assessment of the possible toxicity of these products. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of biodegradable film from cassava starch acetate after oral exposure of Wistar rats for 90 days. The amount of food consumed and the body weight were weekly monitored. Blood and urine samples were obtained for the assessment of serum parameters and renal function. Histopathological analyses in target organs were also performed. No evidence of clinical toxicity in hematological, biochemical, or renal parameters in the FCSA-treated animals was found. In addition, relative organ weight and histopathological evaluations did not differ between groups treated with FCSA and control. Data obtained suggest that the subchronic exposure to FCSA does not cause obvious signs of toxicity in Wistar rats, indicating possible safety of this biofilm.

  4. Ninety-Day Oral Toxicity Assessment of an Alternative Biopolymer for Controlled Release Drug Delivery Systems Obtained from Cassava Starch Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Douglas Rossi; Barbosa, Lorena Neris; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Gasparotto, Francielli; Guedes, Karla Moraes Rocha; Dragunski, Douglas Cardoso; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2015-01-01

    The large consumption of biodegradable films from cassava starch acetate (FCSA) as ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products requires the assessment of the possible toxicity of these products. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of biodegradable film from cassava starch acetate after oral exposure of Wistar rats for 90 days. The amount of food consumed and the body weight were weekly monitored. Blood and urine samples were obtained for the assessment of serum parameters and renal function. Histopathological analyses in target organs were also performed. No evidence of clinical toxicity in hematological, biochemical, or renal parameters in the FCSA-treated animals was found. In addition, relative organ weight and histopathological evaluations did not differ between groups treated with FCSA and control. Data obtained suggest that the subchronic exposure to FCSA does not cause obvious signs of toxicity in Wistar rats, indicating possible safety of this biofilm. PMID:26451154

  5. Produção de snacks extrusados à base de polvilho doce e fibra de laranja Production of extruded snacks from cassava starch and orange fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da umidade, temperatura de extrusão e rotação da rosca na produção de produtos extrusados expandidos com a utilização do polvilho doce e da polpa de laranja desidratada como matéria-prima. O processo seguiu delineamento central composto rotacional com três fatores, totalizando 15 tratamentos (oito pontos fatoriais, seis pontos axiais e um ponto central com seis repetições. Os produtos obtidos foram caracterizados quanto ao índice de expansão (IE, ao volume específico (VE, ao índice de solubilidade em água (ISA e à cor (L*, a* e b*. Os resultados mostraram efeito das condições operacionais do processo sobre as características físicas dos produtos, e produtos claros com maior expansão e menor solubilidade em água foram obtidos nas condições mais elevadas de temperatura (80-90°C, condições intermediárias de umidade (16% e rotação da rosca (218rpm.This research aimed to evaluate the effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and screw speed in the production of flax snacks using as raw material cassava starch and dehydrated orange pulp. The process followed the central composite rotational design to three factors, totaling 15 treatments (8 factorial points, 6 star points and 1 center point with 6 repetitions. The products obtained were characterized for expansion rate, specific volume, water solubility index and color (L*, a* and b*. The results showed the effect of operational conditions on the physical characteristics of products, and clear products with larger expansion and lower water solubility index were obtained in conditions of the highest temperature (80-90°C and moisture (16% and intermediate screw speed (218rpm.

  6. PROMOTING TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS AS HEALTHY DIET PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodora TARCZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a brief introspection in the literature review in an attempt to highlight the peculiarities of traditional foodstuffs that enable them to be promoted as the primary food for a healthy diet. The trend of healthy eating is gaining ground not only for experts and researchers, but also for consumers on a daily basis. Traditional foodstuffs are brought back into the consumers’ attention in a market full of highly-processed foodstuffs. Marketing specialists noticed the link between the two concepts and they elaborated promotional strategies for traditional foodstuffs, having the ‘healthy diet’ as insight. Throughout the paper we will present theoretical considerations such as the concept of ‘traditional food product’, ‘promotion’, and ‘healthy diet’ from a marketing perspective followed by several examples of traditional food products perceived as healthy, and lastly, we will highlight the benefits of promoting a healthy diet by consuming traditional food products.

  7. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  8. Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ∼10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index 0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas.

  9. An efficient treatment for detoxification process of cassava starch by plant cell wall-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornyotha, Somphit; Kyu, Khin Lay; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to remove linamarin in starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. KU-50) roots, a high-cyanogen variety by using plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, xylanase and cellulase. The combination of xylanase from Bacillus firmus K-1 and xylanase and cellulase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 at the ratio of 1:9 showed the maximum synergism at 1.8 times for hydrolyzing cassava cortex cell walls and releasing linamarase. Combined enzyme treatment enhanced linamarin liberation from the parenchyma by 90%. In addition, when the combined enzymes were applied for detoxification during cassava starch production, a low-cyanide-product was obtained with decreased linamarin concentration (96%) compared to non-enzyme treated tissues. Based on these results, xylanase and cellulase treatment is a good method for low-cyanide-cassava starch production and could be applied for detoxification of cassava products during processing.

  10. High Efficient Cultivation of Cassava Intercropped with Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nee%木薯间作套种穿心莲高效栽培技术①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆柳英; 李灿荣; 曾文丹; 谢向誉; 严华兵

    2016-01-01

    As the important tuber crop in the world, cassava is the guarantee of food security in the tropics, and the important industrial raw materials of starch. In order to promote the development of the cassava industry and improve the planting comparative economic efficiency of cassava, we summarizes a set of mature cultivation techniques according to the experience of planting management of the cassava intercropping A ndrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nee in pingnan. It will provide a technical support for the standardized cultivation and production of cassava.%木薯作为全球重要的薯类作物,既是热带地区粮食安全的保障,也是重要的淀粉工业原料。为促进木薯产业的发展,提高木薯种植比较经济效益,根据我区木薯间作套种中药材穿心莲在平南县的种植管理经验,总结出一套成熟的木薯间作套种穿心莲栽培技术,为木薯间作套种规范化栽培和生产提供技术支撑。

  11. A Complete Set of Technologies for Green Food Pork Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing-wu; SHAN An-shan; JIANG Jiu-tian; ZHANG Tian-feng

    2003-01-01

    Key technologies for green food pork production were described in this article,as aspects of business standardization;production equipments and facilities,product quality control;and pork production site establishment.

  12. Measurement of the transmittance of edible films of aloe vera (barbadensis miller) and cassava starch using optical fibers trifurcated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, L.; Reales, J.; Torres, C.

    2017-01-01

    In Colombia, especially in the Atlantic Coast it is produced and marketed the costeño cheese, an indigenous product of the gastronomy of this region, but the prolonged exposure of this product to the environment leads to microbial contamination and non-enzymatic rancidity. For this reason the transmittance of an edible coating based in aloe vera gel and cassava starch to preserve costeño cheese was evaluated using trifurcated optical fibers. The results become a tool for the selection of treatments in making edible films and their subsequent use in coatings for various types of food products.

  13. Supplementation of Flemingia macrophylla and cassava foliage as a rumen enhancer on fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production in dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phesatcha, Burarat; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-10-01

    Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers, 3 years old with 180 ± 15 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate on the effect of Flemingia macrophylla hay meal (FMH) and cassava hay meal (CH) supplementation on rumen fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production. The treatments were as follows: T1 = non-supplement, T2 = CH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, T3 = FMH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + FMH supplementation at 75 and 75 g/head/day. All steers were fed rice straw ad libitum and concentrate was offered at 0.5 % of BW. Results revealed that supplementation of CH and/or FMH did not affect on feed intake (P > 0.05) while digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased especially in steers receiving FMH and CH+FMH (P methane production were decreased by dietary treatments. Protozoa and fungi population were not affected by dietary supplement while viable bacteria count increased in steers receiving FMH. Supplementation of FMH and/or FMH+CH increased microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen supply. This study concluded FMH (150 g/head/day) and/or CH+FMH (75 and 75 g/head/day) supplementation could be used as a rumen enhancer for increasing nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis while decreasing estimated methane production without adverse effect on voluntary feed intake of dairy steers fed rice straw.

  14. Dry matter production and distribution in three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars during the second vegetative plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Araruna County, State of Paraná, to understand the relationship between the total dry matter yield and its proportion allocated to the storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz plants in the second vegetative cycle. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in split-plot scheme with four replications. The plots consisted of the Mico, IAC 13 and IAC 14 cultivars and the monthly harvesting dates were assessed in the sub-plots. The results showed that the Mico and IAC 13 cultivars were more efficient in allocating dry matter to the storage roots. The IAC 14 cultivar allocated a higher proportion of assimilates to stems compared with the other two cultivars. With regard to the influence of harvesting time, the lowest harvest indexes were observed in the periods of more intense vegetative growth. However, the highest carbohydrate proportions were allocated to the storage roots during periods of low vegetative growth.Com o objetivo de uma melhor compreensão da relação entre a produtividade total de massa seca e a proporção de alocação desta nas raízes tuberosas em plantas de mandioca, foi conduzido no município de Araruna-PR, um experimento em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram dispostas três cultivares (Mico, IAC 13 e IAC 14, e nas subparcelas dez épocas de colheita mensais, a partir do início do segundo ciclo vegetativo das plantas. As cultivares Mico e IAC 13 foram mais eficientes do que a IAC 14 em alocar massa seca nas raízes tuberosas, ao passo que esta última alocou maior proporção de massa seca em suas hastes. Em relação às épocas, os menores índices de colheita ocorreram em períodos de mais intenso crescimento vegetativo das plantas, ao passo que a maior proporção de carboidratos foi alocada nas raízes tuberosas em períodos de baixo crescimento vegetativo.

  15. Nanomaterials for products and application in agriculture, feed and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Gottardo, Stefania; Amenta, Valeria; Arena, Maria; Brandhoff, Puck; Marvin, Hans J.P.; Mech, Agnieszka; Moniz, Filipa Botelho; Pesudo, Laia Quiros; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Undas, Anna K.; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Aschberger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nanotechnology applications can be found in agricultural production, animal feed, food processing, food additives and food contact materials (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). A great diversity of nanomaterials is reported to be currently used in various applications, while

  16. Closing the cassava yield gap: an analysis from small-holder farms in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Tittonell, P.A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava yields in Africa are small and it remains unclear which factors most limit yields. Using a series of farm surveys and on-farm and on-station trials in Uganda and western Kenya, we evaluated the importance of abiotic, biotic and associated crop management constraints for cassava production in

  17. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang;

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle...

  18. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  19. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    -active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products...

  20. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  1. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  3. Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

  4. Greenhouse Production Technical Procedure for Pollution-free Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-wu; LI Qing

    2012-01-01

    This procedure specifies production area environment, production technology, prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests, and production files of pollution-free foods by taking tomato as an example. This procedure is applicable to greenhouse production of pollution-free food in Shandong Province.

  5. Development of comprehensive medium for micropropagation of cultivated Cassava accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fifth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane, and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve germplasm free of pest and diseases. M...

  6. Response of cassava genotypes to different micropropagation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is one of the most important staple foods in the human diet in the tropics, where it ranks fourth as a source of energy, after rice, sugar cane and maize. Since it is a vegetative propagated crop, the use of in vitro propagation is very important to preserve the germplasm free of pest and di...

  7. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  8. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control

  9. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirjana, Marlene, E-mail: marlenenirjana@gmail.com; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi [School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students’ pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam’s addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive

  10. Extrusion parameters in snacks production from cassava flour and casein / Parâmetros de extrusão na produção de snacks de farinha de mandioca enriquecidos com caseína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Mischan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of operational conditions of the extrusion process (temperature, moisture and protein content in production of cassava snacks added of casein, aiming to provide information to the cassava processing industry. The cassava flour and casein were characterized as their chemical components and color. The experimental design followed the central composite rotational design with three factors. The obtained products were characterized as for rate of expansion, specific volume, color and hardness. Data analyses showed that the lower moisture, protein and temperature conditions provided desired expanded products with light color attributes, high expansion and low hardness.Este trabalho teve por objetivo a avaliação dos efeitos das condições operacionais do processo de extrusão (temperatura de extrusão, umidade e teor de proteína na obtenção de produtos expandidos de mandioca, enriquecidos com caseína, visando fornecer informações ao setor de processamento de mandioca. A farinha de mandioca e a caseína foram caracterizadas quanto aos seus componentes químicos e cor. O experimento seguiu o delineamento experimental “central composto rotacional” para três fatores. Os produtos obtidos foram caracterizados quanto ao índice de expansão, volume específico, cor e dureza. A análise dos dados mostrou que as condições de menor umidade, teor de proteína e temperatura proporcionaram a obtenção de produtos expandidos com atributos desejados, ou seja, cor clara, alta expansão e baixa dureza.

  11. Globalization and internationalization of world food and agricultural product markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhyt, Arnabol; Nurgazina, Gulmira

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of globalization and internalization influence on the world food and agricultural product markets is examined in the article. Moreover, the global problem of food safety is also examined.

  12. Evaluation of the suitability and performance of cassava waste (peel) extracts in a microbial fuel cell for supplementary and sustainable energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle, Ademola; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    In a number of energy-poor nations, peel from cassava processing represents one of the most abundant sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This peel is mostly discarded indiscriminately and eventually constitutes a problem to the environment. However, energy can be extracted from this peel in a microbial fuel cell. In this study, the viability of cassava peel extract as a substrate in a single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell is demonstrated, and optimum performance conditions are explored. The effects of different pretreatments on the extract are also discussed in the context of observed changes in the internal resistances, conductivity and Coulombic efficiencies. At the best conditions examined, the extract from cassava peel fermented for 168 h and adjusted to a pH of 7.63 attained a peak voltage of 687 mV ± 21 mV, a power density of 155 mW m(-3) of reactor volume and a Coulombic efficiency of 11 %. Although this energy is limited to direct use, systems exist that can effectively harvest and boost the energy to levels sufficient for supplementary energy usage in cassava producing regions.

  13. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, 'next-generation' sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems.

  14. Optimizing The Use of Cassava Plant and its Byproduct as Ruminant Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Antari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to overcome the lack of feed is to use local feed resources. Cassava (Manihot utilissima is a tropical plant that grows easily in all types of soil. At the time of harvest, the price is relatively cheap. Cassava has a low nutritive value, especially in crude protein, but it is a potential source of energy. The research to optimize the use of cassava as feed is by enrichment of its nutritional value, production of single cell protein or supplementation with other feed ingredient. Cassava leaves or hay contain high protein level so that it can be used as protein source. However, its utilization is limited by anti nutritive compounds, such as cyanide acid and linamarin. It can be overcome by physical, chemical and biological treatments as detoxification. The use of cassava in livestock feed requires a formulation strategy to obtain the optimal productivity.

  15. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  16. Transcriptional response of virus-infected cassava and identification of putative sources of resistance for cassava brown streak disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthi, M N; Bouvaine, Sophie; Tufan, Hale A; Mohammed, Ibrahim U; Hillocks, Rory J

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, which is severely affected by cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to identify resistance for CBSD as well as to understand the mechanism of putative resistance for providing effective control for the disease. Three cassava varieties; Kaleso, Kiroba and Albert were inoculated with cassava brown streak viruses by grafting and also using the natural insect vector the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Kaleso expressed mild or no disease symptoms and supported low concentrations of viruses, which is a characteristic of resistant plants. In comparison, Kiroba expressed severe leaf but milder root symptoms, while Albert was susceptible with severe symptoms both on leaves and roots. Real-time PCR was used to estimate virus concentrations in cassava varieties. Virus quantities were higher in Kiroba and Albert compared to Kaleso. The Illumina RNA-sequencing was used to further understand the genetic basis of resistance. More than 700 genes were uniquely overexpressed in Kaleso in response to virus infection compared to Albert. Surprisingly, none of them were similar to known resistant gene orthologs. Some of the overexpressed genes, however, belonged to the hormone signalling pathways and secondary metabolites, both of which are linked to plant resistance. These genes should be further characterised before confirming their role in resistance to CBSD.

  17. Complete genome sequencing of two causative viruses of cassava mosaic disease in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteng-Frimpong, R; Levy, Y; Torkpo, S K; Danquah, E Y; Offei, S K; Gafni, Y

    2012-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMV), caused by one or a combination of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is ranked among the most important constraints to profitable and efficient production of cassava. Effective control measures require in-depth knowledge of the viral causative agent. Using rolling-circle amplification and unique enzymes, the full genome of two species of cassava mosaic geminivirus isolated from infected cassava plants in Ghana were cloned into pCambia 1300 and pET-28b. The sequences of the genome were determined on an ABI sequencer and a pairwise comparison was performed with other cassava-infecting geminiviruses from different countries. It was revealed that cassava grown in Ghana is attacked by two species of geminivirus in either single or mixed infections. These are the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and the East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV)-like, with high sequence similarity of 94% and 80%, respectively, between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of each virus, and 66% and 41% similarity of the common region (CR) (for A and B accordingly). The DNA-A of ACMV and EACMV-like contained 2781 and 2800 nucleotides, respectively, while their DNA-B components had 2725 and 2734 nucleotides, respectively. ACMV DNA-A was over 97% similar to those of other ACMVs from the continent. In contrast, EACMV-like DNA-A was over 98% similar to the isolates from Cameroon and other West African countries, and less than 88% similar to other EACMV species. Thus ACMV and EACMV-like were named African cassava mosaic virus-Ghana and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus-Ghana. Computer analysis revealed that their genome arrangement follows the typical old world bipartite begomovirus genome. The association of these two species and their interaction might account for the severe symptoms observed on infected plants in the field and in the greenhouse.

  18. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  19. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which a r

  20. Combining bioenergy production and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Meijerink, G.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Smeets, E.M.W.

    2013-01-01

    This report analyses whether and how bioenergy can be produced within the context of food insecurity. With this study, the NL Agency aims to contribute to Dutch Development Cooperation policy on food security by showing in which way producing and using biomass for energy does not compete with food s

  1. Market Potential for Vietnamese Organic Food Products in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Trang Thu

    2015-01-01

    Organic food product consumption has radically increased nowadays because of the benefits to both human health and environmental protection. The main issue of the thesis was to discover the possibilities for Vietnamese organic food products on the Finnish market based on analyzing subjective and objective elements of both markets. The research was carried out by quantitative research method using a survey. The survey attempts to cover all possible sections of organic food products to e...

  2. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  3. Targets to increase food production: One Health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. McMahon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population means that there is a requirement to expand global food production. Looking at the Republic of Ireland as an example, the risks and opportunities associated with the expansion of food production are outlined, particularly in relation to zoonoses transmission. A One Health approach to sustainable food production is required to avert a potential public health problem associated with increased agricultural expansion.

  4. Ionization of food products. Ionisation des produits alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments.

  5. Microbiological risk assessment of food : A stepwise quantitative risk assessment as a tool in the production of microbiologically safe food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, S.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Food safety is a prerequisite for food products, since consumers trust on buying safe foods. Food producers cannot gain direct profits from controlling food safety, instead they have much to lose if their products turn out to be unsafe.Food safety management systems, such as the Hazard Analysis Crit

  6. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance.

  7. Food and predators affect egg production in song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Liana; Clinchy, Michael; Smith, James N M

    2006-10-01

    Although the possibility that food and predators may interact in limiting avian populations has long been recognized, there have been few attempts to test this experimentally in the field. We conducted a manipulative food addition experiment on the demography of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) across sites that varied in predator abundance, near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, over three consecutive breeding seasons. We previously showed that food and predators had interactive effects on annual reproductive success (young fledged per female). Here, we report the effects on egg production. Our results show that food limits the total number of eggs laid over the breeding season ("total egg production") and that interactive food and predator effects, including food effects on nest predation, determine how those eggs are "parceled out" into different nests. Food addition alone significantly affected total egg production, and there was no significant interannual variability in this result. At the same time, both food and predators affected the two determinants of total egg production: "clutch number" (total number of clutches laid) and average clutch size. Both clutch number and size were affected by a food x predator x year interaction. Clutch number was lower at low-predator locations because there was less nest predation and thus less renesting. Food addition also significantly reduced nest predation, but there was significant interannual variation in this effect. This interannual variation was responsible for the food x predator x year interactions because the larger the effect of food on nest predation in a given year, the smaller was the effect of food on clutch number; and the smaller the effect of food on clutch number, the larger was the effect of food on clutch size. Potential predator and year effects on total egg production were thus cancelled out by an inverse relationship between clutch number and clutch size. We suggest that combined food and

  8. Consumer attitudes to food quality products : emphasis on Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopcic, M.; Kuipers, A.; Hocquette, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Quality foods, such as traditional, EU certified, organic and health claimed are part of a growing trend towards added value in the agri-food sector. In these foods, elements of production, processing, marketing, agro-tourism and speciality stores are combined. Paramount above all is the link to the

  9. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M.; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F.; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7–9 and 9–10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade. PMID:28130456

  10. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7-9 and 9-10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade.

  11. Genetically modified food - one of the ways of the functional food production?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Pícha

    2004-01-01

    In current time emerge the informations about using of genetic modification as a mean to gain a positive benefit of food, it means for production of functional food. The problem can be already the consumer's confidence that the concrete food will really have the promised effect. Its attitude can be further influenced also by the information on the package about use of GMO.

  12. Cassava in South America, Brazil's contribution and the lesson to be learned from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nagib M A

    2006-11-30

    South America is responsible for about half of the cassava world production. In the 1970's productivity of the crop on the continent was about 15 ton/ha, and dropped continuously until reaching 12 ton/ha in 2004. India's productivity of cassava increased from 10 ton/ha in the 1970's to 28 ton/ha in 2004. Brazil contributed significantly to improving cassava crops through the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas in the 1960's and 1970's. The Universidade de Brasília released high-protein content hybrids, apomictic clones and explored the potential of indigenous landraces.

  13. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 1. Epidemiology and clinical and laboratory findings in patients. Ministry of Health, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of an epidemic of more than 1000 cases of spastic paraparesis in a drought-striken cassava staple area of Mozambique strongly suggests an association between this disease (called mantakassa), chronic cyanide intoxication, and cassava consumption. In previous reports of neurological disease with similar associations, the disease affected an older age group with usually a gradual onset, and the predominant clinical feature was an ataxic neuropathy. In mantakassa the onset was acute, and mostly women of reproductive age and children were affected. Serum thiocyanate levels in these patients were much higher than previously reported; while spastic paraparesis of unknown etiology occurs in many tropical countries, it has not previously been linked with raised thiocyanate levels. The present evidence linking cassava consumption to the disease is circumstantial, and dietary deficiency is also probably involved. Cassava is an important food crop and a major source of energy for people in many parts of the world. In these areas, when there is a shortage of food production, e.g., during a drought, the inhabitants may be exposed to the risk of dietary cyanide intoxication. Further research is needed on the causes of mantakassa so that a repetition of this disaster could be prevented.

  14. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  15. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    OpenAIRE

    Rooijen, van, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which a reducing sugar binds to a free reactive amino group of an amino acid. In intact proteins, the ε-amino group of lysine is the most abundant free amino group. The reaction reduces the bioavail...

  16. Mandioca e Resíduos das Farinheiras na Alimentação de Ruminantes: pH, Concentração de N-NH3 e Eficiência Microbiana Cassava and Cassava By-products on Ruminants Feeding: pH, Ammonia Concentration and Microbial Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de N-NH3, o pH do líquido ruminal e a eficiência de síntese microbiana de rações que continham diferentes fontes energéticas: milho (MI, milho + casca de mandioca desidratada (MC, raspa de mandioca (RM e farinha de varredura de mandioca (FV. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa (270 kg, portadores de cânulas ruminal e duodenal, distribuídos em um delineamento Quadrado Latino 4x4. A cinza insolúvel em ácido foi utilizada como indicador do fluxo duodenal e fecal. Não houve efeito das rações experimentais no pH ruminal. No entanto, menor concentração de N-NH3 foi observada para a ração com FV. O fluxo duodenal de matéria orgânica e nitrogênio e a composição química das bactérias ruminais não foram influenciados pelas rações experimentais. A maior eficiência microbiana aparente foi obtida para a ração com FV. Nas condições do presente experimento a FV, possivelmente apresentou uma melhor sincronização com a fonte protéica (farelo de soja, diminuindo a perda de nitrogênio na forma de N-NH3 e aumentando a eficiência microbiana.The objective of this paper was evaluate ammonia concentration, pH of ruminal liquid and microbial synthesis efficiency in diets with different energetic sources: corn (CO, corn/cassava hulls (CC, cassava root (CR and cassava by-product flour (CB. Four Holstein steers (270 kg were used, in a 4 X 4 Latin Square design. The marker utilized for determination of duodenal and fecal flow was the acid insoluble ash. There was not effect in the ruminal pH of the experimental diets, however smaller ammonia concentration was observed to the diet with CB. The organic matter and nitrogen flow to duodenum and chemical composition of ruminal bacteria were not influenced by experimental diets. The higher apparent microbial efficiency was obtained to CB diet. In the conditions of the present experiment the CB possibly presented

  17. [Nanotechnology in food production: advances and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikov, V M; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2009-01-01

    Presented article is a review of the modern data on nanotechnology use in food manufacturing. There are discussed the basic scopes of nanotechnology application in food industry. One of the main problems arising in connection with introduction of nanotechnology in food, is an absence of reliable methods of identification and the control of nanoparticles is in structure of foodstuff including the control of their authenticity. Other problem is connected to necessity of an estimation of the risks connected to presence of potentially toxic nanoparticles in food. The analysis of foreign experience of researches in the given area allows to formulate methodological approaches to formation of domestic system of nanosafety.

  18. Energy and food production with a Systemic Approach"

    OpenAIRE

    Fassio, Franco; Barbero, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    we suggest a new innovativ approach to sustainable production of energy and food. We also offer concrete policies for addressing a range of problems and difficulties associated with our current production model

  19. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  20. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the Haber–

  1. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  2. Capacity Building on Food-Crop Farming to Improve Food Production and Food Security in Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waridin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the capacity of food-crop production for improving regional food security in Central Java, Indonesia. It is also identify crops which have high and prospective economic-values. The results of the study might help in formulating a proposed model to improve food crops production in supporting food security. The case study was conducted in districts which play the important roles on agriculture (rice production in Central Java, Indonesia. These are Klaten and Magelang districts. Data were collected from farmers and officers from agriculture-related institutions. The results show that Central Java Province has the capacity on food crop (rice production for securing food availability, distribution, and accessibility for people in the region. It has a moderate on food security for the products, and surplus of production have distributed to other regions within the country. However, other food crops still facing shortage of supply since lack of productions. It requires a commitment from government and stakeholders for improving capacity building on agricultural development.

  3. Diet modification and the development of new food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, R G

    1983-05-01

    The development of new food products to meet the needs of the 20th century American consumer offers a greater challenge to the innovativeness of the food industry scientist than ever before. The sequence of activities that leads to the introduction of a successful new food product into today's highly competitive marketplace has its beginnings and foundation in extensive and ongoing market research. This research elicits and defines the changing consumer needs and wants. The relation of diet to health is but one of many factors that influence food purchase decisions and, thus, the stimulus for developing new food products. In addition, the extent to which existing food products may be modified or new foods developed to meet dietary goals is subject to technologic and regulatory constraints. A commitment to ethical and responsible marketing strategies is essential to the evolution of food products for special dietary needs. Despite these complex restraints, many food products with altered nutrient or ingredient composition are currently available to consumers and others enter the marketplace each year.

  4. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    a bit further, hence furan is relatively stable in food products. Of the food items surveyed relatively many sundried fruit and vegetable products like raisins, tomatoes, and dried bananas contained furan, for example a sample of raisins contained 83 ng/g and banana crisps 11ng/g furan. Furthermore one...

  5. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    2000-01-01

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the identifica

  6. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  7. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products.

  8. Synergistic amylomaltase and branching enzyme catalysis to suppress cassava starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorndech, Waraporn; Meier, Sebastian; Jansson, Anita M; Sagnelli, Domenico; Hindsgaul, Ole; Tongta, Sunanta; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-11-05

    Starch provides our main dietary caloric intake and over-consumption of starch-containing foods results in escalating life-style disease including diabetes. By increasing the content of α-1,6 branch points in starch, digestibility by human amylolytic enzymes is expected to be retarded. Aiming at generating a soluble and slowly digestible starch by increasing the content and changing the relative positioning of the branch points in the starch molecules, we treated cassava starch with amylomaltase (AM) and branching enzyme (BE). We performed a detailed molecular analysis of the products including amylopectin chain length distribution, content of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages, absolute molecular weight distribution and digestibility. Step-by-step enzyme catalysis was the most efficient treatment, and it generated branch structures even more extreme than those of glycogen. All AM- and BE-treated samples showed increased resistance to degradation by porcine pancreatic α-amylase and glucoamylase as compared to cassava starch. The amylolytic products showed chain lengths and branching patterns similar to the products obtained from glycogen. Our data demonstrate that combinatorial enzyme catalysis provides a strategy to generate potential novel soluble α-glucan ingredients with low dietary digestibility assets.

  9. Production Increasing and Discussion in Theory of Smash-ridging Cultivate Cassava%粉垄栽培木薯增产效果及理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦本辉; 吴延勇; 甘秀芹; 申章佑; 宁秀呈; 韦广泼; 陆柳英; 胡泊; 刘斌; 李艳英

    2011-01-01

    Planted cassava by smash-ridging cultivation technology, compare with traditional cultivation, ascertain difference at roots, yield, quality and so on, provide the basis for the smash-ridging cultivation. The 'Huanan205' and 'Xinxuan048' of cassava verities as materials, at maturation period, smash-ridging cultivation and traditional cultivation comparative experiment at the same location for two years, investigate or measure roots, yield, quality and so on. The results showed that, compared with traditional cultivation, smash-ridging cultivation cassava could cause per plant roots rise 23.13%-39.10%, increased length of root from 6.94% to 60.00% , increased root diameter between 8.40% and 13.91% , the yield increased 29.22%-63.78%, and improved quality of fresh cassava, the starch increased 3.23%-18.67%. This paper showed that smash-ridging cultivation can increase the yield of cassava, and improve quality. And discussions "roots as basic theory" of crop cultivation which roots for leading.%为木薯等作物粉垄栽培提供依据,利用粉垄栽培技术种植木薯,与常规方法种植木薯相比较,探明2种栽培方法在根系、产量、品质等方面的区别.以‘华南205’、‘新选048’2个木薯品种为试验材料,在同一地点连续2年进行粉垄栽培和常规种植比较试验,在成熟期进行块根、产量、品质等调查测定.结果显示,木薯粉垄栽培比常规栽培单株结薯条数增加23.13%~39.10%,薯长增加6.94%~60.00%,薯径增加8.40%~13.91%,产量增加29.22%~63.78%;鲜薯淀粉含量增加3.23%~18.67%.表明粉垄栽培木薯可以提高产量,改善品质.并在此基础上进行以根系为主导的作物栽培的“根”本理论探讨.

  10. Organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Slabe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presenting the assessment of organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply. Using the results of extensive field research among organic farmers, we analyzed the existing organic production for the market by the type of products and marketing channels. We defined the main strengths and weaknesses critical to the development of the Slovenian market for organic food, and highlighted spatial differences. We estimate that, especially in the organic production, there is a large untapped potential for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia.

  11. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  12. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from gelatinized cassava flour by a new isolates with high butanol tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-Guang; Ofosu, Fred Kwame; Li, Kun-Tai; Gu, Qiu-Ya; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Bin

    2014-11-01

    To obtain native strains resistant to butanol toxicity, a new isolating method and serial enrichment was used in this study. With this effort, mutant strain SE36 was obtained, which could withstand 35g/L (compared to 20g/L of the wild-type strain) butanol challenge. Based on 16s rDNA comparison, the mutant strain was identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum. Under the optimized condition, the phase shift was smoothly triggered and fermentation performances were consequently enhanced. The maximum total solvent and butanol concentration were 23.6% and 24.3%, respectively higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the correlation between butanol produced and the butanol tolerance was investigated, suggesting that enhancing butanol tolerance could improve butanol production. These results indicate that the simple but effective isolation method and acclimatization process are a promising technique for isolation and improvement of butanol tolerance and production.

  13. Cassava, yam, sweet potato and ñampi starch: functional properties and possible applications in the food industry. Harinas y almidones de yuca, ñame, camote y ñampí: propiedades funcionales y posibles aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vargas Aguilar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A technical review was conducted to related physical and chemical properties of flours and starches from cassava, yams, taro and sweet potato. Amyloseamylopectin content, viscosity, nutritional value and fiber, were studied to relate them with starch functional properties. A relationship was obtained between amylose-amylopectin, viscosity and fiber content with the digestibility of those starches and the glycemic index values. The use of fermentation to enhance the nutritional value of these starches is known. Starch fermentation allows the production of gluten-free bread and energy drinks as an option to diversify products. It was also observed the relationship between the starch viscosity and the fat absorption in fried foods.Se realizó una revisión de las características fisicoquímicas de las harinas y almidones de yuca, ñame, ñampí y camote, tales como el contenido de amilosa-amilopectina, la viscosidad, el valor nutricional y la fibra, con el fin de relacionarlas con sus propiedades funcionales y técnico-funcionales. Se obtuvo una relación entre el contenido de amilosa-amilopectina, viscosidad y contenido de fibra en la digestibilidad de estos almidones y los valores de índice glicémico. Se encontró que es posible introducir modificaciones por medio de la fermentación para mejorar el valor funcional de estos almidones. La fermentación permite elaborar pan sin gluten y bebidas energéticas como nuevas opciones de productos. También se encontró que existe una relación entre la viscosidad de los almidones y la disminución de absorción de la grasa en frituras.

  14. Características físico-químicas, cozimento e produtividade de mandioca cultivar IAC 576-70 em diferentes épocas de colheita Technological and postharvest characteristics and productivity of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alvares de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A instabilidade na qualidade culinária da mandioca é bem conhecida, levando prejuízo na demanda do produto. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a interferência da produtividade, precipitação pluviométrica e as características físico-químicas sobre o tempo de cozimento da cultivar IAC 576-70, desde o 6º até o 12º mês após o plantio. Os parâmetros físicos avaliados foram: dificuldade de retirada da entrecasca, dificuldade de cortar em forma de palitos em cortador manual, sendo esses de forma subjetiva. Nas avaliações referentes ao cozimento das raízes foram analisados: a porcentagem de água absorvida pelos toletes, cor dos toletes cozidos, formações de pontuações brancas no interior do tolete, formação de gel em volta dos toletes e tempo de cozimento. Também foram avaliados mensalmente nas raízes: pH, acidez, umidade, cinzas, fibras, extrato etéreo, proteína bruta, açúcares redutores e amido. Concluiu-se que a mandioca de mesa IAC 576-70 quando feito o plantio em julho, na região de Botucatu/SP, deve ser colhida com 9 meses de idade sem prejuízo de produtividade, teor de amido e cozimento das raízes, podendo se estender até 10 meses. O produtor deve acompanhar o somatório do índice pluviométrico nos 10 dias que antecedem a colheita, sendo que este somatório deve ser o menor possível e não proceder a colheita quando este ultrapassar 100 mm, para não comprometer o cozimento das raízes.The instability of cassava culinary quality is a problem in the market. This work had the purpose of evaluating the interference of the productivity, rain precipitation and physical-chemical characteristics on the cooking time of the IAC 576-70 cultivar, from the 6th to the 12th month after the planting. The physical parameters evaluated were: difficulty in peeling (easy, medium, and hard, difficulty in cutting in long, thin sticks with a manual machine, being those cut in a subjective way. In the analysis of the cooked

  15. Your health!? Transforming health perception into food product characteristics in consumer-oriented product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: food perception, health, consumer orientation, product developmentFood is part of everyday life and few things have changed more drastically in the last century than the way food is produced, processed, distributed, marketed and consumed. Food companies want to be more successful in

  16. Multi-objective optimization of bioethanol production during cold enzyme starch hydrolysis in very high gravity cassava mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingling, Bao; Li, Chen; Honglin, Wang; Xiwen, Yu; Zongcheng, Yan

    2011-09-01

    Cold enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for bioethanol production were optimized using multi-objective optimization. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effects of α-amylase, glucoamylase, liquefaction temperature and liquefaction time on S. cerevisiae biomass, ethanol concentration and starch utilization ratio. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were: 224 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 694 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 77°C and 104 min for biomass; 264 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 392 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 60°C and 85 min for ethanol concentration; 214 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 398 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 79°C and 117 min for starch utilization ratio. The hydrolysis conditions were subsequently evaluated by multi-objectives optimization utilizing the weighted coefficient methods. The Pareto solutions for biomass (3.655-4.380×10(8)cells/ml), ethanol concentration (15.96-18.25 wt.%) and starch utilization ratio (92.50-94.64%) were obtained. The optimized conditions were shown to be feasible and reliable through verification tests. This kind of multi-objective optimization is of potential importance in industrial bioethanol production.

  17. Functional Foods Examined: The Health Claims Being Made for Food Products and the Need for Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This report examines food products which claim, or imply, that they possess a health or\\ud nutritional benefit to the consumer. These include the recently-promoted ‘functional’ foods —\\ud such as those with added bacterial cultures, fish oils or soluble polysaccharides supposedly of\\ud benefit to the eater — as well as foods which have for some time been promoting themselves as\\ud having the benefit of added nutrients or being a rich source of certain nutrients.\\ud That a food product should ...

  18. REKAYASA PROSES HIDROLISIS PATI DAN SERAT UBI KAYU (Manihot utilissima UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL Hydrolysis Process Design of Starch and Cassava (Manihot utilissima Fibers for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Susmiati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava (Manihot utilissima usually uses enzymatic process for starch hydrolysis. Enzymatichydrolysis by α-amylase and amyloglucosidase enzymes are not able to convert cassava fibers into sugars. Dilute acid hydrolysis is applied to convert both starch and fibers, which will increase the yield of simple sugars as fermentable sugars and resulting in high ethanol production. In this research there are two steps of dilute acid hydrolysis, first for starch hydrolysis at H SO concentration of 0.1-0.5 M, 5-15 minutes and second for fiber hydrolysis at 0.5-1.0 2 4M H SO , 10-20 minutes, at the same temperature of 121-127 oC and pressure of 1.0-1.5 atm. The disadvantage of acid hydrolysis is the formation of toxic compounds such as hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF which is inhibited yeast fermentation. Therefore, acid hydrolyzates were detoxified with NH OH before use as fermentation substrate. The best starch hydrolysis condition was obtained at 0.4 M H SO  for 10 minutes which gave 257.37 g/l of total sugars, 2 4229.38 g/l of reducing sugars, 89.59 of dextrose equivalent (DE and 0.57 g/l of HMF. While the best fiber hydrolysis performed at 1.0 M H SO  solution for 20 minutes which gave 79.74 g/l of total sugars, 70.88 g/l of reducing sugars, 2 488.99 of DE and 0.0142 g/l of HMF. Single direct acid hydrolysis was the most suitable substrate for yeast fermentationwith the ethanol concentration of 5.7 % (w/v and 30.5 % (w/w of ethanol yield. This result is comparable with enzymatic hydrolysis which gave ethanol yield of 30 % (w/w. ABSTRAK Produksi etanol dari ubi kayu biasanya menggunakan enzim untuk menghidrolisis pati. Hidrolisis secara enzimatismenggunakan enzim α-amilase dan amiloglukosidase tidak mampu mengkonversi serat menjadi gula. Hidrolisis asam  berkonsentrasi  rendah  dilakukan  untuk  mengkonversi  pati  dan  serat,  sehingga  gula-gula  sederhana  yang dapat difermentasi meningkat dan menghasilkan

  19. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    OpenAIRE

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Consumers have not had many possibilities yet for seeking out, buying and consuming genetically modified food products. However, for various reasons consumer attitude formation with regard to these products is likely to be complex and closely related to personal values. The paper presents a model for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the emp...

  20. Effort of Increasing Production of Livestock Feed out of Cassava Waste by Identifying the more Suitable Cellulotic Degrading Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Suryani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the bioethanol production process, as much as 90% of waste was produced. The availability of waste production is very important since waste can be processed to become livestock feed. The solid bioethanol waste contains cyanide (HCN 5.8177 mg/kg, water 95,21%, ash 0,39%, protein 8,16%, crude fiber 5,45%, crude fat 2.06%, and carbohydrates 83,94%. Processing bioethanol solid waste into livestock feed can be done by utilizing the existing fungi on bioethanol solid waste. Crude fiber (cellulose and carbohydrates are a source of cellulolytic fungi. Cellulolytic fungi can degrade the role of organic materials contained in bioethanol solid waste, so that it can be made as a source of highly nutritious livestock feed. This study aims to determine the types of cellulolytic fungal isolates contained in bioethanol solid waste which is potentially processed to become livestock woof. Descriptive analysis was employed as a method of the study. Furthermore, Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA was used as a medium for culturing and isolating the fungus. Dilution series and pour plate method were employed to isolate the fungus. And, Moist Chamber method was employed to identify it. In addition, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC was used as medium to identify cellulolytic fungi. The process was carried out up to the level of genus based on macroscopic and microscopic characterization. 10 fungal isolates from the genus of Aspergillus sp 1, Aspergillus sp 2, Aspergillus sp 3, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp, Mucor sp, Penicillium sp 1, Penicillium sp 2, Rhizopus sp and Trichoderma viride were yielded in this study. The results of examining cellulose enzyme activity revealed that 9 of 10 isolates of the fungus were capable of degrading cellulose. Isolates yielding the largest cellulose enzyme were Trichoderma viride, Penicillium sp 1, Cladosporium sp and Aspergillus niger.

  1. Avaliação da concentração de pectinase no processo de hidrólise-sacarificação do farelo de mandioca para obtenção de etanol Determination of the pectinase concentration in hydrolysis - saccharification process for ethanol production by cassava fibrous residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LEONEL

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a concentração de pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L no processo de hidrólise-sacarificação do farelo de mandioca para produção de etanol. Foram avaliadas quatro concentrações da enzima pectinase com enzima complemetar as amilases e o tratamento com apenas as amilases. Realizou-se a caracterização do hidrolisado e resíduo fibroso resultantes do processo, e os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a concentração mínima de pectinase para um bom rendimento do processo foi 8Kg enzima/t fibras, com. 89,4% do amido hidrolisado. Quanto ao resíduo fibroso, este apresenta potencialidade de aproveitamento com base para produtos dietéticos ricos em fibras.This work was proposed to determine of the pectinase concentration in process of the ethanol production by cassava fibrous waste. The results indicated that minimal concentration of pectinase was 8Kg/t fibre and 89.4% starch was hydrolyzed in process. The treatment without pectinase 72.5% of starch was hydrolyzed. The final residues may be used as high-fiber food product.

  2. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  3. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  4. Responses of tropical root crops to climate change: implications for Pacific food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadow, R.; Webber, B.; Macness, N.; Lisson, S.; Nauluvula, P.; Hargraves, J.; Crimp, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Cassava and taro are an important source of calories in many parts of the developing world and hold much promise for meeting the need for food security in equatorial regions. Communities in the Pacific Island countries reliant on agriculture-based livelihood systems have been identified as particularly at risk from climate change, due to likely increases in crop failure, new patterns of pests and diseases, lack of appropriate seed and plant material, loss of livestock and potential loss of arable land. Recent shortfalls in agricultural production resulting from changing export markets, commodity prices, climatic variation, and population growth and urbanisation, have contributed further to regional food insecurity concerns. Cassava and taro contain herbivore defense chemicals that are detrimental to human health (cyanogenic glucosides and calcium oxalate). Unprocessed cassava can cause acute cyanide intoxication, paralysis and even death, especially during droughts. A number of activities are already underway in the Pacific region to identify ways to ameliorate existing climate risk and enhance current agricultural production. Whilst these activities are important to ensure long-term agricultural sustainability, there remains a significant degree of uncertainty as to how effective these strategies may be in the face of a changing and increasingly variable future climate. We present our current understanding of the impact of climate change on key Pacific production systems - specifically those based on the staple root crops, taro and cassava. This includes (1) Our understanding of the responses of cassava and taro crops to existing environmental drivers (climate, soil and nutrient interactions); (2) The responses of cassava and taro crops to enhanced CO2 conditions; and (3) Efforts to model productivity responses (within the APSIM framework) and results for locations in the Pacific.

  5. Modified Dietary Fiber from Cassava Pulp and Assessment of Mercury Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Uptake Using an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachenpukdee, Natta; Santerre, Charles R; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Oonsivilai, Ratchadaporn

    2016-07-01

    The ability of modified dietary fiber (MDF) generated from cassava pulp to modulate the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of heavy metals may be helpful to mitigate health risk associated with select foods including select fish high in methyl mercury. Using a coupled in vitro digestion/Caco-2 human intestinal cell model, the reduction of fish mercury bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake by MDF was investiaged. MDF was prepared from cassava pulp, a byproduct of tapioca production. The highest yield (79.68%) of MDF was obtained by enzymatic digestion with 0.1% α-amylase (w/v), 0.1% amyloglucosidase (v/v) and 1% neutrase (v/v). MDF and fish tissue were subjected to in vitro digestion and results suggest that MDF may reduce mercury bioaccessibility from fish to 34% to 85% compared to control in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, accumulation of mercury from digesta containing fish and MDF was only modestly impacted by the presence of MDF. In conclusion, MDF prepared from cassava pulp may be useful as an ingredient to reduce mercury bioavailability from food such as fish specifically by inhibiting mercury transfer to the bioaccessibile fraction during digestion.

  6. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, Le L.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava

  7. A novel full recycling process through two-stage anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater for bioethanol production from cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Xin; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhong-Gui; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Sun, Fu-Bao

    2010-07-15

    In the present study, a novel full recycling process for bioethanol production was investigated, where three mathematical models were established to simulate the accumulation of major soluble inhibitory substances, including organic compounds, total ions, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and colorants. These inhibitory substances in the reused water reached a relative steady state after 3-7 batches of anaerobic treatment and recycling process, which coincided with the results of mathematical models. There were no negative effects of these inhibitory substances on ethanol fermentation and the final ethanol yield, fermentation time, starch utilization ratio were very close to that of the conventional process using tap water. However, approximately 7.54% (w/w) of water was lost during each circulation, which was replenished in subsequent circulations, to assure consistent fermentation broth volume. This novel process was confirmed to have a stable operation over 13 recycles. It is concluded the stable states of the inhibitory substances in the reused water can assure this recycling process will run successfully.

  8. Energy Address Delivery Technologies and Thermal Transformations in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Burdo O.G.; Sit M.L.; Zikov A.V.; Reznychenco D.N.; Juravleov A.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, energetic and technical paradoxes in food nanotechnologies and traditional approaches to evaluation of energy recourses using are considered. Hypotheses of improvement of food production energy technologies are formulated. Classification of principles of address delivery of energy to food raw materials elements is given. We had substantiated the perspective objectives for heat-pumps installations and biphasic heat-transfer systems. The energy efficiency of new technolo-gies i...

  9. METHODS FOR FISH SPECIES IDENTIFICATION IN FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Mrázová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for identification of fishery products in food is currently ongoing issue for both consumers and producers of food. Consumer interest is driven in one the healthy diet, which prefers fish products, as an indispensable ingredient food and on the other hand, is a potential allergen causing health problems in humans allergic to fish protein. Allergy is a phenomenon that significantly affects human health, as well as overall life expectancy of an individual. The large number of fish species are known to trigger allergic reactions directly food intake or inhalation of fumes only, depending on the sensitivity orgamizmu. Large quantity of fish allergens are proteins from the stock protein to enzymes. Methods used for species identifications of fish in food products are PCR sequencing, multiplex PCR, PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP, RAPD, real-time PCR. doi:10.5219/25

  10. A methodology for controlling dispersion in food production and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A number of food safety crises, the design and implementation of traceability systems became an important tool for managing safety risks in the food industry. In the literature, numerous studies deal with traceability from the viewpoint of the information system and technology development. However....../customers, and logistics efforts connected to solving the safety problem. In this paper we are developing a production and distribution planning model for food supply chains to address these issues. We also present heuristics for solving the resulting mixed-integer linear programming model and demonstrate......, traceability and its implications for food safety receive less attention in literature on production and distribution planning. From the viewpoint of operations management, an efficient management of food safety risks requires the consideration of the amounts of potentially recalled products, affected regions...

  11. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products......Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  12. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient.

  13. FOOD: an interactive code to calculate internal radiation doses from contaminated food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.; Hoenes, G.R.; Soldat, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    An interactive code, FOOD, has been written in BASIC for the UNIVAC 1108 to facilitate calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products. In the dose model, vegetation may be contaminated by either air or irrigation water containing radionuclides. The model considers two mechanisms for radionuclide contamination of vegetation: direct deposition on leaves and uptake from soil through the root system. The user may select up to 14 food categories with corresponding consumption rates, growing periods and either irrigation rates or atmospheric deposition rates. These foods include various kinds of produce, grains and animal products. At present, doses may be calculated for the skin, total body and five internal organs from 190 radionuclides. Dose summaries can be displayed at the local terminal. Further details on percent contribution to dose by nuclide and by food type are available from an auxiliary high-speed printer. This output also includes estimated radionuclide concentrations in soil, plants and animal products.

  14. Exploring the food chain. Food production and food processing in Western Europe, 1850-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.; Segers, Y.; Buyst, E.

    2009-01-01

    Until the late 19th century the food industry was restricted to a few activities, usually based on small scale industries. The links between agriculture and food processing were very tight. Due to increased purchasing power, population growth and urbanisation, the demand for food grew substantially.

  15. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products.

  16. Sub-Micron Grinding of a Food Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, S.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes how the activity of a preservative product used in food coatings can be optimized. This project is partly sponsored by the European Marie Curie Framework projects as part of the BioPowders research training network. DSM Food Specialties hosts and co finances this project. The r

  17. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  18. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases.

  19. [Degradation of cassava residue by the cellulose degradation composite microbial system MC1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Zhu, Wan-Bin; Cheng, Xu; Cui, Zong-Jun

    2008-03-01

    The lignocelluloses of cassava residue are good biomass resources. They are mainly used to produce feeds and alcohol. It is a promising approach to utilize them to produce methane. But it is difficult to use cassava residue for producing methane because of its dispersive solid matter and much water. A cellulose degradation composite microbial system MC1 was applied to degrade cassava residue discarded from cassava starch manufactory, and the composition of the lignocelluloses and the soluble ingredients of cassava residue were analyzed. After 18 days' cultivation, the total weight of the cassava residue was reduced by 47.3%, the cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin of the cassava residue were reduced by 22.7%, 90.4% and 11.3%, respectively, and 85% of the whole weight relief was made by MC1 within 6 days. The soluble ingredients of the cassava residue were increased from the incipient 18% to 33% in the third day which was the peak value in the process. The total amount of the volatile products, analyzed by GC-MS, came to a maximum in the sixth day. Twelve kinds of volatile products in the fermentation broth were determined, in which ethanol, acetic acid, 1, 2-ethanediol, butanoic acid and glycerine were the major compounds, and they can be utilized by methanogenic organism directly or be changed into compounds that can be utilized by methanogens organism directly. Accordingly, it is very hopeful to use MC1 to degrade cassava residue as a method of prefermentation in methane fermentation.

  20. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  1. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate w...

  2. Decadal Variations in NDVI and Food Production in India

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this study we use long-term satellite, climate, and crop observations to document the spatial distribution of the recent stagnation in food grain production...

  3. Price strategies for sustainable food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Sustainable products often suffer a competitive disadvantage compared with mainstream products because they must cover ecological and social costs that their competitors leave to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to identify price strategies for sustainable products that min

  4. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  5. Closing data gaps for LCA of food products: estimating the energy demand of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Neus; Stoessel, Franziska; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-21

    Food is one of the most energy and CO2-intensive consumer goods. While environmental data on primary agricultural products are increasingly becoming available, there are large data gaps concerning food processing. Bridging these gaps is important; for example, the food industry can use such data to optimize processes from an environmental perspective, and retailers may use this information for purchasing decisions. Producers and retailers can then market sustainable products and deliver the information demanded by governments and consumers. Finally, consumers are increasingly interested in the environmental information of foods in order to lower their consumption impacts. This study provides estimation tools for the energy demand of a representative set of food process unit operations such as dehydration, evaporation, or pasteurization. These operations are used to manufacture a variety of foods and can be combined, according to the product recipe, to quantify the heat and electricity demand during processing. In combination with inventory data on the production of the primary ingredients, this toolbox will be a basis to perform life cycle assessment studies of a large number of processed food products and to provide decision support to the stakeholders. Furthermore, a case study is performed to illustrate the application of the tools.

  6. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in food production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes has been established in different plants for the production of food, including dairy plants, abattoirs, plants for the processing of fish, as well as those for the production of ready-to-eat (RTE food and this fact is being considered as the primary mechanism of food contamination with this bacteria. There is also the factor of numerous and diverse contaminated production equipment, because it has certain parts that are inaccessible for the necessary cleaning and disinfection. The temperature, position, as well as the material of the work surface are also linked to the contamination of plants with this bacteria. Investigations carried out so far have helped toward the better understanding of the manner and time of contamination of food items in the course of the production process, but there are still unresolved problems, including most certainly the biggest one - the adherence of bacteria and the creation of a biofilm, when the bacteria is in that condition more resistant to so-called stress factors which are usually used in the food industry for the purpose of decontamination of the surfaces with which foods come into contact. The control of L. monocytogenes in food production plants is possible primarily by using an integrated programme, compatible with the systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP, necessary in the production of food that is safe for the consumer. Essentially, the control measures that can contribute to reducing the incidence of findings of L.monocytogenes in the finished product, as well as the reducing of the level of contamination with this bacteria are linked, on the one hand, with hygiene procedures in the production process, and, on the other, with the applied technological procedures.

  7. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed.

  8. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  9. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  10. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy....... Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus......Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from...

  11. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  12. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    and reheating of meals. In addition the occurrence of furan in some commercially dried and browned food products were determined. Several recipes of European homemade food were prepared but in most cases fortunately furan was not found. I few exceptions were e.g. apple pie (133 ng/g furan in the rasp) and tea......Furan is formed in canned, jarred or browned food items. As furan is carcinogenic in animal experiments, attention has been drawn to the presence in commercial and home-cooked foods. The formation of furan in home cooked foods were studied as well as the stability of furan during cooking, saving...... buns with raisins (83 ng/g furan in the raisins). The influence on heating and reheating of ready to eat foods like different soups, baked beans and vegetable meals known to contain furan, showed that heating roughly reduced the furan level to half the initial level and reheating reduced the level...

  13. High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Irawaty, W; Hindarso, H; Ismadji, S

    2006-03-01

    Cassava is one of the most important commodities in Indonesia, an agricultural country. Cassava is one of the primary foods in our country and usually used for traditional food, cake, etc. Cassava peel is an agricultural waste from the food and starch processing industries. In this study, this solid waste was used as the precursor for activated carbon preparation. The preparation process consisted of potassium hydroxide impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 450-750 degrees C for 1-3 h. The results revealed that activation time gives no significant effect on the pore structure of activated carbon produced, however, the pore characteristic of carbon changes significantly with impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature. The maximum surface area and pore volume were obtained at impregnation ratio 5:2 and carbonization temperature 750 degrees C.

  14. Traditional and regional food products in Poland and European Union – legislation and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław M. Michalski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the present state of law and food safety regarding traditional/regional foods. The production has to be carried out hygienically assuring food safety to the products. Legal regulations connected with production and protection of the traditional foods arecontained in Council Regulations (EC No 509/2006 and No 510/2006. The mentioned above decrees create marking and requirement for three groups of food products: Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSG, Protected Designation of Origin (PDO and Protected of Geographical Indication (PGI. Manufacturers must produce this type of foodstuff according to general hygienic rules. In order to protect the consumer, they should be subject to inspection based on Commission Regulation (EC No 882/2004. Foodstuff should be subject to ensure that operators comply with the product specification before marketing. Verification of compliance with the specifications of any agricultural product and foodstuff produced within the EC shall be ensured by one or more competent verification organisation/body or/and authorities certification bodies operating as a product certification body after accreditation in accordance with European standard EN 45011 (2000. Foodstuffs should not contain microorganisms or their toxins or metabolites in quantities that present an unacceptable risk for human health. Foodstuff producers are obligated to fulfil microbiological requirements. Products should be monitored according to the national plan of monitoring, in range of residues of pesticides, heavy metals, dioxin or inhibitory substances and also controlled on permitted additives. The promotion of our traditional and regional foods is carried out by several organisations which are active in Poland, i.e. Polish Chamber of Regional and Local Products and Centre for Studies of Natural and Traditional Food (at University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn.  

  15. Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling TAS

    2005-03-01

    probable importance of this part of Africa as a source of diversity and evolutionary change both during the early stages of the relationship between CMGs and cassava and in more recent times. The existence of multiple CMG isolates with high DNA genome diversity in Tanzania and the molecular forces behind this diversity pose a threat to cassava production throughout the African continent.

  16. On Food Price Implications from Expanded Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryngelsson, David K.

    2012-07-01

    Bioenergy has been put forward as a solution to energy security and at the same time to climate change. It is, however, dependent on productive agricultural land, which is a limited resource. Introduction of bioenergy on a large scale will thus compete with food production and natural forests for productive land, a competition expected to affect food prices. In this thesis I focus on poverty nourishment issues related to changing food prices and on the mechanisms of land-use competition and how they affect food prices. In the first paper we use two established indicators for poverty and sensitivity to food-price changes, to capture peoples' vulnerability to rising food-prices, in four Sub-Sahara African countries/regions. In contrast to previous studies, we include all food products instead of just one or a few main staples. We found that the vast majority of people are net consumers of food and that the inclusion of more than main staples increases their net position as consumers and thus vulnerability to high food prices. In paper two and three a conceptual and transparent partial equilibrium model of global land-use competition is developed, analyzed and applied. The model is to a large degree analytically explored and price differentials between crops are derived. The model is subjected to a detailed characterization of its mechanisms and parameters in which parameters that are critical to results and conclusions from the model are detected and their impacts depicted. We conclude that the total amount of productive agricultural area is of crucial importance to the price impacts from large-scale introduction of bioenergy. Yields of bioenergy crops are also important since they determine the amount of land required to produce the bioenergy.

  17. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  18. Measuring acceptance of new food product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Kügler, Jens

    New product concepts are routinely tested by showing members of the target group verbal and/or pictorial descriptions of new products and measuring reactions like overall liking and purchase intention. However, little is known about the processes leading to consumer acceptance or rejection of new...

  19. Some Nutritional Characteristics of Enzymatically Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-01-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) native starch was treated with pyroconversion and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce a pyrodextrin and an enzyme-resistant maltodextrin. Some nutritional characteristics were quantified for both compounds. Pyroconversion was done using a 160:1 (p/v) starch:HCl ratio, 90 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. The resulting pyrodextrin contained 46.21% indigestible starch and 78.86% dietary fiber. Thermostable α-amylase (0.01%) was used to hydrolyze the pyrodextrin at 95 °C for 5 min. The resulting resistant maltodextrin contained 24.45% dextrose equivalents, 56.06% indigestible starch and 86.62% dietary fiber. Compared to the cassava native starch, the pyrodextrin exhibited 56% solubility at room temperature and the resistant maltodextrin 100%. The glycemic index value for the resistant maltodextrin was 59% in healthy persons. Its high indigestible starch and dietary fiber contents, as well as its complete solubility, make the resistant maltodextrin a promising ingredient for raising dietary fiber content in a wide range of foods, especially in drinks, dairy products, creams and soups.

  20. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses.

  1. New product, familiar taste: Effects of slogans on cognitive and affective responses to an unknown food product among food neophobics and neophilics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Leufkens, Jean-Marie; Hoof, van J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Food neophobia is considered a potential barrier for the introduction of new food products. This study investigated how advertising slogans could influence cognitive and affective responses to a new product in food neophobics and food neophilics. An unknown dairy product was used to examine the effe

  2. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  3. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kramkowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  4. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  5. Review and appraisal of concept of sustainable food production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brklacich, Michael; Bryant, Christopher R.; Smit, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Environmental degradation, competition for resources, increasing food demands, and the integration of agriculture into the international economy threaten the sustainability of many food production systems. Despite these concerns, the concept of sustainable food production systems remains unclear, and recent attempts to appraise sustainability have been hampered by conceptual inconsistencies and the absence of workable definitions. Six perspectives are shown to underpin the concept. Environmental accounting identifies biophysical limits for agriculture. Sustained yield refers to output levels that can be maintained continuously. Carrying capacity defines maximum population levels that can be supported in perpetuity. Production unit viability refers to the capacity of primary producers to remain in agriculture. Product supply and security focuses on the adequacy of food supplies. Equity is concerned with the spatial and temporal distribution of products dervied from resource use. Many studies into sustainable agriculture cover more than one of these perspectives, indicating the concept is complex and embraces issues relating to the biophysical, social, and economic environments. Clarification of the concept would facilitate the development of frameworks and analytical systems for appraising the sustainability of food production systems.

  6. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  7. Can Differentiated Production Planning and Control enable both Responsiveness and Efficiency in Food Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Romsdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the complex production planning and control (PPC challenges in food supply chains. The study illustrates how food producers' traditional make‐to‐stock (MTS approach is not well suited to meet the trends of increasing product variety, higher demand uncertainty, increasing sales of fresh food products and more demanding customers. The paper proposes a framework for differentiated PPC that combines MTS with make‐to‐order (MTO.The framework matches products with the most appropriate PPC approaches and buffering techniques depending on market and product characteristics. The core idea is to achieve more volume flexibility in the production system by exploiting favourable product and market characteristics (high demand predictability, long customer order leadtime allowances and low product perishability. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can enable food producers to achieve efficiency in production, inventory and PPC processes – and simultaneously be responsive to market requirements.

  8. Identification of the bacterial community responsible for traditional fermentation during sour cassava starch, cachaça and minas cheese production using culture-independent 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Gomes, Fátima C. O.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Faria Jr., César L. L.; Franco, Gloria R.; Mourão, Marina M.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent. PMID:24031676

  9. Direct farm, production base, traceability and food safety in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ji-ping; HUANG Ji-kun; JIA Xiang-ping; BAI Jun-fei; Steve Boucher; Michael Carter

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of China’s economy, rising demand for safety food has been accompanied by frequent food safety scandals. Given that China’s farming is dominated by milions of smal-scale farms, ensuring food safety is a major chalenge facing the public and private sectors. The direct farm (DF) program, initiated in 2008, represents one of the government’s major initiatives to modernize the distribution of fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV) and improve food safety. Under the DF program, participating national and international retailers are expected to establish more direct procurement relationships with farm communities. While it is often claimed that greater participation by retailers in the production and post-harvest processing implied the DF program wil lead to improved quality, safety and traceability, systematic evidence remains elu-sive as existing studies are largely narrative, based on case studies, or theoretical inference. Little empirical evidence is available for a broader evaluation of the DF program. This paper aims to ifl this gap by assessing the overal performance of a single retailer’s DF experience with respect to the procurement and food safety of FFV. We use data from a survey of production managers of 35 DF production bases (PBs) spread across 11 provinces, 3 cities and 1 autonomous region in China. The results show a mixture of opportunities and chalenges. On one hand, the DF program improves production practices and distribution channels of FFV produced on its PBs, thus facilitating the move of China’s food system towards improved food safety compliance. On the other hand, signiifcant heterogeneity in the traceability of food and the ability of DF to meet higher safety standards is evident both across major product categories and across household-operatedvs. ifrm-operated PBs. The paper concludes with policy implications.

  10. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  11. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-06-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed.

  12. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  13. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  14. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermen...

  15. Sustainability and democracy in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2005-01-01

    The author discuss and presents an empirical study of Danish bread production. The study is organised as action research proces. In the project a method called research workshop is tested as a new form of dialogue creation among groups with different interests and knowledge. The study has generated...

  16. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  17. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of silage from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different periods of ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dele, P A; Jolaosho, A O; Arigbede, O M; Ojo, V O A; Amole, T A; Okukenu, O A; Akinyemi, B T

    2013-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p 0.05) different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p < 0.05) from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals.

  18. Hepatic Necrosis and Degenerative Myopathy Associated with Cassava Feeding in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Daniel-Igwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three deaths were recorded among pigs fed boiled cassava meal at a private piggery over a period of two years. There were signs of sudden death in some cases with blood exuding from the external nares, vomiting, muscular weakness and pain or reluctance to move, emaciation, and stunted growth. The necropsy lesions included skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and necrosis, icterus, hepatic necrosis, and oedema of the dependent parts. The deaths and clinical signs are thought to be due to a non cyanide toxic principle in cassava, possibly the coumarins (scopoletin, which is found in high levels in cassava diet even after heat treatment. Therefore, the use of proper processing technology to obtain cassava products of high quality is recommended.

  19. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

  20. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Falasconi, M.; I. Concina; E. Gobbi; Sberveglieri, V.; A. Pulvirenti; G. Sberveglieri

    2012-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs) have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a) Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b) early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c) screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination ...

  1. Bacteriocins From Lactic Acid Bacteria: Interest For Food Products Biopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dortu, C.; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: interest for food products biopreservation. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are low molecular weight antimicrobial peptides. They have inhibitory activity against the bacteria that are closed related to the producer strains and a narrow inhibitory spectrum. Nevertheless, most of them have activity against some food-born pathogenic bacteria as Listeria monocytogenes. The application of bacteriocins or bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria in ...

  2. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kramkowska; Teresa Grzelak; Krystyna Czyżewska; Ewa Mierzejewska; Renata Welc-Faleciak; Andrzej Bohatyrewicz; Aleksandra Lanocha; Rafał Celiński; Agata Bielawska-Drózd; Justyna Joniec; Marcin Kołodziej; Grzegorz Graniak; Mariusz Goniewicz; Leszek Kubiak

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumpt...

  3. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine C. Adley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers’ health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world’s food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability.

  4. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adley, Catherine C

    2014-08-19

    Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers' health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world's food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT) tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability.

  5. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins.

  6. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel RING zinc-finger protein gene up-regulated under in vitro salt stress in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Tavares, Liliane de Souza Conceição; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteiro; Brígida, Aílton Borges Santa; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most important food crops. It is cultivated mainly in developing countries of tropics, since its root is a major source of calories for low-income people due to its high productivity and resistance to many abiotic and biotic factors. A previous study has identified a partial cDNA sequence coding for a putative RING zinc finger in cassava storage root. The RING zinc finger protein is a specialized type of zinc finger protein found in many organisms. Here, we isolated the full-length cDNA sequence coding for M. esculenta RZF (MeRZF) protein by a combination of 5' and 3' RACE assays. BLAST analysis showed that its deduced amino acid sequence has a high level of similarity to plant proteins of RZF family. MeRZF protein contains a signature sequence motif for a RING zinc finger at its C-terminal region. In addition, this protein showed a histidine residue at the fifth coordination site, likely belonging to the RING-H2 subgroup, as confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis. There is also a transmembrane domain in its N-terminal region. Finally, semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeRZF expression is increased in detached leaves treated with sodium chloride. Here, we report the first evidence of a RING zinc finger gene of cassava showing potential role in response to salt stress.

  8. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  9. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor Provost

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology.Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  10. Phenolipids as antioxidants in omega-3 enriched food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Aleman, M.; Durand, E.

    Foods containing omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health-beneficial fatty acids. To protect these food products, antioxidant addition may be a solution. Lately, extensive work has been performed on phenolipids and their eff......Foods containing omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health-beneficial fatty acids. To protect these food products, antioxidant addition may be a solution. Lately, extensive work has been performed on phenolipids...... and their efficacy in model emulsion systems. Since the polar paradox hypothesis was a simplified statement of the antioxidant efficacy in emulsions, a new term, “cut-off effect”, was introduced. The cut-off effect describes the efficacy of phenolipids in simple emulsions. However, most food products consist...... of a complex matrix where several factors may influence the oxidative stability, e.g. type and concentration of emulsifier. Thus, a better understanding of the antioxidative effect of phenolipids in complex foods is of great interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of caffeic...

  11. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  12. Farm Organization, Ownership and Food Productivity in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available African food production is in crisis. Today, despite Africa’s vast physical and climatic potentials to produce food, most African States depend on food importation. Africa’s capacity to deal with its food battles is severely constrained by its political instability, its early stage of scientific and institutional development, and a rapidly changing and complex global environment. In Nigeria and in most developing economies, there is a fundamental lack of political commitment to come grips with poverty, malnutrition and access to food. Because of these barriers, traditional economics is a rather limited tool to understand food production and other related variables. Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, famine and starvation in developing economies are just as much a function of political, macroeconomic, and institutional barriers as lack of technology. Illustrations from the agrarian chaos in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad and others are too numerous to conclude otherwise. The aim of this paper is to determine and analyze economics incentives and strategies, which could stimulate commercial agriculture in Nigeria. The analysis is based on the premise that the form of production organization in Nigerian agriculture is the major constraint to commercialization. The paper concludes that output price subsidy is the over-riding factor in the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria.

  13. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Østergård

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

  14. Formation algorithm indicative planning of the food industry production activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bukreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current process of planning production activities in the food industry in Russia is very different interpretations of both the characteristics of the different stages, and maintaining them in a single scheduling algorithm. In this article, we attempt to form an algorithm indicative planning of production activities with general theoretical positions by considering the process of determining the overall purpose, objectives and consistency of production planning.

  15. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathwa...

  16. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  17. Application of plant molecular breeding in improving cassava germplasm%植物分子育种技术在改良木薯种质方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 田益农; 黄惠芳; 彭靖茹; 侯学文

    2013-01-01

    木薯是热带、亚热带地区的重要粮食作物和经济作物.培育出生产性状更加优良的木薯品种,是推进木薯产业更快更好发展的重要基础.分子育种技术在培育优良木薯品种方面具有传统育种技术不可比拟的优势.该文介绍了近年来在提高植物抗寒性与病虫害抗性、降低氰苷含量、提高淀粉含量及组成、改变储存物种类、防止木薯收获后变质等方面的研究进展,以便在这些研究进展的基础上,利用植物分子育种技术加快获得具有抗逆能力提高、品质改良、产量增加、耐储藏等优良特性的木薯新品种.%Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important food and economic crop in tropical and subtropical areas. Breeding elite cassava cultivars is the most important foundation of cassava industry. Plant molecular breeding has obvious advantages compared to the traditional breeding. The advances in application of molecular approaches to improve cold tolerance,pest, pathogen and herbicide resistance, reduce cyanogens level, improve starch content, change storage composition,and alleviate post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava were discussed to promote the cultivation of elite cassava cultivars with stress-resistant increased, quality, production and storage tolerance improved characteristics.

  18. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  19. Greenhouses for food production and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse is essentially an enclosed structure, which traps the short wavelength solar radiation and stores the long wavelength thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. The sun’s radiation incident on the greenhouse has two parts: direct radiation and an associated diffuse sky radiation. The diffuse part is not focused by the lenses and goes right through Frensel lenses onto the surface of the absorbers. This energy is absorbed and transformed into heat, which is then transported via the liquid medium in copper pipes to the water (heat storage tanks or, if used, open fish tanks. In this way, an optimal temperature for both plant cultivation and fish production can be maintained. Stable plant growth conditions are light, temperature and air humidity. Light for the photosynthesis of plants comes from the diffuse radiation, which is without substantial fluctuations and variation throughout most of the day. The air temperature inside the greenhouse is one of the factors that have an influence on the precocity of production. The selective collector acts in a more perceptible way on extreme air temperatures inside the greenhouse. Hence, the system makes it possible to avoid the excessive deviation of the temperature inside the greenhouse and provides a favourable microclimate for the precocity of the culture. Sediment and some associated water from the sediment traps are used as organic fertiliser for the plant cultivation. The present trend in greenhouse cultivation is to extend the crop production season in order to maximise use of the equipment and increase annual productivity and profitability. However, in many Mediterranean greenhouses, such practices are limited because the improper cooling methods (mainly natural or forced ventilation used do not provide the desired micro-climatic condition during the summer of a composite climate. Also, some of these greenhouses have been built where the

  20. Making More Food Available: Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudy Rabbinge; Prem S Bindraban

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During the 20th century food availability worldwide has increased considerably.The increase in population was outnumbered by the productivity increase in agriculture mainly by higher yields per ha.Globally there is more food available per person than ever before.In the coming decades the world population will further increase and diets will change requiring a doubling of plant production worldwide by 2050.Especially the increase in demand will be substantial in Asia and sub-Saharan Afi-ica.

  1. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

  2. Reprogramming of cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores towards sporophytic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Dedicova, B; Ortega, P E M

    2014-05-21

    Gametes have the unique potential to enter the sporophytic pathway, called androgenesis. The plants produced are usually haploid and recombinant due to the preceding meiosis and they can double their chromosome number to form doubled haploids, which are completely homozygous. Availability of the doubled haploids facilitates mapping the genes of agronomically important traits, shortening the time of the breeding process required to produce new hybrids and homozygous varieties, and saving the time and cost for inbreeding. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using isolated and in vitro cultured immature cassava (Manihot esculenta) microspores to reprogramme and initiate sporophytic development. Different culture media and different concentrations of two ion components (Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)) were tested in two genotypes of cassava. External structural changes, nuclear divisions and cellular changes during reprogramming were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and through classical histology and transmission electron microscopy. In two cassava genotypes, different developmental stages of microspores were found to initiate sporophytic cell divisions, that is, with tetrads of TMS 60444 and with mid or late uni-nucleate microspores of SM 1219-9. In the modified NLN medium (NLNS), microspore enlargements were observed. The medium supplemented with either sodium ferrous ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) or CuSO4·5H2O induced sporophytic cell division in both genotypes. A low frequency of the reprogramming and the presence of non-responsive microspores among the responsive ones in tetrads were found to be related to the viability and exine formation of the microspores. The present study clearly demonstrated that reprogramming occurs much faster in isolated microspore culture than in anther culture. This paves the way for the development of an efficient technique for the production of homozygous lines in

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Composite Flour Made from Cassava, Sweet Potato, Corn and Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvi Yani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lampung province is one of production center for food commodities such as cassava, maize and sweet potato. The development of these commodities into processed products has been done one of which is a composite flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of composite flour consisting of a mixture of cassava flour (CF, sweet potato flour (SPF and corn flour (NF. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Lampung Assessment Institute for  Agriculture  Technology (AIAT and Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI on May – July 2014. The design used was completely randomized by four treatments such as F1 (60% CF, 0% SPF, 35% NF, 5% Rice Bran/RB , F2 (50% CF, 10% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB, F3 (40% CF, 20% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB and F4 (30% CF, 30% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB, and the activities was repeated 4 times. The data were statistically analyzed and followed by Duncan Multiple range test. Physical characteristics observed were whiteness, water content, water absorption value (NPA and the water solubility value (NKA. While the chemical characteristics of proximate analysis consist of moisture content, protein, carbohydrates, fat, fiber and ash content by AOAC Methods. The results showed that the whiteness value of four composite flours were not different in the ranged between 57.97% (F4 and 60.37% (F1. While the carbohydrates content ranged from 81.17 to 83.3% (the highest in the F4, protein was from 3.70 to 4.47% (the highest in the F4, fat was from 1.41 to 1.50%, ash content was from 01.47 - 1.66%, 1.81 - 2.17% for crude fiber, 11.64 to 18.80% for amylose, while amylopectin content ranged from 36.68 to 43.98%.

  4. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, J.H.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers’ relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as ‘conventional’, ‘efficient’, ‘gourmet’ and ‘pure’. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins’ Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to...

  5. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  6. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed with diets containing cassava peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Santos Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming is designated to economic exploitation, and dry matter intake is the most important factor that influences the performance of animal, thus seeking alternative foods. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inclusion levels of cassava peel on intake, digestibility and performance of feedlot lambs. We used 32 crossbred lambs Santa Inês uncastrated, mean body weight of 21 ± 1.5 kg. Treatments were arranged in a randomized design to animals, with inclusion levels of cassava peel (0, 10, 20, 30% in the diet dry matter and forage cassava leaf hay. During 70 days, there have been weighing the food provided, leftovers, and animals, and feces collection. The intake of dry matter (DMI, organic matter (OMI, crude protein (CPI, ether extract (EEI, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDIap, total carbohydrates (CTI, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFCI, total digestible nutrients (TDNI, as well as DMI and NDFap/kgCP, DMI and NDFIap/PC0.75 levels have not been affected by the inclusion of cassava peel. Similar results for DM digestibility, NDF, CP, MO, CT and the TDN. DEE had a growing linear effect whereas DNFC presented a quadratic effect. Average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion (FC, initial body weight (BWinitial, final body weight (BWfinal, warm carcass weight (WCW and warm carcass yield (WCR showed no changes. It is concluded that the peel cassava may be included in diet until 30%, without change dry matter intake and animal performance.

  7. Konzo and dietary pattern in cassava-consuming populations of Popokabaka, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diasolua Ngudi, D; Banea-Mayambu, J-P; Lambein, F; Kolsteren, P

    2011-03-01

    Food frequencies and 24h diet recall were registered from 487 randomly selected heads of household in Popokabaka (Bandundu Province, DRC) where the first cases of konzo were reported more than seventy years ago. Konzo is still occurring in this area with a prevalence of 1.4%. High prevalence of konzo was found to be associated with female gender (P = 0.0024), unmarried status (P = 0.030), illiteracy (P = 0.021), farmer as main occupation (P cassava from own farm land (P = 0.045). The diet was largely dominated by cassava. Luku, cassava flour stiff porridge, was consumed at least once during the day in 99.2% of households. A median of 304 g (max. 592 g; min. 120 g) of cassava flour providing 1070 kcal (max. 2085 kcal; min. 422 kcal)/day/person was used to prepare luku. Saka-saka (pounded cassava leaves) (40%), cowpeas (30%), sesame (23.2%), mbondi (Salacia pynaertii) (18.1%), mushrooms (17.7%) and mfumbwa (Gnetum africanum) (11.3%) were consumed as side-dishes with luku. These results showed that major foods consumed are of poor quality in protein, especially in sulphur containing amino acids.

  8. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of Salmonella isolated from food production environments associated with low-water activity foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Sarah; Hinton, Jay C D; McClure, Peter; Amézquita, Aléjandro; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can survive for extended periods of time in low-moisture environments posing a challenge for modern food production. This dangerous pathogen must be controlled throughout the production chain with a minimal risk of dissemination. Limited information is currently available describing the behavior and characteristics of this important zoonotic foodborne bacterium in low-moisture food production environments and in food. In our study, the phenotypes related to low-moisture survival of 46 Salmonella isolates were examined. Most of the isolates in the collection could form biofilms under defined laboratory conditions, with 57% being positive for curli fimbriae production and 75% of the collection positive for cellulose production, which are both linked with stronger biofilm formation. Biocides in the factory environment to manage hygiene were found to be most effective against planktonic cells but less so when the same bacteria were surface dried or present as a biofilm. Cellulose-producing isolates were better survivors when exposed to a biocide compared with cellulose-negative isolates. Examination of Salmonella growth of these 18 serotypes in NaCl, KCl, and glycerol found that glycerol was the least inhibitory of these three humectants. We identified a significant correlation between the ability to survive in glycerol and the ability to survive in KCl and biofilm formation, which may be important for food safety and the protection of public health.

  10. China's success in increasing per capita food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-07-01

    China has to feed 20% of the global population with only about 5% of the planet's water resources and 7% of its arable land. With such limited natural conditions, however, China's grain production has increased from about 200 kg per capita in 1949 to about 400 kg in the early 1990s. Hunger as a social problem has largely disappeared after being prevalent in China for several thousand years with the rise and decline of dynasties. This achievement has been accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the population and a 4.5-fold increase in total grain production. Although total cropped land has increased slightly in some areas, land used for cropping has decreased from 0.18 hectare per capita in the 1950s to less than 0.1 hectare per capita today. Apparently, yield increase or improved land productivity is the major contributor to the increase of food production per capita. What are the major reasons for the unprecedented achievement in China's food production? Political decisions, good or bad, on land distribution and ownership changes, have caused unusual fluctuation in grain production. Technical progress, however, has maintained a long-term increasing trend. The semi-dwarf cultivars of rice and wheat, the use of heterosis in rice and maize, and the alleviation of salinized soil stress in the major grain-producing areas have all played significant roles in increasing China's food production capability.

  11. Perspectives of Solid State Fermentation for Production of Food Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Noe Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry represents one of the economic sectors where microbial metabolites have found a wide variety of applications. This is the case of some enzymes, such as amylases, cellulases, pectinases and proteases which have played a very important role as food additives. Most of these enzymes have been produced by submerged cultures at industrial level. Many works in the literature present detailed aspects involved with those enzymes and their importance in the food industry. However, the production and application studies of those enzymes produced by solid state fermentations are scarce in comparison with submerged fermentation. This review involves production aspects of the seven enzymes: tannases, pectinases, caffeinases, mannanases, phytases, xylanases and proteases, which can be produced by solid state fermentation showing attractive advantages. Additionally, process characteristics of solid state fermentation are considered.

  12. [A virtual water analysis for agricultural production and food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Bing; Liu, Wen-hua; Duan, Guang-ming; Yan, Yan; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-03-01

    Water resource demand is increasing with the population growth and economic development. Water resource problem for agriculture and food security have become one of the global focal points because of water resource scarcity. The concept of virtual water is useful to analyze and impair this problem. In this paper, virtual water implication was described, and international study progress about it was briefly reviewed. Furthermore, China's agricultural water scarcity and food security were analyzed. According to the grain import prediction and agricultural production conditions of China, the virtual water equivalents of China in 2010 and 2020 were evaluated, which were 88 x 10(9) m3 in 2010 and 95 x 10(9) m3 in 2020. With the function of virtual water to agricultural water stress, virtual water strategy was suggested to relieve agricultural production pressure from water resource and meet growing food demand as well as to promote water resource sustainability in China.

  13. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Schjoerring, J K; van der Hoek, K W

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive effects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by N r from the Haber–Bosch...... value of N benefi ts to the European economy is very substantial. Almost half of the global food can be produced because of N r from the Haber–Bosch, and cereal yields in Europe without fertilizer would only amount to half to two-thirds of those with fertilizer application at economically optimal rates...... to achieve this via N-conserving field practices such as catch crops, reduced soil tillage, better estimation of crop N requirements and improved timing and placement of N inputs. Also modifications to livestock diets, enhanced recycling of livestock wastes, prevention of ammonia loss from animal housing...

  14. COD biological removal and biogas production in anaerobic reactor treating cassava wastewater industry; Remocao biologica de DQO e producao de biogas em reator anaerobio tratando efluente de fecularia de madioca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watthier, Elisangela [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola; Andreani, Cristiane Lurdes [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Gomes, Simone Damasceno [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (PGEAGRI/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola; Moreschi, Roberson; Rufino, Mauricio de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Agricola

    2010-07-01

    The effluent from the cassava industry cause damage to the environment if released without treatment. One alternative is the implementation of anaerobic reactors, which also add value through the production of biogas. The support means increases the contact surface of micro-organisms and enhance their setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction of organic matter (DQO) and biogas production in a reactor of PVC with 90 cm long and 15 cm in diameter, through support rings of bamboo, 10 cm in length and diameter ranged from 1.7 to 2.5 cm, with a volume of 6 L. The organic loading used were 4,357, 4,708, 5,601 and 6,126 g DQO.L-1.day-1, corresponding to hydraulic retention time (TRH) of 3,5, 2,8, 3,25 and 2,7 days, respectively. It was observed that with the increase of organic load was increased production of biogas, the largest observed for a load of 6.126 g DQO.L-1.day-1 with an average of 9.146 L.day-1. Regarding the removal of organic matter were achieved values of 98.35, 99.09, 99.33 and 98.55% respectively for each load applied, with the highest efficiency observed in charge of 5.601 g COD. L-1. day-1, but without significant differences. (author)

  15. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  16. A normative definition method for origin food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hielke S. van der Meulen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de définir un outil méthodologique mettant en valeur les contributions de différents facteurs au degré de connectivité des produits alimentaires à leurs lieux d’origine, c'est-à-dire au potentiel commercial lié à cette connectivité. Cette méthode peut être utilisée pour examiner le potentiel d’un seul produit, comparer différents produits d’origine, ou bien différents labels d’origine. Une telle approche normative et instrumentale semble a priori opposée à une évaluation socioculturelle de la valeur et du rôle des produits typiques dans la filière agroalimentaire, et dans la société en général. Pourtant, je pense que le cadre de définition ici proposé peut aider à éclairer les différences culturelles entre régions et pays dans l’évaluation de l’« originalité » de leurs produits typiques. La plupart des exemples sont tirés du contexte néerlandais, mais les facteurs qui en découlent s’avèrent pertinents pour l’analyse de produits alimentaires dans des contextes très divers.The aim of this article is to define a methodological tool to evaluate the contribution of various factors to the connectedness of food products to their places of origin, i.e. to the specific market potential that arises from that link. Most of the examples given here are drawn from the Dutch context, but the definition method may be equally useful to the analysis of origin food products in other countries. The method can be used to assess a single food product, compare two different origin food products, or compare origin food labels. This type of normative and instrumental approach seems to contradict a more socio-cultural evaluation of the value and role of origin food products in the agri-food chain and in society at large. However, the proposed definition framework can actually help to highlight culturally defined differences between regions and countries in the way people assess the

  17. Biology and management of Bemisia whitefly vectors of cassava virus pandemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Shirima, Rudolph; Tajebe, Lensa S; Guastella, Devid; Boniface, Simon; Jeremiah, Simon; Nsami, Elibariki; Chikoti, Patrick; Rapisarda, Carmelo

    2014-10-01

    Cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease are caused by viruses transmitted by Bemisia tabaci and affect approximately half of all cassava plants in Africa, resulting in annual production losses of more than $US 1 billion. A historical and current bias towards virus rather than vector control means that these diseases continue to spread, and high Bemisia populations threaten future virus spread even if the extant strains and species are controlled. Progress has been made in parts of Africa in replicating some of the successes of integrated Bemisia control programmes in the south-western United States. However, these management efforts, which utilise chemical insecticides that conserve the Bemisia natural enemy fauna, are only suitable for commercial agriculture, which presently excludes most cassava cultivation in Africa. Initiatives to strengthen the control of B. tabaci on cassava in Africa need to be aware of this limitation, and to focus primarily on control methods that are cheap, effective, sustainable and readily disseminated, such as host-plant resistance and biological control. A framework based on the application of force multipliers is proposed as a means of prioritising elements of future Bemisia control strategies for cassava in Africa.

  18. Food safety objective approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N M; Larkin, J W; Cole, M B; Skinner, G E; Whiting, R C; Gorris, L G M; Rodriguez, A; Buchanan, R; Stewart, C M; Hanlin, J H; Keener, L; Hall, P A

    2011-11-01

    As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that designates the maximum level of a hazard (e.g., the pathogenic microorganism or toxin) tolerated in a food at the end of the food supply chain at the moment of consumption without specifying by which measures the hazard level is controlled. Using a risk-based approach, when the total outcome of controlling initial levels (H(0)), reducing levels (ΣR), and preventing an increase in levels (ΣI) is less than or equal to the target FSO, the product is considered safe. A cross-disciplinary international consortium of specialists from industry, academia, and government was organized with the objective of developing a document to illustrate the FSO approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum toxin in commercially sterile foods. This article outlines the general principles of an FSO risk management framework for controlling C. botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods. Topics include historical approaches to establishing commercial sterility; a perspective on the establishment of an appropriate target FSO; a discussion of control of initial levels, reduction of levels, and prevention of an increase in levels of the hazard; and deterministic and stochastic examples that illustrate the impact that various control measure combinations have on the safety of well-established commercially sterile products and the ways in which variability all levels of control can heavily influence estimates in the FSO risk management framework. This risk-based framework should encourage development of innovative technologies that result in microbial safety levels equivalent to those achieved with traditional processing methods.

  19. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims.

  20. Traditional Mediterranean Durum Wheat-Based Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mandato, Sandra; ABECASSIS, JOEL; Mayer-Laigle, Claire; De Vries, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat plays a major role on nutritional, cultural, economic and social development of the Mediterranean basin, where almost two-thirds of the worldwide annual durum wheat production is consumed. The specific features of durum wheat (glassy texture, amber color, high protein level, etc.) makes it suitable to undergo primary and secondary transformations leading to a lot of diverse food products such as pasta, couscous, bulgur, frekeh, a variety of breads and pastries. For ...

  1. [Development on a rice-based food product, for children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, E; Mahecha, G; Moreno, B E; Rodríguez, G S

    1988-06-01

    An infant dehydrated rice-based food product, complemented with soybean flour, was developed. To improve its nutritional and organoleptic characteristics, fruits were also added. Ingredients were first precooked and dried in a drum-dryer, obtaining a final product, as flakes, with a 2 to 3% water content. This rehydrates easily with liquids such as milk, water or "panela" (refined and concentrated sugar cane syrup). The sensory panel did not detect any difference between formulations containing 10, 15 and 20% soybean, respectively.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guidi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  3. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means...

  4. Functional Foods as Differentiated Products: the Italian Yogurt Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the growing consumers' interest for functional foods, the knowledge regarding the demand for these products and their profitability is limited. Adapting the LA/AIDS (Linear Approximated–Almost Ideal Demand System) model by means of Pinkse, Slade and Brett's distance metric method (2002),

  5. A Normative Definition Method for Origin Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der H.S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define a methodological tool to evaluate the contribution of various factors to the connectedness of food products to their places of origin, i.e. to the specific market potential that arises from that link. Most of the examples given here are drawn from the Dutch conte

  6. Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    A model of consumer decision-making and behaviour with regard to organic food is developed and applied on survey data from eight European countries. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries and are independent...

  7. Consumer perceptions of the application of biotechnology in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Background: There has been considerable enthusiasm among scientists and industry about the possibilities of biotechnology and especially genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food production. At the same time, there has been considerable scepticism by consumers, much public debate, and a cautious...

  8. Advantages of high pressure sterilisation on quality of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Krebbers, B.; Berg, van den R.W.; Bartels, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    High pressure processing can be used for sterilisation of food products if applied at elevated temperatures and using the temperature increase due to adiabatic compression. By choosing the appropriate process conditions, it is possible to completely inactivate both vegetative cells and microbial spo

  9. Recovering from conflict: An analysis of food production in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, D' M.F.C.; Speelman, S.; Vandamme, E.; Nkunzimana, T.; Ndimubandi, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the devastating food insecurity in two densely populated provinces in the north of Burundi as a result of overpopulation and low production capacity in the aftermath of conflict. We compare data that was collected in the Ngozi and Muyinga Province in 2007 with data of household

  10. Product and Process Innovation in the Italian Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capitanio, F.; Coppola, A.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    The driving factors of innovation in the Italian food sector could be identified either in internal and in external dynamics. On one hand, the responses to the competition with new actors coming from emerging countries and the reaction to high-tech products demand evolution. On the other hand, endog

  11. Tainted Food, Low-Quality Products and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); L. Zhao (Ling)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines international trade in tainted food and other low-quality products. We first find that for a large class of environments, free trade is the trading system that conveys the highest incentives to produce non-tainted high-quality goods by foreign exporters. However, free

  12. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Des

  13. Food Production, Management and Services: Service. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, Earl

    This food production, management, and services teacher guide contains nine units: (1) orientation; (2) types of service; (3) table settings; (4) dining room personnel; (5) dining room procedures; (6) side work; (7) guest/employee relationships; (8) sales techniques; and (9) safety and sanitation. Suggestions are included to increase reinforcement…

  14. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  15. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  16. New insights into consumer-oriented food products design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida Costa, A.I.

    2003-01-01

      To test the implementation of the most promising methods and tools associated with the early phases of a consumer-oriented approach to food product design;To improve the tested methods, or develop new ones, whenever necessary;To use the results obtained to propose research guidelines leading to

    • Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina;

      2008-01-01

      Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

    • Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Boer, de J.; Schosler, H.

      2016-01-01

      This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers’ relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different a

    • Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sekhon BS

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available Bhupinder Singh SekhonInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PCTE Group of Institutes, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1 nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2 the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3 nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4 plant disease diagnostics; 5 animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6 postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is

    • Using the SPEI to Estimate Food Production in East Africa

      Science.gov (United States)

      Husak, G. J.; Hobbins, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.

      2015-12-01

      The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors critical environmental variables that impact food production in developing countries. Due to a sparse network of observations in the developing world, many of these variables are estimated using remotely sensed data. As scientists develop new techniques to leverage available observations and remotely sensed information there are opportunities to create products that identify the environmental conditions that stress agriculture and reduce food production. FEWS NET pioneered the development of the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with stations (CHIRPS) dataset, to estimate precipitation and monitor growing conditions throughout the world. These data are used to drive land surface models, hydrologic models and basic crop models among others. A new dataset estimating the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) has been developed using inputs from the ERA-Interim GCM. This ET0 dataset stretches back to 1981, allowing for a long-term record, stretching many seasons and drought events. Combining the CHIRPS data to estimate water availability and the ET0 data to estimate evaporative demand, one can estimate the approximate water gap (surplus or deficit) over a specific time period. Normalizing this difference creates the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which presents these gaps in comparison to the historical record for a specific location and accumulation period. In this study we evaluate the SPEI as a tool to estimate crop yields for different regions of Kenya. Identifying the critical time of analysis for the SPEI is the first step in building a relationship between the water gap and food production. Once this critical period is identified, we look at the predictability of food production using the SPEI, and assess the utility of it for monitoring food security, with the goal of incorporating the SPEI in the standard monitoring suite of FEWS NET tools.

  1. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide.

  2. Biological and fermentative properties of a Thermotolerant yeast Strain in alcohol production from cassava flour%一株耐温酵母菌的生物学特性及其木薯酒精发酵特性(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    筛选得到一株适用于木薯淀粉酒精发酵的耐温性酵母菌株,并对该菌株的形态及部分生理和发酵特性进行了研究。结果表明该菌株为一株耐热、耐酸和耐乙醇的酵母菌属菌。其发酵最适温度为34 ℃,最适初始pH3.5。采用低温蒸煮工艺和25%(w/v)木薯淀粉醪进行发酵,48 h产酒精10.67%(v/v),淀粉酒精转化率达理论值的93.1%,故该菌株适用于木薯淀粉的酒精发酵生产。%A thermotolerant yeast strain was screened for production of ethanol from cassava flour. Some morphological and physiological characteristics and the fermentation properties of the strain were investigated. Results indicated that it was a typical strain of Saccharomyces sp. with thermostability, relatively high ethanol resistance and low pH tolerance. The optical temperature and initial pH for alcoholic fermentation from 25%(w/v) of cassava flour in the fermentation broth were 34℃ and 3.5, respectively. Under these conditions and with a low temperature cooking process, 10.67%(v/v) of the ethanol could be obtained in 48 h with a yield rate of 93.1% based on the theoretical value of the starch content from cassava. The strain appeared suitable for ethanol production from cassava flour in industry.

  3. ISS as testbed towards food production on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Ulrich; Thallemer, Axel; Kern, Peter; Schwarzwaelder, Achim

    Almost all major space faring nations are presently investigating concepts for the exploration of extra terrestrial planetary bodies, including Earth's Moon and Mars. One major objective to sustain any human exploration plans will be the provision of fresh food. Even if a delivery from Earth to Moon is still possible with regular preservation techniques as for the international space station, there will be a big psychological impact from the ability to grow fresh food on a Moon Basis. Various architectural and agricultural concepts have been proposed. A comprehensive summary of the related requirements and constraints shall be presented as a baseline for further studies. One presently unknown constraint is the question of the gravity threshold for the genetic stability of plants or more specifically the level of gravity which is needed for normal growth and reproduction of plants. This paper shall focus on a roadmap towards a food production facility a planetary surface using the International Space Station as a test bed. Presented will be 1.) The concept of a Food Research Rotor for the artificial gravity facility EMCS. This Rotor shall allow the investigation into the gravity dependence of growth and reproduction of nutritionally relevant plants like radishes, tomatoes, bell peppers or lettuce. An important answer from this research could be if the Moon Gravity of 1/6g is sufficient for a vegetative food production or if additional artificial gravity is needed for a Moon Greenhouse. 2.) An inflatable demonstrator for ATV as scaled down version of a proposed planetary greenhouse

  4. An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

    2012-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics.

  5. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Produção e Composição do Leite e Digestibilidade dos Nutrientes Corn Replacement by Cassava by-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Milk Production and Composition and Nutrients Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre o desempenho, a composição do leite (sólidos totais e proteína bruta, a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (FDN, e amido e a concentração dos nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das dietas. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura. Os tratamentos não influenciaram a ingestão, excreção fecal, digestão total e a digestibilidade total da MS, MO, PB, FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Houve diminuição linear na excreção fecal e aumento na digestibilidade do amido, com a inclusão da farinha de mandioca de varredura. O NDT não diferiu entre as dietas estudadas, com média de 71,59%. Houve correlação positiva entre a digestibilidade da matéria orgânica (DIGMO e o NDT (r = 0,9472, permitindo estimativas do NDT a partir da equação NDT (% = 0,8897DIGMO (% + 10,9940 (R²=0,8972. A substituição da farinha da mandioca de varredura não alterou a produção, bem como a composição do leite. Recomenda-se a utilização da farinha de mandioca de varredura em dietas de cabras em lactação, em total substituição ao milho, sem prejuízos na digestibilidade dos nutrientes e na produção.The objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on milk production and composition (total solids and crude protein, nutrient apparent digestibility and total digestible nutrients (TDN of diets. Four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula, with 100 days of lactation, were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin

  6. Characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food products: Analytical methods to define nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, G. van; Herrera-Rivera, Z.; Helsper, H.P.F.G.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Weigel, S.; Tromp, P.C.; Oomen, A.G.; Rietveld, A.G.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a common food additive used to enhance the white color, brightness, and sometimes flavor of a variety of food products. In this study 7 food grade TiO2 materials (E171), 24 food products, and 3 personal care products were investigated for their TiO 2 content and the number

  7. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a... that a food additive petition (FAP 2276) has been filed by DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview...

  8. Product quality and food processing: how to quantify the healthiness of a product.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities to measure healthiness of a food product. It is argued that besides measurement of concentration of biologically active compounds it is also necessary to measure biological activity of such compounds in a food. In doing so, it becomes possible to substantiate healt

  9. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid, N-(cyanomethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3... AGENCY Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products...

  10. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  11. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  12. New insights into consumer-led food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I. A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    industry are described. Contrary to previous optimistic views, it is put forward that without significant changes taking place in the mindset of the organizations involved in Europe's food R&D, the way forward for consumer-led innovation strategies in the agri-business sector will be long and hard.......This paper builds upon a review of relevant marketing, consumer science and innovation management literature to introduce the concept of consumer-led new product development and describe its main implementation stages. The potential shortcomings of this concept's application in European food...

  13. Dairy food products: good or bad for cardiometabolic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2016-12-01

    Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. The present review critically evaluates the current evidence on the association between milk and dairy products and risk of CVD, T2DM and the metabolic syndrome (collectively, cardiometabolic disease). The effects of total and individual dairy foods on cardiometabolic risk factors and new information on the effects of the food matrix on reducing fat digestion are also reviewed. It is concluded that a policy to lower SFA intake by reducing dairy food consumption to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk is likely to have limited or possibly negative effects. There remain many uncertainties, including differential effects of different dairy products and those of differing fat content. Focused and suitably designed and powered studies are needed to provide clearer evidence not only of the mechanisms involved, but how they may be beneficially influenced during milk production and processing.

  14. Ethical aspects of insect production for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gamborg, Christian; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Given a growing global human population and high pressures on resources, interest in insects as a source of protein for human food (entomophagy) and for animal feed is growing. So far, the main issues discussed have been the embedded technical challenges of scaling up the production. The use...... also entails ethical issues – both regarding the impact on human health, the environment and climate change and regarding production methods such as intensification and biotechnology. The aim of the paper is to give a systematic overview of ethical aspects embedded in the notion of utilising insects...... as protein providers in the Western food and feed production chains. We identify five areas where ethical questions are especially pertinent: environmental impact, human and animal health, human preferences and social acceptability, animal welfare and finally broader animal ethics issues. Especially...

  15. Quality control throughout the production process of infant food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Pia; Hoeft, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of infant food is a highly complex process and needs an effective quality control beyond classical in-process parameters and a final microbiological analysis. To ensure a safe end -product, various tools, such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), have been developed to facilitate the management of food safety. Every single infant formula ingredient must have an excellent quality and safety approach because even if an ingredient is used in very small quantities in a single product, serious consequences may arise if the quality and product safety are not taken seriously by the ingredient manufacturer. The purpose of this article was twofold: firstly, to briefly describe existing Quality Management Systems and, secondly, to highlight the consequences of non-quality.

  16. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  17. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  18. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    in standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  19. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  20. Cassava cyanogens and free amino acids in raw and cooked leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngudi, D Diasolua; Kuo, Y-H; Lambein, F

    2003-08-01

    Cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz) constitute the main daily source of protein as supplement to the major staple food, the processed cassava roots in remote rural areas of Africa. Konzo, an upper motoneurone disease with permanent spastic paralysis of both legs, has been reported among populations consuming this unbalanced diet. In commercial pounded cassava leaves residual cyanogens and the presence of inherent potentially toxic non-protein amino acids were analysed to check their safety. The initial total cyanogens before cooking ranged from 35.9+/-0.4 to 107.5+/-0.8 mg HCN (hydrogen cyanide) equivalent kg(-1) dry weight. After cooking, the residual cyanogens were significantly reduced (Pcassava leaves. The non-protein amino acids gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and alpha-amino butyric acid (alpha-ABA) were detected. No known potentially toxic non-protein amino acid was found. In konzo-affected areas, cassava leaves with inadequate preparation and cooking can be a non-negligible source of dietary exposure to cyanogens apart from the cassava roots that are suggested to be involved in the aetiology of konzo.

  1. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  2. Genomics approaches to unlock the high yield potential of cassava, a tropical model plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkui ZHANG,Ping'an MA,Haiyan WANG,Cheng LU,Xin CHEN,Zhiqiang XIA,Meiling ZOU,Xinchen ZHOU,Wenquan WANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, a tropical food, feed and biofuel crop, has great capacity for biomass accumulation and an extraordinary efficiency in water use and mineral nutrition, which makes it highly suitable as a model plant for tropical crops. However, the understanding of the metabolism and genomics of this important crop is limited. The recent breakthroughs in the genomics of cassava, including whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis, as well as advances in the biology of photosynthesis, starch biosynthesis, adaptation to drought and high temperature, and resistance to virus and bacterial diseases, are reviewed here. Many of the new developments have come from comparative analyses between a wild ancestor and existing cultivars. Finally, the current challenges and future potential of cassava as a model plant are discussed.

  3. Effect of food to microorganism ratio on biohydrogen production from food waste via anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jinming [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong; Sun, Huawei [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El-Mashad, Hamed M. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Agricultural Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt); Ying, Yibin [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The effect of different food to microorganism ratios (F/M) (1-10) on the hydrogen production from the anaerobic batch fermentation of mixed food waste was studied at two temperatures, 35 {+-} 2 C and 50 {+-} 2 C. Anaerobic sludge taken from anaerobic reactors was used as inoculum. It was found that hydrogen was produced mainly during the first 44 h of fermentation. The F/M between 7 and 10 was found to be appropriate for hydrogen production via thermophilic fermentation with the highest yield of 57 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at an F/M of 7. Under mesophilic conditions, hydrogen was produced at a lower level and in a narrower range of F/Ms, with the highest yield of 39 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at the F/M of 6. A modified Gompertz equation adequately (R{sup 2} > 0.946) described the cumulative hydrogen production yields. This study provides a novel strategy for controlling the conditions for production of hydrogen from food waste via anaerobic fermentation. (author)

  4. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, pfood showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  5. Energy Address Delivery Technologies and Thermal Transformations in Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, energetic and technical paradoxes in food nanotechnologies and traditional approaches to evaluation of energy recourses using are considered. Hypotheses of improvement of food production energy technologies are formulated. Classification of principles of address delivery of energy to food raw materials elements is given. We had substantiated the perspective objectives for heat-pumps installations and biphasic heat-transfer systems. The energy efficiency of new technolo-gies is compared on base of the number of energy impact. Principles of mass transfer modeling in ex-traction, dehydration and pasteurization combined processes are considered by food production exam-ple. The objectives of mathematical modeling of combined hydrodynamic and heat and mass transfer processes in modern energy technologies are set. The fuel energy conversion diagrams for drying, in-novative installations on the base of thermal siphons, heat pumps and electromagnetic energy genera-tors are represented. In this article, we illustrate how electromagnetic field, biphasic heat-transfer sys-tems and heat pumps can be effective tools for energy efficiency technologies.

  6. NOTE - Genetic variability among cassava accessions based on SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and estimate the genetic similarity among 93 cassava accessions. The DNAamplification was performed with 14 microsatellite primers. The amplification products were separated by a polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis, showing a polymorphism formation, through which the accessions were discriminated against. The genetic similarityamong accessions of cassava was estimated by the Dice coefficient. Cluster analysis was carried out using the UPGMA method. Thepolymorphic primers amplified a total of 26 alleles with 2-4 alleles per loci. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.16 to 0.96. Theaverage values for observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.18 and 0.46, respectively. Twenty genetic similarity clusters weredetermined, demonstrating diversity among accessions, suggesting the possibility of heterotic hybrid generation.

  7. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  8. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  9. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn.

  10. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  11. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  12. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  13. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  14. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Honglin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  15. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: oil and real food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food system

  16. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  17. Developing food products in accordance with customer demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1994-01-01

    Development of food products is considered as a design problem. Through development of a theoretical model QFD is applied to integrate market information on customer satisfaction with information from a sensory analysis. The aim is to translate th information from these two datasets into design...... quality and systematized in the most efficient manner. In the empirical part of the paper we analyze data on customer requirements in a LISRE setting in order to improve the understanding of the market....

  18. Galactooligosaccharides: production, health benefits, application to foods and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized from lactose transgalactosylation, galactooligosaccharides are non-digestible carbohydrates classified as prebiotic ingredients of high added value. Recently studies associate potential health benefits and disease prevention properties to these oligosaccharides. This review involves production aspects and physicochemical properties of these compounds, correlated to their physiological effects and application in food industry. It was also presented some of the physiological effect and the perspectives for these non-conventional sugars from current viewpoint.

  19. Economic and political aspects of food and crop quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresina Mancuso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be analyzed – at international, european and national level – the framework of a protection system of geographical indication (Denomination of Protected Origin and Protected Geographical Indication as defined in the EU Regulations, “certified production” in the follow, to highlight the potentials and the limits of their expansion on the world markets. The economy of italian certified agro-food productions and their political issues, will be also investigated.

  20. Economic and political aspects of food and crop quality productions

    OpenAIRE

    Teresina Mancuso; Giacomo Büchi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper will be analyzed – at international, european and national level – the framework of a protection system of geographical indication (Denomination of Protected Origin and Protected Geographical Indication as defined in the EU Regulations, “certified production” in the follow), to highlight the potentials and the limits of their expansion on the world markets. The economy of italian certified agro-food productions and their political issues, ...